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Julia Carolyn Child (
née__NOTOC__ A birth name is the name of the person given upon their birth. The term may be applied to the surname In some cultures, a surname, family name, or last name is the portion of one's personal name that indicates their family, tribe or ...
McWilliams; August 15, 1912 – August 13, 2004) was an American cooking teacher, author, and television personality. She is recognized for bringing
French cuisine French cuisine () consists of the cooking Cooking or cookery is the art, science, and craft of using heat to Outline of food preparation, prepare food for consumption. Cooking techniques and ingredients vary widely across the Earth, world ...
to the American public with her debut
cookbook A cookbook or cookery book is a kitchen reference containing recipes. Cookbooks may be general, or may specialize in a particular cuisine or category of food. Recipes in cookbooks are organized in various ways: by course (food), course (appetize ...

cookbook
, ''
Mastering the Art of French Cooking ''Mastering the Art of French Cooking'' is a two-volume French cookbook written by Simone Beck and Louisette Bertholle, both of France, and Julia Child of the United States. The book was written for the American market and published by Alfred A. ...
'', and her subsequent television programs, the most notable of which was ''
The French Chef ''The French Chef'' is an American television cooking show created and hosted by Julia Child, produced and broadcast by WGBH-TV, WGBH, the Public television, public television station in Boston, Massachusetts, from February 2, 1963 to January 14, ...
'', which premiered in 1963.


Early life

On August 15, 1912, Child was born as Julia Carolyn McWilliams in
Pasadena, California Pasadena ( ; ) is a city in Los Angeles County, California Los Angeles County, officially the County of Los Angeles, and sometimes abbreviated as L.A. County, is the List of the most populous counties in the United States, most populous co ...
. Child's father was John McWilliams, Jr. (1880–1962), a
Princeton University Princeton University is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an absence of nearly tw ...

Princeton University
graduate and prominent land manager. Child's mother was Julia Carolyn ("Caro") Weston (1877–1937), a paper-company heiress and daughter of , a lieutenant governor of Massachusetts. Child was the eldest of three, followed by a brother, John McWilliams III, and sister, Dorothy Cousins. Child attended
Polytechnic School Polytechnic School, often referred to simply as Poly, is a college preparatory private day school located in Pasadena, California with approximately 850 students enrolled in grades Kindergarten through 12. The school is a former member of th ...

Polytechnic School
from 4th grade to 9th grade in Pasadena, California. In high school, Child was sent to the Katherine Branson School in
Ross, California Ross is a small incorporated town in Marin County, California, Marin County, California, United States, just north of San Francisco. Ross is located west-southwest of San Rafael, California, San Rafael, at an elevation of 36 feet (11 m). The po ...
, which was at the time a boarding school. At six feet, two inches (1.88 m) tall, Child played tennis, golf, and basketball as a youth. She also played sports while attending
Smith College Smith College is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an absence of nearly two decades ...

Smith College
in
Northampton, Massachusetts The city of Northampton is the county seat of Hampshire County, Massachusetts, Hampshire County, Massachusetts, United States. As of the 2020 United States Census, 2020 census, the population of Northampton (including its outer villages, Florenc ...
, from which she graduated in 1934 with a major in history. Child grew up in a family with a cook, but she did not observe or learn cooking from this person, and never learned until she met her husband-to-be, Paul, who grew up in a family very interested in food.


Career

Following her graduation from college, Child moved to New York City, where she worked as a
copywriter Copywriting is the act or occupation of writing text for the purpose of advertising or other forms of marketing Marketing refers to activities a company A company, abbreviated as co., is a Legal personality, legal entity representing an a ...
for the advertising department of W. & J. Sloane.


Second World War

Child joined the
Office of Strategic Services The Office of Strategic Services (OSS) was the intelligence agency An intelligence agency is a government agency A government or state agency, sometimes an appointed commission, is a permanent or semi-permanent organization in the machiner ...

Office of Strategic Services
(OSS) in 1942Julia Child Helped Develop Shark Repellant During World War II.
The National WWII Museum The National WWII Museum, formerly known as The National D-Day Museum, is a military history museum A museum ( ; plural museums or, rarely, musea) is an institution that Preservation (library and archival science), cares for (conserves) ...
. Retrieved June 3, 2021.
after finding that she was too tall to enlist in the Women's Army Corps (WACs) or in the U.S. Navy's
WAVES The United States Naval Reserve (Women's Reserve), better known as the WAVES (for Women Accepted for Volunteer Emergency Service), was the women's branch of the United States Naval Reserve The United States Navy Reserve (USNR), known as the Un ...

WAVES
. She began her OSS career as a typist at its headquarters in Washington but, because of her education and experience, soon was given a more responsible position as a top-secret researcher working directly for the head of OSS, General . As a research assistant in the Secret Intelligence division, she typed 10,000 names on white note cards to keep track of officers. For a year, she worked at the OSS Emergency Sea Rescue Equipment Section (ERES) in Washington, D.C. as a file clerk and then as an assistant to developers of a shark repellent needed to ensure that sharks would not explode
ordnance Ordnance may refer to: Military and defense * Ordnance items in military logistics Military logistics is the discipline of planning and carrying out the movement, supply, and maintenance of military forces. In its most comprehensive sense, it is ...
targeting German
U-boat U-boats were naval submarines operated by Germany, particularly in the First First or 1st is the ordinal form of the number one (#1). First or 1st may also refer to: *World record A world record is usually the best global and most importa ...

U-boat
s. From 1944–1945, she was posted to
Kandy Kandy ( si, මහනුවර ''Mahanuwara'', ; ta, கண்டி Kandy, ) is a major city in Sri Lanka Sri Lanka (, ; si, ශ්‍රී ලංකාව, Śrī Laṅkā, translit-std=ISO (); ta, இலங்கை, Ilaṅkai, ...

Kandy
, Ceylon (now
Sri Lanka Sri Lanka (, ; si, ශ්‍රී ලංකාව, Śrī Laṅkā, translit-std=ISO (); ta, இலங்கை, Ilaṅkai, translit-std=ISO ()), formerly known as Ceylon, and officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is ...

Sri Lanka
), where her responsibilities included "registering, cataloging and channeling a great volume of highly classified communications" for the OSS's clandestine stations in Asia.A Look Back ... Julia Child: Life Before French Cuisine.
Central Intelligence Agency The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA; ), known informally as the Agency and the Company, is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the federal government of the United States The federal government of the United States (U.S. fed ...
via
Internet Archive The Internet Archive is an American digital library A digital library, also called an online library, an internet library, a digital repository, or a digital collection is an online databaseAn online database is a database In computing ...
. Retrieved June 3, 2021.
She was later posted to
Kunming Kunming (; ), also known as Yunnan-Fu, is the capital and largest city of Yunnan Yunnan () is a landlocked Provinces of China, province in Southwest China, the southwest of the People's Republic of China. The province spans approximatel ...

Kunming
,
China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere ...

China
, where she received the as head of the Registry of the OSS Secretariat. When Child was asked to solve the problem of too many OSS underwater explosives being set off by curious sharks, "Child's solution was to experiment with cooking various concoctions as a shark repellent," which were sprinkled in the water near the explosives and repelled sharks. Still in use today, the experimental shark repellent "marked Child's first foray into the world of cooking ..." For her service, Child received an award that cited her many virtues, including her “drive and inherent cheerfulness”. As with other OSS records, her file was declassified in 2008. Unlike other files, her complete file is available online. While in Kandy, Ceylon (now Sri Lanka) she met Paul Cushing Child, also an OSS employee, and the two were married on September 1, 1946, in
Lumberville, Pennsylvania Lumberville is a village on the Delaware River The Delaware River is a major river on the Atlantic Ocean, Atlantic coast of the United States. It drains an area of in four U.S. states: Delaware, New Jersey, New York (state), New York and Pe ...
, later moving to Washington, D.C. Paul, a
New Jersey New Jersey is a U.S. state, state in the Mid-Atlantic States, Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern United States, Northeastern regions of the United States. It is bordered on the north and east by the state of New York (state), New York; on the ea ...
native who had lived in
Paris Paris () is the Capital city, capital and List of communes in France with over 20,000 inhabitants, most populous city of France, with an estimated population of 2,175,601 residents , in an area of more than . Since the 17th century, Paris ha ...

Paris
as an artist and poet, was known for his sophisticated palate, and introduced his wife to fine cuisine. He joined the
United States Foreign Service The United States Foreign Service is the primary personnel system used by the diplomatic serviceDiplomatic service is the body of diplomats and foreign policy officers maintained by the government A government is the system or grou ...
, and, in 1948, the couple moved to Paris after the
State Department The United States Department of State (DOS), or State Department, is an executive department The United States federal executive departments are the principal units of the Federal government of the United States, executive branch of the fede ...
assigned Paul there as an exhibits officer with the
United States Information Agency The United States Information Agency (USIA), which existed from 1953 to 1999, was a United States agency devoted to "public diplomacy". In 1999, USIA's broadcasting functions were moved to the newly created Broadcasting Board of Governors, and i ...

United States Information Agency
. The couple had no children.


Postwar France

Child repeatedly recalled her first meal at La Couronne in
Rouen Rouen (, ; or ) is a city on the River Seine in northern France. It is the prefecture of the Regions of France, region of Normandy (administrative region), Normandy and the Departments of France, department of Seine-Maritime. Formerly one of ...

Rouen
as a culinary revelation; once, she described the meal of
oyster Oyster is the common name Common may refer to: Places * Common, a townland in County Tyrone, Northern Ireland * Boston Common Boston Common (also known as the Common) is a central public park in downtown Boston, Massachusetts. It is sometim ...

oyster
s, , and fine wine to ''
The New York Times ''The New York Times'' is an American daily newspaper based in New York City with a worldwide readership. Founded in 1851, the ''Times'' has since won List of Pulitzer Prizes awarded to The New York Times, 132 Pulitzer Prizes, the most of a ...

The New York Times
'' as "an opening up of the soul and spirit for me." In 1951, she graduated from the famous Cordon Bleu cooking school in Paris and later studied privately with Max Bugnard and other master chefs. She joined the women's cooking club '' Le Cercle des Gourmettes'', through which she met
Simone Beck Simone "Simca" Beck (7 July 1904 in Normandy, France – 20 December 1991) was a French cookbook author and cooking teacher who, along with colleagues Julia Child and Louisette Bertholle, played a significant role in the introduction of French cui ...
, who was writing a French cookbook for Americans with her friend
Louisette Bertholle Louisette Bertholle (26 October 1905 – 26 November 1999) was a French cooking teacher and author, best known as one of the three authors (with Julia Child and Simone Beck) of the bestselling cookbook ''Mastering the Art of French Cooking''. Hi ...
. Beck proposed that Child work with them to make the book appeal to Americans. In 1951, Child, Beck, and Bertholle began to teach cooking to American women in Child's Paris kitchen, calling their informal school '' L'école des trois gourmandes'' (The School of the Three Food Lovers). For the next decade, as the Childs moved around Europe and finally to
Cambridge, Massachusetts Cambridge ( ) is a city in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, Middlesex County, Massachusetts, and part of the Greater Boston, Boston metropolitan area as a major suburb of Boston. , it was the fifth most populous city in the state, behind Boston, ...
, the three researched and repeatedly tested recipes. Child translated the into
English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually become the World language, leading lan ...

English
, making the recipes detailed, interesting, and practical. In 1963, the Childs built a home near the
Provence Provence (, , , , ; oc, Provença or ''Prouvènço'' , ) is a geographical region and historical province of southeastern France, which extends from the left bank of the lower Rhône The Rhône ( , ; german: Rhone ; wae, Rotten ; it, R ...

Provence
town of
Plascassier Plascassier is located between Valbonne (2.8 km) and Grasse (7 km) and only 31 km away from Nice airport. Although bordered by several communes—Valbonne, Opio, Alpes-Maritimes, Opio, Mouans-Sartoux and Châteauneuf-de-Grasse—it f ...

Plascassier
in the hills above
Cannes Cannes ( , , ; oc, Canas) is a city located on the French Riviera The French Riviera (known in French language, French as the ; oc, Còsta d'Azur ; literal translation "Azure (color), Azure Coast") is the Mediterranean Sea, Mediterranean ...

Cannes
on property belonging to co-author
Simone Beck Simone "Simca" Beck (7 July 1904 in Normandy, France – 20 December 1991) was a French cookbook author and cooking teacher who, along with colleagues Julia Child and Louisette Bertholle, played a significant role in the introduction of French cui ...
and her husband, Jean Fischbacher. The Childs named it " La Pitchoune", a Provençal word meaning "the little one" but over time the property was often affectionately referred to simply as "La Peetch". In his
New York Times ''The New York Times'' is an American daily newspaper A newspaper is a periodical Periodical literature (also called a periodical publication or simply a periodical) is a category of Serial (publishing), serial published, publicatio ...
best-selling book, ''Dearie: The Remarkable Life of Julia Child'', author Bob Spitz stated that Child was diagnosed with
breast cancer Breast cancer is cancer Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body. These contrast with benign tumor A benign tumor is a mass of cells Cell most o ...

breast cancer
in the mid-60s. She had a
mastectomy Mastectomy is the medical term for the surgical removal of one or both breast The breast is one of two prominences located on the upper ventral Standard anatomical terms of location deal unambiguously with the anatomy of animals, includin ...
on February 28, 1968.


Media career

The three would-be authors initially signed a contract with publisher Houghton Mifflin, which later rejected the manuscript for seeming too much like an encyclopedia. Finally, when it was first published in 1961 by , the 726-page ''
Mastering the Art of French Cooking ''Mastering the Art of French Cooking'' is a two-volume French cookbook written by Simone Beck and Louisette Bertholle, both of France, and Julia Child of the United States. The book was written for the American market and published by Alfred A. ...
'' was a best-seller and received critical acclaim that derived in part from the American interest in French culture in the early 1960s. Lauded for its helpful illustrations and precise attention to detail, and for making fine cuisine accessible, the book is still in print and is considered a seminal culinary work. Following this success, Child wrote magazine articles and a regular column for ''
The Boston Globe ''The Boston Globe'' is an American daily newspaper A newspaper is a periodical Periodical literature (also called a periodical publication or simply a periodical) is a category of Serial (publishing), serial published, publications that ...

The Boston Globe
'' newspaper. She would go on to publish nearly twenty titles under her name and with others. Many, though not all, were related to her television shows. Her last book was the autobiographical ''
My Life in France ''My Life in France'' is an autobiography by Julia Child, published in 2006 in literature, 2006. It was compiled by Julia Child and Alex Prud'homme, her husband's grandnephew, during the last eight months of her life, and completed and published b ...
'', published posthumously in 2006 and written with her grandnephew, Alex Prud'homme. The book recounts Child's life with her husband, Paul Cushing Child, in
postwar 275px, A French family returns to their village, Buron, northwest of Caen, which was completely destroyed Battle for Caen">during fighting, 18 July 1944 In Western world, Western usage, the phrase post-war era (or postwar era) usually refers to ...

postwar
France.


''The French Chef'' and related books

A 1962 appearance on a book review show on what was then the
National Educational Television National Educational Television (NET) was an American non-commercial educational, educational terrestrial television, broadcast television network owned by the Ford Foundation and later co-owned by the Corporation for Public Broadcasting. It o ...
(NET) station of Boston,
WGBH-TV WGBH-TV, virtual channel In most telecommunications Telecommunication is the transmission of information by various types of technologies over , radio, , or other systems. It has its origin in the desire of humans for communication ov ...
(now a major
Public Broadcasting Service The Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) is an American public broadcaster Public broadcasting involves , and other electronic media outlets whose primary mission is . In many countries of the world, comes from governments, especially vi ...
station), led to the inception of her first television cooking show after viewers enjoyed her demonstration of how to cook an omelette. ''
The French Chef ''The French Chef'' is an American television cooking show created and hosted by Julia Child, produced and broadcast by WGBH-TV, WGBH, the Public television, public television station in Boston, Massachusetts, from February 2, 1963 to January 14, ...
'' had its debut on February 11, 1963, on WGBH and was immediately successful. The show ran nationally for ten years and won Peabody and
Emmy The Emmy Awards, or Emmys, are awards for artistic and technical merit in the television industry. It is considered one of the four major entertainment awards in the United States, the others being the Grammy The Grammy Award (stylized ...

Emmy
Awards, including the first Emmy award for an educational program. Though she was not the first television cook, Child was the most widely seen. She attracted the broadest audience with her cheery enthusiasm, distinctively warbly voice, and unpatronizing, unaffected manner. In 1972, ''The French Chef'' became the first television program to be for the
deaf Deafness has varying definitions in cultural and medical contexts. In medical contexts, the meaning of deafness is hearing loss Hearing loss is a partial or total inability to hear Hearing, or auditory perception, is the ability ...
, even though this was done using the preliminary technology of open-captioning. Child's second book, ''The French Chef Cookbook,'' was a collection of the recipes she had demonstrated on the show. It was soon followed in 1970 by ''Mastering the Art of French Cooking, Volume Two,'' again in collaboration with Simone Beck, but not with Louisette Bertholle, with whom the professional relationship had ended. Child's fourth book, ''From Julia Child's Kitchen,'' was illustrated with her husband's photographs and documented the color series of ''The French Chef,'' as well as provided an extensive library of kitchen notes compiled by Child during the course of the show.


Impact on American households

Julia Child had a large impact on American households and housewives. Because of the technology in the 1960s, the show was unedited, causing her blunders to appear in the final version and ultimately lend "authenticity and approachability to television." According to Toby Miller in "Screening Food: French Cuisine and the Television Palate," one mother he spoke to said that sometimes "all that stood between me and insanity was hearty Julia Child" because of Child's ability to soothe and transport her. In addition, Miller notes that Child's show began before the feminist movement of the 1960s, which meant that the issues housewives and women faced were somewhat ignored on television.


Later career

In the 1970s and 1980s, she was the star of numerous television programs, including ''Julia Child & Company'', ''Julia Child & More Company'' and ''Dinner at Julia's''. For the 1979 book ''Julia Child and More Company'', she won a
National Book Award The National Book Awards are a set of annual U.S. literary awards. At the final National Book Awards Ceremony every November, the National Book Foundation presents the National Book Awards and two lifetime achievement awards to authors. The Nat ...
in ."National Book Awards – 1980"
National Book Foundation The National Book Foundation (NBF) is an American nonprofit organization established "to raise the cultural appreciation of great writing in America". Established 1989 by National Book Awards, Inc.,Edwin McDowell. "Book Notes: 'The Joy Luck Club' i ...
. Retrieved 2012-03-09.
There was a "Contemporary" or "Current" award category from 1972 to 1980.
In 1981, she founded the American Institute of Wine & Food, with vintners
Robert Mondavi Robert Gerald Mondavi (June 18, 1913 – May 16, 2008) was an American winemaker. His technical and marketing strategies brought worldwide recognition for the California wine, wines of the Napa Valley AVA, Napa Valley in California. From an ear ...
and
Richard Graff Richard Graff (1937–1998) was a California, Californian winemaking, winemaker. Early life Born on January 20, 1937, Graff grew up in the San Francisco suburb of Danville, California, Danville. His first passion was music, culminating in a Bache ...
, and others, to "advance the understanding, appreciation and quality of wine and food," a pursuit she had already begun with her books and television appearances. In 1989, she published what she considered her magnum opus, a book and instructional video series collectively entitled '' The Way To Cook''. During the
AIDS crisis The AIDS epidemic, caused by HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus), found its way to the United States as early as 1960, but was first noticed after doctors discovered clusters of Kaposi's sarcoma and pneumocystis pneumonia in gay men in Los Angeles, N ...
of the 1980s, Julia Child went from holding homophobic views to being a passionate AIDS activist, triggered by a close associate succumbing to AIDS. In the mid 90s, as part of her work with the American Institute of Wine and Food, Julia Child became increasingly concerned about children's food education. This resulted in the initiative known a
Days of Taste
Child starred in four more series in the 1990s that featured guest chefs: ''Cooking with Master Chefs'', ''In Julia's Kitchen with Master Chefs'', '' Baking with Julia'', and ''Julia & Jacques Cooking at Home''. She collaborated with Jacques Pépin many times for television programs and cookbooks. All of Child's books during this time stemmed from the television series of the same names. Child's use of ingredients like butter and cream has been questioned by food critics and modern-day nutritionists. She addressed these criticisms throughout her career, predicting that a "fanatical fear of food" would take over the country's dining habits, and that focusing too much on nutrition takes the pleasure from enjoying food. In a 1990 interview, Child said, "Everybody is overreacting. If fear of food continues, it will be the death of gastronomy in the United States. Fortunately, the French don't suffer from the same hysteria we do. We should enjoy food and have fun. It is one of the simplest and nicest pleasures in life." Julia Child's kitchen, designed by her husband, was the setting for three of her television shows. It is now on display at the
National Museum of American History The National Museum of American History: Kenneth E. Behring Center collects, preserves, and displays the heritage of the United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or Ame ...

National Museum of American History
in Washington, D.C. Beginning with ''In Julia's Kitchen with Master Chefs,'' the Childs' home kitchen in Cambridge was fully transformed into a functional set, with TV-quality lighting, three cameras positioned to catch all angles in the room, and a massive center island with a gas stovetop on one side and an electric stovetop on the other, but leaving the rest of the Childs' appliances alone, including "my wall oven with its squeaking door." This kitchen backdrop hosted nearly all of Child's 1990s television series.


Later years

After her friend Simone Beck died in 1991 at the age of 87, Child relinquished La Pitchoune after a monthlong stay in June 1992 with her family, her niece, Phila, and close friend and biographer Noël Riley Fitch. She turned the keys over to Jean Fischbacher's sister, just as she and Paul had promised nearly 30 years earlier. That year, Child spent five days in Sicily at the invitation of Regaleali Winery. American journalist Bob Spitz spent a brief time with Child during that period while he was researching and writing his then working title, ''History of Eating and Cooking in America''. In 1993, Child voiced Dr. Julia Bleeb in the animated film, '' We're Back! A Dinosaur's Story''. Spitz took notes and made many recordings of his conversation with Child, and these later formed the basis of a secondary biography on Child, published August 7, 2012 (Knopf), five days before the centennial of her birthdate. Paul Child, who was ten years older than his wife, died in 1994 after living in a nursing home for five years following a series of strokes in 1989. In 2001, Child moved to a retirement community, donating her house and office to Smith College, which later sold the house. She donated her kitchen, which her husband had designed with high counters to accommodate her height, and which served as the set for three of her television series, to the 's
National Museum of American History The National Museum of American History: Kenneth E. Behring Center collects, preserves, and displays the heritage of the United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or Ame ...

National Museum of American History
, where it is now on display. Her copper pots and pans were on display at Copia in
Napa, California Napa ( ) is the largest city in and the county seat A county seat is an administrative centerAn administrative centre is a seat of regional administration or local government Local government is a generic term for the lowest tiers of public ...
, until August 2009 when they were reunited with her kitchen at the National Museum of American History in
Washington, D.C. ) , image_skyline = , image_caption = Clockwise from top left: the Washington Monument The Washington Monument is an obelisk within the National Mall The National Mall is a Landscape architecture, landscaped ...


Death

Child died of
kidney failure Kidney failure, also known as end-stage kidney disease, is a medical condition in which the kidneys are functioning at less than 15% of normal levels. Kidney failure is classified as either acute kidney failure, which develops rapidly and may res ...
in
Montecito, California Montecito (Spanish language, Spanish for "Little mountain") is an unincorporated community and census-designated place in Santa Barbara County, California, located east of the Santa Barbara, California, City of Santa Barbara.McCormack, Don (1999). ...
on August 13, 2004, two days before her 92nd birthday. Child ended her last book, ''
My Life in France ''My Life in France'' is an autobiography by Julia Child, published in 2006 in literature, 2006. It was compiled by Julia Child and Alex Prud'homme, her husband's grandnephew, during the last eight months of her life, and completed and published b ...
'', with "...thinking back on it now reminds that the pleasures of the table, and of life, are infinite – toujours bon appétit!" Her ashes were placed on the Neptune Memorial Reef near
Key Biscayne Key Biscayne ( es, Cayo Vizcaíno, link=no) is an island located in Miami-Dade County, Florida Miami-Dade County is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary ...

Key Biscayne
, Florida.


Legacy


The Julia Child Foundation

In 1995, Julia Child establishe
The Julia Child Foundation
for Gastronomy and Culinary Arts, a private charitable foundation to make grants to further her life's work. The Foundation, originally set up in Massachusetts, later moved to Santa Barbara, California, where it is now headquartered. Inactive until after Julia's death in 2004, the Foundation makes grants to other non-profits. The grants support primarily gastronomy, the culinary arts and the further development of the professional food world, all matters of paramount importance to Julia Child during her lifetime. The Foundation's website provides a dedicated page listing the names of grant recipients with a description of the organization and the grant provided by the Foundation. One of the grant recipients is Heritage Radio Network which covers the world of food, drink and agriculture. Beyond making grants, the Foundation was also established to protect Julia Child's legacy; it is the organization to approach to seek permission to use images of Julia Child and/or excerpts of her work. Many of these rights are jointly held with other organizations like her publishers and the Schlesinger Library at The Radcliffe Institute at Harvard University who may also need to be contacted. Recently, the Foundation has been more active in protecting these posthumous rights. Well known for her opposition to endorsements, the Foundation follows a similar policy regarding the use of Julia's name and image for commercial purposes.


Tributes and homages

The Julia Child rose, known in the UK as the "Absolutely Fabulous" rose, is a golden butter/gold named after Child.Romancing the Rose in Its Infinite Splendor
Glenn Collins, June 22, 2007, ''New York Times''
The exhibits in the West Wing (1 West) of the
National Museum of American History The National Museum of American History: Kenneth E. Behring Center collects, preserves, and displays the heritage of the United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or Ame ...

National Museum of American History
address science and innovation. They include ''Bon Appétit! Julia Child's Kitchen.'' On September 26, 2014, the US Postal Service issued 20 million copies of the "Celebrity Chefs Forever" stamp series, which featured portraits by Jason Seiler of five American chefs: Julia Child, Joyce Chen,
James Beard James Andrews Beard (May 5, 1903 – January 23, 1985) was an American chef, cookbook author, teacher and television personality. He pioneered television cooking shows, taught at The James Beard Cooking School in New York City New Yo ...

James Beard
,
Edna Lewis Edna Lewis (April 13, 1916 – February 13, 2006) was a renowned American American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, from, or related to the United States of America, commonly known as the United States The United States of Americ ...
, and Felipe Rojas-Lombardi. Julia Child is so well loved that Pluto TV even has a 24 hour channel of her PBS television programming. Pluto TV shows her programs with commercials inserted into the program similar to how other more recent cooking shows on linear cable broadcasting networks like Food Network.


Awards and nominations

On November 19, 2000, Child was presented with a Knight of France's Legion of Honor. She was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 2000. She was awarded the U.S. Presidential Medal of Freedom in 2003; she received honorary doctorates from Harvard University, Johnson & Wales University (1995),
Smith College Smith College is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an absence of nearly two decades ...

Smith College
(her alma mater), Brown University (2000), and several other universities. In 2007, Child was inducted into the National Women's Hall of Fame. Awards *1965: Peabody Award for Personal Award for ''The French Chef'' *1966: Emmy for Achievements in Educational Television- Individuals for ''The French Chef'' *1980: U.S. National Book Awards for Current Interest (hardcover) for ''Julia Child and More Company'' *1996: Daytime Emmy Award for Outstanding Service Show Host for ''In Julia's Kitchen with Master Chefs'' *2001: Daytime Emmy Award for Outstanding Service Show Host for ''Julia & Jacques Cooking at Home'' Nominations *1972: Emmy for Special Classification of Outstanding Program and Individual Achievement – General Programming for ''The French Chef'' *1994: Emmy for Outstanding Informational Series for ''Cooking with Master Chefs'' *1997: Daytime Emmy Award for Outstanding Service Show Host for ''Baking with Julia'' *1999: Daytime Emmy Award for Outstanding Service Show Host for ''Baking with Julia'' *2000: Daytime Emmy Award for Outstanding Service Show Host for ''Julia & Jacques Cooking at Home''


In popular culture

Child was a favorite of audiences from the moment of her television debut on public television in 1963, and she was a familiar part of American culture and the subject of numerous references, including numerous parodies in television and radio programs and skits. Her great success on air may have been tied to her refreshingly pragmatic approach to the genre, "I think you have to decide who your audience is. If you don't pick your audience, you're lost because you're not really talking to anybody. My audience is people who like to cook, who want to really learn how to do it." In 1996, Julia Child was ranked No. 46 on TV Guide's 50 Greatest TV Stars of All Time.


On stage

* Jean Stapleton portrayed Child in a 1989 one-woman short musical play, ''Bon Appétit!'', based on one of Child's televised cooking lessons, with music by American opera composer Lee Hoiby. The title derived from her famous TV sign-off "Bon appétit!"


On television

* She was the inspiration for the character "Julia Grownup" on the Children's Television Workshop program, ''The Electric Company'' (1971–1977). * In a 1978 ''Saturday Night Live'' sketch (episode 74), she was parodied by Dan Aykroyd, who—as Julia Child—continued with a cooking show despite ludicrously profuse bleeding from a cut to his thumb, and eventually expired while advising, "Save the liver." Child reportedly loved this sketch so much she showed it to friends at parties. * She was parodied on ''The Cosby Show'' in the 1984 episode "Bon Jour Sondra" by characters Cliff and Theo Huxtable. *She appeared in an episode of ''This Old House'' as designer of the kitchen. ''This Old House'' was launched in 1979 by Russell Morash, who helped create ''The French Chef with Julia Child''. * In 1982, she was portrayed by John Candy in a sketch for Second City Television, "Battle of the PBS Stars," in which she took part in a boxing match against fellow PBS star Fred Rogers, Mr. Rogers, who was parodied by Martin Short. She lost the match after taking multiple blows to the head from Rogers' puppet King Friday. * In 2014, she was portrayed in season 6, episode 5 of ''RuPaul's Drag Race (season 6), Rupaul's Drag Race'' by Dan Donigan, known as Milk on the show, as part of the Snatch Game challenge. * She was the character Gabi Diamond's inspiration on the TV show Young and Hungry (2014-2018). * In 2019, she was portrayed in season 1, episode 4 of RuPaul's Drag Race UK (series 1), RuPaul's Drag Race UK by Divina de Campo, who placed in the bottom three of the episode.


Online

In 2002, Child was the inspiration for "The Julie/Julia Project", a popular cooking blog by Julie Powell that was the basis of Powell's bestselling book, ''Julie and Julia: 365 Days, 524 Recipes, 1 Tiny Apartment Kitchen,'' published in 2005, the year following Child's death. The paperback version of the book was retitled ''Julie and Julia: My Year of Cooking Dangerously.'' The blog and book, along with Child's own memoir ''
My Life in France ''My Life in France'' is an autobiography by Julia Child, published in 2006 in literature, 2006. It was compiled by Julia Child and Alex Prud'homme, her husband's grandnephew, during the last eight months of her life, and completed and published b ...
'', in turn inspired the 2009 feature film ''Julie & Julia'' in which Meryl Streep portrayed Child. For her performance, Streep was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Actress. Child is reported to have been unimpressed by Powell's blog, believing Powell's determination to cook every recipe in ''Mastering the Art of French Cooking'' in a year to be a stunt. In an interview, Child's editor, Judith Jones, said of Powell's blog: "Flinging around four-letter words when cooking isn't attractive, to me or Julia. She didn't want to endorse it. What came through on the blog was somebody who was doing it almost for the sake of a stunt." The YouTube series ''Epic Rap Battles of History'' featured Child (portrayed by Mamrie Hart) in a rap battle against Scottish people, Scottish celebrity chef Gordon Ramsay (portrayed by Lloyd Ahlquist, Lloyd "EpicLLOYD" Alquist) in the List of Epic Rap Battles of History episodes, 2nd episode of its 5th season. On March 15, 2016, Twitch (service), Twitch started to stream Julia Child's show ''
The French Chef ''The French Chef'' is an American television cooking show created and hosted by Julia Child, produced and broadcast by WGBH-TV, WGBH, the Public television, public television station in Boston, Massachusetts, from February 2, 1963 to January 14, ...
''. This event was in celebration of both the launch of the cooking section of Twitch (service), Twitch and the anniversary of Child's graduation from Le Cordon Bleu.


Works


Television series

* ''
The French Chef ''The French Chef'' is an American television cooking show created and hosted by Julia Child, produced and broadcast by WGBH-TV, WGBH, the Public television, public television station in Boston, Massachusetts, from February 2, 1963 to January 14, ...
'' (1963–1966; 1970–1973) * ''Julia Child & Company'' (1978–1979) * ''Julia Child & More Company'' (1979–1980) * ''Dinner at Julia's'' (1983–1984) * '' The Way To Cook'' (1985) six one-hour videocassettes * ''A Birthday Party for Julia Child: Compliments to the Chef'' (1992) * ''Cooking with Master Chefs: Hosted by Julia Child'' (1993–1994) 16 episodes * ''Cooking In Concert: Julia Child & Jacques Pépin'' (1994) * ''In Julia's Kitchen with Master Chefs'' (1995–1996), 39 episodes * ''Cooking In Concert: Julia Child & Graham Kerr'' (1995) * ''More Cooking in Concert: Julia Child & Jacques Pépin'' (1996) * '' Baking with Julia'' (1996–1998) 39 episodes * ''Julia & Jacques Cooking at Home'' (1999–2000) 22 episodes * ''Julia Child's Kitchen Wisdom'', (2000) two-hour special


DVD releases

* ''Julia Child's Kitchen Wisdom'' (2000) * ''Julia and Jacques: Cooking at Home'' (2003) * ''Julia Child: America's Favorite Chef'' (2004) * ''The French Chef: Volume One'' (2005) * ''The French Chef: Volume Two'' (2005) * ''Julia Child! The French Chef'' (2006) * ''The Way To Cook'' (2009) * ''Baking With Julia'' (2009)


Books

* ''
Mastering the Art of French Cooking ''Mastering the Art of French Cooking'' is a two-volume French cookbook written by Simone Beck and Louisette Bertholle, both of France, and Julia Child of the United States. The book was written for the American market and published by Alfred A. ...
'' (1961), with
Simone Beck Simone "Simca" Beck (7 July 1904 in Normandy, France – 20 December 1991) was a French cookbook author and cooking teacher who, along with colleagues Julia Child and Louisette Bertholle, played a significant role in the introduction of French cui ...
and
Louisette Bertholle Louisette Bertholle (26 October 1905 – 26 November 1999) was a French cooking teacher and author, best known as one of the three authors (with Julia Child and Simone Beck) of the bestselling cookbook ''Mastering the Art of French Cooking''. Hi ...
* ''The French Chef Cookbook'' (1968). . * ''Mastering the Art of French Cooking, Volume Two'' (1970), with
Simone Beck Simone "Simca" Beck (7 July 1904 in Normandy, France – 20 December 1991) was a French cookbook author and cooking teacher who, along with colleagues Julia Child and Louisette Bertholle, played a significant role in the introduction of French cui ...
. . * ''From Julia Child's Kitchen'' (1975). . * ''Julia Child & Company'' (1978). . * ''Julia Child & More Company'' (1979). . * '' The Way To Cook'' (1989). . * ''Julia Child's Menu Cookbook'' (1991), one-volume edition of ''Julia Child & Company'' and ''Julia Child & More Company''. . * ''Cooking With Master Chefs'' (1993). . * ''In Julia's Kitchen with Master Chefs'' (1995). . * '' Baking with Julia'' (1996). . * ''Julia's Delicious Little Dinners'' (1998). . * ''Julia's Menus For Special Occasions'' (1998). . * ''Julia's Breakfasts, Lunches & Suppers'' (1999). . * ''Julia's Casual Dinners'' (1999). . * ''Julia and Jacques Cooking at Home'' (1999), with Jacques Pépin. . * ''Julia's Kitchen Wisdom'' (2000). . * ''
My Life in France ''My Life in France'' is an autobiography by Julia Child, published in 2006 in literature, 2006. It was compiled by Julia Child and Alex Prud'homme, her husband's grandnephew, during the last eight months of her life, and completed and published b ...
'' (2006, posthumous), with Alex Prud'homme. . * (collected in) ''American Food Writing: An Anthology with Classic Recipes'', ed. Molly O'Neill (Library of America, 2007) .


Books about Child

* * * * * * *


Films about Child

*Produced by WGBH, a one-hour feature documentary, ''Julia Child! America's Favorite Chef'', was aired as the first episode of the 18th season of the PBS series ''American Masters'' (2004). The film combined archive footage of Child with current footage from those who influenced and were influenced by her life and work. *''Julie & Julia'' (2009) is a film adapted by Nora Ephron from Child's memoir ''My Life in France'' and from Julie Powell's memoir. Meryl Streep played Child. The film won a Golden Globe Award for Golden Globe Award for Best Actress – Motion Picture Musical or Comedy, Best Actress in a Leading Role in a Musical or Comedy. *A film titled ''Primordial Soup With Julia Child'' was on display at the Smithsonian Institution, Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum's ''Life in the Universe'' gallery from 1976 until the gallery closed. *''Keep On Cooking – Julia Child Remixed'': A video produced for PBS by musician and filmmaker John Boswell (musician), John D. Boswell as part of the ''PBS Icons Remixed'' series in commemoration of Child's 100th birthday. Child's voice is auto-tuned to a melody derived from vocal samples, with synchronized video clips from Child's various television series.


See also

*Doña Petrona *Fanny Cradock * Graham Kerr (The Galloping Gourmet) * List of Légion d'honneur recipients by name, List of Legion of Honour recipients by name


References


External links


The Julia Child Foundation

Julia Child's Kitchen at the Smithsonian

Julia Child: Lessons with Master Chefs
from Public Broadcasting Service, PBS
News and commentary about Julia Child in ''The New York Times''
* *
Julia Child Papers.
http://www.radcliffe.edu/schles Schlesinger Library], Radcliffe Institute, Harvard University.
Videotape collection of Julia Child, 1979–1997: A Finding Aid.
http://www.radcliffe.edu/schles Schlesinger Library], Radcliffe Institute, Harvard University.
Audio collection of Julia Child, 1961–1995: A Finding Aid.
http://www.radcliffe.edu/schles Schlesinger Library], Radcliffe Institute, Harvard University. * Spring, Kelly
"Julia Child"
National Women's History Museum. 2017.
The Julia Child Scholarship at Le Cordon Bleu London
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