Jammu and Kashmir is a region administered by India as a union territory and consists of the southern portion of the larger Kashmir region, which has been the subject of a dispute between India and Pakistan since 1947, and between India and China since 1962.(a) (subscription required) Quote: "Kashmir, region of the northwestern Indian subcontinent ... has been the subject of dispute between India and Pakistan since the partition of the Indian subcontinent in 1947. The northern and western portions are administered by Pakistan and comprise three areas: Azad Kashmir, Gilgit, and Baltistan, the last two being part of a territory called the Northern Areas. Administered by India are the southern and southeastern portions, which constitute the state of Jammu and Kashmir but are slated to be split into two union territories. China became active in the eastern area of Kashmir in the 1950s and has controlled the northeastern part of Ladakh (the easternmost portion of the region) since 1962.";
(b) C. E Bosworth, University of Manchester Quote: "KASHMIR, kash'mer, the northernmost region of the Indian subcontinent, administered partlv by India, partly by Pakistan, and partly by China. The region has been the subject of a bitter dispute between India and Pakistan since they became independent in 1947";
Quote: "Jammu and Kashmir: Territory in northwestern India, subject to a dispute between India and Pakistan. It has borders with Pakistan and China." The region of Jammu and Kashmir is separated by the Line of Control from the Pakistani-administered territories of Azad Kashmir and Gilgit-Baltistan in the west and north, respectively. It lies to the north of the Indian states of Himachal Pradesh and Punjab and to the west of Ladakh, which is also subject to the dispute as a part of Kashmir, and administered by India as a union territory. Provisions for the formation of the union territory of Jammu and Kashmir were contained within the Jammu and Kashmir Reorganisation Act, 2019, which was passed by both houses of the Parliament of India in August 2019. The act re-constituted the former state of Jammu and Kashmir into two union territories, Jammu and Kashmir and Ladakh, with effect from 31 October 2019.


Jammu and Kashmir is named after the two regions it encompasses the Jammu region and the Kashmir Valley. The Government of Pakistan and Pakistani sources refer to Jammu and Kashmir as a part of "Indian-occupied Kashmir" ("IOK") or "Indian-held Kashmir" (IHK). The Government of India and Indian sources in turn, call the territory under Pakistan control "Pakistan-occupied Kashmir" ("POK") or "Pakistan-held Kashmir" ("PHK"). "Indian-administered Kashmir" and "Indian-controlled Kashmir" are often used by neutral sources.


The state of Jammu and Kashmir was accorded special status by Article 370 of the Constitution of India. In contrast to other states of India, Jammu and Kashmir had its own constitution, flag and administrative autonomy. Indian citizens from other states were not allowed to purchase land or property in Jammu and Kashmir. Jammu and Kashmir had three distinct areas: Hindu-majority Jammu region, Muslim-majority Kashmir Valley and Buddhist-dominated Ladakh.Article 370: What happened with Kashmir and why it matters
BBC (6 August 2019). Retrieved 7 August 2019.
Unrest and violence persisted in the Kashmiri Valley and, following a disputed state election in 1987, an insurgency persisted in protest over autonomy and rights. The Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) came to power in the 2014 Indian general election and five years later included in their 2019 election manifesto the revocation of Article 370 of the Constitution of India, in order to bring Jammu and Kashmir to equal status with other states. A resolution to repeal Article 370 was passed by both the houses of the Parliament of India in August 2019. At the same time, a reorganisation act was also passed, which would reconstitute the state into two union territories, Jammu and Kashmir and Ladakh. The reorganisation took effect from 31 October 2019.



Jammu and Kashmir is home to several valleys such as the Kashmir Valley, Tawi Valley, Chenab Valley, Poonch Valley, Sind Valley and Lidder Valley. The Kashmir valley is wide and in area. The Himalayas divide the Kashmir valley from the Tibetan plateau while the Pir Panjal range, which encloses the valley from the west and the south, separates it from the Great Plains of northern India. Along the northeastern flank of the Valley runs the main range of the Himalayas. This valley has an average height of above sea-level, but the surrounding Pir Panjal range has an average elevation of . The Jhelum River is the major Himalayan river which flows through the Kashmir valley. The Tawi, Ravi and Chenab are the other important rivers flowing through the region.

Administrative divisions

The union territory of Jammu and Kashmir consists of two divisions: Jammu Division and Kashmir Division, and is further divided into 20 districts.



Muslims constitutes the majority of the population of Jammu and Kashmir with a significant Hindu minority. The Kashmir Division is largely Muslim (96.41%) with a small Hindu (2.45%) and Sikh (0.81%) population. The Jammu Division is predominantly Hindu (66%) with a significant Muslim population (30%). The Muslims form a majority in the Rajouri, Poonch, Doda, Kishtwar and Ramban districts of Jammu, while the Hindus form a majority in Kathua, Samba, Jammu and Udhampur districts. Reasi district has an almost equal number of Hindus and Muslims.

Government and politics

The union territory of Jammu and Kashmir is administered under the provisions of Article 239 of the Constitution of India. The Article 239A, originally formulated for the union territory of Puduchery, will also be applicable to Jammu and Kashmir.Jammu & Kashmir Reorganisation Bill passed by Rajya Sabha: Key takeaways
The Indian Express, 5 August 2019.

Executive branch

The President of India appoints a Lieutenant Governor for the union territory. A Council of Ministers led by a Chief Minister is appointed by the Lieutenant Governor from the membership of the legislative assembly. Their role is to advise the Lieutenant Governor in the exercise of functions in matters under the jurisdiction of the legislative assembly. In other matters, the Lieutenant Governor is empowered to act in his own capacity.

Legislative branch

The legislative branch is of government is a unicameral legislative assembly, whose tenure is five years. The legislative assembly may make laws for any of the matters in the State List of the Constitution of India except "public order" and "police", which will remain the preserve of the central Government of India. The Lieutenant Governor also has the power to promulgate ordinances which have the same force as the acts of the legislative assembly. Elections for the Jammu and Kashmir Legislative Assembly are to be held following the implementation of new constituency boundaries which is expected to be completed in 2021.

Judicial branch

The Jammu and Kashmir High Court on postal stamps of india The union territory is under the jurisdiction of the Jammu and Kashmir High Court, which also serves as high court for Ladakh. Police services are provided by the Jammu and Kashmir Police.


The main political parties active in the region are the Bharatiya Janata Party (State President: Ravinder Raina), the Indian National Congress (State President: Ghulam Ahmad Mir), the Jammu & Kashmir National Conference (President: Farooq Abdullah) and the Jammu and Kashmir People's Democratic Party (President: Mehbooba Mufti). Other parties with a presence in the region parties include the Communist Party of India (Marxist), the Jammu and Kashmir National Panthers Party, the Jammu and Kashmir People's Conference, the Jammu and Kashmir Apni Party (President: Altaf Bukhari), the Jammu and Kashmir Workers Party (President: Mir Junaid) and Ikkjutt Jammu (President: Ankur Sharma).

Jammu and Kashmir in the Parliament of India

Jammu and Kashmir sends five members (MPs) to the lower house of the Indian parliament (the Lok Sabha) and four members to the upper house (the Rajya Sabha). ;Lok Sabha constituencies in Jammu and Kashmir:


Jammu and Kashmir is home to several valleys such as the Kashmir Valley, Chenab Valley, Sindh Valley and Lidder Valley. Some major tourist attractions in Jammu and Kashmir are Srinagar, the Mughal Gardens, Gulmarg, Pahalgam, Patnitop and Jammu. Every year, thousands of Hindu pilgrims visit holy shrines of Vaishno Devi and Amarnath which has had significant impact on the state's economy. The Kashmir valley is one of the top tourist destinations of India. Gulmarg, one of the most popular ski resort destinations in India, is also home to the world's highest green golf course. The decrease in violence in the state has boosted the state's economy, specifically tourism. Jammu and Kashmir is also famous for its scenic beauty, flower gardens, apple farms and more. It attracts tourists for its unique handicrafts and the world-famous Kashmiri Shawls. File:River Chenab Ramban.jpg|River Chenab in Chenab Valley File:Gund village.jpg|Sindh Valley File:Pahalgam Valley.jpg|Lidder Valley File:Shalimar Mughal Garden Srinagar 2.jpg|the Mughal Gardens File:Pahalgam views 13.JPG|Pahalgam views File:Gulmarg in 1969.jpg|Gulmarg File:Sanasar Lake.jpeg|Sanasar Lake which is around 11 km from Patnitop File:Amarnath 4.jpg|View of Amarnath Valley.


See also

* Jammu and Kashmir (princely state), for the entity that existed till 1952 * Kashmiriyat * Tourism in Jammu and Kashmir * Kashmiri cinema * Literature of Kashmir * Music of Jammu and Kashmir * Kus Bani Koshur Karorpaet * DD Kashir * AIR Srinagar * University of Kashmir * University of Jammu * Central University of Kashmir * Central University of Jammu * Jammu and Kashmir cricket team * Real Kashmir F.C. * Jammu and Kashmir football team * Jammu and Kashmir Police * Jammu and Kashmir Light Infantry * Jammu and Kashmir Rifles


External links

Government of Jammu and KashmirGeneral Administration DepartmentLieutenant Governor of Jammu and KashmirJammu and Kashmir district portal
{{DEFAULTSORT:Jammu And Kashmir * Category:History of the Republic of India Category:States and territories established in 2019 Category:2019 establishments in India Category:Urdu-speaking countries and territories Category:Kashmiri-speaking countries and territories Category:Territorial disputes of Pakistan Category:Disputed territories in Asia Category:Union Territories of India Category:States and union territories of India