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The unification of Italy ( it, Unità d'Italia ), also known as the ''Risorgimento'' (, ; meaning "Resurgence"), was the 19th-century political and social movement that resulted in the consolidation of different states of the
Italian Peninsula The Italian Peninsula (Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Italian language, a Romance language *** Reg ...
into a single state, the
Kingdom of Italy The Kingdom of Italy ( it, Regno d'Italia) was a state that existed from 1861—when King Victor Emmanuel II en, Victor Emmanuel Mario Albert Eugene Ferdinand Thomas , house = House of Savoy, Savoy , father = Charles Albert o ...
. Inspired by the rebellions in the 1820s and 1830s against the outcome of the
Congress of Vienna The Congress of Vienna (, ) of 1814–1815 was an international diplomatic conference to reconstitute the European political order after the downfall of the French Emperor Napoleon I Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) w ...

Congress of Vienna
, the unification process was precipitated by the
revolutions of 1848 The Revolutions of 1848, known in some countries as the Springtime of the Peoples or the Springtime of Nations, were a series of political upheaval A political revolution, in the Trotskyist Trotskyism is the political ideology and branch o ...
, and reached completion in 1871, when
Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Lazio, Italy).svg , map_caption = The te ...

Rome
was officially designated the capital of the Kingdom of Italy. Some of the states that had been targeted for unification ('' terre irredente'') did not join the Kingdom of Italy until 1918, after Italy defeated
Austria-Hungary Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy, was a constitutional monarchy A constitutional monarchy, parliamentary monarchy, or democratic monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the monarch exe ...

Austria-Hungary
in
World War I World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war A world war is "a war engaged in by all or most of the principal nations of the world". The term is usually reserved for ...

World War I
. For this reason, historians sometimes describe the unification period as continuing past 1871, to include activities during the late 19th century and the
First World War World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainmen ...

First World War
(1915–1918), and reaching completion only with the
Armistice of Villa Giusti The Armistice of Villa Giusti or Padua ended warfare between Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of a Northern Italy, continental part, delimited by the Al ...
on November 4, 1918. This more expansive definition of the unification period is the one presented, for example, at the Central Museum of the Risorgimento at the
Vittoriano
Vittoriano
.


Background


From ancient times to early modern era

Italy was unified by
Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Lazio, Italy).svg , map_caption = The te ...

Rome
in the third century BC. For 700 years, it was a ''de facto'' territorial extension of the capital of the
Roman Republic The Roman Republic ( la, Rēs pūblica Rōmāna ) was a state of the classical Roman civilization, run through public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information from an indiv ...
and
Empire An empire is a "political unit" made up of several territories and peoples, "usually created by conquest, and divided between a dominant center and subordinate peripheries". Narrowly defined, an empire is a sovereign state called an empire and ...

Empire
, and for a long time experienced a
privileged status but was not converted into a province
privileged status but was not converted into a province
until
Augustus Caesar Augustus (23 September 63 BC19 August AD 14) was the first Roman emperor The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the imperial period (starting in 27 BC). The emperors used a variety of different titles through ...

Augustus
. After the
fall of the Western Roman Empire The fall of the Western Roman Empire (also called the fall of the Roman Empire or the fall of Rome) was the loss of central political control in the Western Roman Empire The Western Roman Empire comprises the western provinces of the Ro ...
,
Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of a peninsula delimited by the Alps The Alps ; german: Alpen ; it, Alpi ; rm, Alps; sl, Alpe ) are the highest ...

Italy
remained united under the
Ostrogothic Kingdom The Ostrogothic Kingdom, officially the Kingdom of Italy (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communi ...

Ostrogothic Kingdom
and later disputed between the
Kingdom of the Lombards The Kingdom of the Lombards ( la, Regnum Langobardorum; it, Regno dei Longobardi; lmo, Regn dei Lombards) also known as the Lombard Kingdom; later the Kingdom of (all) Italy ( la, Regnum totius Italiae), was an early medieval state established ...
and the
Byzantine (Eastern Roman) Empire The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire, or Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople. It surviv ...

Byzantine (Eastern Roman) Empire
, losing its unity for centuries. Following conquest by the
Frankish Empire Francia, also called the Kingdom of the Franks ( la, Regnum Francorum), Frankish Kingdom, Frankland or Frankish Empire, was the largest post-Roman barbarian kingdom A barbarian is a human Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most popu ...

Frankish Empire
, the title of
King of Italy King of Italy ( it, links=no, Re d'Italia; la, links=no, Rex Italiae) was the title given to the ruler of the Kingdom of Italy after the fall of the Western Roman Empire The Western Roman Empire comprises the western provinces of the Ro ...
merged with the office of
Holy Roman Emperor The Holy Roman Emperor, originally and officially the Emperor of the Romans ( la, Imperator The Latin word "imperator" derives from the stem of the verb la, imperare, label=none, meaning 'to order, to command'. It was originally employed as ...
. However, the emperor was an absentee
German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germany, see also German nationality law * German language The German la ...

German
-speaking foreigner who had little concern for the governance of Italy as a state; as a result, Italy gradually developed into a system of
city-states A city-state is an independent sovereign Sovereign is a title which can be applied to the highest leader in various categories. The word is borrowed from Old French Old French (, , ; Modern French French ( or ) is a Romance la ...
. Southern Italy, however, was governed by the long-lasting
Kingdom of Sicily Kingdom may refer to: Monarchy * A type of monarchy A monarchy is a form of government in which a person, the monarch A monarch is a head of stateWebster's II New College DictionarMonarch Houghton Mifflin. Boston. 2001. p. 707. L ...

Kingdom of Sicily
or
Kingdom of Naples The Kingdom of Naples ( la, Regnum Neapolitanum; it, Regno di Napoli; nap, Regno 'e Napule), also known as the Kingdom of Sicily, was a state that ruled the part of the Italian Peninsula The Italian Peninsula (Italian Italian may refer ...

Kingdom of Naples
, which had been established by the Normans. Central Italy was governed by the Pope as a temporal kingdom known as the
Papal States The Papal States ( ; it, Stato Pontificio), officially the State of the Church ( it, Stato della Chiesa, ; la, Status Ecclesiasticus; also '), were a series of territories in the Italian Peninsula The Italian Peninsula (Italian Ital ...
. This situation persisted through the
Renaissance The Renaissance ( , ) , from , with the same meanings. is a period Period may refer to: Common uses * Era, a length or span of time * Full stop (or period), a punctuation mark Arts, entertainment, and media * Period (music), a concept in ...

Renaissance
but began to deteriorate with the rise of modern
nation-state A nation state is a political unit where the state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newsp ...
s in the
early modern period The early modern period of modern history Human history, or world history, is the narrative of Human, humanity's past. It is understood through archaeology, anthropology, genetics, and linguistics, and since the History of writing, adve ...
. Italy, including the Papal States, then became the site of
proxy war A proxy war is an armed conflict between two states or non-state actorNon-state actors include organizations and individuals that are not affiliated with, directed by, or funded through the government. The interests, structure, and influence o ...
s between the major powers, notably the
Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Romanum Imperium; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western Western may refer to: Places *Western, Nebraska, a village in the US *Western, New York, a town i ...
(including Austria), Spain, and France. Harbingers of national unity appeared in the treaty of the
Italic League The Italic League or Most Holy League was an international agreement concluded in Venice Venice ( ; it, Venezia ; vec, Venesia or ) is a city in northeastern Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblic ...
, in 1454, and the 15th-century foreign policy of
Cosimo De Medici Cosimo di Giovanni de' Medici (27 September 1389 – 1 August 1464) was an Italian banker and politician who established the House of Medici, Medici family as effective rulers of Florence during much of the Italian Renaissance. His power derived ...

Cosimo De Medici
and
Lorenzo De Medici Lorenzo di Piero de' Medici (; 1 January 1449 – 8 April 1492) was an Italian statesman, banker, ''de facto ''De facto'' ( ; , "in fact") describes practices that exist in reality, even though they are not officially recognized by laws. It is ...

Lorenzo De Medici
. Leading Renaissance Italian writers
Dante Dante Alighieri (), probably baptized Durante di Alighiero degli Alighieri and often referred to Mononymous person, simply as Dante (, also ; – 14 September 1321), was an Italian Italian poetry, poet, writer and philosopher. His ''Divine Co ...

Dante
,
Petrarch Francesco Petrarca (; 20 July 1304 – 18/19 July 1374), commonly anglicized Linguistic anglicisation (or anglicization, occasionally anglification, anglifying, or Englishing) is the practice of modifying foreign words, names, and phrases ...

Petrarch
,
Boccaccio Giovanni Boccaccio (, , ; 16 June 1313 – 21 December 1375) was an Italian writer, poet, correspondent of Petrarch, and an important Renaissance humanist. He was known par excellence as the Certaldese, and one of the most important figur ...

Boccaccio
, Machiavelli and
Guicciardini
Guicciardini
expressed opposition to foreign domination. Petrarch stated that the "ancient valour in Italian hearts is not yet dead" in ''Italia Mia''. Machiavelli later quoted four verses from ''Italia Mia'' in ''
The Prince ''The Prince'' ( it, Il Principe ; la, De Principatibus) is a 16th-century political treatise A treatise is a formal Formal, formality, informal or informality imply the complying with, or not complying with, some set theory, set of requirem ...
'', which looked forward to a political leader who would unite Italy "to free her from the
barbarians A barbarian is a human Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most populous and widespread species of primates, characterized by bipedality, opposable thumbs, hairlessness, and intelligence allowing the use of culture, language and tools. They ...
". The
Italian Wars The Italian Wars, often referred to as the Great Wars of Italy and sometimes as the Habsburg–Valois Wars, were a long series of wars fought between 1494 and 1559 in Italy during the Renaissance. The Italian peninsula, economically advanced bu ...
saw 65 years of French attacks on the Italian states, starting with Charles VIII's invasion of Naples in 1494. However the Peace of Cateau-Cambrésis (1559) saw large parts of Italy fall under the direct or indirect control of the Habsburgs. The
Peace of Westphalia The Peace of Westphalia (german: Westfälischer Friede, ) is the collective name for two peace treaties signed in October 1648 in the Westphalian cities of Osnabrück Osnabrück (; wep, Ossenbrügge; archaic ''Osnaburg'') is a city in the ...
in 1648 formally ended the rule of the Holy Roman Emperors in Italy. However, the Spanish branch of the
Habsburg dynasty The House of Habsburg (), alternatively spelled Hapsburg in English (german: Haus Habsburg ; es, Casa de Habsburgo ; hu, Habsburg-család), also known as the House of Austria (german: link=no, Haus Österreich; es, link=no, Casa de Austria), ...
, another branch of which provided the Emperors, continued to rule most of Italy down to the
War of the Spanish Succession The War of the Spanish Succession (1701–1714) was an early-18th-century European war, triggered by the death in November 1700 of the childless Charles II of Spain. It established the principle that dynastic rights were secondary to maintaini ...
(1701–14). A sense of Italian national identity was reflected in Gian Rinaldo Carli's ''Della Patria degli Italiani'', written in 1764. It told how a stranger entered a café in Milan and puzzled its occupants by saying that he was neither a foreigner nor a Milanese. Then what are you?' they asked. 'I am an Italian,' he explained."


French Revolution and Napoleonic era

The Habsburg rule in Italy came to an end with the campaigns of the French Revolutionaries in 1792–97, when a series of client republics were set up. In 1806, the Holy Roman Empire was dissolved by the last emperor,
Francis II
Francis II
, after its defeat by Napoleon at the
Battle of Austerlitz The Battle of Austerlitz (2 December 1805/11 Frimaire An XIV French Republican Calendar, FRC), also known as the Battle of the Three Emperors, was one of the most important and decisive engagements of the Napoleonic Wars. In what is widely regard ...

Battle of Austerlitz
. The
Italian campaigns of the French Revolutionary Wars The Italian campaigns of the French Revolutionary Wars The French Revolutionary Wars (french: Guerres de la Révolution française) were a series of sweeping military conflicts lasting from 1792 until 1802 and resulting from the French Rev ...
destroyed the old structures of feudalism in Italy and introduced modern ideas and efficient legal authority; it provided much of the intellectual force and social capital that fueled unification movements for decades after it collapsed in 1814. The French Republic spread republican principles, and the institutions of republican governments promoted citizenship over the rule of the Bourbons and Habsburgs and other dynasties. The reaction against any outside control challenged
Napoleon Bonaparte Napoleon Bonaparte ; co, Napulione Buonaparte. (born Napoleone di Buonaparte; 15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French military and political leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution The French Revolution ( ) r ...

Napoleon Bonaparte
's choice of rulers. As Napoleon's reign began to fail, the rulers he had installed tried to keep their thrones (among them
Eugène de Beauharnais Eugène Rose de Beauharnais, Duke of Leuchtenberg (; 3 September 1781 – 21 February 1824) was the first child and only son of Alexandre François Marie, Vicomte de Beauharnais and Joséphine Tascher de la Pagerie, first wife of Napoleon I ...
, viceroy of Italy, and
Joachim Murat it, Gioacchino-Napoleone Murat , religion = Roman Catholic Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome, the capital city of Italy *Ancient Rome, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *Roman people, the people of ancien ...

Joachim Murat
,
king of Naples The following is a list of rulers of the Kingdom of Naples, from its first Sicilian Vespers, separation from the Kingdom of Sicily to its merger with the same into the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies. Kingdom of Naples (1282–1501) House of Anjou I ...
) further feeding nationalistic sentiments. Beauharnais tried to get Austrian approval for his succession to the new Kingdom of Italy, and on 30 March 1815, Murat issued the
Rimini Proclamation The Rimini Proclamation was a proclamation on 30 March 1815 by Joachim Murat, who had been made king of Naples by Napoleon I. Murat had just declared war on Austria and used the proclamation to call on Italians to revolt against their Austrian ...
, which called on Italians to revolt against their Austrian occupiers. During the Napoleonic era, in 1797, the first official adoption of the
Italian tricolour The flag of Italy ( it, Bandiera d'Italia, ), often referred to in Italian as ''il Tricolore'' ( en, the Tricolour, ), is the national flag of Italy. It is a tricolour (flag), tricolour featuring three equally sized vertical Pale (heraldry), pales ...

Italian tricolour
as a national flag by a sovereign Italian state, the
Cispadane Republic The Cispadane Republic () was a short-lived client republic located in northern Italy Northern Italy ( it, Italia settentrionale, it, Nord Italia, label=none or just it, Nord, label=none) is a geographical and cultural region in the northern ...
, a Napoleonic
sister republic A sister republic (french: république sœur) was a republic established by French armies or by local revolutionaries and assisted by the First French Republic during the French Revolutionary Wars The French Revolutionary Wars (french: Guerres ...
of
Revolutionary France The French Revolution ( ) was a period of radical political and societal change in France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a spanning and in the and the , and s. Its ...
, took place, on the basis of the events following the
French Revolution The French Revolution ( ) was a period of radical political and societal change in France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a spanning and in the and the , and s. Its ...

French Revolution
(1789–1799) which, among its ideals, advocated the national
self-determination The right of a people A people is any plurality of person A person (plural people or persons) is a being that has certain capacities or attributes such as reason Reason is the capacity of consciously applying logic Logic is an ...
. This event is celebrated by the
Tricolour Day , nickname = , observedby = , litcolor = green, white and red , longtype = , significance = Celebrates the birth of the flag of Italy , begins = , ends = , date = 7 January , scheduling = same day eac ...
.Article 1 of the law n. 671 of 31 December 1996 ("National celebration of the bicentenary of the first national flag") The Italian national colours appeared for the first time on a
tricolour cockade Tricolor or tricolour (from Latin ''tri-'' "three" and ''color'' "colour"), or tricolored, tricoloured, may refer to: Flags * Tricolour (flag) A tricolour or tricolor is a type of flag A flag is a piece of textile, fabric (most often rect ...
in 1789, anticipating by seven years the first green, white and red Italian military
war flag A war flag, also known as a military flag, battle flag, or standard, is a variant of a national flag A national flag is a flag A flag is a piece of fabric A textile is a flexible material made by creating an interlocking network ...
, which was adopted by the
Lombard Legion The Lombard Legion (''Legione Lombarda'') was a military unit of the Cisalpine Republic The Cisalpine Republic ( it, Repubblica Cisalpina) was a sister republic of France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, Républ ...
in 1796.


Reaction and dreams 1815–1848

After Napoleon fell (1814), the
Congress of Vienna The Congress of Vienna (, ) of 1814–1815 was an international diplomatic conference to reconstitute the European political order after the downfall of the French Emperor Napoleon I Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) w ...

Congress of Vienna
(1814–15) restored the pre-Napoleonic patchwork of independent governments. Italy was again controlled largely by the
Austrian Empire The Austrian Empire (german: Kaiserthum Oesterreich, modern spelling ') was a Central Europe Central Europe is an area of Europe Europe is a which is also recognised as part of , located entirely in the and mostly in the . It compr ...
and the
Habsburg The House of Habsburg (), alternatively spelled Hapsburg in English (german: Haus Habsburg ; es, Casa de Habsburgo ; hu, Habsburg-család), also known as the House of Austria (german: link=no, Haus Österreich; es, link=no, Casa de Austria), ...

Habsburg
s, as they directly controlled the predominantly Italian-speaking northeastern part of Italy and were, together, the most powerful force against unification. With the fall of Napoleon and the restoration of the absolutist monarchical regimes, the
Italian tricolour The flag of Italy ( it, Bandiera d'Italia, ), often referred to in Italian as ''il Tricolore'' ( en, the Tricolour, ), is the national flag of Italy. It is a tricolour (flag), tricolour featuring three equally sized vertical Pale (heraldry), pales ...
went underground, becoming the symbol of the patriotic ferments that began to spread in Italy and the symbol which united all the efforts of the Italian people towards freedom and independence. The Italian tricolour waved for the first time in the history of the ''Risorgimento'' on 11 March 1821 in the Cittadella of Alessandria, during the revolutions of 1820s, after the oblivion caused by the restoration of the absolutist monarchical regimes. An important figure of this period was
Francesco Melzi d'Eril Francesco Melzi d'Eril, Duke of Lodi, Duke of Lodi, Count of Magenta, (6 March 1753 – 16 January 1816) was an Italian politician and patriot, serving as vice-president of the Napoleon I, Napoleonic Italian Republic (Napoleonic), Italian Republic ...
, serving as vice-president of the Napoleonic
Italian Republic Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of a peninsula delimited by the Alps The Alps ; german: Alpen ; it, Alpi ; rm, Alps; sl, Alpe ) are the highest an ...
(1802–1805) and consistent supporter of the Italian unification ideals that would lead to the Italian ''Risorgimento'' shortly after his death. Meanwhile, artistic and literary sentiment also turned towards nationalism;
Vittorio Alfieri Count Vittorio Alfieri (, also , ; 16 January 17498 October 1803) was an Italian dramatist and poet A poet is a person who creates poetry. Poets may describe themselves as such or be described as such by others. A poet may simply be a writer ...

Vittorio Alfieri
, Francesco Lomonaco and Niccolò Tommaseo are generally considered three great literary precursors of Italian nationalism, but the most famous of proto-nationalist works was
Alessandro Manzoni Alessandro Francesco Tommaso Antonio Manzoni (, , ; 7 March 1785 – 22 May 1873) was an Italian poet, novelist and philosopher. He is famous for the novel ''The Betrothed (Manzoni novel), The Betrothed'' (orig. it, I promessi sposi) (1827), gen ...

Alessandro Manzoni
's ''I promessi sposi'' ''(The Betrothed)'', widely read as a thinly veiled allegorical critique of Austrian rule. Published in 1827 and extensively revised in the following years, the 1840 version of ''I Promessi Sposi'' used a standardized version of the
Tuscan dialect Tuscan ( it, dialetto toscano ; it, vernacolo, label=locally) is a set of Italo-Dalmatian The Italo-Dalmatian languages, or Central Romance languages, are a group of Romance languages The Romance languages (less commonly Latin languages ...
, a conscious effort by the author to provide a language and force people to learn it. Exiles dreamed of unification. Three ideals of unification appeared.
Vincenzo Gioberti Vincenzo Gioberti (; 5 April 180126 October 1852) was an Italian clergyman Clergy are formal leaders within established religion Religion is a social system, social-cultural system of designated religious behaviour, behaviors and prac ...
, a Piedmontese priest, had suggested a confederation of Italian states under leadership of the Pope in his 1842 book ''Of the Moral and Civil Primacy of the Italians''.
Pope Pius IX Pope Pius IX ( it, Pio IX, ''Pio Nono''; born Giovanni Maria Mastai Ferretti; 13 May 1792 – 7 February 1878) was head of the Catholic Church from 1846 to 1878, the List of popes by length of reign, longest verified papal reign. He was notable ...

Pope Pius IX
at first appeared interested but he turned reactionary and led the battle against liberalism and nationalism.
Giuseppe Mazzini Giuseppe Mazzini (, , ; 22 June 1805 – 10 March 1872) was an Italian politician, journalist, and activist for the unification of Italy The unification of Italy ( it, Unità d'Italia ), also known as the ''Risorgimento'' (, ; meaning ...

Giuseppe Mazzini
and
Carlo Cattaneo Carlo Cattaneo (; Milan, June 15, 1801 – Castagnola, February 6, 1869) was an Italian philosopher and writer, famous for his role in the Five Days of Milan The Five Days of Milan ( ) was an insurrection Rebellion, uprising, or ins ...

Carlo Cattaneo
wanted the unification of Italy under a
federal republic A federal republic is a federation A federation (also known as a federal state) is a political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective identity, who are organized by some form of I ...
, which proved too extreme for most nationalists. The middle position was proposed by
Cesare Balbo Cesare Balbo, Conte di Vinadio (21 November 1789 – 3 June 1853), was an Italian writer and statesman. Balbo was born in Turin Turin ( , Piedmontese language, Piedmontese: ; it, Torino ; lat, Augusta Taurinorum, then ''Taurinum'') is a ci ...
(1789–1853) as a confederation of separate Italian states led by Piedmont.


The Carbonari

One of the most influential revolutionary groups was the
Carboneria The Carbonari () was an informal network of secret society, secret revolutionary societies active in Italy from about 1800 to 1831. The Italian Carbonari may have further influenced other revolutionary groups in France, Greece, Spain, Portugal, R ...

Carboneria
, a secret political discussion group formed in
Southern Italy Southern Italy ( it, Sud Italia; nap, 'o Sudde; scn, Italia dû Sud), also known as ''Meridione'' or ''Mezzogiorno'' (, literally "Midday"; in nap, 'o Miezojuorno; in scn, Mezzujornu), is a macroregionA macroregion is a geopolitical subdivis ...
early in the 19th century; the members were called ''Carbonari''. After 1815,
Freemasonry Freemasonry or Masonry refers to fraternal organisations that trace their origins to the local guilds of stonemasons Stonemasonry or stonecraft is the creation of building A building, or edifice, is a structure with a roof and walls ...

Freemasonry
in Italy was repressed and discredited due to its French connections. A void was left that the Carboneria filled with a movement that closely resembled Freemasonry but with a commitment to Italian nationalism and no association with Napoleon and his government. The response came from middle-class professionals and businessmen and some intellectuals. The Carboneria disowned Napoleon but nevertheless were inspired by the principles of the
French Revolution The French Revolution ( ) was a period of radical political and societal change in France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a spanning and in the and the , and s. Its ...

French Revolution
regarding liberty, equality and fraternity. They developed their own rituals, and were strongly anticlerical. The Carboneria movement spread across Italy. Conservative governments feared the Carboneria, imposing stiff penalties on men discovered to be members. Nevertheless, the movement survived and continued to be a source of political turmoil in Italy from 1820 until after unification. The Carbonari condemned
Napoleon III Napoleon III (Charles Louis Napoléon Bonaparte; 20 April 18089 January 1873) was the first President of France The president of France, officially the President of the French Republic (french: Président de la République française), is t ...

Napoleon III
(who, as a young man, had fought on their side) to death for failing to unite Italy, and the group almost succeeded in assassinating him in 1858, when
Felice Orsini Felice Orsini (; ; 10 December 1819 – 13 March 1858) was an Italian revolutionary and leader of the ''Carbonari The Carbonari () was an informal network of secret society, secret revolutionary societies active in Italy from about 1800 to ...

Felice Orsini
,
Giovanni Andrea PieriGiovanni may refer to: * Giovanni (name), an Italian male given name and surname * Giovanni (meteorology), a Web interface for users to analyze NASA's gridded data * ''Don Giovanni'', a 1787 opera by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, based on the legend of D ...
, Carlo Di Rudio and Andrea Gomez launched three bombs at him. Many leaders of the unification movement were at one time or other members of this organization. The chief purpose was to defeat tyranny and to establish constitutional government. Though contributing some service to the cause of Italian unity, historians such as Cornelia Shiver doubt that their achievements were proportional to their pretensions.


Giuseppe Mazzini and Giuseppe Garibaldi

Many leading Carbonari revolutionaries wanted a republic, two of the most prominent being
Giuseppe Mazzini Giuseppe Mazzini (, , ; 22 June 1805 – 10 March 1872) was an Italian politician, journalist, and activist for the unification of Italy The unification of Italy ( it, Unità d'Italia ), also known as the ''Risorgimento'' (, ; meaning ...

Giuseppe Mazzini
and
Giuseppe Garibaldi Giuseppe Maria Garibaldi ( , ;In his native Ligurian language, he is known as ''Gioxeppe Gaibado. 4 July 1807 – 2 June 1882) was an Italian general, patriot, revolutionary, and republican. He contributed to the Italian unification The ...

Giuseppe Garibaldi
. Mazzini's activity in revolutionary movements caused him to be imprisoned soon after he joined. While in prison, he concluded that Italy could − and therefore should − be unified, and he formulated a program for establishing a free, independent, and republican nation with Rome as its capital. Following his release in 1831, he went to
Marseille Marseille ( , , ; also spelled in English as Marseilles; oc, Marselha ) is the prefecture A prefecture (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European langua ...

Marseille
in France, where he organized a new political society called ''La Giovine Italia'' (Young Italy), whose motto was "''Dio e Popolo''" (God and People), which sought the unification of Italy. Garibaldi, a native of
Nice Nice ( , ; Niçard: , classical norm, or , nonstandard, ; it, Nizza ; grc, Νίκαια; la, Nicaea) is the Urban area (France)#List of France's aires urbaines (metropolitan areas), seventh most populous urban area in France and the prefectu ...

Nice
(then part of
Piedmont it, Piemontese , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = , demographics1_footnotes = , demographics1_title1 = , demographics1_info1 = , demographics1_title2 ...

Piedmont
), participated in an uprising in Piedmont in 1834 and was sentenced to death. He escaped to South America, though, spending fourteen years in exile, taking part in several wars, and learning the art of guerrilla warfare before his return to Italy in 1848.


Early revolutionary activity


Exiles and European and masculine ideals

Many of the key intellectual and political leaders operated from exile; most Risorgimento patriots lived and published their work abroad after successive failed revolutions. Exile became a central theme of the foundational legacy of the Risorgimento as the narrative of the Italian nation fighting for independence. The exiles were deeply immersed in European ideas, and often hammered away at what Europeans saw as Italian vices, especially effeminacy and indolence. These negative stereotypes emerged from Enlightenment notions of national character that stressed the influence of the environment and history on a people's moral predisposition. Italian exiles both challenged and embraced the stereotypes and typically presented gendered interpretations of Italy's political "degeneration". They called for a masculine response to feminine weaknesses as the basis of a national regeneration, and fashioned their image of the future Italian nation firmly in the standards of European nationalism.


Two Sicilies insurrection

In 1820, Spaniards successfully
revolted
revolted
over disputes about their Constitution, which influenced the development of a similar movement in Italy. Inspired by the Spaniards (who, in 1812, had created their constitution), a regiment in the army of the
Kingdom of Two Sicilies The Kingdom of the Two Sicilies ( nap, Regno d’ ’e Ddoje Sicilie; scn, Regnu dî Dui Sicili; it, Regno delle Due Sicilie; es, Reino de las Dos Sicilias) was a kingdom located in Southern Italy Southern Italy ( it, Sud Italia; nap, 'o ...
, commanded by
Guglielmo Pepe Guglielmo Pepe (13 February 1783 – 8 August 1855) was an Italian people, Italian general and patriot. He was brother to Florestano Pepe and cousin to Gabriele Pepe. He was married to Mary Ann Coventry, a Scottish woman who was the widow of ...

Guglielmo Pepe
, a Carbonaro (member of the secret republican organization), mutinied, conquering the peninsular part of Two Sicilies. The king,
Ferdinand IFerdinand I or Fernando I may refer to: People * Ferdinand I of León, ''the Great'' (ca. 1000–1065, king from 1037) * Ferdinand I of Portugal and the Algarve, ''the Handsome'' (1345–1383, king from 1367) * Ferdinand I of Aragon and Sicily, ''of ...
, agreed to enact a new constitution. The revolutionaries, though, failed to court popular support and fell to Austrian troops of the
Holy Alliance The Holy Alliance in 1840: The Holy Alliance (german: Heilige Allianz; russian: Священный союз, ''Svyashchennyy soyuz''; also called the Grand Alliance) was a coalition linking the monarchist great powers of Austria Aust ...

Holy Alliance
. Ferdinand abolished the constitution and began systematically persecuting known revolutionaries. Many supporters of revolution in
Sicily (man) it, Siciliana (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = Ethnicity , demographics1_footnotes = , demographi ...

Sicily
, including the scholar
Michele Amari Michele Amari (7 July 1806 – 16 July 1889) was a Sicilian patriot and historian. Biography Born at Palermo, Italy, Palermo son of Ferdinando and Giulia Venturelli, he devoted a great part of his life to the history of Sicily. Amari was also an ...

Michele Amari
, were forced into exile during the decades that followed.


Piedmont insurrection

The leader of the 1821 revolutionary movement in
Piedmont it, Piemontese , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = , demographics1_footnotes = , demographics1_title1 = , demographics1_info1 = , demographics1_title2 ...

Piedmont
was
Santorre di Santarosa Santorre Annibale De Rossi di Pomerolo, Count of Santa Rosa (born 18 November 1783, Saviglianodied 8 May 1825, Sphacteria) was an Italy, Italian insurgent and leader in Italy's revival (''Risorgimento''). image:Santarosa 7.JPG, 250px, left, Statue ...

Santorre di Santarosa
, who wanted to remove the Austrians and unify Italy under the
House of Savoy The House of Savoy ( it, Casa Savoia) is a royal dynasty A dynasty (, ) is a sequence of rulers from the same family,''Oxford English Dictionary'', "dynasty, ''n''." Oxford University Press Oxford University Press (OUP) is the uni ...
. The Piedmont revolt started in
Alessandria Alessandria (; pms, Lissandria ) is a city and ''comune The (; plural: ) is a local administrative division of Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consis ...
, where troops adopted the green, white, and red
''tricolore''
''tricolore''
of the
Cisalpine Republic The Cisalpine Republic ( it, Repubblica Cisalpina) was a sister republic of France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a country primarily located in Western Europe, consisting of metrop ...
. The king's regent, prince
Charles Albert Charles Albert (; 2 October 1798 – 28 July 1849) was the King of Sardinia The following is a list of rulers of Kingdom of Sardinia, Sardinia, in particular, of the monarchs of the Kingdom of Sardinia and Corsica from 1323 and then of the Ki ...
, acting while the king Charles Felix was away, approved a new
constitution A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental principles A principle is a proposition or value that is a guide for behavior or evaluation. In law, it is a rule Rule or ruling may refer to: Human activity * The exercise of political ...

constitution
to appease the revolutionaries, but when the king returned he disavowed the constitution and requested assistance from the
Holy Alliance The Holy Alliance in 1840: The Holy Alliance (german: Heilige Allianz; russian: Священный союз, ''Svyashchennyy soyuz''; also called the Grand Alliance) was a coalition linking the monarchist great powers of Austria Aust ...

Holy Alliance
. Di Santarosa's troops were defeated, and the would-be Piedmontese revolutionary fled to
Paris Paris () is the Capital city, capital and List of communes in France with over 20,000 inhabitants, most populous city of France, with an estimated population of 2,175,601 residents , in an area of more than . Since the 17th century, Paris ha ...

Paris
. In
Milan Milan (, , Milanese: ; it, Milano ) is a city in northern Italy, capital of Lombardy, and the List of cities in Italy, second-most populous city proper in Italy after Rome. The city proper has a population of about 1.4 million, while its ...

Milan
,
Silvio Pellico Silvio Pellico (; 24 June 1789 – 31 January 1854) was an Italian writer, poet, dramatist and patriot active in the Italian unification Italian unification ( it, Unità d'Italia ), also known as the Risorgimento (, ; meaning "Resurgence" ...

Silvio Pellico
and Pietro Maroncelli organized several attempts to weaken the hold of the Austrian despotism by indirect educational means. In October 1820, Pellico and Maroncelli were arrested on the charge of carbonarism and imprisoned.


1830 insurrections

Denis Mack Smith argues that: After 1830, revolutionary sentiment in favor of a unified Italy began to experience a resurgence, and a series of insurrections laid the groundwork for the creation of one nation along the Italian peninsula. The Duchy of Modena, Duke of Modena, Francis IV of Modena, Francis IV, was an ambitious noble, and he hoped to become king of Northern Italy by increasing his territory. In 1826, Francis made it clear that he would not act against those who subverted opposition toward the unification of Italy. Encouraged by the declaration, revolutionaries in the region began to organize. During the July Revolution, July Revolution of 1830 in France, revolutionaries forced the king to abdicate and created the July Monarchy with encouragement from the new French king, Louis-Philippe of France, Louis-Philippe. Louis-Philippe had promised revolutionaries such as Ciro Menotti that he would intervene if Austria tried to interfere in Italy with troops. Fearing he would lose his throne, Louis-Philippe did not, however, intervene in Menotti's planned uprising. The Duke of Modena abandoned his Carbonari supporters, arrested Menotti and other conspirators in 1831, and once again conquered his duchy with help from the Austrian troops. Menotti was executed, and the idea of a revolution centered in Modena faded. At the same time, other insurrections arose in the Papal Legations of Bologna, Ferrara, Ravenna, Forlì, Ancona and Perugia. These successful revolutions, which adopted the ''tricolore'' in place of the List of flags of the Papacy, Papal flag, quickly spread to cover all the Papal Legations, and their newly installed local governments proclaimed the creation of a united Italian nation. The revolts in Modena and the Papal Legations inspired similar activity in the Duchy of Parma, where the ''tricolore'' flag was adopted. The Parmese duchess Marie Louise of Austria, Marie Louise left the city during the political upheaval. Insurrected provinces planned to unite as the ''Province Italiane unite'' (United Italian Provinces), which prompted Pope Gregory XVI to ask for Austrian help against the rebels. Austrian Klemens Wenzel von Metternich, Chancellor Metternich warned Louis-Philippe that Austria had no intention of letting Italian matters be, and that French intervention would not be tolerated. Louis-Philippe withheld any military help and even arrested Italian patriots living in France. In early 1831, the Austrian army began its march across the Italian peninsula, slowly crushing resistance in each province that had revolted. This military action suppressed much of the fledgling revolutionary movement, and resulted in the arrest of many radical leaders.


Revolutions of 1848–1849 and First Italian War of Independence

In 1844, two brothers from Venice, Bandiera Brothers, Attilio and Emilio Bandiera, members of the ''Giovine Italia'', planned to make a raid on the Calabrian coast against the Kingdom of Two Sicilies in support of Italian unification. They assembled a band of about twenty men ready to sacrifice their lives, and set sail on their venture on 12 June 1844. Four days later they landed near Crotone, intending to go to Cosenza, liberate the political prisoners, and issue their proclamations. Tragically for the Bandiera brothers, they did not find the insurgent band they were told awaited them, so they moved towards La Sila. They were ultimately betrayed by one of their party, the Corsican Pietro Boccheciampe, and by some peasants who believed them to be Turkish pirates. A detachment of Gendarmerie, gendarmes and volunteers were sent against them, and after a short fight the whole band was taken prisoner and escorted to Cosenza, where a number of Calabrians who had taken part in a previous rising were also under arrest. The Bandiera brothers and their nine companions were executed by firing squad; some accounts state they cried "''Viva l’Italia''!" ("Long live Italy!") as they fell. The moral effect was enormous throughout Italy, the action of the authorities was universally condemned, and the martyrdom of the Bandiera brothers bore fruit in the subsequent revolutions. In this context, in 1847, the first public performance of the song ''Il Canto degli Italiani'', the Italian national anthem since 1946, took place. ''Il Canto degli Italiani'', written by Goffredo Mameli set to music by Michele Novaro, is also known as the ''Inno di Mameli'', after the author of the lyrics, or ''Fratelli d'Italia'', from its incipit, opening line. On 5 January 1848, the revolutionary disturbances began with a civil disobedience strike in Lombardy, as citizens stopped smoking cigars and playing the lottery, which denied Austria the associated tax revenue. Shortly after this, revolts began on the island of
Sicily (man) it, Siciliana (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = Ethnicity , demographics1_footnotes = , demographi ...

Sicily
and in Naples. In Sicily the revolt resulted in the proclamation of the Sicilian revolution of 1848, Kingdom of Sicily with Ruggero Settimo as Chairman of the independent state until 1849, when the Bourbon army took back full control of the island on 15 May 1849 by force. In February 1848, there were revolts in Tuscany that were relatively nonviolent, after which Leopold II, Grand Duke of Tuscany, Grand Duke Leopold II granted the Tuscans a constitution. A breakaway republican provisional government formed in Tuscany during February shortly after this concession. On 21 February, Pope Pius IX granted a constitution to the Papal States, which was both unexpected and surprising considering the historical recalcitrance of the Papacy. On 23 February 1848, King Louis Philippe of France was forced to flee
Paris Paris () is the Capital city, capital and List of communes in France with over 20,000 inhabitants, most populous city of France, with an estimated population of 2,175,601 residents , in an area of more than . Since the 17th century, Paris ha ...

Paris
, and a republic was proclaimed. By the time the revolution in Paris occurred, three states of Italy had constitutions—four if one considers Sicily to be a separate state. Meanwhile, in Lombardy, tensions increased until the Milanese and Venetians rose in revolt on 18 March 1848. The insurrection in Milan succeeded in expelling the Austrian garrison after five days of street fights – 18–22 March (Five Days of Milan, Cinque giornate di Milano). An Austrian army under Marshal Josef Radetzky besieged Milan, but due to defection of many of his troops and the support of the Milanese for the revolt, they were forced to retreat. Soon,
Charles Albert Charles Albert (; 2 October 1798 – 28 July 1849) was the King of Sardinia The following is a list of rulers of Kingdom of Sardinia, Sardinia, in particular, of the monarchs of the Kingdom of Sardinia and Corsica from 1323 and then of the Ki ...
, the King of Sardinia (who ruled Piedmont and Savoy), urged by the Venetians and Milanese to aid their cause, decided this was the moment to unify Italy and declared war on Austria (First Italian Independence War). After initial successes at Battle of Goito, Goito and Peschiera del Garda, Peschiera, he was decisively defeated by Radetzky at the Battle of Custoza (1848), Battle of Custoza on 24 July. An armistice was agreed to, and Radetzky regained control of all of Lombardy-Venetia save Venice itself, where the Republic of San Marco was proclaimed under Daniele Manin. While Radetzky consolidated control of Lombardy-Venetia and Charles Albert licked his wounds, matters took a more serious turn in other parts of Italy. The monarchs who had reluctantly agreed to constitutions in March came into conflict with their constitutional ministers. At first, the republics had the upper hand, forcing the monarchs to flee their capitals, including Pope Pius IX. Initially, Pius IX had been something of a reformer, but conflicts with the revolutionaries soured him on the idea of constitutional government. In November 1848, following the assassination of his Minister Pellegrino Rossi, Pius IX fled just before
Giuseppe Garibaldi Giuseppe Maria Garibaldi ( , ;In his native Ligurian language, he is known as ''Gioxeppe Gaibado. 4 July 1807 – 2 June 1882) was an Italian general, patriot, revolutionary, and republican. He contributed to the Italian unification The ...

Giuseppe Garibaldi
and other patriots arrived in Rome. In early 1849, elections were held for a Constituent Assembly, which proclaimed a Roman Republic (19th century), Roman Republic on 9 February. On 2 February 1849, at a political rally held in the Apollo Theater, a young Roman priest, the Abbé Carlo Arduini, had made a speech in which he had declared that the Temporal power (papal), temporal power of the popes was a "historical lie, a political imposture, and a religious immorality". In early March 1849,
Giuseppe Mazzini Giuseppe Mazzini (, , ; 22 June 1805 – 10 March 1872) was an Italian politician, journalist, and activist for the unification of Italy The unification of Italy ( it, Unità d'Italia ), also known as the ''Risorgimento'' (, ; meaning ...

Giuseppe Mazzini
arrived in Rome and was appointed Chief Minister. In the Constitution of the Roman Republic, religious freedom was guaranteed by article 7, the independence of the pope as head of the Catholic Church was guaranteed by article 8 of the ''Principi fondamentali'', while the death penalty was abolished by article 5, and free public education was provided by article 8 of the ''Titolo I''. Before the powers could respond to the founding of the Roman Republic, Charles Albert, whose army had been trained by the exiled Polish general Albert Chrzanowski, renewed the war with Austria. He was quickly defeated by Radetzky at Battle of Novara (1849), Novara on 23 March 1849. Charles Albert abdicated in favour of his son, Victor Emmanuel II, and Piedmontese ambitions to unite Italy or conquer Lombardy were, for the moment, brought to an end. The war ended with a treaty signed on 9 August. A popular revolt broke out in Ten Days of Brescia, Brescia on the same day as the defeat at Novara, but was suppressed by the Austrians ten days later. There remained the Roman and Republic of San Marco, Venetian Republics. In April, a French force under Charles Oudinot was sent to Rome. Apparently, the French first wished to mediate between the Pope and his subjects, but soon the French were determined to restore the Pope. After a two-month siege, Rome capitulated on 29 June 1849 and the Pope was restored. Garibaldi and Mazzini once again fled into exile—in 1850 Garibaldi went to New York City. Meanwhile, the Austrians besieged Venice, which was defended by a volunteer army led by Daniele Manin and
Guglielmo Pepe Guglielmo Pepe (13 February 1783 – 8 August 1855) was an Italian people, Italian general and patriot. He was brother to Florestano Pepe and cousin to Gabriele Pepe. He was married to Mary Ann Coventry, a Scottish woman who was the widow of ...

Guglielmo Pepe
, who were forced to surrender on 24 August. Pro-independence fighters were Belfiore martyrs, hanged en masse in Belfiore, while the Austrians moved to restore order in central Italy, restoring the princes who had been expelled and establishing their control over the Papal Legations. The revolutions were thus completely crushed.


Cavour and the prospects for unification

Morale was of course badly weakened, but the dream of Risorgimento did not die. Instead, the Italian patriots learned some lessons that made them much more effective at the next opportunity in 1860. Military weakness was glaring, as the small Italian states were completely outmatched by France and Austria. France was a potential ally, and the patriots realized they had to focus all their attention on expelling Austria first, with a willingness to give the French whatever they wanted in return for essential military intervention. As a result of this France received Nice and Savoy in 1860. Secondly, the patriots realized that the Pope was an enemy, and could never be the leader of a united Italy. Third they realized that republicanism was too weak a force. Unification had to be based on a strong monarchy, and in practice that meant reliance on Piedmont (the Kingdom of Sardinia) under Victor Emmanuel II of Italy, King Victor Emmanuel II (1820–1878) of the
House of Savoy The House of Savoy ( it, Casa Savoia) is a royal dynasty A dynasty (, ) is a sequence of rulers from the same family,''Oxford English Dictionary'', "dynasty, ''n''." Oxford University Press Oxford University Press (OUP) is the uni ...
. Camillo Benso, Count of Cavour, Count Cavour (1810–1861) provided critical leadership. He was a modernizer interested in agrarian improvements, banks, railways and free trade. He opened a newspaper as soon as censorship allowed it: ''Il Risorgimento (newspaper), Il Risorgimento'' called for the independence of Italy, a league of Italian princes, and moderate reforms. He had the ear of the king and in 1852 became prime minister. He ran an efficient active government, promoting rapid economic modernization while upgrading the administration of the army and the financial and legal systems. He sought out support from patriots across Italy. In 1855, the kingdom became an ally of Britain and France in the Crimean War, which gave Cavour's diplomacy legitimacy in the eyes of the great powers.


Towards the Kingdom of Italy


The "Pisacane" fiasco

In 1857, Carlo Pisacane, an aristocrat from Naples who had embraced Mazzini's ideas, decided to provoke a rising in the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies. His small force landed on the island of Ponza. It overpowered guards and liberated hundreds of prisoners. In sharp contrast to his hypothetical expectations, there was no local uprising and the invaders were quickly overpowered. Pisacane was killed by angry locals who suspected he was leading a gypsy band trying to steal their food.


The Second Italian Independence War of 1859 and its aftermath

The Second War of Italian Independence began in April 1859 when the Sardinian Prime Minister Camillo Benso, Count of Cavour, Count Cavour found an ally in
Napoleon III Napoleon III (Charles Louis Napoléon Bonaparte; 20 April 18089 January 1873) was the first President of France The president of France, officially the President of the French Republic (french: Président de la République française), is t ...

Napoleon III
. Napoleon III signed a secret alliance and Cavour provoked Austria with military maneuvers and eventually led to the war in April 1859. Cavour called for volunteers to enlist in the Italian liberation. The Austrians planned to use their army to beat the Sardinians before the French could come to their aid. Austria had an army of 140,000 men, while the Sardinians had a mere 70,000 men by comparison. However the Austrians' numerical strength was outweighed by an ineffectual leadership appointed by the Emperor on the basis of noble lineage, rather than military competency. Their army was slow to enter the capital of Sardinia, taking almost ten days to travel the . By this time, the French had reinforced the Sardinians, so the Austrians retreated. The Austrians were defeated at the Battle of Magenta on 4 June and pushed back to Lombardy. Napoleon III's plans worked and at the Battle of Solferino, France and Sardinia defeated Austria and forced negotiations; at the same time, in the northern part of Lombardy, the Italian volunteers known as the Hunters of the Alps, led by
Giuseppe Garibaldi Giuseppe Maria Garibaldi ( , ;In his native Ligurian language, he is known as ''Gioxeppe Gaibado. 4 July 1807 – 2 June 1882) was an Italian general, patriot, revolutionary, and republican. He contributed to the Italian unification The ...

Giuseppe Garibaldi
, defeated the Austrians at battle of Varese, Varese and battle of San Fermo, Como. On 12 July, the Armistice of Villafranca was signed. The settlement, by which Lombardy was annexed to Sardinia, left Austria in control of Venice. Sardinia eventually won the Second War of Italian Unification through statesmanship rather than armies or popular election. The final arrangement was ironed out by "back-room" deals instead of on the battlefield. This was because neither France, Austria, nor Sardinia wanted to risk another battle and could not handle further fighting. All of the sides were eventually unhappy with the outcome of the Second War of Italian Unification and expected another conflict in the future. Sardinia annexed Lombardy from Austria; it later occupied and annexed the United Provinces of Central Italy, consisting of the Grand Duchy of Tuscany, the Duchy of Parma, the Duchy of Modena and Reggio and the Papal Legations on 22 March 1860. Sardinia handed Savoy and Nice over to France at the Treaty of Turin (1860), Treaty of Turin, a decision that was the consequence of the Plombières Agreement, on 24 March 1860, an event that caused the Niçard exodus, which was the emigration of a quarter of the Niçard Italians to Italy.


The ''Mille'' expedition

Thus, by early 1860, only five states remained in Italy—the Austrians in Venetia, the
Papal States The Papal States ( ; it, Stato Pontificio), officially the State of the Church ( it, Stato della Chiesa, ; la, Status Ecclesiasticus; also '), were a series of territories in the Italian Peninsula The Italian Peninsula (Italian Ital ...
(now minus the Legations), the new expanded Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia, the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, and San Marino. Francis II of the Two Sicilies, the son and successor of Ferdinand II of the Two Sicilies, Ferdinand II (the infamous "King Bomba"), had a well-organized army of 150,000 men. But his father's tyranny had inspired many secret societies, and the kingdom's Swiss mercenaries were unexpectedly recalled home under the terms of a new Swiss law that forbade Swiss citizens to serve as mercenaries. This left Francis with only his mostly unreliable native troops. It was a critical opportunity for the unification movement. In April 1860, separate insurrections began in Messina, Italy, Messina and Palermo in Sicily, both of which had demonstrated a history of opposing Neapolitan rule. These rebellions were easily suppressed by loyal troops. In the meantime,
Giuseppe Garibaldi Giuseppe Maria Garibaldi ( , ;In his native Ligurian language, he is known as ''Gioxeppe Gaibado. 4 July 1807 – 2 June 1882) was an Italian general, patriot, revolutionary, and republican. He contributed to the Italian unification The ...

Giuseppe Garibaldi
, a native of Nice, was deeply resentful of the French annexation of his home city. He hoped to use his supporters to regain the territory. Cavour, terrified of Garibaldi provoking a war with France, persuaded Garibaldi to instead use his forces in the Sicilian rebellions. On 6 May 1860, Garibaldi and his cadre of about a thousand Italian volunteers (called ''I Mille''), steamed from Quarto dei Mille, Quarto near Genoa, and, after a stop in Talamone on 11 May, landed near Marsala on the west coast of
Sicily (man) it, Siciliana (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = Ethnicity , demographics1_footnotes = , demographi ...

Sicily
. Near Salemi, Garibaldi's army attracted scattered bands of rebels, and the combined forces defeated the opposing army at Calatafimi on 13 May. Within three days, the invading force had swelled to 4,000 men. On 14 May Garibaldi proclaimed himself dictator of Sicily, in the name of Victor Emmanuel. After waging various successful but hard-fought battles, Garibaldi advanced upon the Sicilian capital of Palermo, announcing his arrival by beacon-fires kindled at night. On 27 May the force laid siege to the Porta Termini of Palermo, while a mass uprising of street and barricade fighting broke out within the city. With Palermo deemed insurgent, Neapolitan general Ferdinando Lanza, arriving in Sicily with some 25,000 troops, furiously bombarded Palermo nearly to ruins. With the intervention of a British admiral, an armistice was declared, leading to the Neapolitan troops' departure and surrender of the town to Garibaldi and his much smaller army. In Palermo created the Dictatorship of Garibaldi. This resounding success demonstrated the weakness of the Neapolitan government. Garibaldi's fame spread and many Italians began to consider him a national hero. Doubt, confusion, and dismay overtook the Neapolitan court—the king hastily summoned his ministry and offered to restore an earlier constitution, but these efforts failed to rebuild the peoples' trust in House of Bourbon, Bourbon governance. Six weeks after the surrender of Palermo, Garibaldi attacked Messina. Within a week, its citadel surrendered. Having conquered Sicily, Garibaldi proceeded to the mainland, crossing the Strait of Messina with the Neapolitan fleet at hand. The garrison at Reggio Calabria promptly surrendered. As he marched northward, the populace everywhere hailed him, and military resistance faded: on 18 and 21 August, the people of Basilicata and Apulia, two regions of the Kingdom of Naples, independently declared their annexation to the Kingdom of Italy. At the end of August, Garibaldi was at Cosenza, and, on 5 September, at Eboli, near Salerno. Meanwhile, Naples had declared a state of siege, and on 6 September the king gathered the 4,000 troops still faithful to him and retreated over the Volturno river. The next day, Garibaldi, with a few followers, entered by train into Naples, where the people openly welcomed him.


Defeat of the Kingdom of Naples

Though Garibaldi had easily taken the capital, the Neapolitan army had not joined the rebellion ''en masse'', holding firm along the Volturno River. Garibaldi's irregular bands of about 25,000 men could not drive away the king or take the fortresses of Capua and Gaeta without the help of the Sardinian army. The Sardinian army, however, could only arrive by traversing the Papal States, which extended across the entire center of the peninsula. Ignoring the political will of the Holy See, Garibaldi announced his intent to proclaim a "Kingdom of Italy" from
Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Lazio, Italy).svg , map_caption = The te ...

Rome
, the capital city of Pope Pius IX. Seeing this as a threat to the domain of the Catholic Church, Pius threatened excommunication for those who supported such an effort. Afraid that Garibaldi would attack Rome, Catholics worldwide sent money and volunteers for the Papal Army, which was commanded by General Christophe Léon Louis Juchault de Lamoricière, Louis Lamoricière, a French exile. The settling of the peninsular standoff now rested with Napoleon III. If he let Garibaldi have his way, Garibaldi would likely end the temporal sovereignty of the Pope and make Rome the capital of Italy. Napoleon, however, may have arranged with Cavour to let the king of Sardinia free to take possession of Naples, Umbria and the other provinces, provided that Rome and the "Patrimony of St. Peter" were left intact. It was in this situation that a Sardinian force of two army corps, under Fanti and Cialdini, marched to the frontier of the Papal States, its objective being not Rome but Naples. The Papal troops under Lamoricière advanced against Cialdini, but were quickly defeated and besieged in the fortress of Ancona, finally surrendering on 29 September. On 9 October, Victor Emmanuel arrived and took command. There was no longer a papal army to oppose him, and the march southward proceeded unopposed. Garibaldi distrusted the pragmatic Cavour since Cavour was the man ultimately responsible for orchestrating the French annexation of the city of Nice, which was his birthplace. Nevertheless, he accepted the command of Victor Emmanuel. When the king entered Sessa Aurunca at the head of his army, Garibaldi willingly handed over his dictatorial power. After greeting Victor Emmanuel in Teano with the title of King of Italy, Garibaldi entered Naples riding beside the king. Garibaldi then retired to the island of Caprera, while the remaining work of unifying the peninsula was left to Victor Emmanuel. The progress of the Sardinian army compelled Francis II to give up his line along the river, and he eventually took refuge with his best troops in the fortress of Gaeta. His courage boosted by his resolute young wife, Queen Marie Sophie of Bavaria, Marie Sophie, Francis mounted a stubborn defence that lasted three months. But European allies refused to provide him with aid, food and munitions became scarce, and disease set in, so the garrison was forced to surrender. Nonetheless, ragtag groups of Neapolitans loyal to Francis fought on against the Italian government for years to come. The fall of Gaeta brought the unification movement to the brink of fruition—only Rome and Venetia (region), Venetia remained to be added. On 18 February 1861, Victor Emmanuel assembled the deputies of the first Italian Parliament in Turin. On 17 March 1861, the Parliament proclaimed Victor Emmanuel King of Italy, and on 27 March 1861 Rome was declared Capital of Italy, even though it was not yet in the new Kingdom. Three months later Cavour died, having seen his life's work nearly completed. When he was given the last rites, Cavour purportedly said: "Italy is made. All is safe."


Roman Question

Mazzini was discontented with the perpetuation of monarchical government and continued to agitate for a republic. With the motto "Free from the Alps to the Adriatic Sea, Adriatic", the unification movement set its gaze on Rome and Venice. There were obstacles, however. A challenge against the Pope's temporal dominion was viewed with profound distrust by Catholics around the world, and there were French troops stationed in Rome. Victor Emmanuel was wary of the international repercussions of attacking the Papal States, and discouraged his subjects from participating in revolutionary ventures with such intentions. Nonetheless, Garibaldi believed that the government would support him if he attacked Rome. Frustrated at inaction by the king, and bristling over perceived snubs, he came out of retirement to organize a new venture. In June 1862, he sailed from Genoa and landed again at Palermo, where he gathered volunteers for the campaign, under the slogan ''o Roma o Morte'' ("either Rome or Death"). The garrison of Messina, loyal to the king's instructions, barred their passage to the mainland. Garibaldi's force, now numbering two thousand, turned south and set sail from Catania. Garibaldi declared that he would enter Rome as a victor or perish beneath its walls. He landed at Melito di Porto Salvo, Melito on 14 August and marched at once into the Calabrian mountains. Far from supporting this endeavour, the Italian government was quite disapproving. General Cialdini dispatched a division of the regular army, under Colonel Pallavicino, against the volunteer bands. On 28 August the two forces met in the Aspromonte. One of the regulars fired a chance shot, and several volleys followed, but Garibaldi forbade his men to return fire on fellow subjects of the Kingdom of Italy. The volunteers suffered several casualties, and Garibaldi himself was wounded; many were taken prisoner. Garibaldi was taken by steamer to Varignano, La Spezia, Varignano, where he was honorably imprisoned for a time, but finally released. Meanwhile, Victor Emmanuel sought a safer means to the acquisition of the remaining Papal territory. He negotiated with the Emperor Napoleon for the removal of the French troops from Rome through a treaty. They agreed to the September Convention in September 1864, by which Napoleon agreed to withdraw the troops within two years. The Pope was to expand his own army during that time so as to be self-sufficient. In December 1866, the last of the French troops departed from Rome, in spite of the efforts of the pope to retain them. By their withdrawal, Italy (excluding Venetia and Savoy) was freed from the presence of foreign soldiers. The seat of government was moved in 1865 from Turin, the old Sardinian capital, to Florence, where the first Italian parliament was summoned. This arrangement created such disturbances in Turin that the king was forced to leave that city hastily for his new capital.


Third War of Independence (1866)

In the Austro-Prussian War of 1866, Austria contested with Prussia the position of leadership among the German states. The Kingdom of Italy seized the opportunity to capture Venetia (region), Venetia from Austrian rule and allied itself with Prussia. Austria tried to persuade the Italian government to accept Venetia in exchange for non-intervention. However, on 8 April, Italy and Prussia signed an agreement that supported Italy's acquisition of Venetia, and on 20 June Italy issued a declaration of war on Austria. Within the context of Italian unification, the Austro-Prussian war is called the ''Third Independence War'', after the ''First'' (1848) and the ''Second'' (1859). Victor Emmanuel hastened to lead an army across the Mincio to the invasion of Venetia, while Garibaldi was to Invasion of Trentino (1866), invade the Tyrol with his Hunters of the Alps. The Italian army encountered the Austrians at Battle of Custoza (1866), Custoza on 24 June and suffered a defeat. On 20 July the Regia Marina was defeated in the Battle of Lissa (1866), battle of Lissa. The following day, Garibaldi's volunteers defeated an Austrian force in the Battle of Bezzecca, and moved toward Trento. Meanwhile, Minister President of Prussia, Prussian Minister President Otto von Bismarck saw that his own ends in the war had been achieved, and signed an armistice with Austria on 27 July. Italy officially laid down its arms on 12 August. Garibaldi was recalled from his successful march and resigned with a brief telegram reading only "''Obbedisco''" ("I obey"). Prussia's success on the northern front obliged Austria to cede Venetia (present-day Veneto and parts of Friuli) and the city of Mantua (the last remnant of the ''Quadrilatero''). Under the terms of a peace treaty signed in Vienna on 12 October, Emperor Franz Joseph had already agreed to cede Venetia to Napoleon III in exchange for non-intervention in the Austro-Prussian War, and thus Napoleon ceded Venetia to Italy on 19 October, in exchange for the earlier Italian acquiescence to the French annexation of Savoy and
Nice Nice ( , ; Niçard: , classical norm, or , nonstandard, ; it, Nizza ; grc, Νίκαια; la, Nicaea) is the Urban area (France)#List of France's aires urbaines (metropolitan areas), seventh most populous urban area in France and the prefectu ...

Nice
. In the peace treaty of Vienna, it was written that the annexation of Venetia would have become effective only after a referendum—taken on 21 and 22 October—to let the Venetian people express their will about being annexed or not to the Kingdom of Italy. Historians suggest that the referendum in Venetia was held under military pressure, as a mere 0.01% of voters (69 out of more than 642,000 ballots) voted against the annexation. However it should be admitted that the re-establishment of a Republic of Venice had little chances to develop. Austrian forces put up some opposition to the invading Italians, to little effect. Victor Emmanuel entered Venice and Venetian land, and performed an act of homage in the Piazza San Marco.


Rome


Mentana and Villa Glori

The national party, with Garibaldi at its head, still aimed at the possession of Rome, as the historic capital of the peninsula. In 1867 Garibaldi made a second attempt to capture Rome, but the papal army, strengthened with a new French auxiliary force, defeated his poorly armed volunteers at Mentana. Subsequently, a French garrison remained in Civitavecchia until August 1870, when it was recalled following the outbreak of the Franco-Prussian War. Before the defeat at Mentana on 3 November 1867, Enrico Cairoli, his brother Giovanni, and 70 companions had made a daring attempt to take Rome. The group had embarked in Terni and floated down the Tiber. Their arrival in Rome was to coincide with an uprising inside the city. On 22 October 1867, the revolutionaries inside Rome seized control of the Capitoline Hill and of Piazza Colonna. Unfortunately for the Cairoli and their companions, by the time they arrived at Villa Glori, on the northern outskirts of Rome, the uprising had already been suppressed. During the night of 22 October 1867, the group was surrounded by Papal Zouaves, and Giovanni was severely wounded. Enrico was mortally wounded and bled to death in Giovanni's arms. With Cairoli dead, command was assumed by Giovanni Tabacchi who had retreated with the remaining volunteers into the villa, where they continued to fire at the papal soldiers. These also retreated in the evening to Rome. The survivors retreated to the positions of those led by Garibaldi on the Italian border.


Memorial

At the summit of Villa Glori, near the spot where Enrico died, there is a plain white column dedicated to the Cairoli brothers and their 70 companions. About 200 meters to the right from the Terrazza del Pincio, there is a bronze monument of Giovanni holding the dying Enrico in his arm. A plaque lists the names of their companions. Giovanni never recovered from his wounds and from the tragic events of 1867. According to an eyewitness, when Giovanni died on 11 September 1869:


Capture of Rome

In July 1870, the Franco-Prussian War began. In early August, the French Emperor
Napoleon III Napoleon III (Charles Louis Napoléon Bonaparte; 20 April 18089 January 1873) was the first President of France The president of France, officially the President of the French Republic (french: Président de la République française), is t ...

Napoleon III
recalled his garrison from Rome, thus no longer providing protection to the Papal State. Widespread public demonstrations illustrated the demand that the Italian government take Rome. The Italian government took no direct action until the collapse of the Second French Empire at the Battle of Sedan. King Victor Emmanuel II sent Count Gustavo Ponza di San Martino to Pius IX with a personal letter offering a face-saving proposal that would have allowed the peaceful entry of the Italian Army into Rome, under the guise of offering protection to the pope. The Papacy, however, exhibited something less than enthusiasm for the plan: The Italian Army, commanded by General Raffaele Cadorna, crossed the papal frontier on 11 September and advanced slowly toward Rome, hoping that a peaceful entry could be negotiated. The Italian Army reached the Aurelian Walls on 19 September and placed Rome under a state of siege. Although now convinced of his unavoidable defeat, Pius IX remained intransigent to the bitter end and forced his troops to put up a token resistance. On 20 September, after a cannonade of three hours had breached the Aurelian Walls at Porta Pia, the Bersaglieri entered Rome and marched down ''Via Pia'', which was subsequently renamed ''Via XX Settembre''. Forty-nine Italian soldiers and four officers, and nineteen papal troops, died. Rome and Latium were annexed to the Kingdom of Italy after a plebiscite held on 2 October. The results of this plebiscite were accepted by decree of 9 October. Initially the Italian government had offered to let the pope keep the Leonine City, but the Pope rejected the offer because acceptance would have been an implied endorsement of the legitimacy of the Italian kingdom's rule over his former domain. Pius IX declared himself a prisoner in the Vatican, although he was not actually restrained from coming and going. Rather, being deposed and stripped of much of his former power also removed a measure of personal protection—if he had walked the streets of Rome he might have been in danger from political opponents who had formerly kept their views private. Officially, the capital was not moved from Florence to Rome until July 1871. Historian Raffaele de Cesare made the following observations about Italian unification:


Problems

Unification was achieved entirely in terms of Piedmont's interests. Martin Clark says, "It was Piedmontization all around." Cavour died unexpectedly in June 1861, at 50, and most of the many promises that he made to regional authorities to induce them to join the newly unified Italian kingdom were ignored. The new Kingdom of Italy was structured by renaming the old Kingdom of Sardinia and annexing all the new provinces into its structures. The first king was Victor Emmanuel II, who kept his old title. National and regional officials were all appointed by Piedmont. A few regional leaders succeeded to high positions in the new national government, but the top bureaucratic and military officials were mostly Piedmontese. The national capital was briefly moved to Florence and finally to Rome, one of the cases of Piedmont losing out. However, Piedmontese tax rates and regulations, diplomats and officials were imposed on all of Italy. The new constitution was Piedmont's old constitution. The document was generally liberal and was welcomed by liberal elements. However, its anticlerical provisions were resented in the pro-clerical regions in places such as around Venice, Rome, and Naples – as well as the island of Sicily. Cavour had promised there would be regional and municipal, local governments, but all the promises were broken in 1861. The first decade of the kingdom saw savage civil wars in Sicily and in the Naples region. Hearder claimed that failed efforts to protest unification involved "a mixture of spontaneous peasant movement and a Bourbon-clerical reaction directed by the old authorities". The pope lost Rome in 1870 and ordered the Catholic Church not to co-operate with the new government, a decision fully reversed only in 1929. Most people for Risorgimento had wanted strong provinces, but they got a strong central state instead. The inevitable long-run results were a severe weakness of national unity and a politicized system based on mutually hostile regional violence. Such factors remain in the 21st century.


Ruling and representing southern Italy

From the spring of 1860 to the summer of 1861, a major challenge that the Piedmontese parliament faced on national unification was how they should govern and control the southern regions of the country that were frequently represented and described by northern Italian correspondents as "corrupt", "barbaric", and "uncivilized". In response to the depictions of southern Italy, the Piedmontese parliament had to decide whether it should investigate the southern regions to better understand the social and political situations there or it should establish jurisdiction and order by using mostly force. The dominance of letters sent from the Northern Italian correspondents that deemed Southern Italy to be "so far from the ideas of progress and civilization" ultimately induced the Piedmontese parliament to choose the latter course of action, which effectively illustrated the intimate connection between representation and rule.Nelson Moe, This is not Italy!': Ruling and Representing the South, 1860–1861", in ''The View from the Vesuvius: Italian Culture and the Southern Question'', 156–183 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2002), 166. In essence, the Northern Italians' "representation of the south as a land of barbarism (variously qualified as indecent, lacking in 'public conscience', ignorant, superstitious, etc.)" provided the Piedmontese with the justification to rule the southern regions on the pretext of implementing a superior, more civilized, "Piedmontese morality".


Historiography

Italian unification is still a topic of debate. According to Massimo d'Azeglio, centuries of foreign domination created remarkable differences in Italian society, and the role of the newly formed government was to face these differences and to create a unified Italian society. Still today the most famous quote of Massimo d'Azeglio is, "L'Italia è fatta. Restano da fare gli italiani" (''Italy has been made. Now it remains to make Italians''). The economist and politician Francesco Saverio Nitti criticized the newly created state for not considering the substantial economic differences between Northern Italy, a Free market, free-market economy, and Southern Italy, a state protectionism, protectionist economy, when integrating the two. When the Kingdom of Italy extended the free-market economy to the rest of the country, the South's economy collapsed under the weight of the North's. Nitti contended that this change should have been much more gradual in order to allow the birth of an adequate entrepreneurial class able to make strong investments and initiatives in the south. These mistakes, he felt, were the cause of the economic and social problems which came to be known as the Southern Question (''Questione Meridionale''). The politician, historian, and writer Gaetano Salvemini commented that even though Italian unification had been a strong opportunity for both a moral and economic rebirth of Italy's Mezzogiorno (
Southern Italy Southern Italy ( it, Sud Italia; nap, 'o Sudde; scn, Italia dû Sud), also known as ''Meridione'' or ''Mezzogiorno'' (, literally "Midday"; in nap, 'o Miezojuorno; in scn, Mezzujornu), is a macroregionA macroregion is a geopolitical subdivis ...
), because of a lack of understanding and action on the part of politicians, corruption and organized crime flourished in the South. The Marxist theorist Antonio Gramsci criticized Italian unification for the limited presence of the masses in politics, as well as the lack of modern land reform in Italy. Revisionism of Risorgimento produced a clear radicalization of Italy in the mid-20th century, following the fall of the House of Savoy, Savoy monarchy and fascism during World War II. Reviews of the historical facts concerning Italian unification's successes and failures continue to be undertaken by domestic and foreign academic authors, including Denis Mack Smith, Christopher Duggan (historian), Christopher Duggan, and Lucy Riall. Recent work emphasizes the central importance of nationalism.


Risorgimento and irredentism

It can be said that Italian unification was never truly completed in the 19th century. Many Italians remained outside the borders of the
Kingdom of Italy The Kingdom of Italy ( it, Regno d'Italia) was a state that existed from 1861—when King Victor Emmanuel II en, Victor Emmanuel Mario Albert Eugene Ferdinand Thomas , house = House of Savoy, Savoy , father = Charles Albert o ...
and this situation created the Italian irredentism. The term ''Risorgimento nationalism, risorgimento'' (Rising again) refers to the domestic reorganization of the stratified Italian identity into a unified, national front. The word literally means "Rising again" and was an ideological movement which strove to spark national pride, leading to political oppositionalism to foreign rule and influence. There is contention on its actual impact in Italy, some Scholars arguing it was a liberalizing time for 19th century Italian culture, while others speculate that although it was a patriotic revolution, it only tangibly aided the upper-class and Bourgeois liberalization, bourgeois publics without actively benefitting the lower classes. ''Italia irredenta'' (unredeemed Italy) was an Italian Nationalism, nationalist opinion movement that emerged after Italian unification. It advocated irredentism among the Italian people as well as other nationalities who were willing to become Italian and as a movement; it is also known as "Italian irredentism". Not a formal organization, it was just an opinion movement that claimed that Italy had to reach its "natural borders," meaning that the country would need to incorporate all areas predominantly consisting of ethnic Italians within the near vicinity outside its borders. Similar patriotic and nationalistic ideas were common in Europe in the 19th century.


Irredentism and the World Wars

Italy entered into the First World War in 1915 with the aim of completing national unity: for this reason, the Italian intervention in the First World War is also considered the Fourth Italian War of Independence, in a historiographical perspective that identifies in the latter the conclusion of the unification of Italy, whose military actions began during the
revolutions of 1848 The Revolutions of 1848, known in some countries as the Springtime of the Peoples or the Springtime of Nations, were a series of political upheaval A political revolution, in the Trotskyist Trotskyism is the political ideology and branch o ...
with the First Italian War of Independence. During the post-unification era, some Italians were dissatisfied with the current state of the Italian Kingdom since they wanted the kingdom to include Trieste, Italian irredentism in Istria, Istria, and other adjacent territories as well. This Italian irredentism succeeded in
World War I World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war A world war is "a war engaged in by all or most of the principal nations of the world". The term is usually reserved for ...

World War I
with the annexation of Trieste and Trento, with the respective territories of Julian March and Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol, Trentino-Alto Adige. The Kingdom of Italy had declared neutrality at the beginning of the war, officially because the Triple Alliance (1882), Triple Alliance with Germany and Austria-Hungary was a defensive one, requiring its members to come under attack first. Many Italians were still hostile to Austria's continuing occupation of ethnically Italian areas, and Italy chose not to enter. Austria-Hungary requested Italian neutrality, while the Triple Entente (which included Great Britain, France and Russia) requested its intervention. With the Treaty of London (1915), Treaty of London, signed in April 1915, Italy agreed to declare war against the Central Powers in exchange for the ''irredent'' territories of Friuli, Trentino, and Italian irredentism in Dalmatia, Dalmatia (see ''Italia irredenta''). Italian irredentism obtained an important result after the First World War, when Italy gained Trieste, Gorizia, Istria, and the city of Zadar, Zara. But Italy did not receive other territories promised by the Treaty of London, so this outcome was denounced as a "Mutilated victory". The rhetoric of "Mutilated victory" was adopted by Benito Mussolini and led to the Fascist Italy (1922–1943), rise of Italian fascism, becoming a key point in the propaganda of Fascist Italy. Historians regard "Mutilated victory" as a "political myth", used by fascists to fuel Italian imperialism and obscure the successes of liberal Italy in the aftermath of World War I. During the Second World War, after the Axis attack on Kingdom of Yugoslavia, Yugoslavia, Italy created the Governatorate of Dalmatia (from 1941 to September 1943), so the Kingdom of Italy annexed temporarily even Split, Croatia, Split (Italian ''Spalato''), Kotor (''Cattaro''), and most of coastal Dalmatia. From 1942 to 1943, even Italian irredentism in Corsica, Corsica and Italian irredentism in Nice, Nice (Italian ''Nizza'') were temporarily annexed to the Kingdom of Italy, nearly fulfilling in those years the ambitions of Italian irredentism. For its avowed purpose, the movement had the "emancipation" of all Italian lands still subject to foreign rule after ''Italian unification''. The Irredentists took language as the test of the alleged Italian nationality of the countries they proposed to emancipate, which were Trentino, Trieste, Dalmatia, Istria, Gorizia, Ticino, Nice (Nizza), Corsica, and Italian irredentism in Malta, Malta. Austria-Hungary promoted Croats, Croatian interests in Dalmatia and Istria to weaken Italian claims in the western Balkans before the First World War.


After World War II

After World War II, the irredentism movement faded away in Italian politics. Under the Treaty of Peace with Italy, 1947, Istria, Kvarner Gulf, Kvarner, most of the Julian March as well as the Dalmatian city of Zadar, Zara was annexed by Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Yugoslavia causing the Istrian-Dalmatian exodus, which led to the emigration of between 230,000 and 350,000 of local ethnic Italians (Istrian Italians and Dalmatian Italians), the others being ethnic Slovenians, ethnic Croatians, and ethnic Istro-Romanians, choosing to maintain Italian citizenship.


Anniversary of the Unification of Italy

Italy celebrates the anniversary of the unification every fifty years, on 17 March (the date of proclamation of the Kingdom of Italy). The anniversary occurred in 1911 (50th), 1961 (100th), 2011 (150th) and 2021 (160th) with several celebrations throughout the country. The National Unity and Armed Forces Day, celebrated on 4 November, commemorates the end of World War I with the
Armistice of Villa Giusti The Armistice of Villa Giusti or Padua ended warfare between Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of a Northern Italy, continental part, delimited by the Al ...
, a war event considered to complete the process of unification of Italy.


Culture and Risorgimento


Art

In art, this period was characterised by the Neoclassicism that draws inspiration from the "classical" art and culture of Ancient Greece or Ancient Rome. The main Italian sculptor was Antonio Canova who became famous for his marble sculptures that delicately rendered nudity, nude flesh. The mourning Italia turrita on the tomb to
Vittorio Alfieri Count Vittorio Alfieri (, also , ; 16 January 17498 October 1803) was an Italian dramatist and poet A poet is a person who creates poetry. Poets may describe themselves as such or be described as such by others. A poet may simply be a writer ...

Vittorio Alfieri
is one of the main works of Risorgimento by Canova. Francesco Hayez was another remarkable artist of this period whose works often contain allegories about Italian unification. His most known painting ''The Kiss (Hayez), The Kiss'' aims to portray the spirit of the Risorgimento: the man wears red, white and green, representing the Italian patriots fighting for independence from the Austro-Hungarian empire while the girl's pale blue dress signifies France, which in 1859 (the year of the painting's creation) made an alliance with the Kingdom of Sardinia, Kingdom of Piedmont and Sardinia enabling the latter to unify the many states of the Italian peninsula into the new kingdom of Italy. Hayez's three paintings on the ''Sicilian Vespers'' are an implicit protest against the foreign domination of Italy. Andrea Appiani, Domenico Induno, and Gerolamo Induno are also known for their patriotic canvases. Risorgimento was also represented by works not necessarily linked to Neoclassicism—as in the case of Giovanni Fattori who was one of the leaders of the group known as the Macchiaioli and who soon became a leading Italian En plein air, plein-airist, painting landscapes, rural scenes, and military life during the Italian unification.


Literature

The most well known writer of Risorgimento is
Alessandro Manzoni Alessandro Francesco Tommaso Antonio Manzoni (, , ; 7 March 1785 – 22 May 1873) was an Italian poet, novelist and philosopher. He is famous for the novel ''The Betrothed (Manzoni novel), The Betrothed'' (orig. it, I promessi sposi) (1827), gen ...

Alessandro Manzoni
, whose works are a symbol of the Italian unification, both for its patriotic message and because of his efforts in the development of the modern, unified Italian language. He is famous for the novel ''The Betrothed (Manzoni novel), The Betrothed'' (orig. Italian: ''I Promessi Sposi'') (1827), generally ranked among the masterpieces of world literature.
Vittorio Alfieri Count Vittorio Alfieri (, also , ; 16 January 17498 October 1803) was an Italian dramatist and poet A poet is a person who creates poetry. Poets may describe themselves as such or be described as such by others. A poet may simply be a writer ...

Vittorio Alfieri
, was the founder of a new school in the Italian drama, expressed in several occasions his suffering about the foreign domination's tyranny. Ugo Foscolo describes in his works the passion and love for the fatherland and the glorious history of the Italian people; these two concepts are respectively well expressed in two masterpieces, ''The Last Letters of Jacopo Ortis'' and ''Dei Sepolcri''. Vincenzo Monti, known for the Italian language, Italian translation of the ''Iliad'', described in his works both enthusiasms and disappointments of Risorgimento until his death. Giovanni Berchet wrote a poetry characterized by a high moral, popular and social content; he also contributed to ''Il Conciliatore'', a progressive bi-weekly scientific and literary journal, influential in the early Risorgimento that was published in
Milan Milan (, , Milanese: ; it, Milano ) is a city in northern Italy, capital of Lombardy, and the List of cities in Italy, second-most populous city proper in Italy after Rome. The city proper has a population of about 1.4 million, while its ...

Milan
from September 1818 until October 1819 when it was closed by the Austrian censors; its writers included also Ludovico di Breme, Giuseppe Nicolini (writer), Giuseppe Nicolini, and
Silvio Pellico Silvio Pellico (; 24 June 1789 – 31 January 1854) was an Italian writer, poet, dramatist and patriot active in the Italian unification Italian unification ( it, Unità d'Italia ), also known as the Risorgimento (, ; meaning "Resurgence" ...

Silvio Pellico
. Giacomo Leopardi was one of the most important poets of Risorgimento thanks to works such as ''Giacomo Leopardi#First Canti, Canzone all'Italia'' and ''Giacomo Leopardi#Risorgimento, Risorgimento''. Niccolò Tommaseo, the editor of the ''Italian Language Dictionary'' in eight volumes, was a precursor of the Italian irredentism and his works are a rare examples of a metropolitan culture above nationalism; he supported the liberal revolution headed by Daniele Manin against the
Austrian Empire The Austrian Empire (german: Kaiserthum Oesterreich, modern spelling ') was a Central Europe Central Europe is an area of Europe Europe is a which is also recognised as part of , located entirely in the and mostly in the . It compr ...
and he will always support the unification of Italy. Francesco de Sanctis was one of the most important scholars of Italian language and literature in the 19th century; he supported the Revolutions of 1848 in the Italian states, Revolution of 1848 in Naples and for this reason he was imprisoned for three years; his reputation as a lecturer on Dante in Turin brought him the appointment of professor at ETH Zürich in 1856; he returned to Naples as Minister of Public Education after the unification of Italy. The writer and patriot Luigi Settembrini published anonymously the ''Protest of the People of the Two Sicilies'', a scathing indictment of the Bourbon government and was imprisoned and exiled several times by the Bourbons because of his support to Risorgimento; after the formation of the Kingdom of Italy, he was appointed professor of Italian literature at the University of Naples. Ippolito Nievo is another main representative of Risorgimento with his novel ''Ippolito Nievo, Confessioni d'un italiano''; he fought with
Giuseppe Garibaldi Giuseppe Maria Garibaldi ( , ;In his native Ligurian language, he is known as ''Gioxeppe Gaibado. 4 July 1807 – 2 June 1882) was an Italian general, patriot, revolutionary, and republican. He contributed to the Italian unification The ...

Giuseppe Garibaldi
's Expedition of the Thousand. Risorgimento was also depicted in famous novels: ''The Leopard'' written by Giuseppe Tomasi di Lampedusa, ''Heart (novel), Heart'' by Edmondo De Amicis, and ''Piccolo mondo antico'' by Antonio Fogazzaro.


Music

Risorgimento won the support of many leading Italian opera composers. Their librettos often saw a delicate balance between European romantic narratives and dramatic themes evoking nationalistic sentiments. Ideas expressed in operas stimulated the political mobilisation in Italy and among the cultured classes of Europe who appreciated Italian opera. Furthermore, Mazzini and many other nationalists found inspiration in musical discourses. In his ''L'italiana in Algeri (The Italian Girl in Algiers)'', Gioachino Rossini expressed his support to the unification of Italy; the patriotic line ''Pensa alla patria, e intrepido il tuo dover adempi: vedi per tutta Italia rinascere gli esempi d’ardir e di valor'' ("Think about the fatherland and intrepid do your duty: see for all Italy the birth of the examples of courage and value") was censored in the Kingdom of Two Sicilies. Vincenzo Bellini was a secret member of the Carbonari and in his masterpiece ''I puritani (The Puritans)'', the last part of Act 2 is an allegory to Italian unification. Another Bellini opera, ''Norma (opera), Norma'', was at the center of an unexpected standing ovation during its performance in
Milan Milan (, , Milanese: ; it, Milano ) is a city in northern Italy, capital of Lombardy, and the List of cities in Italy, second-most populous city proper in Italy after Rome. The city proper has a population of about 1.4 million, while its ...

Milan
in 1859: while the choir, chorus was performing ''Guerra, guerra! Le galliche selve (War, war! The Gallic forests)'' in Act 2, the Italians began to greet the chorus with loud applause and to yell the word "War!" several times towards the Austrian Empire, Austrian officers at the opera house. The relationship between Gaetano Donizetti and the Risorgimento is still controversial. Even though
Giuseppe Mazzini Giuseppe Mazzini (, , ; 22 June 1805 – 10 March 1872) was an Italian politician, journalist, and activist for the unification of Italy The unification of Italy ( it, Unità d'Italia ), also known as the ''Risorgimento'' (, ; meaning ...

Giuseppe Mazzini
tried to use some of Donizetti's works for promoting the Italian cause, Donizetti had always preferred not to get involved in politics. Historians vigorously debate how political were the operas of Giuseppe Verdi (1813–1901). In particular, the chorus of the Hebrew slaves (known as "Va, pensiero") from the third act of the opera ''Nabucco'' was intended to be an anthem for Italian patriots, who were seeking to unify their country and free it from foreign control in the years up to 1861 (the chorus's theme of exiles singing about their homeland, and its lines such as ''O mia patria, si bella e perduta'' – "O my country, so lovely and so lost" – were thought to have resonated with many Italians). Beginning in Naples in 1859 and spreading throughout Italy, the slogan "Viva VERDI" was used as an acronym for ''Viva Vittorio Emanuele Re ''D'Italia (Vive, Viva, Viva Victor Emmanuel King of Italy), referring to Victor Emmanuel II of Italy, Victor Emmanuel II. Franco Della Peruta argues in favour of close links between the operas and the Risorgimento, emphasizing Verdi's patriotic intent and links to the values of the Risorgimento. Verdi started as a republican, became a strong supporter of Cavour and entered the Italian parliament on Cavour's suggestion. His politics caused him to be frequently in trouble with the Austrian censors. Verdi's main works of 1842–49 were especially relevant to the struggle for independence, including ''Nabucco'' (1842), ''I Lombardi alla prima crociata'' (1843), ''Ernani'' (1844), ''Attila (opera), Attila'' (1846), ''Macbeth (opera), Macbeth'' (1847), and ''La battaglia di Legnano'' (1848). However, starting in the 1850s, his operas showed few patriotic themes because of the heavy censorship of the absolutist regimes in power. Verdi later became disillusioned by politics, but he was personally active part in the political world of events of the Risorgimento and was elected to the first Italian parliament in 1861. Likewise Marco Pizzo argues that after 1815 music became a political tool, and many songwriters expressed ideals of freedom and equality. Pizzo says Verdi was part of this movement, for his operas were inspired by the love of country, the struggle for Italian independence, and speak to the sacrifice of patriots and exiles. On the other side of the debate, Mary Ann Smart argues that music critics at the time seldom mentioned any political themes. Likewise Roger Parker argues that the political dimension of Verdi's operas was exaggerated by nationalistic historians looking for a hero in the late 19th century.Roger Parker, "Verdi politico: a wounded cliché regroups." ''Journal of Modern Italian Studies'' 17#4 (2012): 427–436. Giuseppe Verdi's ''Nabucco'' and the Risorgimento are the subject of a 2011 opera, ''Risorgimento! (opera), Risorgimento!'' by Italian composer Lorenzo Ferrero, written to commemorate the 150th anniversary of the Italian unification.


Films

''The Leopard (1963 film), The Leopard'' is a film from 1963, based on the novel by Giuseppe Tomasi di Lampedusa, and directed by Luchino Visconti. It features Burt Lancaster as the eponymous character, the Prince of Salina. The film depicts his reaction to the Risorgimento, and his vain attempts to retain his social standing. There are other movies set in this period: * ''1860 (film), 1860'' (1934), by Alessandro Blasetti * ''Piccolo mondo antico'' (1941), by Mario Soldati * ''Un garibaldino al convento'' (1942), by Vittorio De Sica * ''Heart and Soul (1948 film), Heart and Soul'' (1948), by Vittorio De Sica * ''Senso (film), Senso'' (1954), by Luchino Visconti * ''Garibaldi (film), Garibaldi'' (1961), by Roberto Rossellini * ''1870 (film), 1870'' (1971), by Alfredo Giannetti * ''Passion of Love, Passione D'Amore'' (1981), by Ettore Scola (later adapted by Stephen Sondheim and James Lapine into the Tony Award-winning Broadway musical ''Passion (musical), Passion'') * ''Noi credevamo'' (2010), by Mario Martone


Maps of Italy before and during Italian unification

File:Italy 1494.svg, Italy in 1494 File:Italy 1796.svg, Italy in 1796 File:Italy 1843.svg, Italy in 1843 File:Italia1860.png, Italy in 1860: orange Kingdom of Sardinia, blue Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia, Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia (Austrian Empire), pink United Provinces of Central Italy, red
Papal States The Papal States ( ; it, Stato Pontificio), officially the State of the Church ( it, Stato della Chiesa, ; la, Status Ecclesiasticus; also '), were a series of territories in the Italian Peninsula The Italian Peninsula (Italian Ital ...
, yellow Kingdom of Two Sicilies. File:RegnoItalia1861.png, Italy in 1861: orange Kingdom of Italy, blue Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia, Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia (Austrian Empire), red
Papal States The Papal States ( ; it, Stato Pontificio), officially the State of the Church ( it, Stato della Chiesa, ; la, Status Ecclesiasticus; also '), were a series of territories in the Italian Peninsula The Italian Peninsula (Italian Ital ...
. File:Italy 1870.svg,
Kingdom of Italy The Kingdom of Italy ( it, Regno d'Italia) was a state that existed from 1861—when King Victor Emmanuel II en, Victor Emmanuel Mario Albert Eugene Ferdinand Thomas , house = House of Savoy, Savoy , father = Charles Albert o ...
in 1870, showing the
Papal States The Papal States ( ; it, Stato Pontificio), officially the State of the Church ( it, Stato della Chiesa, ; la, Status Ecclesiasticus; also '), were a series of territories in the Italian Peninsula The Italian Peninsula (Italian Ital ...
, before the Capture of Rome. File:Italy 1871.svg,
Kingdom of Italy The Kingdom of Italy ( it, Regno d'Italia) was a state that existed from 1861—when King Victor Emmanuel II en, Victor Emmanuel Mario Albert Eugene Ferdinand Thomas , house = House of Savoy, Savoy , father = Charles Albert o ...
in 1871 File:RegnoItalia1919.png, Kingdom of Italy in 1919


See also

*German unification *Unification of Moldavia and Wallachia, Formation of Romania


References


Bibliography

* Ascoli, Albert Russell and Krystyna Von Henneberg, eds. ''Making and Remaking Italy: The Cultivation of National Identity around the Risorgimento'' (2001
online
* * Carter, Nick, ed., ''Britain, Ireland and the Italian Risorgimento'' (Palgrave Macmillan, 2015), 233 pp * Clark, Martin. ''The Italian Risorgimento'' (2nd ed. 2009); 146pp * Collier, Martin, ''Italian Unification, 1820-71'' (Heinemann, 2003); textbook, 156 pages
excerpt
* * De Mattei, Roberto. ''Pius IX'' (2004). * Gilmour, David.''The Pursuit of Italy: A History of a Land, Its Regions, and Their Peoples'' (2011)
excerpt
* Hearder, Harry. ''Italy in the Age of the Risorgimento 1790 – 1870'' (1983
excerpt
* Holt, Edgar. ''The Making of Italy 1815–1870,'' (1971). * Körner, Axel. ''America in Italy: The United States in the Political Thought and Imagination of the Risorgimento, 1763-1865'' (Princeton UP, 2017) * Mendola, Louis. ''The Kingdom of Sicily 1130–1860'' (2015). * Mowat, R.B. ''A history of European diplomacy, 1815–1914'' (1922
pp 115–63 online free
* Patriarca, Silvana, and Lucy Riall, eds. ''The Risorgimento Revisited: Nationalism and Culture in Nineteenth-century Italy'' (Palgrave Macmillan, 2011), 13 essays on specialized topics by scholar
excerptreview
* Pearce, Robert, and Andrina Stiles. ''Access to History: The Unification of Italy 1789–1896'' (4th rf., Hodder Education, 2015), textbook
excerpt
* * Procacci, Giuliano. ''History of the Italian People'' (Pelican, London, 1973) Trans Anthony Paul. * Rapone, Danilo. ''Religion and politics in the Risorgimento. Britain and the new Italy, 1861–1875'' (Palgrave Macmillan, 2014), 3012pp. * Riall, Lucy. ''The Italian Risorgimento: State, Society, and National Unification'' (Routledge, 1994
online
* Riall, Lucy. ''Garibaldi: Invention of a hero'' (Yale UP, 2008). * * Ridley, Jasper. ''Garibaldi'' (1974), a standard biography. * * Smith, Denis Mack. ''Cavour'' (1985) * Smith, Denis Mack. ''Mazzini'' (1995
excerpt
* Smith, Denis Mack. ''Victor Emanuel, Cavour, and the Risorgimento'' (Oxford University Press, 1971) * old interpretations but useful on details; vol 1 goes to 1859]
volume 2 online covers 1859–62
* * Wawro, Geoffrey. "Austria versus the Risorgimento: A New Look at Austria's Italian strategy in the 1860s." ''European History Quarterly'' 26#1 (1996): 7–29. * Woolf, Stuart Joseph. ''The Italian Risorgimento'' (1969). * Woolf, Stuart. '' A History of Italy 1700–1860: The Social Constraints of Political Change'' (1960), 519 pp *


Historiography

* Alio, Jacqueline. ''Sicilian Studies: A Guide and Syllabus for Educators'' (2018), 250 pp. * Bouchard, Norma, ed. ''Risorgimento in modern Italian culture: revisiting the nineteenth-century past in history, narrative, and cinema.'' (Fairleigh Dickinson Univ Press, 2005). * De Francesco, Antonino. ''The antiquity of the Italian nation: the cultural origins of a political myth in modern Italy, 1796–1943'' (Oxford UP, 2013). * * Manenti, Luca G., "Italian Freemasonry from the Eighteenth Century to Unification. Protagonists, Metamorphoses, Interpretations", in History of the Grand Orient of Italy, edited by E. Locci (Washington D.C., Westphalia Press, 2019), pp. 27–60. * * Rao, Anna Maria. "Napoleonic Italy: Old and New Trends in Historiography." in Ute Planert, ed., ''Napoleon's Empire'' (Palgrave Macmillan UK, 2016). pp 84–97. * Salsini, Laura A. "Re-envisioning the Risorgimento: Isabella Bossi Fedrigotti's Amore mio uccidi Garibaldi." ''Forum Italicum: A Journal of Italian Studies'' 42#1 (2008).


Italian

* Alio, Jacqueline. ''Sicilian Studies: A Guide and Syllabus for Educators'' (2018), 250 pp. * Bacchin, Elena. ''Italofilia. Opinione pubblica britannica e il Risorgimento italiano 1847–1864'' (Turin, Carocci editore, 2014), 266 pp * Banti, Alberto Mario. ''La nazione del Risorgimento: parentela, santità e onore alle origini dell'Italia unita''. Torino, Einaudi, 2000 * Banti, Alberto Mario. ''Il Risorgimento italiano''. Roma-Bari, Laterza, 2004 (Quadrante Laterza; 125) * Ghisalberti, Carlo. ''Istituzioni e società civile nell'età del Risorgimento''. Roma-Bari, Laterza, 2005 (Biblioteca universale Laterza; 575) * Della Peruta, Franco. ''L'Italia del Risorgimento: problemi, momenti e figure''. Milano, Angeli, 1997 (Saggi di storia; 14) * Della Peruta, Franco. ''Conservatori, liberali e democratici nel Risorgimento''. Milano, Angeli, 1989 (Storia; 131) * De Rosa, Luigi. ''La provincia subordinata. Saggio sulla questione meridionale'', Bari, Laterza, 2004 * * * Scirocco, Alfonso. ''L'Italia del risorgimento: 1800–1860''. (vol. 1 di ''Storia d'Italia dall'unità alla Repubblica''), Bologna, Il mulino, 1990 * Scirocco, Alfonso. ''In difesa del Risorgimento''. Bologna, Il mulino, 1998 (Collana di storia contemporanea) * Tomaz, Luigi. ''Il confine d'Italia in Istria e Dalmazia'', Presentazione di Arnaldo Mauri, Conselve, Think ADV, 2008. * Carlo Cardia, ''Risorgimento e religione,'' Giappichelli, Torino, 2011, .


External links






Garibaldi & The Risorgimento


* *
''In the sign of the tricolour: Italians and Hungarians in the Risorgimento''
A documentary directed by Gilberto Martinelli {{DEFAULTSORT:Italian Unification Italian unification, Modern history of Italy National unifications, Italy 19th century in Italy History of Austria-Hungary History of Savoy 1810s in Italy 1820s in Italy 1830s in Italy 1840s in Italy 1850s in Italy 1860s in Italy 1870s in Italy Anti-Catholicism in Italy 1815 in Italy 1871 in Italy 19th century in Europe 19th century in politics Italian nationalism