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Islamic schools and branches have different understandings of
Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodness", "ah gosh", "ah gawd"; see interjection An interjection is a word or ex ...
. There are many different sects or denominations, schools of Islamic jurisprudence, and
schools of Islamic theology :''See Islamic schools and branches for different schools of thought; see aqidah for the concept of the different "creeds" in Islam; see Kalam for the concept of theological discourse.'' Schools of Islamic theology are various Islamic schools an ...
, or ''
aqidah ''Aqidah'' ( ar, عقيدة, ʿaqīdah, plural ''ʿaqāʾid'', also rendered ''ʿaqīda, aqeeda'' etc.) is an ic term of origin that literally means "" p. 470. From the ' "to tie; knot", and hence the class VIII verb ''iʿtaqada'' "to fi ...
'' (creed). Within Islamic groups themselves there may be differences, such as different orders (''
tariqa A tariqa (or ''tariqah''; ar, طريقة ') is a school or order of Sufism Sufism ( ar, ٱلصُّوفِيَّة), also known as Tasawwuf (), is in , "characterized ... y particularvalues, ritual practices, doctrines and institutions" ...
'') within
Sufism Sufism ( ar, ٱلصُّوفِيَّة), also known as Tasawwuf (), is in , "characterized ... y particularvalues, ritual practices, doctrines and institutions". It is variously defined as "Islamic mysticism",Martin Lings, ''What is Sufism? ...

Sufism
, and within Sunnī Islam different schools of theology ( Aṯharī, Ashʿarī, Māturīdī) and jurisprudence ( Ḥanafī, Mālikī, Shāfiʿī,
Ḥanbalī The Hanbali school ( ar, ٱلْمَذْهَب ٱلْحَنۢبَلِي, al-maḏhab al-ḥanbalī) is one of the four major traditional Sunni Sunni Islam () is by far the largest branch of Islam Islam (;There are ten pronunciations ...
). Groups in Islam may be quite large (for example, Sunnīs) or relatively small in size (
Ibadis The Ibadi movement (also called Ibāḍiyya ( ar, الإباضية, al-Ibāḍiyyah) and Ibadism), is a Islamic schools and branches, school of Islam. It exists in Oman, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya and East Africa. Ibadi Islam traces the origins of ...
,
Zaydis Zaidiyyah, Zaidism, or Zaidi Shi'ism ( ar, الزيدية ''az-zaydiyya'', adjective form Zaidi or Zaydi (occasionally known as Fiver Shias) is one of the Shia Shia Islam or Shi'ism is one of the two main branches of Islam Islam ( ...
, Ismāʿīlīs). Differences between the groups may not be well known to Muslims outside of scholarly circles or may have induced enough passion to have resulted in
political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with Decision-making, making decisions in Social group, groups, or other forms of Power (social and political), power relations between individuals, such as the distribution of res ...
and
religious violence were a series of military campaigns fought mainly between Roman Catholic Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome, the capital city of Italy *Ancient Rome, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *Roman people, the people of anci ...
(
Barelvi Barelvi ( ur, بَریلوِی, , ) is a movement following the Sunni Hanafi school of jurisprudence Jurisprudence, or legal theory, is the theoretical study of law. Scholars of jurisprudence seek to explain the nature of law in its most ...
,
Deobandi Deobandi is an Islamic revival Islamic revival ( ar, تجديد'' '', lit., "regeneration, renewal"; also ', "Islamic awakening") refers to a revival of the Islamic religion. The revivers are known in Islam as ''Mujaddids''. Within the ...
,
Salafism The Salafi movement, also called the Salafist movement, ''Salafiyyah'' and Salafism, is a Islah, reform branch movement within Sunni Islam. The name derives from advocating a return to the traditions of the "pious predecessors" (''salaf''), t ...
,
Wahhabism Wahhabism ( ar, الوهابية, lit=Wahhabism, translit=al-Wahhābiyyah) is a term used to refer to the Islamic revival, Islamic revivalist and Islamic fundamentalism, fundamentalist movement within Sunni Islam which is associated with the H ...
). There are informal movements driven by ideas (such as
Islamic modernism Islamic Modernism is a movement that has been described as "the first Muslim Muslims () are people who follow or practice Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may refer to: * ...
and
Islamism Islamism (also often called political Islam Political Islam is any interpretation of Islam as a source of political identity and action. It can refer to a wide range of individuals and/or groups who advocate the formation of state and society a ...
) as well as organized groups with a governing body (
Ahmadiyya Ahmadiyya (, ), officially the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community or the Ahmadiyya Muslim Jama'at ( ar, الجماعة الإسلامية الأحمدية, al-Jamāʿah al-Islāmīyah al-Aḥmadīyah; ur, , translit=Jamā'at Aḥmadiyyah Muslimah) ...

Ahmadiyya
, Ismāʿīlism,
Nation of Islam The Nation of Islam (NOI) is a religious and political organization which was founded in the United States by Wallace Fard Muhammad in 1930. A Black nationalism, black nationalist organization, the NOI focuses its attention on the African dia ...
). Some of the Islamic sects and groups regard certain others as deviant or not truly Muslim (
Ahmadiyya Ahmadiyya (, ), officially the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community or the Ahmadiyya Muslim Jama'at ( ar, الجماعة الإسلامية الأحمدية, al-Jamāʿah al-Islāmīyah al-Aḥmadīyah; ur, , translit=Jamā'at Aḥmadiyyah Muslimah) ...

Ahmadiyya
,
Alawites The Alawis, or Alawites ( ar, علوية ''Alawīyah''), are a sect of Shia Islam Shia Islam or Shi'ism is one of the two main Islamic schools and branches, branches of Islam. It holds that the Prophets and messengers in Islam, Islamic ...
,
Quranists Quranism ( ar, القرآنية; ''al-Qur'āniyya'', also "Quranic scripturalism") Brown, ''Rethinking tradition in modern Islamic thought'', 1996: p.38-42 comprises views that Islam Islam (;There are ten pronunciations of ''Islam'' in Englis ...
). Some Islamic sects and groups date back to the
early history of Islam The history of Islam concerns the political, social, economic, and cultural developments of Islamic civilization. Most historians believe that Islam Islam (;There are ten pronunciations of ''Islam'' in English, differing in whether the f ...
between the 7th-9th centuries CE (
Kharijites The Kharijites ( ar, الخوارج, ''al-Khawārij'', singular , ''khāriji''), also called the al-Shurat (Arabic: الشراة, ''al-Shurāt''), were an Islamic sect that appeared in the first century of Islam during the First Muslim Civil W ...
, Sunnīs, Shiʿas), whereas others have arisen much more recently ( Islamic neo-traditionalism, liberalism and progressivism,
Islamic modernism Islamic Modernism is a movement that has been described as "the first Muslim Muslims () are people who follow or practice Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may refer to: * ...
, Salafism and Wahhabism) or even in the 20th century (
Nation of Islam The Nation of Islam (NOI) is a religious and political organization which was founded in the United States by Wallace Fard Muhammad in 1930. A Black nationalism, black nationalist organization, the NOI focuses its attention on the African dia ...
). Still others were influential in their time but are not longer in existence (
Kharijites The Kharijites ( ar, الخوارج, ''al-Khawārij'', singular , ''khāriji''), also called the al-Shurat (Arabic: الشراة, ''al-Shurāt''), were an Islamic sect that appeared in the first century of Islam during the First Muslim Civil W ...
,
Muʿtazila Muʿtazila ( ar, المعتزلة ') is a Rationalism, rationalist schools of Islamic theology, school of Islamic theologyMurji'ah Murjiʾah ( ar, المرجئة, "Those Who Postpone"), also Murji'as, Murjites or Murji 'ites, an early Islamic sect. Murji'ah held the opinion that God alone has the right to judge whether or not a Muslim has become an apostate. Consequently Muslim ...
).


Overview

The original schism between
Kharijites The Kharijites ( ar, الخوارج, ''al-Khawārij'', singular , ''khāriji''), also called the al-Shurat (Arabic: الشراة, ''al-Shurāt''), were an Islamic sect that appeared in the first century of Islam during the First Muslim Civil W ...
, Sunnīs, and Shiʿas among
Muslims Muslims () are people who follow or practice Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodness", "ah gosh", ...
was disputed over the political and religious succession to the guidance of the
Muslim community Muslims () are people who follow or practice Islam Islam (;There are ten pronunciations of ''Islam'' in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the ''s'' is or , and whether the ''a'' is prono ...
(''Ummah'') after the death of the
Islamic prophet Prophets in Islam ( ar, الأنبياء في الإسلام, translit=al-ʾAnbiyāʾ fī al-ʾIslām) are individuals in Islam who are believed to spread God In monotheism, monotheistic thought, God is conceived of as the supreme being, c ...
Muhammad Muhammad ibn AbdullahHe is referred to by many appellations, including Messenger of Allah, The Prophet Muhammad, Allah's Apostle, Last Prophet of Islam, and others; there are also many variant spellings of Muhammad, such as Mohamet, Mohammed, ...

Muhammad
. From their essentially political position, the Kharijites developed extreme doctrines that set them apart from both mainstream Sunnī and Shiʿa Muslims. Shiʿas believe
Ali ibn Abi Talib Ali ibn Abi Talib ( ar, عَلِيّ ٱبْن أَبِي طَالِب, ; 13 September 601 – 29 January 661) was a cousin, son-in-law and companion of the Prophets and messengers in Islam, Islamic prophet Muhammad in Islam, Muhammad, who ru ...
is the true successor to Muhammad, while Sunnīs consider
Abu Bakr Abu Bakr Abdullah ibn Uthman ( ar, أَبُو بَكْرٍ عَبْدُ ٱللهِ بْنِ عُثْمَانَ; 573 CE23 August 634 CE) was a Sahabah, companion and, through his daughter Aisha, a father-in-law of the Prophets and messengers in I ...
to hold that position. The Kharijites broke away from both the Shiʿas and the Sunnīs during the
First Fitna The First Fitna ( ar, فتنة مقتل عثمان, fitnat maqtal ʻUthmān, strife/sedition of the killing of Uthman Uthman ibn Affan ( ar, عثمان بن عفان, ʿUthmān ibn ʿAffān; – 17 June 656), also spelled by the Turkish and ...
(the first Islamic Civil War); they were particularly noted for adopting a radical approach to '' takfīr'' (excommunication), whereby they declared both Sunnī and Shiʿa Muslims to be either (''kuffār'') or false Muslims (''munāfiḳūn''), and therefore deemed them worthy of death for their perceived
apostasy Apostasy (; grc-gre, ἀποστασία ''apostasía'', "a defection or revolt") is the formal religious disaffiliation, disaffiliation from, abandonment of, or renunciation of a religion by a person. It can also be defined within the broader ...
(''ridda''). In addition, there are several differences within Sunnī and Shiʿa Islam: Sunnī Islam is separated into four main schools of jurisprudence, namely
Hanafi The Hanafi school ( ar, حَنَفِي, translit=Ḥanafī) is one of the four traditional major Sunni Sunni Islam () is by far the largest branch Image:Tree Leaves.JPG, The branches and leaves of a tree. A branch ( or , ) or tree b ...
,
Maliki The ( ar, مَالِكِي) school is one of the four major madhhab A ' ( ar, مذهب ', , "way to act") is a school of thought within '' fiqh'' (Islamic jurisprudence Jurisprudence, or legal theory, is the theoretical study of law. Sc ...
, Shafi'i,
Hanbali The Hanbali school ( ar, ٱلْمَذْهَب ٱلْحَنۢبَلِي, al-maḏhab al-ḥanbalī) is one of the four major traditional Sunni Sunni Islam () is by far the largest branch Image:Tree Leaves.JPG, The branches and leaves o ...
; these schools are named after
Abu Hanifa Abū Ḥanīfa al-Nuʿmān b. Thābit b. Zūṭā b. Marzubān ( ar, أبو حنيفة نعمان بن ثابت بن زوطا بن مرزبان; – 767 CE), known as Abū Ḥanīfa for short, or reverently as Imam Abū Ḥanīfa by Sunni Musl ...

Abu Hanifa
,
Malik ibn Anas Malik ibn Anas ( ar, مَالِك بن أَنَس, ‎ 711–795 CE / 93–179 AH), whose full name is Mālik bin Anas bin Mālik bin Abī ʿĀmir bin ʿAmr bin Al-Ḥārith bin Ghaymān bin Khuthayn bin ʿAmr bin Al-Ḥārith al-Aṣbaḥī ...
, al-Shafi'i, and
Ahmad ibn Hanbal Abū ʿAbdillāh Aḥmad ibn Muḥammad ibn Ḥanbal Ash-Shaybānī ( ar, أَبُو عَبْدِ ٱلله أَحْمَد ابْن مُحَمَّد ابْن حَنۢبَل ٱلشَّيْبَانِي; 780–855 CE/164–241 AH), often referred t ...

Ahmad ibn Hanbal
, respectively. Shiʿa Islam, on the other hand, is separated into three major sects:
Twelvers Twelver ( ar, ٱثْنَا عَشَرِيَّة; ' fa, شیعه دوازده‌امامی, '), also known as Imamiyyah ( ar, إِمَامِيَّة), is the largest branch of Shia Shia Islam or Shi'ism is one of the two main branches of ...
,
Ismailis Ismāʿīlism ( ar, الإسماعيلية, ''al-ʾIsmāʿīlīyah''; fa, اسماعیلیان, ''Esmâ'īliyân'') is a branch or sub-sect of Shia Islam Shia Islam or Shi'ism is one of the two main Islamic schools and branches, branch ...
, and
Zaydis Zaidiyyah, Zaidism, or Zaidi Shi'ism ( ar, الزيدية ''az-zaydiyya'', adjective form Zaidi or Zaydi (occasionally known as Fiver Shias) is one of the Shia Shia Islam or Shi'ism is one of the two main branches of Islam Islam ( ...
. The vast majority of Shiʿas are Twelvers (a 2012 estimate puts the figure as 85% of Shiʿas being Twelvers), to the extent that the term "Shiʿa" frequently refers to Twelvers by default. All mainstream Twelver Shiʿa Muslims follow the same school of thought, the Jafari school of thought (named after Jafar as-Sadiq, the sixth Shiʿite Imam). Zaydis, also known as Fivers, follow the Zayidi school of thought (named after
Zayd ibn Ali Zayd ibn ʿAlī ( ar, زَيْد ٱبْن عَلِيّ; 695–740), also spelled Zaid, was the son of Ali ibn Husayn, and great-grandson of Ali, Ali ibn Abi Talib. He led Revolt of Zayd ibn Ali, an unsuccessful revolt against the Umayyad Caliphate ...

Zayd ibn Ali
).
Isma'ilism Ismāʿīlism (Arabic language, Arabic: , ) is a branch or sub-sect of Shia Islam. The Ismāʿīlī () get their name from their acceptance of Imam Isma'il ibn Jafar as the appointed spiritual successor (Imamate in Nizari doctrine, imām) to ...
is another offshoot of Shiʿa Islam that later split into
Nizari Ismaili The Nizaris ( ar, النزاريون, al-Nizāriyyūn, fa, نزاریان, Nezāriyān) are the largest segment of the Ismaili Muslims, who are the second-largest branch of Shia Islam Shia Islam or Shi'ism is one of the two main Islamic ...
and Musta’li Ismaili, and then Mustaali was divided into
Hafizi Hafizi Isma'ilism ( ar, حافظية, Ḥāfiẓiyya or , ) was a branch of Musta'li Ismailism, Musta'li Isma'ilism that emerged as a result of a split in 1132. The Hafizis accepted the Fatimid Caliphate, Fatimid caliph al-Hafiz () and his success ...
and
Taiyabi Ismaili Ṭayyibi Ismā‘īlism is the only surviving sect of the Musta'li branch of Isma'ilism Ismāʿīlism ( ar, الإسماعيلية, ''al-ʾIsmāʿīlīyah''; fa, اسماعیلیان, ''Esmâ'īliyân'') is a branch or sub-sect of Shia Is ...
s.Öz, Mustafa, ''Mezhepler Tarihi ve Terimleri Sözlüğü (The History of
madh'hab A ' ( ar, مذهب ', , "way to act") is a school of thought within ''fiqh ''Fiqh'' (; ar} ) is Islamic jurisprudence Jurisprudence, or legal theory, is the theoretical study of law. Scholars of jurisprudence seek to explain the nat ...

madh'hab
s and its terminology dictionary),'' Ensar Publications,
İstanbul ) , postal_code_type = Postal code A postal code (also known locally in various English-speaking countries throughout the world as a postcode, post code, PIN or ZIP Code) is a series of letters or digits or both, sometimes i ...

İstanbul
, 2011.
Tayyibi Ismailis, also known as "Bohras", are split between
Daudi Bohra The Dawoodi Bohras are a religious denomination within the Ismā'īlī branch of Shia Islam Shia Islam or Shi'ism is one of the two main Islamic schools and branches, branches of Islam. It holds that the Prophets and messengers in Isla ...
s,
Sulaymani The Sulaymani branch of Tayyibi Isma'ilism Ṭayyibi Ismā‘īlism is the only surviving sect of the Musta'li branch of Isma'ilism, the other being Hafizi Isma'ilism. Most followers of Tayyibi Isma'ilism are found in various Bohra communities: ...
Bohras, and
Alavi Bohras The Alavi Bohras are a Taiyebi Mustaali, Musta'alavi Ismailism, Isma'ili Shia Islam, Shi'i Islam, Muslim community from Gujarat, India. In India, during the time of the 18th Fatimid dynasty, Fatimid Imamah (Ismaili doctrine), Imam Ma'ad al-Mus ...
. Similarly,
Kharijites The Kharijites ( ar, الخوارج, ''al-Khawārij'', singular , ''khāriji''), also called the al-Shurat (Arabic: الشراة, ''al-Shurāt''), were an Islamic sect that appeared in the first century of Islam during the First Muslim Civil W ...
were initially divided into five major branches:
Sufri The Sufris ( ar, الصفرية ''aṣ-Ṣufriyya'') were Khariji Muslims in the seventh and eighth centuries. They established the Midrarid state at Sijilmassa , alternate_name = , image = 1886608-the ruins of Sijilmassa-Rissani.jpg , alt ...
s,
Azariqa The Azariqa ( ar, الأزارقة, ''al-azāriqa'') were an Islamic extremism, extremist branch of Khawarij, who followed the leadership of Nafi ibn al-Azraq al-Hanafī al-Handhalī. Adherents of Azraqism participated in an armed struggle agains ...
,
Najdat The Najdat were the sub-sect of the Kharijite movement that followed Najda ibn 'Amir al-Hanafi, and in 682 launched a revolt against the Umayyad Caliphate in the historical provinces of Yamamah and Province of Bahrain, Bahrain, in central and eas ...
, Adjarites, and
Ibadis The Ibadi movement (also called Ibāḍiyya ( ar, الإباضية, al-Ibāḍiyyah) and Ibadism), is a Islamic schools and branches, school of Islam. It exists in Oman, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya and East Africa. Ibadi Islam traces the origins of ...
. Of these, Ibadis are the only surviving branch of Kharijites. In addition to the aforementioned groups, new schools of thought and movements like , Quranist Muslims, and
African-American Muslims African-American Muslims, also colloquially known as Black Muslims, are an African American religious minority. About 1% of African-Americans are Muslims. They represent one of the larger minority Islam in the United States, Muslim populations of th ...
later emerged independently.


Sectarian divisions


Sunnī Islam

Sunnī Islam, also known as ''Ahl as-Sunnah wa'l-Jamā'h'' or simply ''Ahl as-Sunnah'', is by far the largest
denomination Denomination may refer to: * Religious denomination, such as a: ** Christian denomination ** Jewish denomination ** Islamic denomination ** Hindu denominations ** Schools of Buddhism, Buddhist denomination * Denomination (currency) * Denomination ( ...
of Islam, comprising around 90% of the Muslim population in the world. The word ''Sunnī'' comes from the word ''
sunnah In Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodness", "ah gosh", "ah gawd"; see interjection An interjection i ...
'', which means the teachings and actions or examples of the ''
Sahaba Companions of the Prophet ( ar, اَلصَّحَابَةُ; ''aṣ-ṣaḥāba'' meaning "the companions", from the verb meaning "accompany", "keep company with", "associate with") were the disciples and followers of Muhammad Muhammad ibn ...
'' and the
Islamic prophet Prophets in Islam ( ar, الأنبياء في الإسلام, translit=al-ʾAnbiyāʾ fī al-ʾIslām) are individuals in Islam who are believed to spread God In monotheism, monotheistic thought, God is conceived of as the supreme being, c ...
Muhammad Muhammad ibn AbdullahHe is referred to by many appellations, including Messenger of Allah, The Prophet Muhammad, Allah's Apostle, Last Prophet of Islam, and others; there are also many variant spellings of Muhammad, such as Mohamet, Mohammed, ...

Muhammad
. The Sunnīs believe that Muhammad did not specifically appoint a successor to lead the
Muslim community Muslims () are people who follow or practice Islam Islam (;There are ten pronunciations of ''Islam'' in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the ''s'' is or , and whether the ''a'' is prono ...
''(Ummah)'' before his death, however they approve of the private election of the first companion, Abu Bakr. Sunnī Muslims regard the first four caliphs (Abu Bakr, Umar ibn al-Khattab, Uthman ibn Affan and Ali ibn Abi Talib) as " al-Khulafā'ur-Rāshidūn" or "The Rightly Guided Caliphs." Sunnīs also believe that the position of caliph may be attained
democratically Democracy ( gr, δημοκρατία, ''dēmokratiā'', from ''dēmos'' 'people' and ''kratos'' 'rule') is a form of government in which people, the people have the authority to choose their governing legislators. The decisions on who is consi ...

democratically
, on gaining a majority of the votes, but after the Rashidun, the position turned into a hereditary
dynastic A dynasty (, ) is a sequence of rulers from the same family In human society, family (from la, familia) is a group of people related either by consanguinity (by recognized birth) or affinity (by marriage or other relationship). Th ...
rule because of the divisions started by the
Umayyads The Umayyad dynasty ( ar, بَنُو أُمَيَّةَ, Banū Umayya, Sons of Umayya) or Umayyads () were the ruling family of the Muslim Umayyad Caliphate, caliphate between 661 and 750 and later of Al-Andalus, Islamic Iberia in Europe between 7 ...
and others. After the fall of the
Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire (; ', ; or '; )info page on bookat Martin Luther University) // CITED: p. 36 (PDF p. 38/338). was an empire that controlled much of Southeastern Europe, Western Asia, and North Africa, Northern Africa between the 14th ...
in 1923, there has never been another caliph as widely recognized in the
Muslim world The terms Muslim world and Islamic world commonly refer to the Islamic Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodne ...

Muslim world
. In recent times, followers of the classical Sunnī schools of jurisprudence and '''' (rationalistic theology) on one hand and
Islamists Islamism is a concept whose meaning has been debated in both public and academic contexts. The term can refer to diverse forms of social and political activism advocating that public and political life should be guided by Islamic principles or m ...
and
Salafists The Salafi movement, also called the Salafiyya movement is a conservative revivalist and reform branch movement within Sunni Islam Islam (;There are ten pronunciations of ''Islam'' in English, differing in whether the first or second sy ...
such as Wahhabis and
Ahle Hadith Ahl-i Hadith or Ahl-e-Hadith ( fa, اهل حدیث, ur, اہل حدیث, ''people of hadith'') is a religious movement that emerged in North India North India is a loosely defined region consisting of the northern part of India. The domi ...
, who follow a literalist reading of early Islamic sources, on the other, have laid competing claims to represent orthodox Sunnī Islam. Anglophone Islamic currents of the former type are sometimes referred to as "traditional Islam".
Islamic modernism Islamic Modernism is a movement that has been described as "the first Muslim Muslims () are people who follow or practice Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may refer to: * ...
is an offshoot of the
Salafi movement The Salafi movement, also called the Salafist movement, ''Salafiyyah'' and Salafism, is a Islah, reform branch movement within Sunni Islam. The name derives from advocating a return to the traditions of the "pious predecessors" (''salaf''), th ...
that tried to integrate modernism into Islam by being partially influenced by modern-day attempts to revive the ideas of the
Muʿtazila Muʿtazila ( ar, المعتزلة ') is a Rationalism, rationalist schools of Islamic theology, school of Islamic theologyMuhammad Abduh Muḥammad 'Abduh (1849 – 11 July 1905) (also spelled Mohammed Abduh, ar, محمد عبده) was an Egyptians, Egyptian Ulama, Islamic scholar, Faqīh, jurist, Islamic theology, theologian, Freemasonry, Freemason, and writer. Abduh was the aut ...

Muhammad Abduh
.


Shiʿa Islam

Shiʿa Islam is the second-largest denomination of Islam, comprising around 10%See: * * * of the total Muslim population. Although a minority in the Muslim world, Shiʿa Muslims constitute the majority of the Muslim populations in
Iran Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia, and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia Western Asia, West Asia, or Southwest Asia, is the westernmost subregion A subregion is a part of a larger regio ...

Iran
,
Iraq Iraq ( ar, الْعِرَاق, translit=al-ʿIrāq; ku, عێراق, translit=Êraq), officially the Republic of Iraq ( ar, جُمْهُورِيَّة ٱلْعِرَاق '; ku, کۆماری عێراق, translit=Komarî Êraq), is a country i ...

Iraq
,
Lebanon Lebanon ( , ar, لُبْنَان, translit=lubnān, ), officially the Republic of Lebanon or the Lebanese Republic, is a country in Western Asia Western Asia, West Asia, or Southwest Asia, is the westernmost subregion A subregion is a part ...

Lebanon
,
Bahrain Bahrain ( ; ar, البحرين, al-Baḥrayn, , locally ), officially the Kingdom of Bahrain ( ar, مملكة البحرين, links=no '), is a country in the Arab states of the Persian Gulf, Persian Gulf. The Island country, island nation c ...

Bahrain
, and
Azerbaijan Azerbaijan (, ; az, Azərbaycan ), officially the Republic of Azerbaijan ( az, Azərbaycan Respublikası ), is a country in the Transcaucasia, Caucasus region of Eurasia. Located at the crossroads of Eastern Europe and Western Asia, it is boun ...

Azerbaijan
, as well as significant minorities in
Syria Syria ( ar, سُورِيَا or ar, سُورِيَة, ''Sūriyā''), officially the Syrian Arab Republic ( ar, ٱلْجُمْهُورِيَّةُ ٱلْعَرَبِيَّةُ ٱلسُّورِيَّةُ, al-Jumhūrīyah al-ʻArabīyah as-S ...

Syria
,
Turkey Turkey ( tr, Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country located mainly on Anatolia Anatolia,, tr, Anadolu Yarımadası), and the Anatolian plateau. also known as Asia Minor, is a large peninsula in Western Asia an ...

Turkey
,
South Asia South Asia is the southern region of Asia Asia () is 's largest and most populous , located primarily in the and . It shares the continental of with the continent of and the continental landmass of with both Europe and . Asia cov ...
,
Yemen ) , image_map = Yemen on the globe (Yemen centered).svg , map_caption = , image_map2 = , capital = Sana'a Sanaa ( ar, صَنْعَاء, ' , Yemeni Arabic: ; Old South Arabian: 𐩮 ...

Yemen
, and
Saudi Arabia (''Shahada'') , national_anthem = "National Anthem of Saudi Arabia, " "National Anthem of Saudi Arabia" , image_map = Saudi Arabia (orthographic projection).svg , capital = Riyadh , coordinates ...

Saudi Arabia
and other parts of the
Persian Gulf The Persian Gulf ( fa, خلیج فارس, translit=xalij-e fârs, lit=Gulf of , ) is a in . The body of water is an extension of the () through the and lies between to the northeast and the to the southwest.United Nations Group of Exper ...
. In addition to believing in the authority of the
Quran The Quran (, ; ar, القرآن , "the recitation"), also romanized Qur'an or Koran, is the central religious text Religious texts, also known as scripture, scriptures, holy writ, or holy books, are the texts which various religious t ...

Quran
and teachings of Muhammad, Shiʿa Muslims believe that Muhammad's family, the
Ahl al-Bayt In Islamic tradition, Ahl al Bayt ( ar, أَهْلُ ٱلْبَيْتِ; fa, اهلِ بیت; ; lit. People of the House, People of the Household or Family of the House) primarily refers to the family of the Islamic prophet Prophets in I ...

Ahl al-Bayt
(the "People of the House"), including his descendants known as
Imams Imam (; ar, إمام '; plural: ') is an Islam Islam (;There are ten pronunciations of ''Islam'' in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the ''s'' is or , and whether the ''a'' is pronou ...
, have special spiritual and political authority over the community and believe that
Ali ibn Abi Talib Ali ibn Abi Talib ( ar, عَلِيّ ٱبْن أَبِي طَالِب, ; 13 September 601 – 29 January 661) was a cousin, son-in-law and companion of the Prophets and messengers in Islam, Islamic prophet Muhammad in Islam, Muhammad, who ru ...
, Muhammad's cousin and son-in-law, was the first of these Imams and was the rightful successor to Muhammad, and thus reject the legitimacy of the first three Rashidun caliphs.


Major sub-denominations

* The
Twelvers Twelver ( ar, ٱثْنَا عَشَرِيَّة; ' fa, شیعه دوازده‌امامی, '), also known as Imamiyyah ( ar, إِمَامِيَّة), is the largest branch of Shia Shia Islam or Shi'ism is one of the two main branches of ...
believe in
twelve Imams The Twelve Imams ( ar, ٱلَأَئِمَّة ٱلْٱثْنَا عَشَر, '; fa, دوازده امام, ') are the spiritual and political successors to the Islam Islam (;There are ten pronunciations of ''Islam'' in English, differing in ...
and are the only school to comply with
Hadith of the Twelve Successors The hadith of the twelve successors, or twelve caliphs ( ar-at, حَدِيْث ٱلْإِثْنَي عَشَر خَلِيْفَة, ḥadīth al-ithnā ʿashar khalīfah) is an Islamic prophecy, attributed to Muhammad. It is most popular among Twelve ...
, where Muhammad stated that he would have twelve successors. This sometimes includes the
Alevi Alevism (; tr, Alevilik, ''Anadolu Aleviliği'' or ''Kızılbaşlık''; ku, Elewîtî) is a local Islam, Islamic tradition, whose adherents follow the mystical Alevi Islamic (Batin (Islam), ''bāṭenī'') teachings of Haji Bektash Veli, who ...
and
Bektashi The Bektashi Order ( sq, Tarikati Bektashi; tr, Bektaşi Tarîkatı), short for Shī‘ah Imāmī Alevi, Alevī-Bektashism and folk religion, Bektāshī Ṭarīqah, is an unorthodox Sufism, Sufi dervish order (''tariqat'') named after the 13th c ...
schools. *
Isma'ilism Ismāʿīlism (Arabic language, Arabic: , ) is a branch or sub-sect of Shia Islam. The Ismāʿīlī () get their name from their acceptance of Imam Isma'il ibn Jafar as the appointed spiritual successor (Imamate in Nizari doctrine, imām) to ...
, including the Nizārī,
Sevener al-Ismāʿīliyya al-khāliṣa / al-Ismāʿīliyya al-wāqifa or Seveners ( ar, سبعية) was a branch of Ismā'īlī Shīʻa. They became known as "Seveners" because they believed that Isma'il ibn Ja'far Abu Muhammad Ismāʿīl ibn Jaʿfa ...
, Mustaali,
Dawoodi Bohra The Dawoodi Bohras are a religious denomination within the Ismā'īlī branch of Shia Islam. Their largest numbers reside in India, Pakistan, Yemen, East Africa, and the Middle East, with a growing presence across Europe, North America, South ...
, Hebtiahs Bohra,
Sulaimani Bohra The Sulaymani branch of Tayyibi Isma'ilism is an Islamic community, of which around 70 thousand members reside in Yemen, while a few thousands of Sulaymani Bohras can be found in India. The Sulaymanis are headed by a ''da'i al-mutlaq'' from the M ...
and
Alavi Bohra The Alavi Bohras are a Taiyebi Musta'alavi Isma'ili Shi'i Muslim community from Gujarat Gujarat (, ) is a state on the western coast of India with a coastline of – most of which lies on the Kathiawar peninsula – and a population ...
sub-denominations. * The
Zaidiyyah Zaidiyyah, Zaidism, or Zaidi Shi'ism ( ar, الزيدية ''az-zaydiyya'', adjective form Zaidi or Zaydi (occasionally known as Fiver Shias) is one of the Shia sects closest in terms of theology to the Ibadi and Mutazila schools. Zaidiyyah em ...
historically come from the followers of
Zayd ibn Ali Zayd ibn ʿAlī ( ar, زَيْد ٱبْن عَلِيّ; 695–740), also spelled Zaid, was the son of Ali ibn Husayn, and great-grandson of Ali, Ali ibn Abi Talib. He led Revolt of Zayd ibn Ali, an unsuccessful revolt against the Umayyad Caliphate ...

Zayd ibn Ali
. In the modern world, they "survive only in northern Yemen". Although they are a Shia sect, "in modern times" they have "shown a strong tendency to move towards the Sunni mainstream". * The
Alawites The Alawis, or Alawites ( ar, علوية ''Alawīyah''), are a sect of Shia Islam Shia Islam or Shi'ism is one of the two main Islamic schools and branches, branches of Islam. It holds that the Prophets and messengers in Islam, Islamic ...
are a distinct religion that developed in the 9th/10th century. Historically, Twelver Shia scholars (such as
Shaykh Tusi Shaykh Tusi ( fa, شیخ طوسی), full name ''Abu Jafar Muhammad Ibn Hassan Tusi'' ( fa, ابو جعفر محمد بن حسن طوسی), known as Shaykh al-Taʾifah ( ar, شيخ الطائفة) was a prominent Persian Persian may refer to: * ...

Shaykh Tusi
) did not consider Alawites as Shia Muslims while condemning their heretical beliefs.
Ibn Taymiyyah Taqī ad-Dīn ʾAḥmad ibn ʿAbd al-Ḥalīm ibn ʿAbd al-Salām Numayrid dynasty, al-Numayrī al-Ḥarrānī ( ar, تقي الدين أحمد بن عبد الحليم بن عبد السلام النميري الحراني , January 22, 1263 – ...
also pointed out that Alawites were not Shi'ites. * The
Druze Druze (; ar, درزي ' or ', plural ') are members of an Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East The Mi ...
are a distinct traditional religion that developed in the 11th century as an offshoot of Isma'ilism. Most Druze do not identify as Muslims, Druze also are not considered Muslims by those belonging to orthodox Islamic schools of thought (see Islam and Druze).
Ibn Taymiyyah Taqī ad-Dīn ʾAḥmad ibn ʿAbd al-Ḥalīm ibn ʿAbd al-Salām Numayrid dynasty, al-Numayrī al-Ḥarrānī ( ar, تقي الدين أحمد بن عبد الحليم بن عبد السلام النميري الحراني , January 22, 1263 – ...
also pointed out that Druze were not Muslims, and neither ′Ahl al-Kitāb (
People of the Book People of the Book ( ar, أهل الكتاب , ''ahl al-kitāb'') is an Islamic term which refers to Jews Jews ( he, יְהוּדִים ISO 259-2 ISO The International Organization for Standardization (ISO ) is an international s ...
) nor Shirk (Islam), mushrikin, rather they were Kuffar, kuffār (Infidel).


Ghulat movements in history

Muslim groups who either ascribe divine characteristics to some figures of Islamic history (usually a member of
Muhammad Muhammad ibn AbdullahHe is referred to by many appellations, including Messenger of Allah, The Prophet Muhammad, Allah's Apostle, Last Prophet of Islam, and others; there are also many variant spellings of Muhammad, such as Mohamet, Mohammed, ...

Muhammad
's family,
Ahl al-Bayt In Islamic tradition, Ahl al Bayt ( ar, أَهْلُ ٱلْبَيْتِ; fa, اهلِ بیت; ; lit. People of the House, People of the Household or Family of the House) primarily refers to the family of the Islamic prophet Prophets in I ...

Ahl al-Bayt
) or hold beliefs deemed deviant by mainstream Shi'i theology were called ''Ghulat''.


Kharijite Islam

Kharijite (literally, "those who seceded") are an extinct sect who originated during the
First Fitna The First Fitna ( ar, فتنة مقتل عثمان, fitnat maqtal ʻUthmān, strife/sedition of the killing of Uthman Uthman ibn Affan ( ar, عثمان بن عفان, ʿUthmān ibn ʿAffān; – 17 June 656), also spelled by the Turkish and ...
, the struggle for political leadership over the Muslim community, following the assassination in 656 of the third caliph Uthman. Kharijites originally supported the caliphate of Ali, but then later on fought against him and eventually succeeded in his martyrdom while he was praying in the mosque of Kufa. While there are few remaining Kharijite or Kharijite-related groups, the term is sometimes used to denote Muslims who refuse to compromise with those with whom they disagree.
Sufri The Sufris ( ar, الصفرية ''aṣ-Ṣufriyya'') were Khariji Muslims in the seventh and eighth centuries. They established the Midrarid state at Sijilmassa , alternate_name = , image = 1886608-the ruins of Sijilmassa-Rissani.jpg , alt ...
s were a major sub-sect of Kharijite in the 7th and 8th centuries, and a part of the Kharijites. Nukkari was a sub-sect of Sufris. Harūrīs were an early Muslim sect from the period of the Rashidun, Four Rightly-Guided Caliphs (632–661 CE), named for their first leader, Habīb ibn-Yazīd al-Harūrī.
Azariqa The Azariqa ( ar, الأزارقة, ''al-azāriqa'') were an Islamic extremism, extremist branch of Khawarij, who followed the leadership of Nafi ibn al-Azraq al-Hanafī al-Handhalī. Adherents of Azraqism participated in an armed struggle agains ...
,
Najdat The Najdat were the sub-sect of the Kharijite movement that followed Najda ibn 'Amir al-Hanafi, and in 682 launched a revolt against the Umayyad Caliphate in the historical provinces of Yamamah and Province of Bahrain, Bahrain, in central and eas ...
, and Adjarites were minor sub-sects.


Ibadi Islam

The only Kharijite sub-sect today is Ibadi Islam, Ibadism, which developed out of the 7th century. There are currently two geographically separated Ibadi groups -- in Oman in Arabia where they make up the majority of the country, and in North Africa where they make up minorities in Algeria, Tunisia and Libya. Like another small Muslim sect, the
Zaidiyyah Zaidiyyah, Zaidism, or Zaidi Shi'ism ( ar, الزيدية ''az-zaydiyya'', adjective form Zaidi or Zaydi (occasionally known as Fiver Shias) is one of the Shia sects closest in terms of theology to the Ibadi and Mutazila schools. Zaidiyyah em ...
, "in modern times" they have "shown a strong tendency" to move follow Sunni Islam, which dominates the Muslim world in size.


Extinct sectarian groups


Murijite Islam

Murijite (literally, "those who postpone") are an extinct sect who originated during the caliphates of Uthman and Ali. Murijites opposed Kharijites and the Murjite doctrine held that only God has the authority to judge who is a true Muslim and who is not, and that Muslims should consider all other Muslims as part of the community.Isutzu, Concept of Belief, p. 55-56. Two major Murijite sub-sects were Karamiya and Sawbaniyya.


Muʿtazila Islam

Muʿtazila Muʿtazila ( ar, المعتزلة ') is a Rationalism, rationalist schools of Islamic theology, school of Islamic theologyMutazilah
at the Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Accessed 13 March 2014. Some of the Companions of Muhammad such as Sa`d ibn Abi Waqqas and Abdullah ibn Umar were neutral in the dispute between ʿAlī and his opponents (Muawiyah I). ''Encyclopaedia of Islam'
s.v. "Mu'tazila"
Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, The Netherlands (1999): "It is an explanation of this kind which today, in particular as a result of the studies undertaken by Nallino ("Sull'origine del nome dei Mu'taziliti", in ''RSO'', vii [1916]), is generally accepted: ''i'tizal'' would designate a position of neutrality in the face of opposing factions. Nallino drew support for the argument from the fact that at the time of the first civil war, some of the Companions ('Abd Allah b. 'Umar, Sa'd b. Abi Waqqas, etc.), who had chosen to side neither with ʿAli nor with his adversaries, were for that reason called muʿtazila. He even drew the conclusion that the theological Mu'tazilism of Wasil and his successors was merely a continuation of this initial political Mu'tazilism; in reality, there does not seem to have been the least connection between one and the other. But, in its principle, this explanation is probably valid."
Bishriyya was a major sub-sect.


Sufism

Sufism is Islam's Mysticism, mystical-Asceticism, ascetic dimension and is represented by schools or orders known as ''Tasawwufī-Ṭarīqah.'' It is seen as that aspect of Islamic teaching that deals with the purification of inner self. By focusing on the more spiritual aspects of religion, Sufis strive to obtain direct experience of God by making use of "intuitive and emotional faculties" that one must be trained to use. The following list contains some notable Sufi orders: * The Azeemiyya order was founded in 1960 by Qalandar Baba Auliya, also known as Syed Muhammad Azeem Barkhia. * The Bektashi order was founded in the 13th century by the Islamic saint Haji Bektash Veli, and greatly influenced during its formulative period by the Hurufism, Hurufi Ali al-'Ala in the 15th century and reorganized by Balım Sultan in the 16th century. Because of its adherence to the Twelve Imams it is classified under Twelver Shia Islam. * The Chishti order ( fa, چشتیہ) was founded by (Khawaja) Abu Ishaq Shami ("the Syrian"; died 941) who brought Sufism to the town of Chisht, some 95 miles east of Herat in present-day Afghanistan. Before returning to the Levant, Shami initiated, trained and deputized the son of the local Emir ''(Khwaja)'' Abu Ahmad Abdal (died 966). Under the leadership of Abu Ahmad's descendants, the ''Chishtiyya'' as they are also known, flourished as a regional mystical order. The founder of the Chishti Order in South Asia was Moinuddin Chishti. * The Kubrawiya order was founded in the 13th century by Najmuddin Kubra in Bukhara in modern-day Uzbekistan. * The Mevlevi order is better known in the West as the "whirling dervishes". * Mouride is most prominent in Senegal and The Gambia, with headquarters in the holy city of Touba, Senegal. * The Naqshbandi order was founded in 1380 by Baha-ud-Din Naqshband Bukhari. It is considered by some to be a "sober" order known for its silent dhikr (remembrance of God) rather than the vocalized forms of dhikr common in other orders. The Süleymancılar, Süleymani and Khalidiyya orders are offshoots of the Naqshbandi order. * The Ni'matullahi order is the most widespread Sufi order of Persia today. It was founded by Shah Ni'matullah Wali (d. 1367), established and transformed from his inheritance of the Marufi, Ma'rufiyyah circle. There are several suborders in existence today, the most known and influential in the West following the lineage of Javad Nurbakhsh, who brought the order to the West following the 1979 Iranian Revolution. * The Noorbakshia Islam, Noorbakshia order, also called Nurbakshia, claims to trace its direct spiritual lineage and chain (silsilah) to the Islamic prophet Muhammad in Islam, Muhammad, through Ali, by way of Ali Al-Ridha. This order became known as Nurbakshi after Shah Syed Muhammad Nurbakhsh Qahistani, who was aligned to the Kubrawiya order. * The Oveysi (or Uwaiysi) order claims to have been founded 1,400 years ago by Uwais al-Qarni from Yemen. * The Qadiri order is one of the oldest Sufi Orders. It derives its name from Abdul-Qadir Gilani (1077–1166), a native of the Iranian province of Gīlān Province, Gīlān. The order is one of the most widespread of the Sufi orders in the Islamic world, and can be found in Central Asia, Turkey, Balkans and much of East and West Africa. The Qadiriyyah have not developed any distinctive doctrines or teachings outside of mainstream Islam. They believe in the fundamental principles of Islam, but interpreted through mystical experience. The Ba 'Alawiyya, Ba'Alawi order is an offshoot of Qadiriyyah. * Senussi is a religious-political Sufi order established by Muhammad ibn Ali as-Senussi. As-Senussi founded this movement due to his criticism of the Egyptian ulema. * The Shadhili order was founded by Abu-l-Hassan ash-Shadhili. Followers (''murids'' Arabic: seekers) of the Shadhiliyya are often known as Shadhilis. * The Suhrawardiyya order ( ar, سهروردية) is a Sufi order founded by Abu al-Najib al-Suhrawardi (1097–1168). * The Tijaniyyah order attach a large importance to culture and education, and emphasize the individual adhesion of the disciple (''murid'').


Schools of Islamic jurisprudence

Islamic schools of jurisprudence, known as ''madhhabs'', differ in the Principles of Islamic jurisprudence, methodology they use to derive their Ahkam, rulings from the
Quran The Quran (, ; ar, القرآن , "the recitation"), also romanized Qur'an or Koran, is the central religious text Religious texts, also known as scripture, scriptures, holy writ, or holy books, are the texts which various religious t ...

Quran
and hadith.


Sunnī

In terms of religious jurisprudence (''fiqh''), Sunnism contains several schools of thought (''madhhab'') such as: * the
Hanafi The Hanafi school ( ar, حَنَفِي, translit=Ḥanafī) is one of the four traditional major Sunni Sunni Islam () is by far the largest branch Image:Tree Leaves.JPG, The branches and leaves of a tree. A branch ( or , ) or tree b ...
school, founded by Abu Hanifa an-Nu'man. * the
Maliki The ( ar, مَالِكِي) school is one of the four major madhhab A ' ( ar, مذهب ', , "way to act") is a school of thought within '' fiqh'' (Islamic jurisprudence Jurisprudence, or legal theory, is the theoretical study of law. Sc ...
school, founded by
Malik ibn Anas Malik ibn Anas ( ar, مَالِك بن أَنَس, ‎ 711–795 CE / 93–179 AH), whose full name is Mālik bin Anas bin Mālik bin Abī ʿĀmir bin ʿAmr bin Al-Ḥārith bin Ghaymān bin Khuthayn bin ʿAmr bin Al-Ḥārith al-Aṣbaḥī ...
. * the Shafi'i school, founded by Muhammad ibn Idris ash-Shafi'i. * the
Hanbali The Hanbali school ( ar, ٱلْمَذْهَب ٱلْحَنۢبَلِي, al-maḏhab al-ḥanbalī) is one of the four major traditional Sunni Sunni Islam () is by far the largest branch Image:Tree Leaves.JPG, The branches and leaves o ...
school, founded by
Ahmad ibn Hanbal Abū ʿAbdillāh Aḥmad ibn Muḥammad ibn Ḥanbal Ash-Shaybānī ( ar, أَبُو عَبْدِ ٱلله أَحْمَد ابْن مُحَمَّد ابْن حَنۢبَل ٱلشَّيْبَانِي; 780–855 CE/164–241 AH), often referred t ...

Ahmad ibn Hanbal
. * the Ẓāhirī school or al-Ẓāhirīyyah, founded by Dawud al-Zahiri. Some consider it as a fifth madhhab, but some do not. The
Salafi movement The Salafi movement, also called the Salafist movement, ''Salafiyyah'' and Salafism, is a Islah, reform branch movement within Sunni Islam. The name derives from advocating a return to the traditions of the "pious predecessors" (''salaf''), th ...
, is a reform branch or revivalist movement in Sunni Islam that does not believe in strictly following one particular ''madhhab''. They include the Wahhabism, Wahhabi movement, an Islamic doctrine and religious movement founded by Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab, Muhammad ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab and the modern
Ahle Hadith Ahl-i Hadith or Ahl-e-Hadith ( fa, اهل حدیث, ur, اہل حدیث, ''people of hadith'') is a religious movement that emerged in North India North India is a loosely defined region consisting of the northern part of India. The domi ...
movement, whose followers call themselves ''Ahl al-Hadith.'' Some consider them to be a branch of the Wahhabi movement; which the adherents deny.


Shiʿa

The major Shiʿa school of jurisprudence is the Ja'fari jurisprudence, Jaʿfari or Imāmī school. It is further divided into two branches, the Usuli school, which favors the exercise of ijtihad, and the Akhbari school, which holds the traditions (''aḵbār'') of the Imams to be the main source of religious knowledge. Minor schools include the Ismailism, Ismāʿīlī school (Musta'li, Mustaʿlī-Fāṭimid Tayyibi, Ṭayyibi Isma'ilism, Ismāʿīlīyah), and the Zaidiyyah, Zaydī school, which have closer affinity to Sunni jurisprudence.


Ibadi

The fiqh or jurisprudence of Ibadis is relatively simple. Absolute authority is given to the Qur'an and hadith; new innovations accepted on the basis of qiyas (analogical reasoning) were rejected as bid'ah (heresy) by the Ibadis. That differs from the majority of Sunnis but agrees with most Shi'ites and the Zahiri and early
Hanbali The Hanbali school ( ar, ٱلْمَذْهَب ٱلْحَنۢبَلِي, al-maḏhab al-ḥanbalī) is one of the four major traditional Sunni Sunni Islam () is by far the largest branch Image:Tree Leaves.JPG, The branches and leaves o ...
schools of Sunnism.


Schools of Islamic theology

''Aqidah'' is an Islamic term meaning "creed", doctrine, or article of faith. There have existed many schools of Islamic theology, not all of which survive to the present day. Major themes of theological controversies in Islam have included Predestination in Islam, predestination and free will, the Quranic createdness, nature of the Quran, the nature of the Names of God in Islam, divine attributes, Zahir (Islam), apparent and Batin (Islam), esoteric meaning of scripture, and the role of Kalam, dialectical reasoning in the Islamic doctrine.


Sunni


Classical

''Kalam, Kalām'' is the Islamic philosophy of seeking theological principles through dialectic. In Arabic language, Arabic, the word literally means "speech/words". A scholar of ''kalām'' is referred to as a ''mutakallim'' (Muslim theologian; plural ''mutakallimūn''). There are many schools of Kalam, the main ones being the Ashʿarī and Māturīdī schools in Sunni Islam.


=Ashʿarī

= Ash'ari, Ashʿarīsm is a school of theology founded by Al-Ash'ari, Abū al-Ḥasan al-Ashʿarī in the 10th century. The Ashʿarīte view was that comprehension of the unique nature and characteristics of God were beyond human capability. Ashʿarī theology is considered one of the orthodox creeds of Sunni Islam alongside the Maturidi, Māturīdī theology. Historically, the Ashʿarī theology prevails in
Sufism Sufism ( ar, ٱلصُّوفِيَّة), also known as Tasawwuf (), is in , "characterized ... y particularvalues, ritual practices, doctrines and institutions". It is variously defined as "Islamic mysticism",Martin Lings, ''What is Sufism? ...

Sufism
and was originally associated with the
Ḥanbalī The Hanbali school ( ar, ٱلْمَذْهَب ٱلْحَنۢبَلِي, al-maḏhab al-ḥanbalī) is one of the four major traditional Sunni Sunni Islam () is by far the largest branch of Islam Islam (;There are ten pronunciations ...
Madhhab, school of Islamic jurisprudence.


=Māturīdī

= Maturidi, Māturīdism is a school of theology founded by Abu Mansur al-Maturidi, Abū Manṣūr al-Māturīdī in the 10th century, which is a close variant of the Ashʿarī school. Māturīdī theology is considered one of the orthodox creeds of Sunni Islam alongside the Ashʿarī theology, and prevails in the Ḥanafī Madhhab, school of Islamic jurisprudence. Points which differ are the nature of belief and the place of human reason. The Māturīdites state that ''Iman (concept), imān'' (faith) does not increase nor decrease but remains static; rather it's ''Taqwa, taqwā'' (piety) which increases and decreases. The Ashʿarītes affirm that belief does in fact increase and decrease. The Māturīdites affirm that the unaided human mind is able to find out that some of the more major sins such as alcohol or murder are evil without the help of revelation. The Ashʿarītes affirm that the unaided human mind is unable to know if something is good or evil, lawful or unlawful, without divine revelation.


Traditionalist theology

Traditionalist theology (Islam), Traditionalist theology, sometimes referred to as the Aṯharī school, derives its name from the word "tradition" as a translation of the Arabic word ''hadith'' or from the Arabic word ''aṯhar'', meaning "narrations". The traditionalist creed is to avoid delving into extensive theological speculation. They rely on the Qur'an, the Sunnah, and sayings of the Sahaba, seeing this as the middle path where the attributes of Allah are accepted without questioning their nature (''Bi-la kaifa, bi-la kayf'').
Ahmad ibn Hanbal Abū ʿAbdillāh Aḥmad ibn Muḥammad ibn Ḥanbal Ash-Shaybānī ( ar, أَبُو عَبْدِ ٱلله أَحْمَد ابْن مُحَمَّد ابْن حَنۢبَل ٱلشَّيْبَانِي; 780–855 CE/164–241 AH), often referred t ...

Ahmad ibn Hanbal
is regarded as the leader of the traditionalist school of creed. The modern
Salafi movement The Salafi movement, also called the Salafist movement, ''Salafiyyah'' and Salafism, is a Islah, reform branch movement within Sunni Islam. The name derives from advocating a return to the traditions of the "pious predecessors" (''salaf''), th ...
associates itself with the Aṯharī creed.


Muʿtazila

Muʿtazila, Muʿtazilite theology originated in the 8th century in Basra when Wasil ibn Ata left the teaching lessons of Hasan al-Basri after a theological dispute. He and his followers expanded on the logic and rationalism of Greek philosophy, seeking to combine them with Islamic doctrines and show that the two were inherently compatible. The Muʿtazilites debated philosophical questions such as whether Quranic createdness, the Qur'an was created or co-eternal with God, whether evil was created by God, the issue of Predestination in Islam, predestination versus Free will in theology#In Islamic thought, free will, whether God's attributes in the Qur'an were to be interpreted allegorically or literally, and whether sinning believers would have eternal punishment in Jahannam, hell.


Murji'ah

Murji'ah was a name for an early politico-religious movement which came to refer to all those who identified faith (''iman'') with belief to the exclusion of acts.


Qadariyyah

Qadariyyah is an originally derogatory term designating early Islamic theologians who asserted that humans possess free will, whose exercise makes them responsible for their actions, justifying divine punishment and absolving God of responsibility for evil in the world. Some of their doctrines were later adopted by the Mu'tazilis and rejected by the Ash'aris.


Jabriyah

In direct contrast to the Qadariyyah, Jabriyah was an early islamic philosophical school based on the belief that humans are controlled by predestination, without having choice or free will. The Jabriya school originated during the Umayyad dynasty in Basra. The first representative of this school was Al-Ja'd ibn Dirham who was executed in 724. The term is derived from the Arabic root j-b-r, in the sense which gives the meaning of someone who is forced or coerced by destiny. The term Jabriyah was also a derogatory term used by different Islamic groups that they considered wrong, The Ash'ariyah used the term Jabriyah in the first place to describe the followers of, Jahm ibn Safwan who died in 746, in that they regarded their faith as a middle position between Qadariyah and Jabriya. On the other hand, the Mu'tazilah considered the Ash'ariyah as Jabriyah because, in their opinion, they rejected the orthodox doctrine of free will. The Shiites used the term Jabriyah to describe the Ash'ariyah and Hanbalis.


Jahmiyyah

Jahmis were the alleged followers of the early Islamic theologian Jahm bin Safwan who associated himself with Al-Harith ibn Surayj. He was an exponent of extreme determinism according to which a man acts only metaphorically in the same way in which the sun acts or does something when it sets.


Batiniyyah

The ''Batiniyyah, Bāṭiniyyah'' is a name given to an allegoristic type of scriptural interpretation developed among some Shia groups, stressing the ''Batin (Islam), bāṭin'' (inward, esoteric) meaning of texts. It has been retained by all branches of
Isma'ilism Ismāʿīlism (Arabic language, Arabic: , ) is a branch or sub-sect of Shia Islam. The Ismāʿīlī () get their name from their acceptance of Imam Isma'il ibn Jafar as the appointed spiritual successor (Imamate in Nizari doctrine, imām) to ...
and its
Druze Druze (; ar, درزي ' or ', plural ') are members of an Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East The Mi ...
offshoot. Alevism, Bektashism and folk religion, Hurufis and
Alawites The Alawis, or Alawites ( ar, علوية ''Alawīyah''), are a sect of Shia Islam Shia Islam or Shi'ism is one of the two main Islamic schools and branches, branches of Islam. It holds that the Prophets and messengers in Islam, Islamic ...
practice a similar system of interpretation.


Later movements


African-American movements

Many Atlantic slave trade, slaves brought from Africa to the Western Hemisphere were Muslim slaves in the United States, Muslims. Although it is thought that the Islam of slaves didn't survive past 1920, the early 20th century saw the rise of distinct Islamic religious and political movements within the African-Americans, African-American community in the United States, such as Darul Islam, the Islamic Party of North America, the Mosque of Islamic Brotherhood (MIB), the Muslim Alliance in North America (MANA), the Moorish Science Temple of America, the
Nation of Islam The Nation of Islam (NOI) is a religious and political organization which was founded in the United States by Wallace Fard Muhammad in 1930. A Black nationalism, black nationalist organization, the NOI focuses its attention on the African dia ...
(NOI), and the Ansaaru Allah Community. They sought to ascribe Islamic heritage to African-Americans, thereby giving much emphasis on racial and ethnic aspects (see black nationalism). These Black Muslims (disambiguation), black Muslim movements often differ greatly in matters of doctrine from mainstream Islam. They include: *Moorish Science Temple of America, founded in 1913 by Noble Drew Ali (born Timothy Drew). The Moorish Science Temple of America is characterized by a strong African-American ethnic and religious identity. **Moorish Orthodox Church of America *
Nation of Islam The Nation of Islam (NOI) is a religious and political organization which was founded in the United States by Wallace Fard Muhammad in 1930. A Black nationalism, black nationalist organization, the NOI focuses its attention on the African dia ...
, founded by Wallace Fard Muhammad in Detroit in 1930,Milton C. Sernett (1999). ''African American religious history: a documentary witness''. Duke University Press. pp. 499–501. with a declared aim of "resurrecting" the spiritual, mental, social, and economic condition of the African American, black man and woman of America and the world. The Nation of Islam believes that Wallace Fard Muhammad was Allah, God on earth. The Nation of Islam doesn't consider the Arabian Muhammad as the final prophet and instead regards Elijah Muhammad, successor of Wallace Fard Muhammad, as the true Messenger of Allah. **American Society of Muslims: Warith Deen Mohammed established the American Society of Muslims in 1975. This offshoot wanted to bring its teachings more in line with mainstream Sunni Islam, establishing mosques instead of temples, and promoting the Five pillars of Islam.''Evolution of a Community'', WDM Publications, 1995. **Five-Percent Nation **United Nation of Islam


Ahmadiyya Movement In Islam

The Ahmadiyya, Ahmadiyya Movement in Islam was founded in British India in 1889 by Mirza Ghulam Ahmad of Qadian, who claimed to be the promised Messiah ("Second Coming of Jesus in Islam, Christ"), the Mahdi awaited by the Muslims as well as a Prophethood (Ahmadiyya), "subordinate" prophet to the Islamic prophet Muhammad. Ahmadis claim to practice the pristine form of Islam as followed by Muhammad and his Companions of the Prophet, earliest followers. They believe that it was Mirza Ghulam Ahmad's task to restore the original ''sharia'' given to Muhammad by guiding the ''Ummah'' back to the "true"
Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodness", "ah gosh", "ah gawd"; see interjection An interjection is a word or ex ...
and defeat the attacks on Islam by other religions. There are a wide variety of distinct beliefs and teachings of Ahmadis compared to those of ''most other'' Muslims, which include the interpretation of the Quranic title ''Khatam an-Nabiyyin'', interpretation of the Jesus in Ahmadiyya Islam, Messiah's Second Coming, complete rejection of the Naskh (tafsir), abrogation/cancellation of Quranic verses, belief that Jesus in Ahmadiyya Islam, Jesus survived the crucifixion and died of old age in India, Ahmadiyya view on Jihad, conditions of the "''Jihad'' of the Sword" are no longer met, belief that Revelation in Islam, divine revelation (as long as no new ''sharia'' is given) will never end, belief in Social cycle theory, cyclical nature of history until Muhammad, and belief in the implausibility of a contradiction between Islamic attitudes towards science, Islam and science. These perceived deviations from normative Islamic thought have resulted in severe persecution of Ahmadis in various Muslim-majority countries, particularly Ahmadiyya in Pakistan, Pakistan, where they have been branded as Non-Muslims and their Islamic religious practices are punishable by the Ahmadi-Specific laws in the Ordinance XX, penal code. The followers of the Ahmadiyya Movement in Islam are divided into two groups: the first being the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community, currently the dominant group, and the Lahore Ahmadiyya Movement for the Propagation of Islam. The larger group takes a literalist view believing that Mirza Ghulam Ahmad was the promised Mahdi and a ''Ummati Nabi'' subservient to Muhammad, while the latter believing that he was only a Mujaddid, religious reformer and a prophet only in an allegorical sense. Both Ahmadi groups are active in ''dawah'' or Islamic missionary work, and have produced vasts amounts of Islamic literature, including Ahmadiyya translations of the Quran, numerous translations of the Quran, translations of the Hadith, Tafsir, Quranic ''tafsirs'', a multitude of List of biographies of Muhammad, ''sirahs'' of Muhammad, and works on the subject of comparative religion among others. As such, their international influence far exceeds their number of adherents. Muslims from more Orthodox sects of Islam have adopted many Ahmadi polemics and understandings of other religions, along with the Ahmadi approach to reconcile Islamic and Western education as well as to establish Islamic school systems, particularly in Africa.


Barelvi / Deobandi split

Sunni Muslims of the Indian subcontinent comprising present day India, Pakistan and Bangladesh who are overwhelmingly
Hanafi The Hanafi school ( ar, حَنَفِي, translit=Ḥanafī) is one of the four traditional major Sunni Sunni Islam () is by far the largest branch Image:Tree Leaves.JPG, The branches and leaves of a tree. A branch ( or , ) or tree b ...
by fiqh have split into two schools or movements, the
Barelvi Barelvi ( ur, بَریلوِی, , ) is a movement following the Sunni Hanafi school of jurisprudence Jurisprudence, or legal theory, is the theoretical study of law. Scholars of jurisprudence seek to explain the nature of law in its most ...
and the
Deobandi Deobandi is an Islamic revival Islamic revival ( ar, تجديد'' '', lit., "regeneration, renewal"; also ', "Islamic awakening") refers to a revival of the Islamic religion. The revivers are known in Islam as ''Mujaddids''. Within the ...
. While the Deobandi is revivalist in nature, the Barelvi are more traditional and inclined towards
Sufism Sufism ( ar, ٱلصُّوفِيَّة), also known as Tasawwuf (), is in , "characterized ... y particularvalues, ritual practices, doctrines and institutions". It is variously defined as "Islamic mysticism",Martin Lings, ''What is Sufism? ...

Sufism
.


Gülen / Hizmet movement

The Gülen movement, usually referred to as the Hizmet movement, established in the 1970s as an offshoot of the Nur Movement and led by the Turkish Islamic scholar and preacher Fethullah Gülen in
Turkey Turkey ( tr, Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country located mainly on Anatolia Anatolia,, tr, Anadolu Yarımadası), and the Anatolian plateau. also known as Asia Minor, is a large peninsula in Western Asia an ...

Turkey
, Central Asia, and in other parts of the world, is active in education, with private schools and universities in over 180 countries as well as with many American charter schools operated by followers. It has initiated forums for interfaith dialogue. The Gülen movement, Cemaat movement's structure has been described as a flexible organizational network. Movement schools and businesses organize locally and link themselves into informal networks. Estimates of the number of schools and educational institutions vary widely; it appears there are about 300 Gülen movement schools in Turkey and over 1,000 schools worldwide.


Islamic modernism

Islamic modernism Islamic Modernism is a movement that has been described as "the first Muslim Muslims () are people who follow or practice Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may refer to: * ...
, also sometimes referred to as "modernist Salafism", is a movement that has been described as "the first Muslim ideological response" attempting to reconcile Islamic faith with modern Western values such as nationalism, Islamic democracy, democracy, and Islamic attitudes towards science, science.''Encyclopedia of Islam and the Muslim World'', Thompson Gale (2004)


Islamism

Islamism Islamism (also often called political Islam Political Islam is any interpretation of Islam as a source of political identity and action. It can refer to a wide range of individuals and/or groups who advocate the formation of state and society a ...
is a set of political Ideology, ideologies, derived from various Islamic fundamentalism, fundamentalist views, which hold that Islam is not only a religion but a political system that should govern the legal, economic and social imperatives of the state. Many Islamists do not refer to themselves as such and it is not a single particular movement. Religious views and ideologies of its adherents vary, and they may be Sunni Islamists or Shia Islamists depending upon their beliefs. Islamist groups include groups such as Al-Qaeda, the organizer of the September 11, 2001 attacks and perhaps the most prominent; and the Muslim Brotherhood, the largest and perhaps the oldest. Although violence is often employed by some organizations, most Islamist movements are nonviolent.


Muslim Brotherhood

The ''Al-Ikhwan Al-Muslimun'' (with Ikhwan brethren) or Muslim Brotherhood, is an organisation that was founded by Egyptian scholar Hassan al-Banna, a graduate of Dar al-Ulum. With its various branches, it is the largest Sunni movement in the Arab world, and an affiliate is often the largest opposition party in many Arab nations. The Muslim Brotherhood is not concerned with theological differences, accepting both, Muslims of any of the four Sunni schools of thought, and Shi'a Muslims. It is the world's oldest and largest Islamist group. Its aims are to re-establish the Caliphate and in the meantime, push for more Islamisation of society. The Brotherhood's stated goal is to instill the Qur'an and ''sunnah'' as the "sole reference point for... ordering the life of the Muslim family, individual, community... and state".


Jamaat-e-Islami

The ''Jamaat-e-Islami'' (or JI) is an Islamist political party in the Indian subcontinent. It was founded in Lahore, British India, by Abul A'la Maududi, Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi (with alternative spellings of last name Maudoodi) in 1941 and is Jamaat-e-Islami Pakistan, the oldest religious party in Pakistan. Today, sister organizations with similar objectives and ideological approaches exist in India (Jamaat-e-Islami Hind), Bangladesh (Jamaat-e-Islami Bangladesh), Kashmir (Jamaat-e-Islami Kashmir), and Sri Lanka, and there are "close brotherly relations" with the Islamist movements and missions "working in different continents and countries", particularly those affiliated with the Muslim Brotherhood (Akhwan-al-Muslimeen). The JI envisions an Islamic government in Pakistan and Bangladesh governing by Islamic law. It opposes Westernization—including secularization, capitalism, socialism, or such practices as interest based banking, and favours an Islamic economic order and Caliphate.


Hizb ut-Tahrir

''Hizb ut-Tahrir'' ( ar, حزب التحرير) (Translation: Party of Liberation) is an international, Pan-Islamism, pan-Islamist political organization which describes its ideology as Islam, and its aim the re-establishment of the Islamic Khilafah (Caliphate) to resume Islamic ways of life in the Muslim world. The caliphate would unite the Muslim community (''Ummah'') upon their Islamic creed and implement the Shariah, so as to then carry the Da'wah, proselytizing of Islam to the rest of the world.


Quranism

Quranist Islam, QuranismQuranism#DWBRTMIT1996, Brown, ''Rethinking tradition in modern Islamic thought'', 1996: p.38-42 or Quraniyya ( ar, القرآنية; ''al-Qur'āniyya'') is a protestant branch of
Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodness", "ah gosh", "ah gawd"; see interjection An interjection is a word or ex ...
. It holds the belief that Islam, Islamic guidance and law should only be based on the Qur'an, Quran, thus Criticism of Hadith, opposing the religious authority and authenticity of the hadith literature. Quranists believe that God's message is already clear and complete in the Quran and it can therefore be fully understood without referencing outside texts. Quranists claim that the vast majority of hadith literature are forged lies and believe that the Quran itself criticizes the hadith both in the technical sense and the general sense.''al-Manar'' 12(1911): 693-99; cited in Juynboll, ''Authenticity'', 30; cited in Quranist Islam#DWBRTMIT1996, D.W. Brown, ''Rethinking tradition in modern Islamic thought'', 1996: p.120


Liberal and progressive Islam

Liberalism and progressivism within Islam, Liberal Islam originally emerged out of the Islamic revival, Islamic revivalist movement of the 18th-19th centuries. Liberalism, Liberal and Progressivism, progressive Islamic organizations and movements are primarily based in the Western world, and have in common a religious outlook which depends mainly on ''ijtihad'' or re-interpretation of the Islamic holy books, sacred scriptures of Islam. Liberal and progressive Muslims are characterized by a Rationalism, rationalistic, critical examination and re-interpretation of the sacred scriptures of Islam; affirmation and promotion of democracy, gender equality, human rights, LGBT rights, women's rights, religious pluralism, Interfaith marriage in Islam, interfaith marriage, freedom of expression, freedom of thought, and freedom of religion; opposition to theocracy and total rejection of
Islamism Islamism (also often called political Islam Political Islam is any interpretation of Islam as a source of political identity and action. It can refer to a wide range of individuals and/or groups who advocate the formation of state and society a ...
and Islamic fundamentalism; and a modern view of Islamic theology, Islamic ethics, ethics, ''sharia'', Islamic culture, culture, tradition, and other ritualistic practices in Islam.


Mahdavia

Mahdavia, or Mahdavism, is a Mahdiist sect founded in late 15th century India by Syed Muhammad Jaunpuri, who declared himself to be the Muhammad al-Mahdi, Hidden Twelfth Imam of the Twelver Shia tradition. They follow many aspects of the Sunni doctrine. Zikri Mahdavis, or Zikris, are an offshoot of the Mahdavi movement."Zikris (pronounced 'Zigris' in Baluchi) are estimated to number over 750,000 people. They live mostly in Makran and Las Bela in southern Pakistan, and are followers of a 15th-century mahdi, an Islamic messiah, called Nur Pak ('Pure Light'). Zikri practices and rituals differ from those of orthodox Islam... " Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 3 – Asia & Oceania. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998); p. 85 cited afte
adherents.com


Non-denominational Islam

Non-denominational Muslims is an umbrella term that has been used for and by Muslims who do not belong to or do not self-identify with a specific Islamic denomination. A quarter of the world's Muslims are non-denominational Muslims.


Tolu-e-Islam

Tolu-e-Islam (organization), Tolu-e-Islam ("Resurgence of Islam") is a non-denominational Muslim organization based in Pakistan, with members throughout the world. The movement was initiated by Ghulam Ahmed Pervez.


Salafism and Wahhabism


''Ahle Hadith''

Ahl-i Hadith ( fa, اهل حدیث, ur, اہل حدیث: ) is a movement which emerged in the Indian subcontinent in the mid-19th century. Its followers call themselves ''Ahl al-Hadith'' and are considered to be a branch of the ''Salafi movement, Salafiyya'' school. Ahl-i Hadith is antithetical to various beliefs and mystical practices associated with folk
Sufism Sufism ( ar, ٱلصُّوفِيَّة), also known as Tasawwuf (), is in , "characterized ... y particularvalues, ritual practices, doctrines and institutions". It is variously defined as "Islamic mysticism",Martin Lings, ''What is Sufism? ...

Sufism
. Ahl-i Hadith shares many doctrinal similarities with the Wahhabism, Wahhabi movement and hence often classified as being synonymous with the "Wahhabism#Definitions and etymology, Wahhabis" by its adversaries. However, its followers reject this designation, preferring to identify themselves as "Salafis".


''Salafiyya'' movement

The Salafi movement, ''Salafiyya'' movement is a conservative, ''Islah, Islahi'' (reform) movement within Sunni Islam that emerged in the second half of the 19th century and advocate a return to the traditions of the "devout ancestors" (''Salaf, Salaf al-Salih''). It has been described as the "fastest-growing Islamic movement"; with each scholar expressing diverse views across social, theological, and political spectrum. Salafis follow a doctrine that can be summed up as taking "a Islamic fundamentalism, fundamentalist approach to Islam, emulating the Prophet
Muhammad Muhammad ibn AbdullahHe is referred to by many appellations, including Messenger of Allah, The Prophet Muhammad, Allah's Apostle, Last Prophet of Islam, and others; there are also many variant spellings of Muhammad, such as Mohamet, Mohammed, ...

Muhammad
and his earliest followers—''al-salaf al-salih'', the 'pious forefathers'....They reject religious innovation, or ''bidʻah'', and support the implementation of ''Sharia'' (Islamic law)." The Salafi movement is often divided into three categories: the largest group are the purists (or Political quietism in Islam, quietists), who avoid politics; the second largest group are the Islamism, militant activists, who get involved in politics; the third and last group are the Salafi jihadism, jihadists, who constitute a minority. Most of the violent Islamist groups come from the Salafi jihadism, Salafi-Jihadist movement and their subgroups. In recent years, Jihadi-Salafist doctrines have often been associated with the armed insurgencies of Islamic extremism, Islamic extremist movements and Islamic terrorism, terrorist organizations targeting innocent civilians, both Muslims and Non-Muslims, such as al-Qaeda, Islamic State, ISIL/ISIS/IS/Daesh, Boko Haram, etc. The second largest group are the Salafi activists who have a long tradition of political activism, such as those that operate in organizations like the Muslim Brotherhood, the Arab world's major Islamism, Islamist movement. In the aftermath of widescale repressions after the Arab Spring, Arab spring, accompanied by their political failures, the activist-Salafi movements have undergone a decline. The most numerous are the Political quietism in Islam, quietists, who believe in disengagement from politics and accept allegiance to Muslim governments, no matter how tyrannical, to avoid ''Fitna (word), fitna'' (chaos).


Wahhabism

The Wahhabism, Wahhabi movement was founded and spearheaded by the Ḥanbalī scholar and theologian Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab, Muhammad ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab, a religious preacher from the Najd region in Arabian Peninsula, central Arabia, and was instrumental in the rise of the House of Saud to power in the Arabian peninsula. Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab sought to Islamic revival, revive and purify
Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodness", "ah gosh", "ah gawd"; see interjection An interjection is a word or ex ...
from what he perceived as non-Islamic popular religious beliefs and practices by returning to what, he believed, were the Islamic fundamentalism, fundamental principles of the Islamic religion. His works were generally short, full of quotations from the
Quran The Quran (, ; ar, القرآن , "the recitation"), also romanized Qur'an or Koran, is the central religious text Religious texts, also known as scripture, scriptures, holy writ, or holy books, are the texts which various religious t ...

Quran
and Hadith, ''Hadith'' literature, such as his main and foremost theological treatise, ''Kitāb at-Tawḥīd'' ( ar, كتاب التوحيد; "The Book of Oneness"). He taught that the primary doctrine of Islam was the Tawhid, uniqueness and oneness of God (''tawḥīd''), and denounced what he held to be popular religious beliefs and practices among Muslims that he considered to be akin to Bidʻah, heretical innovation (''bidʿah'') and Shirk (Islam), polytheism (''shirk''). Wahhabism has been described as a conservative, strict, and Islamic fundamentalism, fundamentalist branch of Sunnī Islam, with Islamic extremism, extremist views, believing in a literal interpretation of the Quran. The terms "
Wahhabism Wahhabism ( ar, الوهابية, lit=Wahhabism, translit=al-Wahhābiyyah) is a term used to refer to the Islamic revival, Islamic revivalist and Islamic fundamentalism, fundamentalist movement within Sunni Islam which is associated with the H ...
" and "Salafism" are sometimes evoked interchangeably, although the designation "Wahhabism#Definitions and etymology, Wahhabi" is specifically applied to the followers of Muhammad ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab and his reformist doctrines; the label "Wahhabi" was not claimed by his followers, which usually refer to themselves as ''al-Muwaḥḥidūn'' ("affirmers of the singularity of God"), but is rather employed by Western scholars as well as his critics. Starting in the mid-1970s and 1980s, the international propagation of Salafism and Wahhabism within Sunnī Islam favored by the Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and other Arab states of the Persian Gulf has achieved what the French political scientist Gilles Kepel defined as a "preeminent position of strength in the global expression of Islam." 22 months after the September 11 attacks, when the Federal Bureau of Investigation, FBI considered al-Qaeda as "the number one terrorist threat to the United States", journalist Stephen Suleyman Schwartz, Stephen Schwartz and U.S. Senator Jon Kyl have explicitly stated during a hearing that occurred in June 2003 before the Subcommittee on Terrorism, Technology, and Homeland Security of the United States Senate, U.S. Senate that "Wahhabism is the source of the List of terrorist incidents, overwhelming majority of terrorist atrocities in today's world". As part of the global "War on terror, War on Terror", Wahhabism has been accused by the European Parliament, various Western security analysts, and think tanks like the RAND Corporation, as being "a source of global terrorism". Furthermore, Wahhabism has been accused of causing disunity in the
Muslim community Muslims () are people who follow or practice Islam Islam (;There are ten pronunciations of ''Islam'' in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the ''s'' is or , and whether the ''a'' is prono ...
(''Ummah'') and criticized for its followers' Destruction of early Islamic heritage sites in Saudi Arabia, destruction of many Islamic, cultural, and historical sites associated with the
early history of Islam The history of Islam concerns the political, social, economic, and cultural developments of Islamic civilization. Most historians believe that Islam Islam (;There are ten pronunciations of ''Islam'' in English, differing in whether the f ...
and the first generation of Muslims (Ahl al-Bayt, Muhammad's family and his Companions of the Prophet, companions) in Saudi Arabia.


Population of the branches


See also

* Amman Message * Aqidah * Glossary of Islam * Index of Islam-related articles * International Islamic Unity Conference (Iran) * Islamic eschatology * Islamic studies * Madhhab * Outline of Islam * Schools of Islamic theology * Shia crescent * Shia–Sunni relations * Succession to Muhammad


References


External links


The Four Sunni Schools of Thought
{{Authority control Islamic branches, Religious denominations Shia Islam Twelvers