HOME

TheInfoList




Islamabad (; ur, , translit=Islām Ābād) is the
capital city A capital or capital city is the municipality holding primary status in a Department (country subdivision), department, country, Constituent state, state, province, or other administrative region, usually as its seat of the government. A capita ...
of Pakistan, and is administered by the Pakistani federal government as part of the
Islamabad Capital Territory Islamabad Capital Territory ( ur, , translit=vafāqī dār-alhakūmat) is the only of . Located between and province. It includes the country's federal capital . The territory is represented in the constituencies , and . History In 1960, ...
. It is the ninth-largest city in Pakistan, while the larger
Islamabad–Rawalpindi metropolitan area The Islamabad–Rawalpindi metropolitan area (Urdu Urdu (; ur, , ALA-LC: ) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken chiefly in South Asia South Asia is the southern region of Asia, which is defined in both geography, geographical and cultur ...
is the country's third-largest with a population of about 4.1 million people. Built as a
planned city A planned community, planned city, or planned town is any community that was carefully planned from its inception and is typically constructed on previously undeveloped land. This contrasts with settlements that evolve in a more ''ad hoc'' ...
in the 1960s to replace
Karachi Karachi (; ur, ; ; : , , ) is the and the in the world. It is the capital of the Pakistani province of . Ranked as a , it is 's premier industrial and financial centre, with an estimated GDP of $164 billion () . Karachi is Pakistan's most ...

Karachi
as Pakistan's capital, Islamabad is noted for its high standards of living, safety, and abundant greenery. The master plan for the city was designed by
Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of ...

Greek
architect
Constantinos Apostolou Doxiadis Constantinos A. Doxiadis, . (also Konstantinos; 14 May 1913 – 28 June 1975), often cited as C. A. Doxiadis, was a Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially th ...
and divides the city into eight zones, including administrative, diplomatic enclave, residential areas, educational and industrial sectors, commercial areas, as well as rural and green areas which are administered by the Islamabad Metropolitan Corporation with support from the Capital Development Authority. Islamabad is known for the presence of several parks and forests, including the
Margalla Hills National Park Margalla Hills National Park ( ur, ) is a List of national parks of Pakistan, national park located in Islamabad Capital Territory, Pakistan. The park includes the Margalla Hills, which form's the foothills of the Himalayas, along with Shakarparia ...

Margalla Hills National Park
and the
Shakarparian Shakarparian (; also known as Shakarparian Hills) is a hill, and a national and an amusement park located near the Zero Point Interchange in Islamabad Islamabad (; ur, , translit=Islāmābād) is the capital city of Pakistan, and is feder ...
. It is home to several landmarks, with the most notable one being the
Faisal Mosque The Faisal Mosque ( ur, , faisal masjid) is a mosque located in Islamabad, Pakistan. It is the fifth-largest mosque in the world and the largest within South Asia, located on the foothills of Margalla Hills The Margalla Hills () is a h ...

Faisal Mosque
, the largest mosque in
South Asia South Asia is the southern region of Asia, which is defined in both geography, geographical and culture, ethno-cultural terms. The region consists of the countries of Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri La ...

South Asia
and the fifth-largest in the world. Other landmarks include the
Pakistan National Monument
Pakistan National Monument
and the Democracy Square. Islamabad is a
Gamma+
Gamma+
city as rated by the
Globalization and World Cities Research Network The Globalization and World Cities Research Network, commonly abbreviated to GaWC, is a think tank A think tank, or policy institute, is a research institute A research institute, research centre, or research center is an establishment founded for ...
. It has the highest
cost of living Cost of living is the cost of maintaining a certain standard of living. Changes in the cost of living over time are often operationalized in a cost-of-living index. Cost of living calculations are also used to compare the cost of maintaining a c ...
in Pakistan, and its populace is dominated by middle and upper middle class citizens. The city is home to twenty universities, including
Bahria University Bahria University ( ur, ) or BU, is a Federally Chartered Public Sector university A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational institution, institution of higher education, higher (or Tertiary education, tertiary) education an ...
,
Quaid-e-Azam University Quaid-I-Azam University Islamabad ( ur, ; commonly referred to as QAU), founded as University of Islamabad, is a public In public relations and communication science, publics are groups of individual people, and the public (a.k.a. the gen ...
, PIEAS,
COMSATS University The COMSATS University Islamabad (CUI), formerly known as COMSATS Institute of Information Technology (CIIT), is a public university in Pakistan. It is a multi-campus university with its principal seat located in Islamabad. In the latest QS Subjec ...
and NUST. The city is rated as one of the safest in Pakistan, and has an expansive
RFID Radio-frequency identification (RFID) uses electromagnetic field An electromagnetic field (also EM field or EMF) is a classical (i.e. non-quantum) field Field may refer to: Expanses of open ground * Field (agriculture), an area of land used fo ...
-enabled with almost 2000 active
CCTV Closed-circuit television (CCTV), also known as video surveillance, is the use of video cameras to transmit a signal to a specific place, on a limited set of monitors. It differs from broadcast television in that the signal is not openly tra ...
cameras.


Toponymy

The name ''Islamabad'' means ''City of Islam''. It is derived from two words: ''Islam'' and ''abad''. ''Islam'' refers to the religion of
Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodness", "ah gosh", "ah gawd"; see interjection An interjection is a word or ex ...
, Pakistan's
state religion A state religion (also called an established religion or official religion) is a religion Religion is a social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social whether ...
, and ''
-abad -''abad'' is a suffix that forms part of many west, central and south Asian city names originally derived from the Persian language Persian (), also known by its endonym Farsi (, ', ), is a Western Iranian language belonging to the Irania ...
'' is a
Persian Persian may refer to: * People and things from Iran, historically called ''Persia'' in the English language ** Persians, Persian people, the majority ethnic group in Iran, not to be conflated with the Iranian peoples ** Persian language, an Iranian ...
suffix meaning ''cultivated place'', indicating an inhabited place or city. According to a history book by Muhammad Ismail Zabeeh, a school teacher from
Arifwala Arifwala ( pa, ) is a tehsil of Pakpattan District in the Punjab, Pakistan, Punjab province of Pakistan. Administration The tehsil of Arifwala is administratively subdivided into 30 Union Councils of Pakistan, Union Councils. Demography Most ...
known as Abdur Rehman Amritsari proposed the name of the city. Occasionally in writing, Islamabad is colloquially abbreviated ''ISB''. Such usage originated in
SMS language SMS (Short Message Service) is a text messaging service component of most telephone A telephone is a telecommunications Appliance (disambiguation), device that permits two or more users to conduct a conversation when they are too far ap ...
, in part due to the
IATA location identifier An IATA airport code, also known as an IATA location identifier, IATA station code, or simply a location identifier, is a three-letter geocode designating many airports and metropolitan areas around the world, defined by the International Air Tran ...
for
Islamabad International Airport Islamabad International Airport ( ur, ; ) is the main international airport serving the Islamabad-Rawalpindi metropolitan area and its suburbs. It is built 20 km west of the twin cities near the Kashmir Highway and Motorway Interchange. ...

Islamabad International Airport
.


History


Early history

Islamabad Capital Territory Islamabad Capital Territory ( ur, , translit=vafāqī dār-alhakūmat) is the only of . Located between and province. It includes the country's federal capital . The territory is represented in the constituencies , and . History In 1960, ...
, located on the
Pothohar Plateau The Pothohar Plateau ( Pothwari:, ur, ) alternatively spelled Potohar, Potwar or Pothwar, also known as Panjistan) is a plateau In geology Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, ''gē'' ("earth") and -λoγία, ''-logia'', ("study of", ...
of the northern
Punjab region Punjab (; ; ; ; also romanised Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for studying and m ...

Punjab region
, is considered one of the earliest sites of human settlement in Asia. Some of the earliest Stone Age artefacts in the world have been found on the plateau, dating from 100,000 to 500,000 years ago. Rudimentary stones recovered from the terraces of the
Soan River The Soan River ( ur, ), also referred to as the Swan, Sawan, or Sohan, is a river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river. In some cases, a river flows into the ...

Soan River
testify to the endeavours of early man in the inter-glacial period. Items of pottery and utensils dating back to prehistory have been found. Excavations by Dr. Abdul Ghafoor Lone reveal evidence of a prehistoric culture in the area. Relics and human skulls have been found dating back to 5000 BCE that indicate the region was home to
Neolithic The Neolithic period is the final division of the Stone Age The Stone Age was a broad prehistoric Prehistory, also known as pre-literary history, is the period of human history Human history, also known as world history, is t ...
peoples who settled on the banks of the
Swaan River The Soan River ( ur, ), also referred to as the Swan, Sawan, or Sohan, is a river in Punjab (Pakistan), Punjab, Pakistan. Location and geography The Soan River is an important stream of the Pothohar or North Punjab region of Pakistan. It drai ...
, and who later developed small communities in the region around 3000 BCE. The
Indus Valley Civilization The Indus Valley Civilisation (IVC), also known as the Indus Civilisation, was a Bronze Age The Bronze Age is a prehistoric that was characterized by the use of , in some areas , and other early features of urban . The Bronze Age is ...

Indus Valley Civilization
flourished in the region between the 23rd and 18th centuries BCE. Later the area was an early settlement of the
Aryan Aryan or Arya (, Indo-Iranian *''arya'') is a term originally used as an ethnocultural An ethnoreligious group (or ethno-religious group) is an ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people who identify with each other ...

Aryan
community which migrated into the region from
Central Asia Central Asia is a region in Asia which stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China and Mongolia in the east, and from Afghanistan and Iran in the south to Russia in the north, including the former Soviet Union, Soviet republics of the Sov ...

Central Asia
. Many great armies such as those of Zahiruddin Babur,
Genghis Khan ''Chinggis Khaan'' ͡ʃʰiŋɡɪs xaːŋbr>Mongol script The classical or traditional Mongolian script, also known as the , was the first Mongolian alphabet, writing system created specifically for the Mongolian language, and was the most ...

Genghis Khan
,
Timur Timur ; chg, ''Aqsaq Temür'', 'Timur the Lame') or as ''Sahib-i-Qiran'' ( 'Lord of the Auspicious Conjunction'), his epithet. ( chg, ''Temür'', 'Iron'; 9 April 133617–19 February 1405), later Timūr Gurkānī ( chg, ''Temür Kür ...

Timur
and
Ahmad Shah Durrani Ahmad Shāh Durrānī (c. 1722 – 4 June 1772) (Pashto Pashto (,; / , ), sometimes spelled Pukhto or Pakhto, is an Eastern Iranian language The Eastern Iranian languages are a subgroup of the Iranian languages The Iranian ...
crossed the region during their invasions of the Indian subcontinent. In 2015–16, the Federal Department of Archaeology and Museums, with the financial support of National Fund for Cultural Heritage, carried out initial archaeological excavations in which unearthed the remains of a Buddhist stupa at Ban Faqiran, near the Shah Allah Ditta caves, which was dated to the 2nd to the 5th century CE. File:Gate of Pharwala Fort toward the Swaan stream.JPG, 15th-century Pharwala Fort beside the
Swaan River The Soan River ( ur, ), also referred to as the Swan, Sawan, or Sohan, is a river in Punjab (Pakistan), Punjab, Pakistan. Location and geography The Soan River is an important stream of the Pothohar or North Punjab region of Pakistan. It drai ...
File:Mausoleum_of_Meher_Ali_Shah_by_Balochlens.jpg, The popular Shrine of Meher Ali Shah was completed immediately before construction began on the future capital city just east of the shrine File:Shah_Allah_Ditta_caves_2.JPG, The caves at Shah Allah Ditta, on Islamabad's outskirts, were part of an ancient Buddhist monastic community File:Saidpur 1.jpg, The restored village of Saidpur predates the surrounding city of Islamabad


Construction and development

When Pakistan gained independence in 1947, the southern port city of Karachi was its provisional national capital. In 1958, a commission was constituted to select a suitable site near
Rawalpindi Rawalpindi ( or ; Punjabi language, Punjabi / ), colloquially known as Pindi (), is the capital city of Rawalpindi Division located in the Punjab (Pakistan), Punjab province of Pakistan. Rawalpindi is the List of Pakistani cities by populat ...

Rawalpindi
for the national capital with particular emphasis on location, climate, logistics, and defence requirements, along with other attributes. After extensive study, research, and a thorough review of potential sites, the commission recommended the area northeast of Rawalpindi in 1959. In the 1960s, Islamabad was constructed as a
forward capital A capital or capital city is the municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division having Municipal corporation, corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and regional laws ...
for several reasons. Karachi was also located at the southern end of the country, and exposed to attacks from the
Arabian Sea The Arabian Sea ( ar, بحر العرب ''Bahr al-Arab'') is a region of the northern Indian Ocean The Indian Ocean is the third-largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering or 19.8% of the water Water is an Inorganic co ...
. Pakistan needed a capital that was easily accessible from all parts of the country. Karachi, a business centre, was also considered unsuitable partly because of intervention of business interests in government affairs. The newly selected location of Islamabad was closer to the army headquarters in Rawalpindi and the disputed territory of
Kashmir Kashmir, ks, کٔشیٖر, kaśīr () is the northernmost geographical region of the Indian subcontinent. Until the mid-19th century, the term "Kashmir" denoted only the Kashmir Valley The Kashmir Valley, also known as the ''Vale ...

Kashmir
in the north. Greek firm of architects, led by
Konstantinos Apostolos Doxiadis Constantinos A. Doxiadis, . (also Konstantinos; 14 May 1913 – 28 June 1975), often cited as C. A. Doxiadis, was a Greek architect An architect is a person who plans, designs and oversees the construction of buildings. To practice archi ...
, designed the master plan of the city based on a
grid plan In urban planning Urban planning, also known as regional planning, town planning, city planning, or rural planning, is a technical and political process that is focused on the development and design A design is a plan or specification f ...
which was triangular in shape with its apex towards the
Margalla Hills The Margalla Hills () is a hill range within the Margalla Hills National Park on the northern edge of Islamabad Capital Territory, Pakistan, just south of Haripur District, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. It is part of the Himalayas, Himalayan foothil ...

Margalla Hills
. The capital was not moved directly from Karachi to Islamabad; it was first shifted temporarily to Rawalpindi in the early 60s, and then to Islamabad when essential development work was completed in 1966.


Recent history

Islamabad has attracted people from all over Pakistan, making it one of the most cosmopolitan and urbanised cities of Pakistan. As the capital city it has hosted a number of important meetings, such as the
South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation The South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) is the regional intergovernmental organization An intergovernmental organization (IGO) or international organization is an organization composed primarily of sovereign states (ref ...
summit in 2004. In October 2005, the city suffered damage due to the
2005 Kashmir earthquake The 2005 Kashmir earthquake occurred at on 8 October in Pakistani-administered Azad Kashmir. It was epicenter, centred near the city of Muzaffarabad, and also affected nearby Balakot in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and some areas of Indian-administered ...
which had a magnitude of 7.6. Islamabad has experienced a series of terrorist incidents including the July 2007 Siege of Lal Masjid (Red Mosque), the June 2008 Danish embassy bombing, and the September 2008 Marriott bombing. In 2011, four terrorism incidents occurred in the city, killing four people, including the murder of the Punjab Governor
Salmaan Taseer Salman Taseer ( Punjabi and ur, ); ( 4 January 2011) was a Pakistani businessman and politician, who served as the 26th Governor of Punjab from 2008 until his assassination in 2011. A member of the Pakistan Peoples Party since the 1980s, h ...

Salmaan Taseer
. Construction of the
Rawalpindi-Islamabad Metrobus The Rawalpindi-Islamabad Metrobus ( ur, ) is a bus rapid transit system operating in the Islamabad-Rawalpindi metropolitan area of Pakistan. The Metrobus network’s first phase was opened on 4 June 2015, and stretches 22 kilometres between Pak ...
, the region's first mass transit line, began in February 2014 and was completed in March 2015. The Rawalpindi Development Authority built the project at a cost of approximately Rs 24 billion, which was shared by both the Federal government and the provincial government of Punjab.


Geography and climate

File:Faisal Masjid seen from Margalla Hills.jpg, Margalla Hills, Islamabad File:ALI_MUJTABA_WLM2015_FAISAL_MOSQUE_DSC_1542_m.jpg, Islamabad's verdant cityscape merges directly with the Margalla Hills File:Constitution_Avenue.jpg, Constitution Avenue File:Ataturk Avenue - Islamabad.JPG, Islamabad's deciduous trees change colours in autumn Islamabad is located at at the northern edge of the
Pothohar Plateau The Pothohar Plateau ( Pothwari:, ur, ) alternatively spelled Potohar, Potwar or Pothwar, also known as Panjistan) is a plateau In geology Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, ''gē'' ("earth") and -λoγία, ''-logia'', ("study of", ...
and at the foot of the
Margalla Hills The Margalla Hills () is a hill range within the Margalla Hills National Park on the northern edge of Islamabad Capital Territory, Pakistan, just south of Haripur District, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. It is part of the Himalayas, Himalayan foothil ...

Margalla Hills
in
Islamabad Capital Territory Islamabad Capital Territory ( ur, , translit=vafāqī dār-alhakūmat) is the only of . Located between and province. It includes the country's federal capital . The territory is represented in the constituencies , and . History In 1960, ...
. Its
elevation The elevation of a geographic Geography (from Ancient Greek, Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of the Earth and Solar Sy ...

elevation
is . The modern capital and the ancient Gakhar city of Rawalpindi form a
conurbation A conurbation is a region comprising a number of metropolis A metropolis () is a large city or conurbation A conurbation is a region comprising a number of metropolis in the background A metropolis () is a large city or conurbati ...
, and are commonly referred to as the Twin Cities. To the northeast of the city lies the colonial era hill station of
Murree Murree (Punjabi language, Punjabi, ur, , ''marī'', meaning "apex") is a mountain resort town, located in the Galyat region of the Pir Panjal Range, within the Rawalpindi District of Punjab, Pakistan. It forms the outskirts of the Islamabad- ...

Murree
, and to the north lies the
Haripur District Haripur District ( ps, هریپور ولسوالۍ, ur, "The Town of Hari Hari (Sanskrit: हरि, IAST: ''Hari'') is a name of Vishnu from Hindu tradition. Hari means He who attracts all things to Himself. It refers to the one who remov ...
of
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (; ps, خیبر پښتونخوا; ), often abbreviated as KP or KPK and formerly known as the North-West Frontier Province, is one of the Administrative units of Pakistan, four provinces of Pakistan. It is located in the Geo ...

Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
.
Kahuta Kahuta (Punjabi Panjābī (pʌnˈdʒɑːbi) (ਪੰਜਾਬੀ) (پنجابی) Punjabi or Panjabi most often refers to: * Something of, from, or related to Punjab Punjab ( Gurmukhi: ; Shahmukhi: ; , ; , ; ; also romanised as Panjāb or ...

Kahuta
lies on the southeast,
Taxila Taxila (from Pāli Pali () is a Middle Indo-AryanIndo-Aryan refers to: * Indo-Aryan languages ** Indo-Aryan superstrate in Mitanni or Mitanni-Aryan * Indo-Aryan peoples, the various peoples speaking these languages See also *Aryan inva ...
, Wah Cantt, and
Attock District Attock District () is a district A district is a type of administrative division that, in some countries, is managed by local government. Across the world, areas known as "districts" vary greatly in size, spanning regions or counties, sev ...

Attock District
to the northwest, Gujar Khan, Rawat, and Mandrah on the southeast, and the metropolis of
Rawalpindi Rawalpindi ( or ; Punjabi language, Punjabi / ), colloquially known as Pindi (), is the capital city of Rawalpindi Division located in the Punjab (Pakistan), Punjab province of Pakistan. Rawalpindi is the List of Pakistani cities by populat ...

Rawalpindi
to the south and southwest. Islamabad is located SSW of
Muzaffarabad Muzaffarabad ( ur, ) is the capital and largest city of Azad Jammu and Kashmir, and the 60th largest in Pakistan. The city is located in Muzaffarabad District, near the confluence of the Jhelum and Neelum rivers. The district is bounded ...

Muzaffarabad
, east of
Peshawar Peshawar (; ps, پېښور ; hnd, ; ; ur, ) is the capital of the Pakistani province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and its List of cities in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa by population, largest city. It is the List of most populous cities in Pakistan, six ...

Peshawar
and NNW of
Lahore Lahore (; pnb, ; ; ur, ; ) is the capital of the Pakistani province of Punjab Punjab (; ; ; ; also as Panjāb or Panj-Āb) is a geopolitical, cultural, and in , specifically in the northern part of the , comprising areas of east ...

Lahore
. The city of Islamabad expanses an area of . A further area is known as the Specified Area, with the Margala Hills in the north and northeast. The southern portion of the city is an undulating plain. It is drained by the Kurang River, on which the Rawal Dam is located.


Climate

Islamabad has a
humid subtropical climate A humid subtropical climate is a zone of climate characterized by hot and humid summers, and cool to mild winters. These climates normally lie on the southeast side of all continents, generally between latitude In geography Geograp ...
(
Köppen Köppen is a German surname. Notable people with the surname include: * Bernd Köppen (born 1951), German pianist and composer * Carl Köppen (1833-1907), German military advisor in Meiji (era), Meiji era Japan * Edlef Köppen (1893–1939), Germa ...
: Cwa), with five seasons: Winter (November–February), Spring (March and April), Summer (May and June), Rainy Monsoon (July and August) and Autumn (September and October). The hottest month is June, where average highs routinely exceed . The wettest month is July, with heavy rainfalls and evening
thunderstorms A thunderstorm, also known as an electrical storm or a lightning storm, is a storm characterized by the presence of lightning Lightning is a naturally occurring electrostatic discharge Electrostatic discharge (ESD) is the sudden fl ...

thunderstorms
with the possibility of
cloudburst A cloudburst is an extreme amount of precipitation In meteorology Meteorology is a branch of the atmospheric sciences which includes atmospheric chemistry and atmospheric physics, with a major focus on weather forecasting. The study of ...

cloudburst
and flooding. The coolest month is January. Islamabad's
micro-climate A microclimate (or micro-climate) is a local set of atmosphere of Earth, atmospheric conditions that differ from those in the surrounding areas, often with a slight difference but sometimes with a substantial one. The term may refer to areas as s ...
is regulated by three artificial reservoirs:
Rawal Rawal (also spelled Raval) or Raol originally is a regional variation of the Hindi princely ruler title Raja/Radjah (literally "king") used in some princely state A princely state, also called a native state, feudatory state or Indian state ...

Rawal
, Simli, and
Khanpur Dam Khanpur Dam is a dam located on the Haro River in Khanpur, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa about 50 km from Islamabad. It forms Khanpur Lake, a reservoir which supplies drinking water to Islamabad and Rawalpindi and irrigation water to many of the agric ...

Khanpur Dam
. The latter is located on the
Haro River Haro ( ur, ) is the name of a river that flows through Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and parts of Punjab, Pakistan, Punjab. Its main valley is in Abbottabad District in the Hazara Division of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province, northern Pakistan. The famous Khanpur ...
near the town of Khanpur, about from Islamabad. Simli Dam is north of Islamabad. of the city consists of
Margalla Hills National Park Margalla Hills National Park ( ur, ) is a List of national parks of Pakistan, national park located in Islamabad Capital Territory, Pakistan. The park includes the Margalla Hills, which form's the foothills of the Himalayas, along with Shakarparia ...

Margalla Hills National Park
. Loi Bher Forest is situated along the
Islamabad Highway The Islamabad Expressway ( ur, , sometimes Islamabad Highway) is a major north-south expressway in Islamabad, Islamabad Capital Territory, Capital Territory, Pakistan. The expressway provides quick access between Islamabad and Rawalpindi, connect ...

Islamabad Highway
, covering an area of . The highest monthly rainfall of was recorded during July 1995. Winters generally feature dense fog in the mornings and sunny afternoons. In the city, temperatures stay mild, with snowfall over the higher-elevation points on nearby hill stations, notably
Murree Murree (Punjabi language, Punjabi, ur, , ''marī'', meaning "apex") is a mountain resort town, located in the Galyat region of the Pir Panjal Range, within the Rawalpindi District of Punjab, Pakistan. It forms the outskirts of the Islamabad- ...

Murree
and
Nathia Gali Nathia Gali or Nathiagali ( ur, ) is a hill station and mountain resort town located in the Abbottabad District of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. It is located at the centre of the Galyat range, where several hill stations are situated. Nat ...

Nathia Gali
. The temperatures range from in January to in June. The highest recorded temperature was on 23 June 2005 while the lowest temperature was on 17 January 1967. Light snowfall sometimes happens on the peaks of the hills visible from the city, though this is rare. Snowfall does not occur in the city itself. On 23 July 2001, Islamabad received a record-breaking of rainfall in just 10 hours. It was the heaviest rainfall in Islamabad in the past 100 years and the highest rainfall in 24 hours as well.


Cityscape


Civic administration

The Islamabad Capital Territory (ICT) Administration, generally known as
ICT Administration The Islamabad Capital Territory (ICT) Administration, ( ur, ) generally known as Islamabad Administration, is the civil administration as well as main law and order agency of the Federal Capital. ICT Administration operates under Presidential Ord ...
or Islamabad Administration, is the civil administration as well as main law and order agency of the Federal Capital. The local government authority of the city is the Islamabad Metropolitan Corporation (IMC) with some help from Capital Development Authority (CDA), which oversees the planning, development, construction, and administration of the city. Islamabad Capital Territory is divided into eight zones: Administrative Zone, Commercial District, Educational Sector, Industrial Sector, Diplomatic Enclave, Residential Areas, Rural Areas and Green Area. Islamabad city is divided into five major zones: Zone I, Zone II, Zone III, Zone IV, and Zone V. Out of these, Zone IV is the largest in area. Zone I consists mainly of all the developed residential sectors while Zone II consists of the under-developed residential sectors. Each residential sector is identified by a letter of the alphabet and a number, and covers an area of approximately 2 km × 2 km ( mi ×  mi). The sectors are lettered from A to I, and each sector is divided into four numbered sub-sectors.


Sectors

Series A, B, and C are still underdeveloped. The D series has seven sectors (D-11 to D-17), of which only sector D-12 is completely developed. This series is located at the foot of Margalla Hills. The E Sectors are named from E-7 to E-17. Many foreigners and diplomatic personnel are housed in these sectors. In the revised Master Plan of the city, CDA has decided to develop a park on the pattern of in sector E-14. Sectors E-8 and E-9 contain the campuses of
Bahria University Bahria University ( ur, ) or BU, is a Federally Chartered Public Sector university A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational institution, institution of higher education, higher (or Tertiary education, tertiary) education an ...
, Air University, and the National Defence University. The F and G series contains the most developed sectors. F series contains sectors F-5 to F-17; some sectors are still under-developed. F-5 is an important sector for the software industry in Islamabad, as the two software technology parks are located here. The entire F-9 sector is covered with Fatima Jinnah Park. The Centaurus complex is a major landmark of the F-8 sector. G sectors are numbered G-5 through G-17. Some important places include the Jinnah Convention Centre and Serena Hotel in G-5, the Red Mosque in G-6, the Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, the largest medical complex in the capital, located in G-8, and the Karachi Company shopping center in G-9. The H sectors are numbered H-8 through H-17. The H sectors are mostly dedicated to educational and health institutions. National University of Sciences and Technology covers a major portion of sector H-12. The I sectors are numbered from I-8 to I-18. With the exception of I-8, which is a well-developed residential area, these sectors are primarily part of the industrial zone. Two sub-sectors of I-9 and one sub-sector of
I-10 Interstate 10 (I-10) is the southernmost cross-country highway in the American Interstate Highway System The Dwight D. Eisenhower National System of Interstate and Defense Highways, commonly known as the Interstate Highway System, is a ...
are used as industrial areas. CDA is planning to set up Islamabad Railway Station in Sector I-18 and Industrial City in sector I-17. Zone III consists primarily of the Margalla Hills and
Margalla Hills National Park Margalla Hills National Park ( ur, ) is a List of national parks of Pakistan, national park located in Islamabad Capital Territory, Pakistan. The park includes the Margalla Hills, which form's the foothills of the Himalayas, along with Shakarparia ...

Margalla Hills National Park
. is in this zone. Zone IV and V consist of Islamabad Park, and rural areas of the city. The
Soan River The Soan River ( ur, ), also referred to as the Swan, Sawan, or Sohan, is a river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river. In some cases, a river flows into the ...

Soan River
flows into the city through Zone V.


Islamabad/Rawalpindi Metropolitan Area

When the master plan for Islamabad was drawn up in 1960, Islamabad and Rawalpindi, along with the adjoining areas, was to be integrated to form a large
metropolitan area A metropolitan area or metro is a region consisting of a densely populated urban core Urban means "related to a city". In that sense, the term may refer to: * Urban area, geographical area distinct from rural areas * Urban culture, the cul ...

metropolitan area
called Islamabad/Rawalpindi Metropolitan Area. The area would consist of the developing Islamabad, the old colonial cantonment city of Rawalpindi, and Margalla Hills National Park, including surrounding rural areas. However, Islamabad city is part of the
Islamabad Capital Territory Islamabad Capital Territory ( ur, , translit=vafāqī dār-alhakūmat) is the only of . Located between and province. It includes the country's federal capital . The territory is represented in the constituencies , and . History In 1960, ...
, while
Rawalpindi Rawalpindi ( or ; Punjabi language, Punjabi / ), colloquially known as Pindi (), is the capital city of Rawalpindi Division located in the Punjab (Pakistan), Punjab province of Pakistan. Rawalpindi is the List of Pakistani cities by populat ...

Rawalpindi
is part of
Rawalpindi District Rawalpindi District (Punjabi Panjābī (pʌnˈdʒɑːbi) (ਪੰਜਾਬੀ) (پنجابی) Punjabi or Panjabi most often refers to: * Something of, from, or related to Punjab Punjab ( Gurmukhi: ; Shahmukhi: ; , ; , ; ; also roman ...

Rawalpindi District
, which is part of province of
Punjab Punjab (; ; ; ; also as Panjāb or Panj-Āb) is a geopolitical, cultural, and in , specifically in the northern part of the , comprising areas of eastern and . The boundaries of the region are ill-defined and focus on historical accounts. ...

Punjab
. Initially, it was proposed that the three areas would be connected by four major highways: Murree Highway,
Islamabad Highway The Islamabad Expressway ( ur, , sometimes Islamabad Highway) is a major north-south expressway in Islamabad, Islamabad Capital Territory, Capital Territory, Pakistan. The expressway provides quick access between Islamabad and Rawalpindi, connect ...

Islamabad Highway
, Soan Highway, and Capital Highway. However, to date only two highways have been constructed:
Kashmir Highway The Srinagar Highway ( ur, ; previously known as the Kashmir Highway) is a major east-west highway in Islamabad, Islamabad Capital Territory, Capital Territory, Pakistan. The highway provides quick access through the Islamabad and connects the ...

Kashmir Highway
(the former Murree Highway) and Islamabad Highway. Plans of constructing Margalla Avenue are also underway. Islamabad is the hub all the governmental activities while Rawalpindi is the centre of all industrial, commercial, and military activities. The two cities are considered sister cities and are highly interdependent. File:Faisal Mosque in the background of Centaurus Mall.jpg, Aerial view of
The Centaurus The Centaurus is a mixed use real estate development in the city of Islamabad, Pakistan. The project includes a 36-floor hotel, three 23-floor residential and office towers and a five-story shopping mall. Designed by British architectural firm ...
File:Ptet ise.jpg, PTET & ISE Tower File:Pak Secretariat buildings,Islamabad by Usman Ghani.jpg,
Pakistan Secretariat Pakistan Secretariat ( ur, ) serves as the headquarters for the Cabinet of Pakistan, Cabinet and Government of Pakistan. It is located on Constitution Avenue (Islamabad), Constitution Avenue in Islamabad, Islamabad Capital Territory, Capital Terri ...
File:Crescent and Star Monument.jpg, Star and Crescent Monument near the start of
Shakarparian Shakarparian (; also known as Shakarparian Hills) is a hill, and a national and an amusement park located near the Zero Point Interchange in Islamabad Islamabad (; ur, , translit=Islāmābād) is the capital city of Pakistan, and is feder ...
File:Faisal Masjid From Damn e koh.jpg,
Faisal Mosque The Faisal Mosque ( ur, , faisal masjid) is a mosque located in Islamabad, Pakistan. It is the fifth-largest mosque in the world and the largest within South Asia, located on the foothills of Margalla Hills The Margalla Hills () is a h ...

Faisal Mosque
File:Daman-E-Koh.jpg, Daman-e-Koh Park File:Glorious Sunset in Islamabad.jpg, Sunset over the File:Hassle Bassle Islamabad.jpg, Night view of
Blue Area Blue Area is the central business district of Islamabad, Pakistan whose heart is Jinnah Avenue. The area is a -long corridor along Islamabad's Khayaban-e-Quaid-e-Azam (also known as Jinnah Avenue), Islamabad's primary arterial road which leads up ...
, the commercial hub of the city. File:Blue Area, Islamabad.png, Blue Area and Jinnah Avenue File:Day time front view of Pakistan Monument.JPG,
Pakistan Monument The Pakistan Monument ( ur, ) is a national monument Altare della Patria, Rome A national monument is a monument constructed in order to commemorate something of importance to national heritage, such as Statism, a country's founding, independ ...

Pakistan Monument
File:Constitution Avenue.jpg,
Constitution Avenue Constitution Avenue is a major east–west street in the northwest The points of the compass are an evenly spaced set of Vertical and horizontal, horizontal directions (or Azimuth#In navigation, azimuths) used in navigation and geography. A com ...
File:Said Pur Village.jpg, Saidpur Village


Architecture

Islamabad's architecture is a combination of modernity and old
Islamic Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission
o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodness", "ah gosh", "ah gawd"; see interjection An interjection is a word or expression that occurs as an utterance on its own and expresses a spontaneous feeling ...
) is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic monotheistic religion teaching that Muhammad is a Muhammad in Islam, messenger of God.Peters, F. E. 2009. "Allāh." In , ed ...
and regional traditions. The is an example of the integration of modern architecture with traditional styles. The beige-coloured edifice is trimmed with blue tile works in Islamic tradition, and is one of Islamabad's tallest buildings. Other examples of intertwined Islamic and modern architecture include
Pakistan Monument The Pakistan Monument ( ur, ) is a national monument Altare della Patria, Rome A national monument is a monument constructed in order to commemorate something of importance to national heritage, such as Statism, a country's founding, independ ...

Pakistan Monument
and
Faisal Mosque The Faisal Mosque ( ur, , faisal masjid) is a mosque located in Islamabad, Pakistan. It is the fifth-largest mosque in the world and the largest within South Asia, located on the foothills of Margalla Hills The Margalla Hills () is a h ...

Faisal Mosque
. Other notable structures are: Secretariat Complex designed by
Gio Ponti Giovanni "Gio" Ponti (18 November 1891 – 16 September 1979) was an Italian architect An architect is a person who plans, designs and oversees the construction of buildings. To practice architecture means to provide services in connection w ...
, Prime Minister's secretariat based on
Mughal architecture Mughal architecture is the type of Indo-Islamic architecture Indo-Islamic architecture is the architecture of the Indian subcontinent produced by and for Islamic patrons and purposes. Despite an initial Arab presence in Sindh Si ...

Mughal architecture
and the
National Assembly In politics, a national assembly is either a unicameral In government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media L ...
by
Edward Durell Stone Edward Durell Stone (March 9, 1902 – August 6, 1978) was an American architect known for the formal, highly decorative buildings he designed in the 1950s and 1960s. His works include the Museum of Modern Art The Museum of Modern Art (Mo ...

Edward Durell Stone
. The murals on the inside of the large petals of Pakistan Monument are based on Islamic architecture. The Shah Faisal Mosque is a fusion of contemporary architecture with a more traditional large triangular prayer hall and four minarets, designed by
Vedat Dalokay Vedat Ali Dalokay (November 10, 1927 – March 21, 1991) was a renowned Turkish people, Turkish architect and a former mayor of Ankara. Early life He was born in Elazığ, Turkey in 1927 to İbrahim Bey from Pertek. He completed his elementar ...
, a Turkish architect and built with the help of funding provided by of
Saudi Arabia (''Shahada'') , national_anthem = "National Anthem of Saudi Arabia, " "National Anthem of Saudi Arabia" , image_map = Saudi Arabia (orthographic projection).svg , capital = Riyadh , coordinates ...

Saudi Arabia
. The architecture of Faisal Mosque is unusual as it lacks a dome structure. It is a combination of Arabic, Turkish, and Mughal architectural traditions.
The Centaurus The Centaurus is a mixed use real estate development in the city of Islamabad, Pakistan. The project includes a 36-floor hotel, three 23-floor residential and office towers and a five-story shopping mall. Designed by British architectural firm ...
is an example of modern architecture under construction in Islamabad. The seven star hotel was designed by
WS Atkins PLC Atkins (member of the SNC-Lavalin Group) is a British multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countrie ...
.The newly built
Islamabad Stock Exchange Towers The ISE Tower is one of the highrises located at 55, Jinnah Avenue of the Blue Area business district of Islamabad Islamabad (; ur, , translit=Islāmābād) is the capital city of Pakistan, and is federally administered as part of the Isl ...
is another example of modern architecture in the city.


Demographics


Language

According to 1998 census, the
mother tongue A first language, native tongue, native language, or mother/father/parent tongue (also known as arterial language or L1) is a language or dialect that a person has been exposed to from birth or within the critical period hypothesis, critical pe ...
of the majority of the population is
Punjabi Panjābī (pʌnˈdʒɑːbi) (ਪੰਜਾਬੀ) (پنجابی) Punjabi or Panjabi most often refers to: * Something of, from, or related to Punjab Punjab ( Gurmukhi: ; Shahmukhi: ; , ; , ; ; also romanised as Panjāb or Panj-Āb) is a ge ...
at 68%, and the major dialect is Pothohari, 15% of the population are Pashto speakers, while 18% speak other languages. Similarly according to 1998 census, the total migrant population of the city is 1 million, with the majority (691,977) coming from
Punjab Punjab (; ; ; ; also as Panjāb or Panj-Āb) is a geopolitical, cultural, and in , specifically in the northern part of the , comprising areas of eastern and . The boundaries of the region are ill-defined and focus on historical accounts. ...

Punjab
. Around 210,614 of the migrated population came from
Sindh Sindh (; sd, سنڌ; ur, , ; historically romanized as Sind) is one of the four provinces A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, ad ...

Sindh
and rest from
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (; ps, خیبر پښتونخوا; ), often abbreviated as KP or KPK and formerly known as the North-West Frontier Province, is one of the Administrative units of Pakistan, four provinces of Pakistan. It is located in the Geo ...

Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
and
Azad Kashmir Azad Jammu and Kashmir ( ur, , translit=āzād jammū̃ o kaśmīr, translit-std=IAST, ), abbreviated as AJK and colloquially referred to as simply Azad Kashmir, is a region administered by Pakistan as a nominally self-governing entitySee: ...

Azad Kashmir
. Smaller populations emigrated from
Balochistan Balochistan (; bal, بلوچِستان; also romanised as Baluchistan) is an arid A region is arid when it is characterized by a severe lack of available water, to the extent of hindering or preventing the growth and development Development ...
, and
Gilgit–Baltistan Gilgit-Baltistan (, Balti: རྒྱལ་སྐྱིད་ སྦལྟི་ཡུལ།), formerly known as the Northern Areas, is a region administered by Pakistan Pakistan, . Pronounced variably in English language, English as , ...
.


Literacy

The majority of the population lies in the age group of 15–64 years, around 59.38%. Only 2.73% of the population is above 65 years of age; 37.90% is below the age of 15. Islamabad has the highest literacy rate in Pakistan, at 88%. 9.8% of the population has done intermediate education (equivalent to grades 11 and 12). 10.26% have a bachelor or equivalent degree while 5.2% have a master or equivalent degree. The labour force of Islamabad is 185,213 and the unemployment rate is 15.70%.


Religion

Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodness", "ah gosh", "ah gawd"; see interjection An interjection is a word or ex ...
is the largest religion in the city, with 95.43% of the population following it.
Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic The Abrahamic religions, also referred to collectively as the world of Abrahamism and Semitic religions, are a group of Semitic-originated religion Religion is a social system, social-cultural system of ...

Christianity
is the second largest religion is with 4.34% of the population following it. The Christians are concentrated mainly in the urban areas.
Hinduism Hinduism () is an Indian religion Indian religions, sometimes also termed Dharmic religions or Indic religions, are the religions that originated in the Indian subcontinent. These religions, which include Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism, ...

Hinduism
is followed by 0.04% of the population according to the 2017 census.


Economy

Islamabad is a net contributor to the Pakistani economy, as whilst having only 0.8% of the country's population, it contributes 1% to the country's GDP.
Islamabad Stock Exchange The Islamabad Stock Exchange ( ur, or PSX-ISE) was a stock exchange located in Islamabad Islamabad (; ur, , translit=Islāmābād) is the capital city of Pakistan, and is federally administered as part of the Islamabad Capital Territor ...
, founded in 1989, is Pakistan's third largest stock exchange after Karachi Stock Exchange and
Lahore Stock Exchange The Lahore Stock Exchange was a financial facility located in Pakistan Pakistan, . Pronounced variably in English language, English as , , , and . officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country in South Asia. It is the world' ...
, and was merged to form
Pakistan Stock Exchange The Pakistan Stock Exchange ( ur, , abbreviated as PSX) is a stock exchange in Pakistan with trading floors in Karachi, Islamabad and Lahore. PSX was reclassified as a MSCI Emerging Market in May 2017, while the FTSE classifies PSX as a ...
. The exchange had 118 members with 104 corporate bodies and 18 individual members. The average daily turnover of the stock exchange is over 1 million shares. According to the
World Bank The World Bank is an international financial institution An international financial institution (IFI) is a financial institution that has been established (or chartered) by more than one country, and hence is subject to international law. Its o ...
's ''
Doing Business Report The ease of doing business index is an index created jointly by Simeon Djankov and Gerhard Pohl, two leading economists at the World Bank Group. The academic research for the report was done jointly with professors Oliver Hart and Andrei Shleifer ...
'' of 2010, Islamabad was ranked as the best place to start a business in Pakistan. Islamabad's businesses are Pakistan's most compliant for paying tax dues. , Islamabad LTU (Large Tax Unit) was responsible for Rs 371 billion in tax revenue, which amounts to 20% of all the revenue collected by Federal Board of Revenue. Islamabad has seen an expansion in
information and communications technology Information and communications technology (ICT) is an extensional term for information technology (IT) that stresses the role of unified communicationsUnified communications (UC) is a business and marketing Marketing refers to activities a c ...
with the addition two
Software Technology Parks Software Technology Parks of India (STPI) is a science and technology organisation established in 1991 by the Indian Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology with the objective of encouraging, promoting and boosting the export of soft ...

Software Technology Parks
, which house numerous national and foreign technological and information technology companies. Some jobs have relocated from India to Islamabad. Awami Markaz IT Park houses 36 IT companies, while Evacuee Trust house 29 companies. Islamabad will see its third IT Park by 2020, which will be built with assistance from
South Korea South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (ROK), is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korea, Korean Peninsula and sharing a Korean Demilitarized Zone, land border with North Korea. Its western border is for ...

South Korea
.


Culture

Islamabad is home to many migrants from other regions of Pakistan and has a cultural and religious diversity of considerable antiquity. Due to its location on the Pothohar Plateau, remnants of ancient cultures and civilisations such as
Aryan Aryan or Arya (, Indo-Iranian *''arya'') is a term originally used as an ethnocultural An ethnoreligious group (or ethno-religious group) is an ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people who identify with each other ...

Aryan
,
Soanian The Soanian is an archaeological culture of the Lower Paleolithic in the Sivalik Hills of the Indian subcontinent. Quote: “Soanian and Soanian‐like assemblages are known throughout the entire Siwalik or Sub‐ Himalayan region, from Pakistan to ...
, and
Indus Valley civilisation The Indus Valley Civilisation (IVC), also known as the Indus Civilisation, was a Bronze Age The Bronze Age is a prehistoric Periodization, period that was characterized by the use of bronze, in some areas proto-writing, and other ear ...
can still be found in the region. A 15th-century Gakhar fort, Pharwala Fort is located near Islamabad.
Rawat Fort Rawat Fort ( ur, ) is an early 16th century fort in the Pothohar The Pothohar Plateau (Pothwari:, ur, ) alternatively spelled Potohar, Potwar or Pothwar, also known as Panjistan) is a plateau in north-eastern Pakistan, forming the northern pa ...
in the region was built by the
Gakhars The Gakhar is a clan of Punjabi Muslims Punjabi Muslims ( pa, ) are adherents of Islam Islam (;There are ten pronunciations of ''Islam'' in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the ''s ...
in 16th century and contains the grave of the Gakhar chief,
Sultan Sarang Khan Sarang Khan ( pa, , translit= Sārang Khān) (d. 1546) was the Second Chief of the Gakhars, Gakhar tribe to hold the title Sultan, who ruled over the region in northern Punjab, Pakistan, Punjab, in modern-day Pakistan from 1520 – 1546. Early ye ...
. Saidpur village is supposedly named after Said Khan, the son of Sarang Khan. The 500-year-old village was converted into a place of Hindu worship by a Mughal commander, Raja
Man Singh Raja Man Singh (Man Singh I) (21 December 1550 – 6 July 1614) was the Kachwaha Raja of Amer, India, Amer, a state later known as Jaipur in Rajputana. He was a trusted general of the Mughal Empire, Mughal emperor Akbar, who included him amo ...

Man Singh
. He constructed a number of small ponds: Rama kunda, Sita kunda, Lakshaman kunda, and Hanuman kunda. The region is home to a small Hindu temple that is preserved, showing the presence of Hindu people in the region. The shrine of Sufi mystic Pir Meher Ali Shah is located at
Golra Sharif Golra Sharif ( ur, ) is a town situated near the Margalla Hills in the Islamabad Capital Territory, Pakistan, at about above sea level, from the Taxila (ancient), ancient city of Taxila (modern), Taxila. It is known for the Mausoleum of Meher Al ...

Golra Sharif
, which has a rich cultural heritage of the pre-Islamic period. Archaeological remains of the Buddhist era can also still be found in the region. The shrine of
Bari Imam Shah Abdul Latif Kazmi, (Urdu شاہ عبد الطیف کاظمی المعروف سرکار بری امام ) often referred to as Barī Imām or Barī Sarkār (1617 – 1705), was a 17th-century Sufi ascetic from Punjab who was one of the ...

Bari Imam
was built by
Mughal Emperor The Mughal (or Moghul) emperors built and ruled the Mughal Empire The Mughal, Mogul, or Moghul Empire was an early modern The early modern period of modern history Human history, or world history, is the narrative of Human, ...
Aurangzeb Muhi-ud-Din Muhammad (3 November 16183 March 1707), commonly known by the sobriquet (Persian language, Persian: "Ornament of the Throne") or by his regnal title (Persian: "Conqueror of the World"), was the sixth Mughal emperor, who ruled o ...

Aurangzeb
. Thousands of devotees from across Pakistan attend the annual
Urs Urs (from ''‘Urs'') or ''Urus'' (literal meaning wedding), is the death anniversary of a Sufi saint, usually held at the saint's dargah (shrine or tomb). In most Sufi orders such as Naqshbandiyyah, Suhrawardiyya, Chishtiyya, Qadiriyya, etc. t ...

Urs
of Bari Imam. The event is one of the largest religious gatherings in Islamabad. In 2004, the Urs was attended by more than 1.2 million people. The
Lok Virsa Museum Heritage Museum ( ur, ), also known as Lok Virsa Museum is a museum administered and managed by Lok Virsa - National Institute of Folk & Traditional Heritage. It is a museum A museum ( ; plural museums or, rarely, musea) is an institutio ...

Lok Virsa Museum
in Islamabad preserves a wide variety of expressions of folk and traditional cultural legacy of Pakistan. It is located near the
Shakarparian Shakarparian (; also known as Shakarparian Hills) is a hill, and a national and an amusement park located near the Zero Point Interchange in Islamabad Islamabad (; ur, , translit=Islāmābād) is the capital city of Pakistan, and is feder ...
hills and boasts a large display of embroidered costumes, jewellery, musical instruments, woodwork, utensils and folkloristic objects from the region and other parts of Pakistan.


Tourism

Faisal Mosque The Faisal Mosque ( ur, , faisal masjid) is a mosque located in Islamabad, Pakistan. It is the fifth-largest mosque in the world and the largest within South Asia, located on the foothills of Margalla Hills The Margalla Hills () is a h ...

Faisal Mosque
is an important cultural landmark of the city and that attracts many tourists daily. Faisal Mosque built in 1986, was named after the Saudi Arabian King,
Faisal bin Abdul Aziz Faisal bin Abdulaziz Al Saud ( ar, فيصل بن عبدالعزيز آل سعود '; 14 April 1906 – 25 March 1975) was King of Saudi Arabia and Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques from 2 November 1964 to 25 March 1975. Faisal was the third s ...
. It also serves the purpose of accommodating 24,000 Muslims that pray at this mosque. Faisal Mosque that is designed by the Turks and financed by the
Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (''Shahada'') , national_anthem = "National Anthem of Saudi Arabia, " "National Anthem of Saudi Arabia" , image_map = Saudi Arabia (orthographic projection).svg , capital = Riyadh , coordinates ...

Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
includes calligraphy of Quranic Versus along the walls of the mosque. One of the landmarks for tourists is the
Pakistan Monument The Pakistan Monument ( ur, ) is a national monument Altare della Patria, Rome A national monument is a monument constructed in order to commemorate something of importance to national heritage, such as Statism, a country's founding, independ ...

Pakistan Monument
built in 2007 located in Islamabad. This tourist attraction represents the patriotism and sovereignty of Pakistan. The design is shaped as a dome with petal-shaped walls that are engraved with arts portraying Pakistan's other tourist landmarks such as the
Badshahi Mosque The Badshahi Mosque (Punjabi Panjābī (pʌnˈdʒɑːbi) (ਪੰਜਾਬੀ) (پنجابی) Punjabi or Panjabi most often refers to: * Something of, from, or related to Punjab Punjab ( Gurmukhi: ; Shahmukhi: ; , ; , ; ; also romanise ...

Badshahi Mosque
,
Minar-e-Pakistan Minar-e-Pakistan ( ur, ) is a national monument located in Lahore, Pakistan. The tower was built between 1960 and 1968 on the site where the All-India Muslim League passed the Lahore Resolution (which was latter called Pakistan Resolution) on Ma ...

Minar-e-Pakistan
and
Lahore Fort The Lahore Fort ( ur, , lit=Royal Fort, translit=Shāhī Qilā, label=Punjabi language, Punjabi and Urdu) is a citadel in the city of Lahore, Punjab (Pakistan), Punjab, Pakistan. The fortress is located at the northern end of Walled City of La ...

Lahore Fort
. Islamabad holds some of Pakistan's most prestigious museums such as
Lok Virsa Museum Heritage Museum ( ur, ), also known as Lok Virsa Museum is a museum administered and managed by Lok Virsa - National Institute of Folk & Traditional Heritage. It is a museum A museum ( ; plural museums or, rarely, musea) is an institutio ...

Lok Virsa Museum
, Institute of Folk and Traditional Heritage
Shakarparian Shakarparian (; also known as Shakarparian Hills) is a hill, and a national and an amusement park located near the Zero Point Interchange in Islamabad Islamabad (; ur, , translit=Islāmābād) is the capital city of Pakistan, and is feder ...
Park and prominent galleries such as the National Art Gallery and Gallery 6. The Islamabad Museum contains many relics and artifacts dating back to the
Gandhara Gandhāra was an ancient region in the Kabul Kabul (; ps, , translit=Kābəl, ; prs, , translit=Kābol, ) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between ...

Gandhara
period of the region, an intriguing fusion of Buddhist and Graeco-Roman styles. The living culture of Islamabad and Pakistan is best explored at
Lok Virsa Museum Heritage Museum ( ur, ), also known as Lok Virsa Museum is a museum administered and managed by Lok Virsa - National Institute of Folk & Traditional Heritage. It is a museum A museum ( ; plural museums or, rarely, musea) is an institutio ...

Lok Virsa Museum
, as well as the Institute of Folk and Traditional Heritage in
Shakarparian Shakarparian (; also known as Shakarparian Hills) is a hill, and a national and an amusement park located near the Zero Point Interchange in Islamabad Islamabad (; ur, , translit=Islāmābād) is the capital city of Pakistan, and is feder ...
Park. Islamabad is built upon civilization and architecture that ranges from the 10th Century to the modern era. As Islamabad is situated on the
Potohar Plateau The Pothohar Plateau ( Pothwari:, ur, ) alternatively spelled Potohar, Potwar or Pothwar, also known as Panjistan) is a plateau In geology Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, ''gē'' ("earth") and -λoγία, ''-logia'', ("study of", ...
, the remains of civilization descending from stone-age era include the Acheulian and the Soanian traditions and these are tourist landmarks. Islamabad has an array of historic landmarks that reflect the Hindu civilization that dates back to the 16th Century with examples such as Saidpur. Saidpur that is situated in Islamabad has progressed from a village to a sacred place that includes temples where the Hindu Mughal Commanders worshipped.
Margalla Hills National Park Margalla Hills National Park ( ur, ) is a List of national parks of Pakistan, national park located in Islamabad Capital Territory, Pakistan. The park includes the Margalla Hills, which form's the foothills of the Himalayas, along with Shakarparia ...

Margalla Hills National Park
is located in the North sector of Islamabad and is in close proximity to the
Himalayas The Himalayas, or Himalaya (; Sanskrit Sanskrit (; attributively , ; nominalization, nominally , , ) is a classical language of South Asia that belongs to the Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European languages. It ar ...

Himalayas
. The National Park includes of picturesque valleys and scenic hills that include various wildlife such as
Himalayan goral The Himalayan goral (''Naemorhedus goral'') is a bovid The Bovidae comprise the biological family Family ( la, familia, plural ') is one of the eight major hierarchical taxonomic ranks in Linnaean taxonomy; it is classified between order ( ...
, Barking deer and
leopards The leopard (''Panthera pardus'') is one of the five extant species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A species is ...
. Flanked by wildlife and vegetation, Margalla Hills National Park also includes accommodation and camping grounds for tourists.


Education

Islamabad boasts the highest literacy rate in Pakistan at 98%, and has some of the most advanced educational institutes in the country. A large number of
public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information from an individual or an organization An organization, or organisation (English in the Commonwealth of Nations, Commonwealth Engli ...
and
private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an absence of nearly two decades from the charts. Both "In Pri ...
sector educational institutes are present here. The higher education institutes in the capital are either federally chartered or administered by private organisations and almost all of them are recognised by the
Higher Education Commission of Pakistan The Higher Education Commission (colloquially sknown as HEC) is a statutory, statutory body formed by the government of Pakistan. Its main functions are funding, overseeing, regulating and Higher education accreditation, accrediting the higher edu ...
. High schools and colleges are either affiliated with the Federal Board of Intermediate and Secondary Education or with the UK universities education boards, O/A Levels, or
IGCSE The International General Certificate of Secondary Education (IGCSE) is an English language English is a West Germanic language of the Indo-European language family The Indo-European languages are a language family A languag ...
. According to Academy of Educational Planning and Management's report, in 2009 there were a total of 913 recognised institutions in Islamabad (31 pre-primary, 2
religious Religion is a social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social whether they are aware of it or not, and whether the exchange is voluntary/involuntary. Etymology ...

religious
, 367 primary, 162 , 250 high, 75 higher secondary and intermediate colleges, and 26 degree colleges). There are seven
teacher training Teacher education or teacher training refers to the policies, procedures, and provision designed to equip (prospective) teacher A teacher, also called a schoolteacher or formally an educator, is a person who helps student A student ...
institutes in Islamabad with a total enrolment of 604,633 students and 499 faculty. The
Gender Parity Index The Gender Parity Index (GPI) is a socioeconomic index usually designed to measure the relative access to education of males and females. This index is released by UNESCO. In its simplest form, it is calculated as the quotient of the number of femal ...
in Islamabad is 0.93 compared to the 0.95 national average. There are 178 boys only institutes, 175 girls only, and 551 mixed institutes in Islamabad. Total enrolment of students in all categories is 267,992; 138,272 for boys and 129,720 for girls. There are 16 recognised universities in Islamabad with a total enrolment of 372,974 students and 30,144 teachers. Most of the top ranked universities; National University of Sciences and Technology,
COMSATS Institute of Information Technology The COMSATS University Islamabad (CUI), formerly known as COMSATS Institute of Information Technology (CIIT), is a public university A public university or public college is a university or college that is in state ownership or receives signific ...
and Pakistan Institute of Engineering & Applied Sciences, also have their headquarters in the capital. The world's second largest general university by enrolment,
Allama Iqbal Open University The Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU) is a public university#REDIRECT Public university A public university or public college is a university or college that is in state ownership or receives significant Government spending, public funds thro ...
is located in Islamabad for distance education. Other universities include Air University,
Bahria University Bahria University ( ur, ) or BU, is a Federally Chartered Public Sector university A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational institution, institution of higher education, higher (or Tertiary education, tertiary) education an ...
, Center for Advanced Studies in Engineering,
Federal Urdu University of Arts, Science and Technology The Federal Urdu University of Arts, Science and Technology ( ur, ); alternatively known as FUUAST) is a public university A public university or public college is a university or college that is in state ownership or receives significant Gove ...
, Hamdard University, National University of Computer and Emerging Sciences, Capital University of Science & Technology, National Defence University, Shifa Tameer-e-Millat University, National University of Modern Languages, Iqra University, International Islamic University, Islamabad, International Islamic University, Virtual University of Pakistan, Muhammad Ali Jinnah University, The University of Lahore, Abasyn University, and The Millennium University College.


Health care

Islamabad has the lowest rate of infant mortality in the country at 38 deaths per thousand compared to the national average of 78 deaths per thousand. Islamabad has both public and private medical centres. The largest hospital in Islamabad is Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences (PIMS) hospital. It was established in 1985 as a teaching and doctor training institute. PIMS functions as a National Reference Center and provides specialised diagnostic and curative services. The hospital has 30 major medical departments. PIMS is divided into five administrative branches. Islamabad Hospital is the major component with a 592-bed facility and 22 medical and surgical specialties. The Children's Hospital is a 230-bed hospital completed in 1985. It contains six major facilities: Surgical and Allied Specialties, Medical and Allied Specialties, Diagnostic Facilities, Operation Theatre, Critical Care (NICU, PICU, Isolation & Accident Emergency), and a Blood Bank. The Maternal and Child Health Care Center is a training institute with an attached hospital of 125 beds offering different clinical and operational services. PIMS consists of five academic institutes: Quaid-e-Azam Postgraduate Medical College, College of Nursing, College of Medical Technology, School of Nursing, and Mother and Child Health Center. PAEC General Hospital and teaching institute, established in 2006, is affiliated with the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission. The hospital consists of a 100-bed facility and 10 major departments: Obstetrics and Gynecology, Pediatric, General Medicine, General Surgery, Intensive Care Unit/Coronary Care Unit, Orthopedics, Ophthalmology, Pathology, Radiology, and Dentistry, Dental Department. Shifa International Hospital is a teaching hospital in Islamabad that was founded in 1987 and became a public company in 1989. The hospital has 70 qualified consultants in almost all specialties, 150 Outpatient department, IPD beds and Outpatient department, OPD facilities in 35 different specialisations. According to the Federal Bureau of Statistics of the Government of Pakistan, in 2008 there were 12 hospitals, 76 dispensaries, and five maternity and child welfare centers in the city with a total of 5,158 beds.


Transport


Air

Islamabad is connected to major destinations around the world and domestically through Islamabad International Airport, Islamabad International Airport (IIAP). The airport is the largest in Pakistan and is located outside Islamabad in Fateh Jang. The new airport inaugurated on 20 April 2018, spread over 19 square kilometers with 15 passenger boarding bridges, including facilities to accommodate two double-decker Airbus A380s, the world's largest airplane, 15 remote bays and 3 remote bays for Air cargo.


Public transport

The
Rawalpindi-Islamabad Metrobus The Rawalpindi-Islamabad Metrobus ( ur, ) is a bus rapid transit system operating in the Islamabad-Rawalpindi metropolitan area of Pakistan. The Metrobus network’s first phase was opened on 4 June 2015, and stretches 22 kilometres between Pak ...
is a bus rapid transit system that serves the twin cities of
Rawalpindi Rawalpindi ( or ; Punjabi language, Punjabi / ), colloquially known as Pindi (), is the capital city of Rawalpindi Division located in the Punjab (Pakistan), Punjab province of Pakistan. Rawalpindi is the List of Pakistani cities by populat ...

Rawalpindi
and Islamabad in Pakistan. It uses dedicated bus lanes for all of its route covering 24 bus stations. This service covers a huge distance from city Saddar, Rawalpindi to Pak-Secretariat, Islamabad. This service is very reliable and consistent, and the labour force as well as students are using this government provided service on a daily basis. It has reduced the time consumption by reducing the route. Now this bus service is being extended to more areas in Islamabad that include areas near G-13 and H-12. Work is being done to keep it along the Kashmir Highway.


Private transport

People use private transport like Taxicab, Taxis, Careem, Uber, Bykea, and SWVL for local journeys. In March 2016, Careem became functional in Islamabad and
Rawalpindi Rawalpindi ( or ; Punjabi language, Punjabi / ), colloquially known as Pindi (), is the capital city of Rawalpindi Division located in the Punjab (Pakistan), Punjab province of Pakistan. Rawalpindi is the List of Pakistani cities by populat ...

Rawalpindi
with taxi services.


Roadways

M-2 motorway (Pakistan), M-2 Motorway is long and connect Islamabad and Lahore. M-1 motorway (Pakistan), M-1 Motorway connects Islamabad with Peshawar and is long. Islamabad is linked to Rawalpindi through the Faizabad Interchange, which has a daily traffic volume of about 48,000 vehicles.


Sports

Islamabad has a multipurpose sports complex opposite Aabpara. It includes Liaquat Gymnasium for indoor games, Mushaf Squash Complex and Jinnah Sports Stadium for outdoor games, which is a venue for regular national and international events. 2004 South Asian Games, 2004 SAF Games were held in the stadium. Some other sports venues of Islamabad include Diamond Club Ground, Shalimar Cricket Ground and Islamabad Golf Club. There is another multipurpose sports complex in the F6 Markaz. It has tennis courts, a basketball court with fibre-glass boards and a Futsal ground which introduced artificial turf to the people of Islamabad. Major sports in the city include cricket, Association football, football, Squash (sport), squash, field hockey, hockey, table tennis, rugby and boxing. The city is home to Islamabad United (cricket), Islamabad United, which won the first ever Pakistan Super League in 2016 Pakistan Super League, 2016 and second title in 2018 Pakistan Super League, 2018, and Islamabad All Stars, which participates in the Super Kabaddi League. Islamabad also has various rock climbing spots in the Margalla Hills. The Pakistan Sports Complex has three swimming pools for children. These facilities attract a large gathering on weekends.


Recreation places in Islamabad


Faisal Mosque

Located in Islamabad, Pakistan, the Faisal Mosque is the largest mosque in South Asia and the fourth largest mosque in the world. Built in the year 1986, it was named after the late king of
Saudi Arabia (''Shahada'') , national_anthem = "National Anthem of Saudi Arabia, " "National Anthem of Saudi Arabia" , image_map = Saudi Arabia (orthographic projection).svg , capital = Riyadh , coordinates ...

Saudi Arabia
, Faisal Bin Abdul Aziz, who backed and financed the construction.


Trail 3

The most famous and oldest hiking track of Islamabad is Trail 3. It starts from the Margalla Road in sector F-6/3. Due to steep hills, the trail is exhausting to some extent. The course leads to the point where it goes up to the Viewpoint and is about a 30 – 50 minutes track. After the Viewpoint it continues for another easy-going 45 – 60 minutes and reaches the Pir Sohawa, where there are two restaurants for food, ''The Monal'' and ''La Montana''. In total, it is approximately a one-hour and thirty minute walk.


Pakistan National Monument

Located in Islamabad, the Pakistan National Monument is a representation of the four provinces and three territories of the nation. Designed by the famous architect, Arif Masood, this blooming flower shaped structure reflects the progress and prosperity of Pakistan.


Notable people


Twin towns and sister cities

* Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates * Amman, Jordan * Ankara, Turkey * Beijing, China * Jakarta, Indonesia 1984, restarted in 2010 * Madrid, Spain * Minsk, Belarus * Seoul, South Korea * Nur-Sultan, Kazakhstan


See also

* Birds of Islamabad


References


External links

* *
Metropolitan Corporation Islamabad
* * {{Authority control Islamabad, Capitals of Pakistan Capitals in Asia Islamabad Capital Territory, 01 Metropolitan areas of Pakistan 1960s establishments in Pakistan Planned capitals Planned cities in Pakistan Union councils of Islamabad Capital Territory Populated places established in the 1960s