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Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia, and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in
Western Asia Western Asia, West Asia, or Southwest Asia, is the westernmost subregion of the larger geographical region of Asia, as defined by some academics, UN bodies and other institutions. It is almost entirely a part of the Middle East, and includes Anat ...

Western Asia
. It is bordered to the northwest by
Armenia Armenia (; hy, Հայաստան, translit=Hayastan, ), officially the Republic of Armenia,, is a landlocked country A landlocked country is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is ...

Armenia
and
Azerbaijan Azerbaijan (, ; az, Azərbaycan ), officially the Republic of Azerbaijan ( az, Azərbaycan Respublikası ), is a country in the Transcaucasia, Caucasus region of Eurasia. Located at the crossroads of Eastern Europe and Western Asia, it is boun ...

Azerbaijan
, to the north by the
Caspian Sea The Caspian Sea (also known as Mazandaran Sea, Hyrcanian Ocean, or Khazar Sea), tk, Hazar deňzi, az, Xəzər Dənizi, russian: Каспийское море, script=Latn, fa, دریای مازندران، دریای خزر, script=Latn, tly, ...

Caspian Sea
, to the northeast by
Turkmenistan Turkmenistan ( or ; tk, Türkmenistan, ), also known as Turkmenia, is a landlocked A landlocked country is a country that does not have territory connected to an ocean or whose coastlines lie on endorheic basin, endorheic basins. There ar ...

Turkmenistan
, to the east by
Afghanistan Afghanistan (; Pashto/Dari language, Dari: , Pashto: , Dari: ), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country at the crossroads of Central Asia, Central and South Asia. Afghanistan is bordered by Pakistan to the ea ...

Afghanistan
, to the southeast by
Pakistan Pakistan, . Pronounced variably in English as , , , and . officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country in South Asia. It is the world's List of countries and dependencies by population, fifth-most populous country, with a popul ...

Pakistan
, to the south by the
Persian Gulf The Persian Gulf ( fa, خلیج فارس, translit=xalij-e fârs, lit=Gulf of , ) is a in . The body of water is an extension of the () through the and lies between to the northeast and the to the southwest.United Nations Group of Exper ...
and the
Gulf of Oman The Gulf of Oman or Sea of Oman ( ar, خليج عمان ''khalīj ʿumān''; fa, دریای عمان ''daryâ-ye omân''), also known as Gulf of Makran or Sea of Makran ( ar, خلیج مکران ''khalīj makrān''; fa, دریای مکرا ...
, and to the west by
Turkey Turkey ( tr, Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country located mainly on Anatolia Anatolia,, tr, Anadolu Yarımadası), and the Anatolian plateau. also known as Asia Minor, is a large peninsula in Western Asia and ...

Turkey
and
Iraq Iraq ( ar, الْعِرَاق, translit=al-ʿIrāq; ku, عێراق, translit=Êraq), officially the Republic of Iraq ( ar, جُمْهُورِيَّة ٱلْعِرَاق '; ku, کۆماری عێراق, translit=Komarî Êraq), is a country i ...

Iraq
. Iran covers an area of , making it the fifth-largest country entirely in Asia and second-largest in the
Middle East The Middle East ( ar, الشرق الأوسط, ISO 233 The international standard An international standard is a technical standard A technical standard is an established norm (social), norm or requirement for a repeatable technical task whi ...

Middle East
(after
Saudi Arabia (''Shahada'') , national_anthem = "National Anthem of Saudi Arabia, " "National Anthem of Saudi Arabia" , image_map = Saudi Arabia (orthographic projection).svg , capital = Riyadh , coordinates ...

Saudi Arabia
). Its population is 85 million, the
17th 17 (seventeen) is the natural number following 16 (number), 16 and preceding 18 (number), 18. It is a prime number. Seventeen is the sum of the first four prime numbers. In mathematics Seventeen is the seventh prime number. The next prime is 1 ...
most populous in the world. The capital and largest city is
Tehran Tehran (; fa, تهران ) is the Capital city, capital of Iran and Tehran Province. With a population of around 8.7 million in the city and 15 million in the larger metropolitan area of Greater Tehran, Tehran is the List of largest cities o ...

Tehran
. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the
Elam Elam (; Linear Elamite: ''hatamti''; Cuneiform Cuneiform is a Logogram, logo-Syllabary, syllabic writing system, script that was used to write several languages of the Ancient Near East. The script was in active use from the early Bronz ...

Elam
ite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BC. It was first unified by the
Iranian Iranian may refer to: * Iran Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran ( fa, جمهوری اسلامی ایران ), is a country in Western Asia. It is bordered to the northwest by Armenia ...
Medes The Medes ( peo, 𐎶𐎠𐎭 ; akk, , ; grc, Μῆδοι ) were an Iranian peoples, ancient Iranian people who spoke the Median language and who inhabited an area known as Media (region), Media between western Iran, western and nor ...
in the seventh century BC, and reached its territorial height in the sixth century BC, when
Cyrus the Great Cyrus II of Persia (; peo, wikt:𐎤𐎢𐎽𐎢𐏁, 𐎤𐎢𐎽𐎢𐏁, translit=Kūruš), commonly known as Cyrus the Great and also called Cyrus the Elder by the Ancient Greece, Greeks, was the founder of the Achaemenid Empire, the Histo ...

Cyrus the Great
founded the
Achaemenid Empire The Achaemenid Empire (; peo, 𐎧𐏁𐏂, translit=Xšāça, translation=The Empire), also called the First Persian Empire, was an ancient Iranian Iranian may refer to: * Iran Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia and offi ...

Achaemenid Empire
, which became one of the largest empires in history and has been described as the world's first
superpower A superpower is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in Co ...

superpower
. The empire fell to
Alexander the Great Alexander III of Macedon ( grc-gre, Αλέξανδρος}, ; 20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great, was a king (''basileus ''Basileus'' ( el, βασιλεύς) is a Greek term and title A title ...

Alexander the Great
in the fourth century BC and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion established the
Parthian Empire The Parthian Empire (), also known as the Arsacid Empire (), was a major political and cultural power in from 247 BC to 224 AD. Its latter name comes from its founder, , who led the tribe in conquering the region of in 's northeast, ...

Parthian Empire
in the third century BC, which was succeeded in the third century AD by the
Sasanian Empire The Sasanian () or Sassanid Empire, officially known as the Empire of Iranians (, ''Iran (word), Ērānshahr''), and also called the Neo-Persian Empire by historians, was the last Persian Empire, Persian imperial dynasty before the spread of I ...

Sasanian Empire
, a major world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century AD, which led to the
Islamization of Iran The Islamization of Iran Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran ( fa, جمهوری اسلامی ایران ), is a country in Western Asia. It is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and ...
. It subsequently became a major center of
Islamic culture Islamic culture and Muslim culture refer to cultural practices which are common to historically Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", ...
and learning, with its art, literature, philosophy, and architecture spreading across the Muslim world and beyond during the
Islamic Golden Age The Islamic Golden Age was a period of cultural, economic, and scientific flourishing in the history of Islam The history of Islam concerns the political, social, economic, and cultural developments of Muslim world, Islamic civilization. M ...
. Over the next two centuries, a series of native Muslim dynasties emerged before the
Seljuq Turks The Seljuk dynasty, or Seljuks ( ; fa, آل سلجوق ''Al-e Saljuq'', alternatively spelled as Seljuqs or Saljuqs), also known as Seljuk Turks, Seljuk Turkomans "The defeat in August 1071 of the Byzantine emperor Romanos Diogenes by the Turkom ...
and the
Mongols The Mongols ( mn, Монголчууд, , ''Mongolchuud'', ; russian: Монголы, ) are an East Asian East Asia is the eastern region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") ...

Mongols
conquered the region. In the 15th century, the native
Safavids Safavid Iran or Safavid Persia (), also referred to as the Safavid Empire, '. was one of the greatest Iranian empires after the 7th-century Muslim conquest of Persia The Muslim conquest of Persia, also known as the Arab conquest of Iran, le ...
re-established a unified Iranian state and national identity and converted the country to Shia Islam. Under the reign of
Nader Shah Nader Shah Afshar ( fa, نادر شاه افشار; also known as ''Nader Qoli Beyg'' or ''Tahmāsp Qoli Khan'' ) (August 1688 – 19 June 1747) was one of the most powerful Iranian rulers in Iranian history, ruling as List of kings of Persia, ...

Nader Shah
in the 18th century, Iran once again became a major world power, though by the 19th century a series of conflicts with
Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the eastern region of . There is no consistent definition of the precise area it covers, partly because th ...
led to significant territorial losses. The early 20th century saw the
Persian Constitutional Revolution The Persian Constitutional Revolution ( fa, مشروطیت ''Mashrūtiyyat'', or ''Enghelāb-e Mashrūteh''), also known as the Constitutional Revolution of Iran, took place between 1905 and 1911. The revolution led to the establishment of a M ...
. Efforts to nationalize its fossil fuel supply from Western companies led to an , which resulted in greater
autocratic Autocracy is a system of government in which supreme power over a State (polity), state is concentrated in the hands of one person, whose decisions are subject to neither external legal restraints nor regularized mechanisms of popular control (exc ...
rule under
Mohammad Reza Pahlavi Mohammad Reza Pahlavi ( fa, محمدرضا پهلوی, ; 26 October 1919 – 27 July 1980), also known as Mohammad Reza Shah (), was the last '' Shah'' ( King) of Iran Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia and officially th ...

Mohammad Reza Pahlavi
and growing Western political influence. He went on to launch a far-reaching series of reforms in 1963. After the
Iranian Revolution The Iranian Revolution ( fa, انقلاب ایران, Enqelâbe Irân, ); Endonym and exonym, locally known as the Islamic Revolution (or the 1979 Revolution) was a series of events that culminated in the overthrow of the Pahlavi dynasty under ...
, the current
Islamic Republic An Islamic republic can be considered a sovereign state in the form of a republic that is officially ruled by Islamic laws, contrasted to Islamic monarchy. As a name or title, three current states are Islamic republics: Iran, Mauritania and Paki ...
was established in 1979 by
Ruhollah Khomeini Sayyid Ruhollah Musavi Khomeini ( , ; fa, سید روح‌الله موسوی خمینی ; 17 May 19003 June 1989), also known as Ayatollah Khomeini, was an Iranian political and religious leader. He was the founder of the Islamic Republic ...

Ruhollah Khomeini
, who became the country's first
Supreme Leader A supreme leader or supreme ruler typically refers to the person among a number of leaders of a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of ...
. The Government of Iran is an
Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission
o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodness", "ah gosh", "ah gawd"; see interjection An interjection is a word or expression that occurs as an utterance on its own and expresses a spontaneous feeling ...
) is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic monotheistic religion teaching that Muhammad is a Muhammad in Islam, messenger of God.Peters, F. E. 2009. "Allāh." In , ed ...
ic
theocracy Theocracy is a form of government in which one or more deities A deity or god is a supernatural The supernatural encompasses supposed phenomena that are not subject to the laws of nature.https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/superna ...

theocracy
which includes elements of a
presidential democracy A presidential system, or single executive system, is a form of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state. In the case of its broad associative definition, governmen ...
, with the ultimate authority vested in an autocratic "Supreme Leader", a position held by
Ali Khamenei Sayyid Ali Hosseini Khamenei ( fa, سید علی حسینی خامنه‌ای, ; born 19 April 1939) is a Twelver Twelver ( ar, ٱثْنَا عَشَرِيَّة; ' fa, شیعه دوازده‌امامی, '), also known as Imamiyyah ( ar, ...
since Khomeini's death in 1989. The Iranian government is widely considered to be
authoritarian Authoritarianism is a form of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a mon ...
, and has attracted widespread criticism for its significant constraints and abuses against
human rights Human rights are moral A moral (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. ...
and civil liberties, including several violent suppressions of mass protests, unfair elections, and limited rights for women and
children Biologically, a child (plural children) is a being between the stages of and , or between the of and puberty. The legal definition of ''child'' generally refers to a , otherwise known as a person younger than the . Children generally have ...
. Iran is a
regional In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics ( physical geography), human impact characteristics (human geography Image:Snow-cholera-map-1.jpg, upright=1.2, Original map by John Snow showing the Cluster (ep ...
and
middle power In international relations The field of international relations dates from the time of the Ancient Greece, Greek historian Thucydides. International relations (IR), international affairs (IA) or international studies (IS) is the scienti ...
, with a geopolitically strategic location in the Asian continent. It is a founding member of the
United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization An intergovernmental organization (IGO) is an organization composed primarily of sovereign states (referred to as ''member states''), or of other organizations through formal ...

United Nations
, the , the
OIC The Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC; ar, منظمة التعاون الإسلامي, Munaẓẓama at-Taʿāwun al-ʾIslāmiyy; french: Organisation de la coopération islamique), formerly the Organisation of the Islamic Conference ...
, and the
OPEC The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC, ) is an intergovernmental organization An intergovernmental organization (IGO) is an organization composed primarily of sovereign states (referred to as ''member states''), or o ...

OPEC
. It has large reserves of
fossil fuel A fossil fuel is a hydrocarbon In , a hydrocarbon is an consisting entirely of and . Hydrocarbons are examples of s. Hydrocarbons are generally colourless and hydrophobic with only weak odours. Because of their diverse molecular structure ...
s—including the world's second-largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven
oil reserves Oil reserves denote the amount of crude oil Petroleum (), also known as crude oil and oil, is a naturally occurring, yellowish-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface. It is commonly refined into various ty ...

oil reserves
. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 26
UNESCO World Heritage Sites A World Heritage Site is a landmark or area with legal protection by an international convention administered by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). World Heritage Sites are designated by UNESCO for ha ...
. Historically a
multinational state A multinational state or a multinational union is a sovereign entity Sovereignty is the supreme authority within a territory. Sovereignty entails hierarchy within the state, as well as external autonomy for states. In any state, sovereignty i ...
, Iran remains a pluralistic society comprising numerous ethnic, linguistic, and religious groups, the largest being
Persians The Persians are an Iranian ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people who identify with each other on the basis of shared attributes that distinguish them from other groups such as a common set of traditions, ancestr ...
,
Azeris Azerbaijanis (; az, Azərbaycanlılar) or Azeris (), also known as Azerbaijani Turks ( az, Azərbaycan Türkləri, ), are a Turkic ethnic group, living mainly in the sovereign Republic of Azerbaijan and the Azerbaijan Azerbaijan (, ; ...

Azeris
,
Kurds Kurds ( ku, کورد ,Kurd, italic=yes, rtl=yes) or Kurdish people are an Iranian peoples, Iranian ethnic group native to the mountainous region of Kurdistan in Western Asia, which spans southeastern Turkey, northwestern Iran, northern Iraq, ...
,
Mazandaranis The Mazanderani people ( mzn, مازرونیون or mzn, طبریون) or Tabari people ( mzn, تپورون, links=no) are an Iranian peoples, Iranian peopleAcademic American Encyclopedia By Grolier Incorporated, page 294 who are indigenous to th ...
and
Lurs Lurs () are an Iranian people The Iranian peoples or the Iranic peoples, are a diverse Indo-European languages, Indo-European ethnolinguistic group, ethno-linguistic group identified by their use of the Iranian languages and other cultural si ...
.


Name

The term ''
Iran Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia, and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia Western Asia, West Asia, or Southwest Asia, is the westernmost subregion A subregion is a part of a larger regio ...
'' derives directly from
Middle Persian Middle Persian or Pahlavi, also known by its endonym Pārsīk or Pārsīg (𐭯𐭠𐭫𐭮𐭩𐭪) in its later form, is a Western Middle Iranian language which became the literary language of the Sasanian Empire. For some time after the Sasan ...
, first attested in a third-century inscription at
Naqsh-e Rostam Naqsh-e Rostam (literal translation, lit. mural of Rostam, fa, نقش رستم ) is an ancient archeological site and necropolis located about 12 km northwest of Persepolis, in Fars Province, Iran. A collection of ancient Iranian rock relie ...

Naqsh-e Rostam
, with the accompanying Parthian inscription using the term , in reference to the Iranians. The
Middle Iranian The Iranian or Iranic languages are a branch of the Indo-Iranian languages in the Indo-European languages, Indo-European language family that are spoken natively by the Iranian peoples. The Iranian languages are grouped in three stages: Old Ir ...
''ērān'' and ''aryān'' are oblique plural forms of
gentilic A demonym (; from Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language used in ancient Greece and the classical antiquity, ancient world from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It is often roughly divided into the following periods ...
nouns ''ēr-'' (Middle Persian) and ''ary-'' (Parthian), both deriving from
Proto-Iranian language Proto-Iranian or Proto-Iranic is the reconstructed Reconstruction may refer to: Politics, history, and sociology *Reconstruction (law), the transfer of a company's (or several companies') business to a new company *''Perestroika'' (Russian f ...
''*arya-'' (meaning "
Aryan Aryan or Arya (, Indo-Iranian *''arya'') is a term originally used as an ethnocultural An ethnoreligious group (or ethno-religious group) is an ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people who identify with each other ...

Aryan
", i.e. "of the Iranians"), recognized as a derivative of
Proto-Indo-European language Proto-Indo-European (PIE) is the theorized common ancestor of the Indo-European language family The Indo-European languages are a language family A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech ( ...
', meaning "one who assembles (skilfully)". In the
Iranian languages The Iranian languages or Iranic languages are a branch of the in the that are spoken natively by the . The Iranian languages are grouped in three stages: Old Iranian (until 400 BCE), Middle Iranian (400 BCE–900 CE) and New Iranian (since 9 ...
, the gentilic is attested as a self-identifier, included in ancient inscriptions and the literature of the
Avesta The Avesta () is the primary collection of religious text Religious texts, also known as scripture, scriptures, holy writ, or holy books, are the texts which various religious traditions consider to be sacred, or of central importance to ...

Avesta
, and remains also in other Iranian ethnic names ''
Alan Alan may refer to: People *Alan (surname)The surname Alan is a variant spelling of Allan (surname), Allan and Allen (surname), Allen. There is also the given name of Alan (given name), Alan. People with the surname Alan * A. J. Alan, English magi ...

Alan
'' ( os, Ир ) and ''
Iron Iron () is a with Fe (from la, ) and 26. It is a that belongs to the and of the . It is, on , right in front of (32.1% and 30.1%, respectively), forming much of Earth's and . It is the fourth most common . In its metallic state, iron ...
'' (). According to the Iranian mythology, the country's name comes from the name of
Iraj Iraj ( fa, ایرج - ʾīraj; Pahlavi: ērič; from Avestan Avestan , also known historically as Zend, comprises two languages: Old Avestan (spoken in the 2nd millennium BCE) and Younger Avestan (spoken in the 1st millennium BCE). The languages ...

Iraj
, a legendary prince and shah who was killed by his brothers. Historically, Iran has been referred to as ''Persia'' by , due mainly to the writings of
Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of ...

Greek
historians who referred to all of Iran as (
Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally referred to by speakers simply as Greek (, ), refers collectively to the diale ...
: Περσίς; from
Old Persian Old Persian is one of the two directly attested Old Iranian languages The Iranian or Iranic languages are a branch of the Indo-Iranian languagesIndo-Iranian may refer to: * Indo-Iranian languages * Indo-Iranians, the various peoples speaking ...
), meaning "land of the
Persians The Persians are an Iranian ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people who identify with each other on the basis of shared attributes that distinguish them from other groups such as a common set of traditions, ancestr ...
", while
Persis Persis ( grc-gre, , ''Persís''), better known in English as Persia (Old Persian Old Persian is one of the two directly attested Old Iranian languages (the other being Avestan language, Avestan) and it is the ancestor of Middle Persian (the l ...
itself was one of the provinces of ancient Iran that is today known as Fars. As the most extensive interaction the
ancient Greeks Ancient Greece ( el, Ἑλλάς, Hellás) was a civilization belonging to a period of History of Greece, Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 12th–9th centuries BC to the end of Classical Antiquity, antiquity ( AD 600). This era was ...
had with any outsider was with the Persians, the term persisted, even long after the
Greco-Persian Wars The Greco-Persian Wars (also often called the Persian Wars) were a series of conflicts between the Achaemenid Empire The Achaemenid Empire (; peo, 𐎧𐏁𐏂, translit=Xšāça, translation=The Empire), also called the First Persian Empi ...
(499–449 BC). In 1935,
Reza Shah Reza Shah Pahlavi ( fa, رضا شاه پهلوی; ; originally Reza Khan (); 15 March 1878 – 26 July 1944) was an Iran Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran ( fa, جمهوری اس ...

Reza Shah
requested the international community to refer to the country by its native name, ''Iran'', on
Nowruz Nowruz ( fa, نوروز, ; ) is the Iranian New Year, also known as the Persian New Year, which begins on the spring equinox, marking the first day of Farvardin, the first month of the Iranian solar calendar. It is celebrated worldwide by v ...

Nowruz
, falling on 21 March 1935; effective 22 March that year. Opposition to the name change led to the reversal of the decision in 1959, and Professor
Ehsan Yarshater Ehsan Yarshater ( fa, احسان يارشاطر, April 3, 1920 – September 1, 2018) was an Iranian historian and linguist who specialized in Iranology. He was the founder and director of The Center for Iranian Studies, and Hagop Kevorkian Profess ...

Ehsan Yarshater
, editor of ''Encyclopædia Iranica'', propagated a move to use ''Persia'' and ''Iran'' interchangeably. Today, both ''Iran'' and ''Persia'' are used in cultural contexts, while ''Iran'' remains irreplaceable in official state contexts. Historical and cultural usage of the word ''Iran'' is not restricted to the modern state proper. "Greater Iran" (''Irānzamīn'' or ''Irān e Bozorg'') refers to territories of the Iranian cultural and linguistic zones. In addition to modern Iran, it includes portions of the Caucasus, Anatolia, Mesopotamia,
Afghanistan Afghanistan (; Pashto/Dari language, Dari: , Pashto: , Dari: ), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country at the crossroads of Central Asia, Central and South Asia. Afghanistan is bordered by Pakistan to the ea ...

Afghanistan
, and Central Asia.


Pronunciation

The Persian pronunciation of ''Iran'' is . Common English in the Commonwealth of Nations, Commonwealth English pronunciations of ''Iran'' are listed in the ''Oxford English Dictionary'' as and , while American English dictionaries such as Merriam-Webster's provide pronunciations which map to , or likewise in ''Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary'' as . The ''Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary, Cambridge Dictionary'' lists as the British pronunciation and as the American pronunciation. Similarly, Glasgow-based ''Collins English Dictionary'' provides both English language in England, English English and American English pronunciations. The pronunciation guide from Voice of America also provides . The American English pronunciation may be heard in U.S. media. Max Fisher in ''The Washington Post'' prescribed for ''Iran'', while proscribing . ''The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language'', in the dictionary's 2014 Usage Ballot, addressed the topic of the pronunciations of Iran and Iraq. According to this survey, the pronunciations and were deemed almost equally acceptable, while was preferred by most panelists participating in the ballot. With regard to the pronunciation, more than 70% of the panelists deemed it unacceptable. Among the reasons given by those panelists were that has "hawkish connotations" and sounds "angrier", "xenophobic", "ignorant", and "not... cosmopolitan". The pronunciation remains standard and acceptable, reflected in the entry for ''Iran'' in the American Heritage Dictionary itself, as well as in each of the other major dictionaries of American English.


History


Prehistory

The earliest attested archaeological artifacts in Iran, like those excavated at Kashafrud and Ganj Par in northern Iran, confirm a human presence in Iran since the Lower Paleolithic. Iran's Neanderthal artifacts from the Middle Paleolithic have been found mainly in the Zagros Mountains, Zagros region, at sites such as Warwasi and Yafteh. From the 10th to the seventh millennium BC, early agricultural communities began to flourish in and around the Zagros region in western Iran, including Chogha Golan, Chogha Bonut, and Chogha Mish. The occupation of grouped hamlets in the area of Susa, as determined by radiocarbon dating, ranges from 4395–3955 to 3680-3490 BC. There are dozens of prehistoric sites across the Iranian Plateau, pointing to the existence of ancient cultures and urban settlements in the fourth millennium BC.Iranian.ws, "Archaeologists: Modern civilization began in Iran based on new evidence", 12 August 2007. Retrieved 1 October 2007.
During the Bronze Age, the territory of present-day Iran was home to several civilizations, including
Elam Elam (; Linear Elamite: ''hatamti''; Cuneiform Cuneiform is a Logogram, logo-Syllabary, syllabic writing system, script that was used to write several languages of the Ancient Near East. The script was in active use from the early Bronz ...

Elam
, Jiroft culture, Jiroft, and Zayandeh River Culture, Zayanderud. Elam, the most prominent of these civilizations, developed in the southwest alongside those in Mesopotamia, and continued its existence until the emergence of the Iranian empires. The advent of writing in Elam was paralleled to Sumerian language#Writing system, Sumer, and the Elamite cuneiform was developed since the third millennium BC. From the 34th to the 20th century BC, northwestern Iran was part of the Kura-Araxes culture, which stretched into the neighboring Caucasus and Anatolia. Since the earliest second millennium BC, Assyrians settled in swaths of western Iran and incorporated the region into their territories.


Classical antiquity

By the second millennium BC, the List of ancient Iranian peoples, ancient Iranian peoples arrived in what is now Iran from the Eurasian Steppe, rivaling the native settlers of the region. As the Iranians dispersed into the wider area of Greater Iran and beyond, the boundaries of modern-day Iran were dominated by Medes, Median, Persians, Persian, and Parthian tribes. From the late 10th to the late seventh century BC, the Iranian peoples, together with the "pre-Iranian" kingdoms, fell under the domination of the Assyrian Empire, based in northern Mesopotamia. Under king Cyaxares, the Medes and Persians entered into an alliance with Babylonian ruler Nabopolassar, as well as the fellow Iranian Scythians and Cimmerians, and together they attacked the Assyrian Empire. The civil war ravaged the Assyrian Empire between 616 and 605 BC, thus freeing their respective peoples from three centuries of Assyrian rule. The unification of the Median tribes under king Deioces in 728 BC led to the foundation of the Median Empire which, by 612 BC, controlled almost the entire territory of present-day Iran and eastern Anatolia. This marked the end of the Kingdom of Urartu as well, which was subsequently conquered and dissolved. In 550 BC,
Cyrus the Great Cyrus II of Persia (; peo, wikt:𐎤𐎢𐎽𐎢𐏁, 𐎤𐎢𐎽𐎢𐏁, translit=Kūruš), commonly known as Cyrus the Great and also called Cyrus the Elder by the Ancient Greece, Greeks, was the founder of the Achaemenid Empire, the Histo ...

Cyrus the Great
, the son of Mandane of Media, Mandane and Cambyses I, took over the Median Empire, and founded the
Achaemenid Empire The Achaemenid Empire (; peo, 𐎧𐏁𐏂, translit=Xšāça, translation=The Empire), also called the First Persian Empire, was an ancient Iranian Iranian may refer to: * Iran Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia and offi ...

Achaemenid Empire
by unifying other city-states. The conquest of Media was a result of what is called the ''Persian Revolt''. The brouhaha was initially triggered by the actions of the Median ruler Astyages, and was quickly spread to other provinces, as they allied with the Persians. Later conquests under Cyrus and his successors expanded the empire to include Lydia, Babylon, Ancient Egypt, Egypt, parts of the Balkans and Eastern Europe proper, as well as the lands to the west of the Indus River, Indus and Amu Darya, Oxus rivers. 539 BC was the year in which Persian forces defeated the Babylonian army at Opis, and marked the end of around four centuries of Mesopotamian domination of the region by conquering the Neo-Babylonian Empire. Cyrus entered Babylon and presented himself as a traditional Mesopotamian monarch. Subsequent Achaemenid art and iconography reflect the influence of the new political reality in Mesopotamia. At its greatest extent, the Achaemenid Empire included territories of modern-day Iran, Republic of
Azerbaijan Azerbaijan (, ; az, Azərbaycan ), officially the Republic of Azerbaijan ( az, Azərbaycan Respublikası ), is a country in the Transcaucasia, Caucasus region of Eurasia. Located at the crossroads of Eastern Europe and Western Asia, it is boun ...

Azerbaijan
(Arran (Caucasus), Arran and Shirvan),
Armenia Armenia (; hy, Հայաստան, translit=Hayastan, ), officially the Republic of Armenia,, is a landlocked country A landlocked country is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is ...

Armenia
, Georgia (country), Georgia, Turkey (Classical Anatolia, Anatolia), much of the Black Sea coastal regions, northeastern Greece and southern Bulgaria (Thrace), northern Greece and North Macedonia (Paeonia (kingdom), Paeonia and Macedonia (ancient kingdom), Macedon),
Iraq Iraq ( ar, الْعِرَاق, translit=al-ʿIrāq; ku, عێراق, translit=Êraq), officially the Republic of Iraq ( ar, جُمْهُورِيَّة ٱلْعِرَاق '; ku, کۆماری عێراق, translit=Komarî Êraq), is a country i ...

Iraq
, Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, Israel and the Palestinian territories, all significant population centers of ancient Egypt as far west as Libya, Kuwait, northern
Saudi Arabia (''Shahada'') , national_anthem = "National Anthem of Saudi Arabia, " "National Anthem of Saudi Arabia" , image_map = Saudi Arabia (orthographic projection).svg , capital = Riyadh , coordinates ...

Saudi Arabia
, parts of the United Arab Emirates and Oman, Pakistan, Afghanistan, and much of Central Asia, making it the largest empire the world had yet seen. It is estimated that in 480 BC, 50 million people lived in the Achaemenid Empire.While estimates for the Achaemenid Empire range from 10–80+ million, most prefer 50 million. Prevas
2009, p. 14
estimates 10 million. Strauss
2004, p. 37
estimates about 20 million. Ward
2009, p. 16
estimates at 20 million. Scheidel
2009, p. 99
estimates 35 million. Daniel
2001, p. 41
estimates at 50 million. Meyer and Andreades
2004, p. 58
estimates to 50 million. Jones
2004, p. 8
estimates over 50 million. Richard
2008, p. 34
estimates nearly 70 million. Hanson
2001, p. 32
estimates almost 75 million. Cowley
1999 and 2001, p. 17
estimates possibly 80 million.
The empire at its peak ruled over 44% of the world's population, the highest such figure for any empire in history. The Achaemenid Empire is noted for the release of the Babylonian captivity, Jewish exiles in Babylon, building infrastructures such as the Royal Road and the Chapar Khaneh, Chapar (postal service), and the use of an official language, Old Aramaic#Imperial Aramaic, Imperial Aramaic, throughout its territories. The empire had a centralized, bureaucratic administration under the emperor, a large professional army, and civil services, inspiring similar developments in later empires.Schmitt Achaemenid dynasty (i. The clan and dynasty) Eventual conflict on the western borders began with the Ionian Revolt, which erupted into the
Greco-Persian Wars The Greco-Persian Wars (also often called the Persian Wars) were a series of conflicts between the Achaemenid Empire The Achaemenid Empire (; peo, 𐎧𐏁𐏂, translit=Xšāça, translation=The Empire), also called the First Persian Empi ...
and continued through the first half of the fifth century BC, and ended with the withdrawal of the Achaemenids from all of the territories in the Balkans and Eastern Europe proper. In 334 BC,
Alexander the Great Alexander III of Macedon ( grc-gre, Αλέξανδρος}, ; 20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great, was a king (''basileus ''Basileus'' ( el, βασιλεύς) is a Greek term and title A title ...

Alexander the Great
invaded the Achaemenid Empire, defeating the last Achaemenid emperor, Darius III, at the Battle of Issus. Following the premature death of Alexander, Iran came under the control of the Hellenistic period, Hellenistic Seleucid Empire. In the middle of the second century BC, the
Parthian Empire The Parthian Empire (), also known as the Arsacid Empire (), was a major political and cultural power in from 247 BC to 224 AD. Its latter name comes from its founder, , who led the tribe in conquering the region of in 's northeast, ...

Parthian Empire
rose to become the main power in Iran, and the century-long geopolitical arch-rivalry between the Romans and the Parthians began, culminating in the Roman–Parthian Wars. The Parthian Empire continued as a feudal monarchy for nearly five centuries, until 224 CE, when it was succeeded by the
Sasanian Empire The Sasanian () or Sassanid Empire, officially known as the Empire of Iranians (, ''Iran (word), Ērānshahr''), and also called the Neo-Persian Empire by historians, was the last Persian Empire, Persian imperial dynasty before the spread of I ...

Sasanian Empire
. Together with their neighboring arch-rival, the Roman Empire, Roman-Byzantine Empire, Byzantines, they made up the world's two most dominant powers at the time, for over four centuries. The Sasanians established an empire within the frontiers achieved by the Achaemenids, with their capital at Ctesiphon. Late antiquity is considered one of Iran's most influential periods, as under the Sasanians their influence reached the culture of ancient Rome (and through that as far as Western Europe), Culture of Africa, Africa, Chinese culture, China, and Culture of India, India, and played a prominent role in the formation of the medieval art of both Medieval art, Europe and History of Asian art, Asia. Most of the era of the Sasanian Empire was overshadowed by the Roman–Persian Wars, which raged on the western borders at Anatolia, the Western Caucasus, Mesopotamia, and the Levant, for over 700 years. These wars ultimately exhausted both the Romans and the Sasanians and led to the defeat of both by the Muslim invasion. Throughout the Achaemenid, Parthian, and Sasanian eras, several offshoots of the Iranian dynasties established eponymous branches in Anatolia and the Caucasus, including the Kingdom of Pontus, Pontic Kingdom, the Mihranids, and the Arsacid dynasties of Arsacid dynasty of Armenia, Armenia, Arsacid dynasty of Iberia, Iberia (Georgia (country), Georgia), and Arsacid dynasty of Caucasian Albania, Caucasian Albania (present-day Republic of
Azerbaijan Azerbaijan (, ; az, Azərbaycan ), officially the Republic of Azerbaijan ( az, Azərbaycan Respublikası ), is a country in the Transcaucasia, Caucasus region of Eurasia. Located at the crossroads of Eastern Europe and Western Asia, it is boun ...

Azerbaijan
and southern Dagestan).


Medieval period

The prolonged Roman–Persian Wars#Byzantine–Sasanian wars, Byzantine–Sasanian wars, most importantly the climactic Byzantine–Sasanian War of 602–628, war of 602–628, as well as the Muslim conquest of Persia#Social problems, social conflict within the Sasanian Empire, opened the way for an Arab invasion of Iran in the seventh century. The empire was initially defeated by the Rashidun Caliphate, which was succeeded by the Umayyad Caliphate, followed by the Abbasid Caliphate. A prolonged and gradual process of state-imposed Islamization of Iran, Islamization followed, which targeted Iran's then Zoroastrian majority and included religious persecution, demolition of libraries and fire temples, a special tax penalty ("jizya"), and language shift. In 750, the Abbasids overthrew the Umayyads. Arabs Muslims and Persians of all strata made up the rebel army, which was united by the converted Persian Muslim, Abu Muslim. In their struggle for power, the society in their times gradually became cosmopolitan and the old Arab simplicity and aristocratic dignity, bearing and prestige were lost. Persians and Turks began to replace the Arabs in most fields. The fusion of the Arab nobility with the subject races, the practice of polygamy and concubinage, made for a social amalgam wherein loyalties became uncertain and a hierarchy of officials emerged, a bureaucracy at first Persian and later Turkish which decreased Abbasid prestige and power for good. After two centuries of Arab rule, semi-independent and independent Iranian kingdoms—including the Tahirid dynasty, Tahirids, Saffarid dynasty, Saffarids, Samanid Empire, Samanids, and Buyid dynasty, Buyids—began to appear on the fringes of the declining Abbasid Caliphate. The blossoming Persian literature, literature, Iranian philosophy, philosophy, Islamic Golden Age#Mathematics, mathematics, Ancient Iranian medicine, medicine, Islamic Golden Age#Astronomy, astronomy and Persian art, art of Iran became major elements in the formation of a new age for the Iranian civilization, during a period known as the ''
Islamic Golden Age The Islamic Golden Age was a period of cultural, economic, and scientific flourishing in the history of Islam The history of Islam concerns the political, social, economic, and cultural developments of Muslim world, Islamic civilization. M ...
''. The Islamic Golden Age reached its peak by the 10th and 11th centuries, during which Iran was the main theater of scientific activities. The cultural revival that began in the Abbasid period led to a resurfacing of the Iranian nationalism, Iranian national identity; thus, the attempts of Arabization never succeeded in Iran. The Shu'ubiyya movement became a catalyst for Iranians to regain independence in their relations with the Arab invaders. The most notable effect of this movement was the continuation of the Persian language attested to the works of the epic poet Ferdowsi, now considered the most prominent figure in Iranian literature. The 10th century saw a mass migration of Turkic tribal confederations, Turkic tribes from Central Asia into the Iranian Plateau. Turkic tribesmen were first used in the Abbasid army as mamluks (slave-warriors), replacing Iranian and Arab elements within the army. As a result, the Mamluks gained significant political power. In 999, large portions of Iran came briefly under the rule of the Ghaznavids, whose rulers were of mamluk Turkic origin, and longer subsequently under the Seljuk Empire, Seljuk and Anushtegin dynasty, Khwarezmian empires. The Seljuks subsequently gave rise to the Sultanate of Rum in Anatolia, while taking their thoroughly Persianized identity with them. The result of the adoption and patronage of Persian culture by Turkish rulers was the development of a distinct Turco-Persian tradition. From 1219 to 1221, under the Khwarazmian Empire, Iran suffered Mongol conquest of the Khwarazmian Empire, a devastating invasion by the Mongol Empire army of Genghis Khan. According to Steven R. Ward, "Mongol invasions and conquests, Mongol violence and depredations killed up to three-fourths of the population of the Iranian Plateau, possibly 10 to 15 million people. Some historians have estimated that Iran's population did not again reach its pre-Mongol levels until the mid-20th century." Most modern historians either outright dismiss or are highly skeptical of such statistics of colossal magnitude pertaining the Mongol onslaught on the Khwarazmian empire, mainland Iran and other Muslim regions and deem them to be exaggerations by Muslim chronichlers of that era (whose recordings were naturally of an anti-Mongol bent). Indeed, as for as the Iranian plateau was concerned the bulk of the Mongol onslaught and battles were in the north-east of what is modern day Iran. Such as the cities of Tus and Nishapur. Following the fracture of the Mongol Empire in 1256, Hulagu Khan, grandson of Genghis Khan, established the Ilkhanate in Iran. In 1370, yet another conqueror, Timur, followed the example of Hulagu, establishing the Timurid Empire which lasted for another 156 years. In 1387, Timur ordered the complete massacre of Isfahan, reportedly killing 70,000 citizens. The Ilkhans and the Timurids soon came to adopt the ways and customs of the Iranians, surrounding themselves with a culture that was distinctively Iranian.


Early modern period


Safavids

By the 1500s, Ismail I of Ardabil established the Safavid Iran, Safavid Empire, with his capital at Tabriz. Beginning with Azerbaijan (Iran), Azerbaijan, he subsequently extended his authority over all of the Iranian territories, and established an intermittent Iranian hegemony over the vast relative regions, reasserting the Iranian identity within large parts of Greater Iran. Iran was predominantly Sunni Islam, Sunni, but Ismail instigated Safavid conversion of Iran to Shia Islam, a forced conversion to the Shia Islam, Shia branch of Islam, spreading throughout the Safavid territories in the Caucasus, Iran, Anatolia, and Mesopotamia. As a result, modern-day Iran is the only official Shia nation of the world, with it holding an absolute majority in Iran and the Republic of
Azerbaijan Azerbaijan (, ; az, Azərbaycan ), officially the Republic of Azerbaijan ( az, Azərbaycan Respublikası ), is a country in the Transcaucasia, Caucasus region of Eurasia. Located at the crossroads of Eastern Europe and Western Asia, it is boun ...

Azerbaijan
, having there the first and the second highest number of Shia inhabitants by population percentage in the world. Meanwhile, the centuries-long geopolitical and ideological rivalry between Safavid Iran and the neighboring Ottoman Empire led to numerous Ottoman–Persian Wars, Ottoman–Iranian wars. The Safavid era peaked in the reign of Abbas the Great, Abbas I (1587–1629), surpassing their Turkish archrivals in strength, and making Iran a leading science and art hub in western Eurasia. The Safavid era saw the start of mass integration from Peoples of the Caucasus, Caucasian populations into new layers of the society of Iran, as well as mass resettlement of them within the heartlands of Iran, playing a pivotal role in the history of Iran for centuries onwards. Following a gradual decline in the late 1600s and the early 1700s, which was caused by internal conflicts, the continuous wars with the Ottomans, and the foreign interference (most notably the Russian interference), the Safavid rule was ended by the Hotak dynasty, Pashtun rebels who besieged Isfahan and defeated Sultan Husayn in 1722.


Afsharids

In 1729,
Nader Shah Nader Shah Afshar ( fa, نادر شاه افشار; also known as ''Nader Qoli Beyg'' or ''Tahmāsp Qoli Khan'' ) (August 1688 – 19 June 1747) was one of the most powerful Iranian rulers in Iranian history, ruling as List of kings of Persia, ...

Nader Shah
, a chieftain and military genius from Greater Khorasan, Khorasan, successfully drove out and conquered the Pashtun invaders. He subsequently took back the annexed Caucasian territories which Treaty of Constantinople (1724), were divided among the Ottoman and Russian Empire, Russian authorities by the ongoing chaos in Iran. During the reign of Nader Shah, Iran reached its greatest extent since the Sasanian Empire, reestablishing the Iranian hegemony all over the Caucasus, as well as other major parts of the West Asia, west and central Asia, and briefly possessing what was arguably the most powerful empire at the time. Nader Shah Nader Shah's invasion of the Mughal Empire, invaded India and sacked far off Delhi by the late 1730s. His territorial expansion, as well as his military successes, went into a decline following the final Nader's Dagestan campaign, campaigns in the Northern Caucasus against then revolting Lezgins. The assassination of Nader Shah sparked a brief period of civil war and turmoil, after which Karim Khan Zand, Karim Khan of the Zand dynasty came to power in 1750, bringing a period of relative peace and prosperity.


Zands

Compared to its preceding dynasties, the geopolitical reach of the Zand dynasty was limited. Many of the Iranian territories in the Caucasus gained ''de facto'' autonomy, and were locally ruled through various Khanates of the Caucasus, Caucasian khanates. However, despite the self-ruling, they all remained commoner, subjects and vassals to the Zand king. Another civil war ensued after the death of Karim Khan in 1779, out of which Agha Mohammad Khan Qajar, Agha Mohammad Khan emerged, founding the Qajar dynasty in 1794.


Qajars

In 1795, following the disobedience of the Georgians, Georgian subjects and their Treaty of Georgievsk, alliance with the Russians, the Qajars captured Tbilisi by the Battle of Krtsanisi, and drove the Russians out of the entire Caucasus, reestablishing the Iranian suzerainty over the region. The Russo-Iranian wars of Russo-Persian War (1804–13), 1804–1813 and Russo-Persian War (1826–28), 1826–1828 resulted in large irrevocable territorial losses for Iran in the Caucasus, comprising all of the South Caucasus and Dagestan, which made part of the very concept of Iran for centuries, and thus substantial gains for the neighboring Russian Empire. As a result of the 19th-century Russo-Iranian wars, the Russians took over the Caucasus, and Iran irrevocably lost control over its integral territories in the region (comprising modern-day Dagestan, Georgia (country), Georgia,
Armenia Armenia (; hy, Հայաստան, translit=Hayastan, ), officially the Republic of Armenia,, is a landlocked country A landlocked country is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is ...

Armenia
, and Azerbaijan, Republic of Azerbaijan), which got confirmed per the treaties of Treaty of Gulistan, Gulistan and Treaty of Turkmenchay, Turkmenchay. The area to the north of Aras (river), Aras River, among which the contemporary Republic of Azerbaijan, eastern Georgia, Dagestan, and Armenia are located, were Iranian territory until they were occupied by Russia in the course of the 19th century. As Iran shrank, many South Caucasus, South Caucasian and North Caucasus, North Caucasian Muslims moved towards Iran,А. Г. Булатова. Лакцы (XIX — нач. XX вв.). Историко-этнографические очерки. — Махачкала, 2000. especially until the aftermath of the Circassian genocide, Circassian Genocide, and the decades afterwards, while Iran's Armenians were encouraged to settle in the newly incorporated Russian territories, causing significant demographic shifts. Around 1.5 million people—20 to 25% of the population of Iran—died as a result of the Persian famine of 1870-1872, Great Famine of 1870–1872. Between 1872 and 1905, a series of protests took place in response to the sale of Concession (contract), concessions to foreigners by Qajar monarchs Naser al-Din Shah Qajar, Naser-ed-Din and Mozaffar ad-Din Shah Qajar, Mozaffar-ed-Din, and led to the Persian Constitutional Revolution, Constitutional Revolution in 1905. The Persian Constitution of 1906, first Iranian constitution and the first national parliament of Iran were founded in 1906, through the ongoing revolution. The Constitution included the official recognition of Iran's three religious minorities, namely Christianity in Iran, Christians, Persian Jews, Jews, and Zoroastrians in Iran, Zoroastrians,Colin Brock, Lila Zia Levers
''Aspects of Education in the Middle East and Africa''
Symposium Books Ltd., 7 mei 2007 p. 99
which has remained a basis in the legislation of Iran since then. The struggle related to the constitutional movement was followed by the Triumph of Tehran in 1909, when Mohammad Ali Shah Qajar, Mohammad Ali Shah was defeated and forced to abdicate. On the pretext of restoring order, the Russians occupied northern Iran in 1911 and maintained a military presence in the region for years to come. But this did not put an end to the civil uprisings and was soon followed by Mirza Kuchik Khan's Jungle Movement of Gilan, Jungle Movement against both the Qajar monarchy and foreign invaders. Despite Iran's neutrality during World War I, the Ottoman Empire, Ottoman, Russian Empire, Russian and British Empire, British empires occupied the territory of western Iran and fought the Persian campaign (World War I), Persian Campaign before fully withdrawing their forces in 1921. At least 2 million Persian civilians died either directly in the fighting, the Armenian genocide, Ottoman perpetrated anti-Christian genocides or the war-induced Persian famine of 1917–1919, famine of 1917-1919. A large number of Iranian Assyrian and Iranian Armenian Christians, as well as those Muslims who tried to protect them, were victims of mass murders committed by the invading Military of the Ottoman Empire, Ottoman troops, notably in and around Khoy, Maku, Iran, Maku, Salmas, and Urmia. Apart from the rule of Agha Mohammad Khan, the Qajar rule is characterized as a century of misrule. The inability of Qajar Iran's government to maintain the country's sovereignty during and immediately after World War I led to the British directed 1921 Persian coup d'état and
Reza Shah Reza Shah Pahlavi ( fa, رضا شاه پهلوی; ; originally Reza Khan (); 15 March 1878 – 26 July 1944) was an Iran Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran ( fa, جمهوری اس ...

Reza Shah
's establishment of the Pahlavi dynasty. Reza Shah, became the new List of Prime Ministers of Iran, Prime Minister of Iran and was declared the new monarch in 1925.


Pahlavis

In the midst of World War II, in June 1941, Nazi Germany broke the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact and Operation Barbarossa, invaded the Soviet Union, Iran's northern neighbor. The Soviets quickly allied themselves with the Allies of World War II, Allied countries and in July and August, 1941 the British demanded that the Iranian government expel all Germans from Iran. Reza Shah refused to expel the Germans and on 25 August 1941, the British and Soviets launched a Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran, surprise invasion and Reza Shah's government quickly surrendered. The invasion's strategic purpose was to secure a supply line to the USSR (later named the Persian Corridor), secure the oil fields and Abadan Refinery (of the UK-owned Anglo-Iranian Oil Company), prevent a German advance via Turkey or the USSR on Baku's oil fields, and limit German influence in Iran. Following the invasion, on 16 September 1941 Reza Shah abdicated and was replaced by
Mohammad Reza Pahlavi Mohammad Reza Pahlavi ( fa, محمدرضا پهلوی, ; 26 October 1919 – 27 July 1980), also known as Mohammad Reza Shah (), was the last '' Shah'' ( King) of Iran Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia and officially th ...

Mohammad Reza Pahlavi
, his 21-year-old son. During the rest of World War II, Iran became Persian Corridor, a major conduit for Lend-Lease, British and American aid to the Soviet Union and an avenue through which Evacuation of Polish civilians from the USSR in World War II#Iran and the Middle East, over 120,000 Polish refugees and Anders' Army, Polish Armed Forces fled the Axis advance. At the 1943 Tehran Conference, the Allies of World War II, Allied "Big Three"—Joseph Stalin, Franklin D. Roosevelt, and Winston Churchill—issued the Tehran Conference#Three powers come together, Tehran Declaration to guarantee the post-war independence and boundaries of Iran. However, at the end of the war, Soviet troops remained in Iran and established two puppet states in north-western Iran, namely the Azerbaijan People's Government, People's Government of Azerbaijan and the Republic of Mahabad. This led to the Iran crisis of 1946, one of the first confrontations of the Cold War, which ended after oil concessions were promised to the USSR and Soviet forces withdrew from Iran proper in May 1946. The two puppet states were soon overthrown and the oil concessions were later revoked.


1951–1978: Mosaddegh, Shah Reza Pahlavi

In 1951, Mohammad Mosaddegh was appointed as the Prime Minister of Iran, Prime Minister. He became enormously popular in Iran after he nationalization, nationalized Petroleum industry in Iran, Iran's petroleum industry and oil reserves. He was deposed in the 1953 Iranian coup d'état, an Anglo-American covert operation that marked the first time the United States had participated in the overthrow of a foreign government during the Cold War. After the coup, the Shah became increasingly autocracy, autocratic and Sultanism, sultanistic, and Iran entered a decades-long phase of controversially close relations with the United States and some other foreign governments. While the Shah increasingly modernized Iran and claimed to retain it as a fully secular state, arbitrary arrests and torture by his secret police, the SAVAK, were used to crush all forms of political opposition.
Ruhollah Khomeini Sayyid Ruhollah Musavi Khomeini ( , ; fa, سید روح‌الله موسوی خمینی ; 17 May 19003 June 1989), also known as Ayatollah Khomeini, was an Iranian political and religious leader. He was the founder of the Islamic Republic ...

Ruhollah Khomeini
, a radical Muslim cleric, became an active critic of the Shah's far-reaching series of reforms known as the ''White Revolution''. Khomeini publicly denounced the government, and was arrested and imprisoned for 18 months. After his release in 1964, he refused to apologize, and was eventually sent into exile. Due to the 1973 oil crisis, 1973 spike in oil prices, the economy of Iran was flooded with foreign currency, which caused inflation. By 1974, the economy of Iran was experiencing double digit inflation, and despite the many large projects to modernize the country, corruption was rampant and caused Background and causes of the Iranian Revolution#1970–1975, large amounts of waste. By 1975 and 1976, an recession, economic recession led to increased unemployment, especially among millions of youths who had migrated to the cities of Iran looking for construction jobs during the boom years of the early 1970s. By the late 1970s, many of these people opposed the Shah's regime and began to organize and join the protests against it.


Since the 1979 Islamic Revolution

The Iranian Revolution, 1979 Revolution, later known as the ''Islamic Revolution'', began in January 1978 with the first major demonstrations against the Shah. After Iranian Revolution#General strike, increasing opposition, and military government, a year of strikes and Iranian Revolution#Renewed protests (Aug–Sept), demonstrations paralyzing the country and its economy, Iranian Revolution#The Shah's exile and Khomeini's return, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi fled to the United States, and Ruhollah Khomeini returned from exile to Tehran in February 1979, forming a new government. After holding March 1979 Iranian Islamic Republic referendum, a referendum, Iran officially became an Islamic republic in April 1979. December 1979 Iranian constitutional referendum, A second referendum in December 1979 approved Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran, a theocratic constitution. The immediate nationwide uprisings against the new government began with the 1979 Kurdish rebellion in Iran, 1979 Kurdish rebellion and the 1979 Khuzestan uprising, Khuzestan uprisings, along with the uprisings in Sistan and Baluchestan Province, Sistan and Baluchestan and other areas. Over the next several years, these uprisings were Consolidation of the Iranian Revolution, subdued in a violent manner by the new Islamic government. The new government began Consolidation of the Iranian Revolution#Suppression of opposition, purging itself of the non-Islamist political opposition, as well as of those Islamists who were not considered radical enough. Although both nationalists and Marxists had initially joined with Islamists to overthrow the Shah, tens of thousands were executed by the new regime afterwards. Many former ministers and officials in the Shah's government, including former prime minister Amir-Abbas Hoveyda, were Casualties of the Iranian Revolution, executed following Khomeini's order to purge the new government of any remaining officials still loyal to the exiled Shah. On 4 November 1979, Muslim Student Followers of the Imam's Line, a group of Muslim students seized the United States Embassy and Iran hostage crisis, took the embassy with 52 personnel and citizens hostage, after the United States refused to extradite Mohammad Reza Pahlavi to Iran, where his execution was all but assured. Attempts by the Jimmy Carter administration to Iran hostage crisis negotiations, negotiate for the release of the hostages, and a failed Operation Eagle Claw, rescue attempt, helped force Carter out of office and brought Ronald Reagan to power. On Jimmy Carter's final day in office, the last hostages were finally set free as a result of the Algiers Accords. Mohammad Reza Pahlavi left the United States for Egypt, where he died of complications from cancer only months later, on 27 July 1980. The Iranian Cultural Revolution, Cultural Revolution began in 1980, with an initial closure of universities for three years, in order to perform an inspection and clean up in the cultural policy of the education and training system.Supreme Cultural Revolution Council
''GlobalSecurity.org''
On 22 September 1980, the Iraqi army Iran–Iraq War#1980: Iraqi invasion, invaded the western Iranian province of Khuzestan, launching the Iran–Iraq War. Although the forces of Saddam Hussein made several early advances, by mid 1982, the Iranian forces successfully managed to Iran–Iraq War#1982: Iraqi retreat, Iranian offensive, drive the Iraqi army back into Iraq. In July 1982, with Iraq thrown on the defensive, the regime of Iran took the decision to invade Iraq and conducted countless offensives in a bid to conquer Iraqi territory and capture cities, such as Basra. The war continued until 1988 when the Iraqi army defeated the Iranian forces inside Iraq and pushed the remaining Iranian troops back across the border. Subsequently, Khomeini accepted United Nations Security Council Resolution 598, a truce mediated by the United Nations. The total Iranian casualties in the war were estimated to be 123,220–160,000 killed in action, KIA, 60,711 missing in action, MIA, and 11,000–16,000 Civilian casualties, civilians killed. Following the Iran–Iraq War, in 1989, Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani and his administration concentrated on a pragmatic pro-business policy of rebuilding and strengthening the economy without making any dramatic break with the ideology of the revolution. In 1997, Rafsanjani was succeeded by moderate Iranian reform movement, reformist Mohammad Khatami, whose government attempted, unsuccessfully, to make the country more free and democratic. The 2005 Iranian presidential election, 2005 presidential election brought conservative populist candidate, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, to power. By the time of the 2009 Iranian presidential election, the Ministry of Interior (Iran), Interior Ministry announced incumbent President Ahmadinejad had won 62.63% of the vote, while Mir-Hossein Mousavi had come in second place with 33.75%. The election results were widely disputed, and resulted in 2009 Iranian presidential election protests, widespread protests, both within Iran and in major cities outside the country, and the creation of the Iranian Green Movement. Hassan Rouhani was elected as the president on 15 June 2013, defeating Mohammad Bagher Ghalibaf and four other candidates. The electoral victory of Rouhani relatively improved the relations of Iran with other countries. The 2017–18 Iranian protests swept across the country against the government and its longtime Supreme Leader in response to the economic and political situation. The scale of protests throughout the country and the number of people participating were significant, and it was formally confirmed that thousands of protesters were arrested. The 2019–20 Iranian protests started on 15 November in Ahvaz, spreading across the country within hours, after the government announced increases in the fuel price of up to 300%. A 2019 Internet blackout in Iran, week-long total Internet shutdown throughout the country marked one of the most severe Internet blackouts in any country, and in the bloodiest governmental crackdown of the protestors in the history of Islamic Republic, tens of thousands were arrested and hundreds were killed within a few days according to multiple international observers, including Amnesty International. On 3 January 2020, the revolutionary guard's general, Qasem Soleimani, was 2020 Baghdad International Airport airstrike, assassinated by the United States in Iraq, which considerably heightened the Iran–United States relations, existing tensions between the two countries.Carolien Roelants, Iran expert of ''NRC Handelsblad'', in a debate on ''Buitenhof (TV series), Buitenhof'' on Dutch television, 5 January 2020. Three days after, Iran's Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps launched a 2020 Iranian attack on U.S. forces in Iraq, retaliatory attack on US forces in Iraq and by accident shot down Ukraine International Airlines Flight 752, killing 176 civilians and leading to Ukraine International Airlines Flight 752 protests, nation-wide protests. An international investigation led to the government admitting to the shootdown of the plane by a surface-to-air missile after three days of denial, calling it a "human error".


Geography

Iran has an area of . It lies between latitudes 24th parallel north, 24° and 40th parallel north, 40° N, and longitudes 44th meridian east, 44° and 64th meridian east, 64° E. It is bordered to the northwest by
Armenia Armenia (; hy, Հայաստան, translit=Hayastan, ), officially the Republic of Armenia,, is a landlocked country A landlocked country is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is ...

Armenia
(), the Azeri exclave of Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic, Nakhchivan (), and the Azerbaijan, Republic of Azerbaijan (); to the north by the
Caspian Sea The Caspian Sea (also known as Mazandaran Sea, Hyrcanian Ocean, or Khazar Sea), tk, Hazar deňzi, az, Xəzər Dənizi, russian: Каспийское море, script=Latn, fa, دریای مازندران، دریای خزر, script=Latn, tly, ...

Caspian Sea
; to the northeast by
Turkmenistan Turkmenistan ( or ; tk, Türkmenistan, ), also known as Turkmenia, is a landlocked A landlocked country is a country that does not have territory connected to an ocean or whose coastlines lie on endorheic basin, endorheic basins. There ar ...

Turkmenistan
(); to the east by
Afghanistan Afghanistan (; Pashto/Dari language, Dari: , Pashto: , Dari: ), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country at the crossroads of Central Asia, Central and South Asia. Afghanistan is bordered by Pakistan to the ea ...

Afghanistan
() and Pakistan (); to the south by the
Persian Gulf The Persian Gulf ( fa, خلیج فارس, translit=xalij-e fârs, lit=Gulf of , ) is a in . The body of water is an extension of the () through the and lies between to the northeast and the to the southwest.United Nations Group of Exper ...
and the
Gulf of Oman The Gulf of Oman or Sea of Oman ( ar, خليج عمان ''khalīj ʿumān''; fa, دریای عمان ''daryâ-ye omân''), also known as Gulf of Makran or Sea of Makran ( ar, خلیج مکران ''khalīj makrān''; fa, دریای مکرا ...
; and to the west by
Iraq Iraq ( ar, الْعِرَاق, translit=al-ʿIrāq; ku, عێراق, translit=Êraq), officially the Republic of Iraq ( ar, جُمْهُورِيَّة ٱلْعِرَاق '; ku, کۆماری عێراق, translit=Komarî Êraq), is a country i ...

Iraq
() and Turkey (). Iran consists of the Iranian Plateau, with the exception of the coasts of the Caspian Sea and Khuzestan Province, Khuzestan. It is one of the world's most mountainous countries, its landscape dominated by rugged mountain ranges that separate various drainage basin, basins or plateaux from one another. The populous western part is the most mountainous, with ranges such as the Caucasus Mountains, Caucasus, Zagros Mountains, Zagros, and Alborz, the last containing Mount Damavand, Iran's highest point at , which is also the highest mountain in Asia west of the Hindu Kush. The northern part of Iran is covered by the lush lowland Caspian Hyrcanian mixed forests, located near the southern shores of the Caspian Sea. The eastern part consists mostly of desert basins, such as the Dasht-e Kavir, Kavir Desert, which is the country's largest desert, and the Dasht-e Loot, Lut Desert, as well as some salt lakes. Iran had a 2019 Forest Landscape Integrity Index mean score of 7.67/10, ranking it 34th globally out of 172 countries. The only large plains are found along the coast of the Caspian Sea and at the northern end of the Persian Gulf, where the country borders the mouth of the Shatt al-Arab, Arvand river. Smaller, discontinuous plains are found along the remaining coast of the Persian Gulf, the Strait of Hormuz, and the Gulf of Oman. Iran located in seismically active area. On average every 10 years one 7 Richter earthquake occurs in Iran. Most earthquakes are shallow-focus and can be very devastating like the tragic 2003 Bam earthquake.


Climate

Having 11 climates out of the world's 13, Iran's climate is diverse, ranging from Desert climate, arid and semi-arid climate, semi-arid, to subtropics, subtropical along the Caspian coast and the northern forests. On the northern edge of the country (the Caspian coastal plain), temperatures rarely fall below freezing and the area remains humid for the rest of the year. Summer temperatures rarely exceed . Annual precipitation is in the eastern part of the plain and more than in the western part. Gary Lewis, the United Nations Resident Coordinator for Iran, has said that "Water scarcity poses the most severe human security challenge in Iran today". To the west, settlements in the Zagros basin experience lower temperatures, severe winters with below zero average daily temperatures and heavy snowfall. The eastern and central basins are arid, with less than of rain, and have occasional deserts. Average summer temperatures rarely exceed . The coastal plains of the Persian Gulf and Gulf of Oman in southern Iran have mild winters, and very humid and hot summers. The annual precipitation ranges from . Despite Climate change in the Middle East and North Africa#Iran, climate change in the region, Iran is by far the largest of the few countries in the world which have not ratified the Paris Agreement.


Biodiversity

The wildlife of Iran includes bears, the Eurasian lynx, foxes, gazelles, gray wolf, gray wolves, Golden jackal, jackals, Leopard, panthers, and wild boar, wild pigs. Domestic animals include water buffalo, Asian water buffaloes, camels, cattle, donkeys, goats, horses, and sheep. Eagles, falcons, partridges, pheasants, and storks are also native to Iran. One of the most famous species of animal is the critically endangered Asiatic cheetah, also known as the ''Iranian cheetah'', whose numbers were greatly reduced after the 1979 Revolution. The Persian leopard, which is the world's largest leopard subspecies and lives primarily in northern Iran, is also endangered. Iran lost all its Asiatic lions and the now extinct Caspian tigers by the earlier part of the 20th century. At least 74 species of Iranian wildlife are on the red list of the International Union for Conservation of Nature, a sign of serious threats against the country's biodiversity. The Iranian Parliament has been showing disregard for wildlife by passing laws and regulations such as the act that lets the Ministry of Industries and Mines (Iran), Ministry of Industries and Mines exploit mines without the involvement of the Department of Environment (Iran), Department of Environment, and by approving large national development projects without demanding comprehensive study of their impact on wildlife habitats.


Administrative divisions

Iran is divided into Regions of Iran, five regions with Provinces of Iran, thirty-one provinces (''ostān''), each governed by an appointed governor (''ostāndār''). The provinces are divided into Counties of Iran, counties (''šahrestān''), and subdivided into districts (''bakhsh, baxš'') and sub-districts (''dehestān''). The country has one of the highest urban growth rates in the world. From 1950 to 2002, the urban proportion of the population increased from 27% to 60%. Most internal migrants have settled around the cities of
Tehran Tehran (; fa, تهران ) is the Capital city, capital of Iran and Tehran Province. With a population of around 8.7 million in the city and 15 million in the larger metropolitan area of Greater Tehran, Tehran is the List of largest cities o ...

Tehran
, Isfahan, Ahvaz, and Qom. The listed populations are from the 2006/07 (1385 Iranian calendars, AP) census. Tehran, with a population of around 8.8 million (2016 census), is the capital and largest city of Iran. It is an economical and cultural center, and is the hub of the country's Communications in Iran, communication and Transport in Iran, transport network. The country's second most populous city, Mashhad, has a population of around 3.3 million (2016 census), and is capital of the province of Razavi Khorasan Province, Razavi Khorasan. Being the site of the Imam Reza Shrine, it is a holy city in Shia Islam. About 15 to 20 million pilgrims visit the shrine every year. Isfahan has a population of around 2.2 million (2016 census), and is Iran's third most populous city. It is the capital of the province of Isfahan Province, Isfahan, and was also the third capital of the Safavid dynasty, Safavid Empire. It is home to a wide variety of historical sites, including the famous Naqsh-e Jahan Square, Shah Square, Si-o-se-pol, Siosepol, and the churches at the Armenian district of New Julfa. It is also home to the List of largest shopping malls, world's seventh largest shopping mall, Isfahan City Center. The fourth most populous city of Iran, Karaj, has a population of around 1.9 million (2016 census). It is the capital of the province of Alborz Province, Alborz, and is situated 20 km west of Tehran, at the foot of the Alborz mountain range. It is a major industrial city in Iran, with large factories producing sugar, textiles, wire, and alcohol. With a population of around 1.7 million (2016 census), Tabriz is the fifth most populous city of Iran, and had been the second most populous until the late 1960s. It was the first capital of the Safavid Empire, and is now the capital of the province of East Azerbaijan Province, East Azerbaijan. It is also considered the country's second major industrial city (after Tehran). Shiraz, with a population of around 1.8 million (2016 census), is Iran's sixth most populous city. It is the capital of the province of Fars, and was also the capital of Iran under the reign of the Zand dynasty. It is located near the ruins of Persepolis and Pasargadae, two of the four capitals of the
Achaemenid Empire The Achaemenid Empire (; peo, 𐎧𐏁𐏂, translit=Xšāça, translation=The Empire), also called the First Persian Empire, was an ancient Iranian Iranian may refer to: * Iran Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia and offi ...

Achaemenid Empire
.


Government and politics

The political system of the Islamic Republic is based on the Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran, 1979 Constitution.


Supreme Leader

The Supreme Leader of Iran, Leader of the Revolution ("Supreme Leader") is responsible for delineation and supervision of the policies of the Islamic Republic of Iran. The Iranian president has limited power compared to the Supreme Leader Khamenei. The current longtime Supreme Leader,
Ali Khamenei Sayyid Ali Hosseini Khamenei ( fa, سید علی حسینی خامنه‌ای, ; born 19 April 1939) is a Twelver Twelver ( ar, ٱثْنَا عَشَرِيَّة; ' fa, شیعه دوازده‌امامی, '), also known as Imamiyyah ( ar, ...
, has been issuing decrees and making the final decisions on the economy, environment, foreign policy, education, national planning, and everything else in the country. Ali Khamenei, Khamenei also outlines elections guidelines and urges for the transparency, and has fired and reinstated presidential cabinet appointments. Key ministers are selected with the Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei's agreement and he has the ultimate say on Iran's foreign policy. The president-elect is required to gain the Leader Khamenei's official approval before being sworn in before the Parliament (Majlis). Through this process, known as Tanfiz (validation), the Leader agrees to the outcome of the presidential election. The Supreme Leader is directly involved in ministerial appointments for Defense, Intelligence and Foreign Affairs, as well as other top ministries after submission of candidates from the president. Iran's regional policy is directly controlled by the office of the Supreme Leader with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs' task limited to protocol and ceremonial occasions. All of Iran's ambassadors to Arab countries, for example, are chosen by the Quds Corps, which directly reports to the Supreme Leader. The budget bill for every year, as well as withdrawing money from the National Development Fund of Iran, require Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei's approval and permission. The Supreme Leader Khamenei can and did order laws to be amended. Setad, estimated at $95 billion in 2013 by the Reuters, accounts of which are secret even to the Iranian parliament, is controlled only by the Supreme Leader. The
Supreme Leader A supreme leader or supreme ruler typically refers to the person among a number of leaders of a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of ...
is the commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces of the Islamic Republic of Iran, armed forces, controls the military intelligence and security operations, and has sole power to declare war or peace. The heads of the judiciary, the state radio and television networks, the commanders of the police and military forces, and six of the twelve members of the Guardian Council are directly appointed by the Supreme Leader. The Assembly of Experts is responsible for electing the Supreme Leader, and has the power to dismiss him on the basis of qualifications and popular esteem. To date, the Assembly of Experts has not challenged any of the Supreme Leader's decisions, nor has it attempted to dismiss him. The previous head of the judicial system, Sadeq Larijani, appointed by the
Supreme Leader A supreme leader or supreme ruler typically refers to the person among a number of leaders of a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of ...
, said that it is illegal for the Assembly of Experts to supervise the Supreme Leader. Due to Ali Khamenei, Khamenei's very longtime unchallenged rule, many believe the Assembly of Experts has become a ceremonial body without any real power. There have been instances when the current Supreme Leader publicly criticized members of the Assembly of Experts, resulting in their arrest and dismissal. For example, Khamenei publicly called then-member of the Assembly of Experts Ahmad Azari Qomi a traitor, resulting in Qomi's arrest and eventual dismissal from the Assembly of Experts. Another instance is when Khamenei indirectly called Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani a traitor for a statement he made, causing Rafsanjani to retract it.


Guardian Council

Presidential candidates and parliamentary candidates must be approved by the Guardian Council (all members of which are directly or indirectly appointed by the Leader) or the Leader before running, in order to ensure their allegiance to the
Supreme Leader A supreme leader or supreme ruler typically refers to the person among a number of leaders of a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of ...
. The Leader very rarely does the vetting himself directly, but has the power to do so, in which case additional approval of the Guardian Council would not be needed. The Leader can also revert the decisions of the Guardian Council. The Guardian Council can, and has dismissed some elected members of the Iranian parliament in the past. For example, Minoo Khaleghi was disqualified by Guardian Council even after winning election, as she had been photographed in a meeting without wearing headscarf.


President

After the Supreme Leader, the Constitution defines the President of Iran as the highest state authority. The President is elected by universal suffrage for a term of four years, however, the president is still required to gain the Leader's official approval before being sworn in before the Parliament (Majlis). The Leader also has the power to dismiss the elected president anytime. The President can only be re-elected for one term. The President is responsible for the implementation of the constitution, and for the exercise of executive powers in implementing the decrees and general policies as outlined by the Supreme Leader, except for matters directly related to the Supreme Leader, who has the final say in all matters. Unlike the executive in other countries, the President of Iran does not have full control over anything, as these are ultimately under the control of the Supreme Leader. Chapter IX of the Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran sets forth the qualifications for presidential candidates. The procedures for presidential election and all other elections in Iran are outlined by the Supreme Leader. The President functions as the executive of affairs such as signing treaties and other international agreements, and administering national planning, budget, and state employment affairs, all as approved by the Supreme Leader. The President appoints the ministers, subject to the approval of the Parliament, as well as the approval of the Supreme Leader, who can dismiss or reinstate any of the ministers at any time, regardless of the decisions made by the President or the Parliament. The President supervises the List of Iranian officials#Council of Ministers, Council of Ministers, coordinates government decisions, and selects government policies to be placed before the legislature. The current Supreme Leader, Ali Khamenei, has fired as well as reinstated Council of Ministers members. Eight Vice Presidents serve under the President, as well as a cabinet of twenty-two ministers, who must all be approved by the legislature.


Legislature

The legislature of Iran, known as the ''Islamic Consultative Assembly'', is a unicameralism, unicameral body comprising 290 members elected for four-year terms. It drafts legislation, ratifies international treaty, treaties, and approves the national budget. All parliamentary candidates and all legislation from the assembly must be approved by the Guardian Council. The Guardian Council comprises twelve jurists, including six appointed by the Supreme Leader. Others are elected by the Parliament, from among the jurists nominated by the Head of the Judicial system of the Islamic Republic of Iran, Judiciary. The Council interprets the constitution and may veto the Parliament. If a law is deemed incompatible with the constitution or Sharia (Islamic law), it is referred back to the Parliament for revision. The Expediency Discernment Council, Expediency Council has the authority to mediate disputes between the Parliament and the Guardian Council, and serves as an advisory body to the Supreme Leader, making it one of the most powerful governing bodies in the country. City and Village Councils of Iran, Local city councils are elected by public vote to four-year terms in all cities and villages of Iran.


Law

The Supreme Leader appoints the head of the country's judiciary, who in turn appoints the head of the Supreme Court and the chief public prosecutor. There are several types of courts, including public courts that deal with civil and criminal cases, and Islamic Revolutionary Court, revolutionary courts which deal with certain categories of offenses, such as crimes against national security. The decisions of the revolutionary courts are final and cannot be appealed. The Chief Justice of Iran is the head of the Judicial system of the Islamic Republic of Iran and is responsible for its administration and supervision. He is also the highest judge of the Supreme Court of Iran. The Supreme Leader of Iran appoints and can dismiss the Chief Justice. The Chief Justice nominates some candidates for serving as minister of justice and then the President select one of them. The Chief Justice can serve for two five-year terms. The Special Clerical Court handles crimes allegedly committed by clerics, although it has also taken on cases involving laity, laypeople. The Special Clerical Court functions independently of the regular judicial framework, and is accountable only to the
Supreme Leader A supreme leader or supreme ruler typically refers to the person among a number of leaders of a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of ...
. The Court's rulings are final and cannot be appealed. The Assembly of Experts, which meets for one week annually, comprises 86 "virtuous and learned" clerics elected by adult suffrage for eight-year terms.


Foreign relations

Since the time of the 1979 Revolution, Iran's foreign relations have often been portrayed as being based on two strategic principles; eliminating outside influences in the region, and pursuing extensive diplomatic contacts with developing and Non-Aligned Movement, non-aligned countries. Since 2005, Nuclear program of Iran, Iran's nuclear program has become the subject of contention with the international community, mainly the United States. Many countries have expressed concern that Iran's nuclear program could divert civilian nuclear technology into a Iran and weapons of mass destruction, weapons program. This has led the United Nations Security Council to impose sanctions against Iran which had further isolated Iran politically and economically from the rest of the global community. In 2009, the U.S. Director of National Intelligence said that Iran, if choosing to, would not be able to develop a nuclear weapon until 2013. , the government of Iran maintains diplomatic relations with 99 members of the United Nations, but not with the Iran–United States relations, United States, and not with Iran–Israel relations, Israel—a state which Iran's government has derecognized since the 1979 Revolution. Among Muslim nations, Iran has an adversarial relationship with Iran–Saudi Arabia relations, Saudi Arabia due to different political and Islamic ideologies. While Iran is a Shia Islamic Republic, Saudi Arabia is a conservative Sunni monarchy. Regarding the Israeli–Palestinian conflict, the government of Iran has recognized Jerusalem as the capital of the State of Palestine, after Trump recognized Jerusalem as the capital of Israel. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial Nuclear program of Iran, nuclear program has Views on the nuclear program of Iran, raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the Sanctions against Iran, international sanctions against the country. On 14 July 2015, Tehran and the P5+1 came to a historic Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, agreement (''Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action'') to end United Nations Security Council Resolution 1929, economic sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium after demonstrating a peaceful nuclear research project that would meet the International Atomic Energy Agency standards. Iran is a member of dozens of international organizations, including the Group of 15, G-15, Group of 24, G-24, Group of 77, G-77, International Atomic Energy Agency, IAEA, International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, IBRD, International Development Association, IDA, Islamic Development Bank, IDB, International Finance Corporation, IFC, International Labour Organization, ILO, International Monetary Fund, IMF, International Maritime Organization, IMO, Interpol,
OIC The Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC; ar, منظمة التعاون الإسلامي, Munaẓẓama at-Taʿāwun al-ʾIslāmiyy; french: Organisation de la coopération islamique), formerly the Organisation of the Islamic Conference ...
,
OPEC The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC, ) is an intergovernmental organization An intergovernmental organization (IGO) is an organization composed primarily of sovereign states (referred to as ''member states''), or o ...

OPEC
, World Health Organization, WHO, and the
United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization An intergovernmental organization (IGO) is an organization composed primarily of sovereign states (referred to as ''member states''), or of other organizations through formal ...

United Nations
, and currently has observer status at the World Trade Organization. Reports are that Iran will begin the processes of becoming a full member of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO), a Eurasian Politics, political, Economy, economic, and security alliance.


Military

The Islamic Republic of Iran has two types of armed forces: the regular forces of the Islamic Republic of Iran Army, Army, the Islamic Republic of Iran Air Force, Air Force, and the Islamic Republic of Iran Navy, Navy, and the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps, Revolutionary Guards, totaling about 545,000 active troops. Iran also has around 350,000 Reserve Force, totaling around 900,000 trained troops. The government of Iran has a paramilitary, volunteer militia force within the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps, called the ''Basij'', which includes about 90,000 full-time, active-duty uniformed members. Up to 11 million men and women are members of the Basij who could potentially be called up for service. GlobalSecurity.org estimates Iran could mobilize "up to one million men", which would be among the largest troop mobilizations in the world. In 2007, Iran's military spending represented 2.6% of the GDP or $102 per capita, the lowest figure of the
Persian Gulf The Persian Gulf ( fa, خلیج فارس, translit=xalij-e fârs, lit=Gulf of , ) is a in . The body of water is an extension of the () through the and lies between to the northeast and the to the southwest.United Nations Group of Exper ...
nations. Iran's military doctrine is based on deterrence theory, deterrence. In 2014, the country spent $15 billion on arms, while the states of the Gulf Cooperation Council spent eight times more. The government of Iran supports the military activities of Allies of Iran, its allies in Syria, Iraq, and Lebanon (Hezbollah) with military and financial aid. Iran and Syria are Iran–Syria relations, close strategic allies, and Iran has provided Foreign involvement in the Syrian Civil War, significant support for the Syrian Government in the Syrian Civil War. According to some estimates, Iran controlled over 80,000 pro-Assad Shia Islam, Shi'ite fighters in Syria. Since the 1979 Revolution, to overcome foreign embargoes, the government of Iran has developed its own military industry, produced its own tanks, armoured personnel carrier, armored personnel carriers, missiles, submarines, military vessels, Iranian frigate Jamaran, missile destroyer, radar systems, helicopters, and fighter aircraft, fighter planes. In recent years, official announcements have highlighted the development of weapons such as the Hoot (torpedo), Hoot, Kowsar, Zelzal, Fateh-110, Shahab-3, Sejjil, and a variety of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). Iran has the largest and most diverse ballistic missile arsenal in the Middle East. The Fajr-3 (missile), Fajr-3, a liquid fuel missile with an undisclosed range which was developed and produced domestically, is currently the most advanced ballistic missile of the country. In June 1925,
Reza Shah Reza Shah Pahlavi ( fa, رضا شاه پهلوی; ; originally Reza Khan (); 15 March 1878 – 26 July 1944) was an Iran Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran ( fa, جمهوری اس ...

Reza Shah
introduced conscription law at National Consultative Majlis. At that time every male person who had reached 21 years old must serve for military for two years. The conscription exempted women from military service after 1979 revolution. Iranian constitution obliges all men of 18 years old and higher to serve in military or police bases. They cannot leave the country or be employed without completion of the service period. The period varies from 18 to 24 months.


Human rights

According to international reports, Iran's Human rights in the Islamic Republic of Iran, human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader, and severely restricts the participation of candidates in popular elections as well as other forms of political activity. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. LGBT rights in Iran, Sexual activity between members of the same sex is illegal and is Death penalty for homosexuality, punishable by up to death. Over the past decade, numbers of anti-government protests have broken out throughout Iran (such as the 2019–20 Iranian protests), demanding reforms or the end to the Islamic Republic. However, the IRGC and police often suppressed mass protests by violent means, which resulted in thousands of protesters killed.


Economy

Economy of Iran, Iran's economy is a Mixed economy, mixture of Planned economy, central planning, state ownership of oil and other large enterprises, village agriculture, and small-scale private trading and service ventures. In 2017, GDP was $427.7 billion ($1.631 trillion at PPP), or $20,000 at Purchasing power parity, PPP per capita. Iran is ranked as an upper-middle income economy by the World Bank. In the early 21st century, the service sector contributed the largest percentage of the GDP, followed by industry (Mining in Iran, mining and manufacturing) and Agriculture in Iran, agriculture. The Central Bank of the Islamic Republic of Iran is responsible for developing and maintaining the Iranian rial, which serves as the country's currency. The government does not recognize List of trade unions#Iran, trade unions other than the Iranian labor law, Islamic labour councils, which are subject to the approval of employers and the security services. The minimum wage in June 2013 was 487 million rials a month ($134). Unemployment has remained above 10% since 1997, and the unemployment rate for women is almost double that of the men. In 2006, about 45% of the government's budget came from oil and natural gas revenues, and 31% came from taxes and fees. , Iran had earned $70 billion in foreign-exchange reserves, mostly (80%) from crude oil exports. Iranian Government of Iran#Budget, budget deficits have been a chronic problem, mostly due to Iranian subsidy reform plan, large-scale state subsidies, that include foodstuffs and especially gasoline, totaling more than $84 billion in 2008 for the energy sector alone. In 2010, the Iranian subsidy reform plan, economic reform plan was approved by parliament to Iranian subsidy reform plan, cut subsidies gradually and replace them with targeted social assistance. The objective is to move towards free market prices in a five-year period and increase productivity and social justice. The administration continues to follow the Iranian subsidy reform plan, market reform plans of the previous one, and indicates that it will diversify Iran's oil-reliant economy. Iran has also developed a Science and technology in Iran#Biotechnology, biotechnology, Science and technology in Iran#Chemistry and nanotechnology, nanotechnology, and Healthcare in Iran#Pharmaceuticals, pharmaceutical industry. However, nationalized industries such as the bonyads have often been managed badly, making them ineffective and uncompetitive with years. Currently, the government is trying to Privatization in Iran, privatize these industries, and, despite successes, there are still several problems to be overcome, such as the Corruption in Iran, lagging corruption in the public sector and lack of competitiveness. Iran has leading manufacturing industries in the fields of automobile manufacture, transportation, construction materials, home appliances, food and agricultural goods, armaments, pharmaceuticals, information technology, and petrochemicals in the Middle East. According to the 2012 data from the Food and Agriculture Organization, Iran has been among the world's top five producers of apricots, cherry, cherries, Sour cherry, sour cherries, cucumbers and gherkins, Date palm#Dates, dates, eggplants, common fig, figs, pistachios, quinces, walnuts, and watermelons. Economic sanctions against Iran, such as the embargo against Iranian crude oil, have injured the economy. In 2015, Iran and the P5+1 reached a Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, deal on the nuclear program that removed the main sanctions pertaining to Nuclear program of Iran, Iran's nuclear program by 2016. According to the BBC, United States sanctions against Iran, renewed U.S. sanctions against Iran "have led to a sharp downturn in Iran's economy, pushing the value of its currency to record lows, quadrupling its annual inflation rate, driving away foreign investors, and triggering protests."


Tourism

Although tourism declined significantly during the war with Iraq, it has been subsequently recovered. About 1,659,000 foreign tourists visited Iran in 2004, and 2.3 million in 2009, mostly from Asian countries, including the republics of Central Asia, while about 10% came from the European Union and North America. Since the removal of some sanctions against Iran in 2015, tourism has re-surged in the country. Over five million tourists visited Iran in the fiscal year of 2014–2015, four percent more than the previous year. Alongside the capital, the most popular tourist destinations are Isfahan, Mashhad, and Shiraz. In the early 2000s, the industry faced serious limitations in infrastructure, communications, industry standards, and personnel training. The majority of the 300,000 travel visas granted in 2003 were obtained by Asian Muslims, who presumably intended to visit pilgrimage sites in Mashhad and Qom. Several organized tours from Germany, France, and other European countries come to Iran annually to visit archaeological sites and monuments. In 2003, Iran ranked 68th in tourism revenues worldwide.Iran ranks 68th in tourism revenues worldwide
. Payvand/IRNA, 7 September 2003. Retrieved 12 February 2008.
According to the UNESCO and the deputy head of research for Cultural Heritage, Handicrafts and Tourism Organization of Iran, Iran's Tourism Organization, Iran is rated fourth among the top 10 destinations in the
Middle East The Middle East ( ar, الشرق الأوسط, ISO 233 The international standard An international standard is a technical standard A technical standard is an established norm (social), norm or requirement for a repeatable technical task whi ...

Middle East
. Domestic tourism in Iran is one of the largest in the world. Weak advertising, unstable regional conditions, a poor public image in some parts of the world, and absence of efficient planning schemes in the tourism sector have all hindered the growth of tourism.


Transportation

Iran has a long paved road system linking most of its towns and all of its cities. In 2011 the country had of roads, of which 73% were paved. In 2008 there were nearly 100 passenger cars for every 1,000 inhabitants.
Trains operate on 11,106 km (6,942 mi) of railroad track. The country's major port of entry is Bandar-Abbas on the Strait of Hormuz. After arriving in Iran, imported goods are distributed throughout the country by trucks and freight trains. The
Tehran Tehran (; fa, تهران ) is the Capital city, capital of Iran and Tehran Province. With a population of around 8.7 million in the city and 15 million in the larger metropolitan area of Greater Tehran, Tehran is the List of largest cities o ...

Tehran
–Bandar-Abbas railroad, opened in 1995, connects Bandar-Abbas to the railroad system of Central Asia via Tehran and Mashhad. Other major ports include Bandar-e Anzali, Bandar e-Anzali and Bandar Torkaman, Bandar e-Torkeman on the
Caspian Sea The Caspian Sea (also known as Mazandaran Sea, Hyrcanian Ocean, or Khazar Sea), tk, Hazar deňzi, az, Xəzər Dənizi, russian: Каспийское море, script=Latn, fa, دریای مازندران، دریای خزر, script=Latn, tly, ...

Caspian Sea
and Khorramshahr and Bandar Imam, Bandar-e Emam Khomeyni on the
Persian Gulf The Persian Gulf ( fa, خلیج فارس, translit=xalij-e fârs, lit=Gulf of , ) is a in . The body of water is an extension of the () through the and lies between to the northeast and the to the southwest.United Nations Group of Exper ...
. List of airports in Iran, Dozens of cities have airports that serve passenger and cargo planes. Iran Air, the national airline, was founded in 1962 and operates Iran Air destinations, domestic and international flights. All large cities have mass transit systems using buses, and several private companies provide bus service between cities. Hamadan and Tehran hold the highest Betweenness centrality, betweenness and Closeness centrality, closeness centrality among the cities of Iran, regarding road and air routes, respectively. Transport in Iran is inexpensive because of Iranian Economic Reform Plan, the government's subsidization of the price of gasoline. The downside is a Iranian targeted subsidy plan, huge draw on government coffers, economic inefficiency because of highly energy in Iran, wasteful consumption patterns, 2007 Gasoline Rationing Plan in Iran#Fuel smuggling, contraband with neighboring countries and Environmental issues in Iran, air pollution. In 2008, more than one million people worked in the transportation sector, accounting for 9% of GDP.


Energy

Iran has the world's second largest proved Natural gas reserves in Iran, gas reserves after Russia, with 33.6 trillion cubic metres, and the List of countries by natural gas production, third largest natural gas production after Indonesia and Russia. It also ranks fourth in Oil reserves in Iran, oil reserves with an estimated 153,600,000,000 barrels. It is
OPEC The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC, ) is an intergovernmental organization An intergovernmental organization (IGO) is an organization composed primarily of sovereign states (referred to as ''member states''), or o ...

OPEC
's second largest oil exporter, and is an Energy superpower#Iran, energy superpower. In 2005, Iran spent US$4 billion on fuel imports, because of Taxation in Iran#Smuggling, contraband and inefficient domestic use. Oil industry output averaged in 2005, compared with the peak of six million barrels per day reached in 1974. In the early 2000s, industry infrastructure was increasingly inefficient because of technological lags. Few exploratory Oil well, wells were drilled in 2005. In 2004, a large share of natural gas reserves in Iran, Iran's natural gas reserves were untapped. The addition of new hydroelectricity, hydroelectric stations and the streamlining of conventional coal and oil-fired stations increased installed capacity to 33,000 megawatts. Of that amount, about 75% was based on natural gas, 18% on oil, and 7% on hydroelectric power. In 2004, Iran opened its first wind-powered and geothermal plants, and the first Solar power, solar thermal plant was to come online in 2009. Iran is the world's third country to have developed Gas to liquids, GTL technology. Demographics of Iran, Demographic trends and intensified industrialization have caused electric power demand to grow by 8% per year. The government's goal of 53,000 megawatts of installed capacity by 2010 is to be reached by bringing on line List of power stations in Iran, new gas-fired plants, and adding hydropower and nuclear power generation capacity. Bushehr Nuclear Power Plant, Iran's first nuclear power plant at Bushire went online in 2011. It is the second nuclear power plant ever built in the Middle East after the Metsamor Nuclear Power Plant in
Armenia Armenia (; hy, Հայաստան, translit=Hayastan, ), officially the Republic of Armenia,, is a landlocked country A landlocked country is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is ...

Armenia
.


Education, science and technology

Education in Iran is highly centralized. K–12 is supervised by the Ministry of Education (Iran), Ministry of Education, and higher education is under the supervision of the Ministry of Science, Research and Technology (Iran), Ministry of Science and Technology. According to Fars News Agency, the adult literacy rated 93.0% in September 2015, while according to UNESCO it had rated 85.0% in 2008 (up from 36.5% in 1976). According to the data provided by UNESCO, Iran's literacy rate among people aged 15 years and older was 85.54% as of 2016, with men (90.35%) being significantly more educated than women (80.79%), with the number of illiterate people of the same age amounting to around 8,700,000 of the country's 85 million population. According to this report, Iranian government's expenditure on education amounts to around 4% of the GDP. The requirement to enter into higher education is to have a high school diploma and pass the Iranian University Entrance Exam (officially known as ''konkur'' (کنکور)), which is the equivalent of the SAT and ACT (test), ACT exams of the United States. Many students do a 1–2-year course of University-preparatory school, pre-university (''piš-dānešgāh''), which is the equivalent of the General Certificate of Education, GCE GCE Advanced Level, A-levels and the International Baccalaureate. The completion of the pre-university course earns students the Pre-University Certificate. Iran's higher education is sanctioned by different levels of diplomas, including an associate degree (''kārdāni''; also known as ''fowq e diplom'') delivered in two years, a bachelor's degree (''kāršenāsi''; also known as ''lisāns'') delivered in four years, and a master's degree (''kāršenāsi e aršad'') delivered in two years, after which another exam allows the candidate to pursue a doctoral program (Doctor of Philosophy, PhD; known as ''doktorā''). According to the Webometrics Ranking of World Universities (), Iran's top five universities include Tehran University of Medical Sciences (478th worldwide), the University of Tehran (514th worldwide), Sharif University of Technology (605th worldwide), Amirkabir University of Technology (726th worldwide), and the Tarbiat Modares University (789th worldwide). Iran was ranked 67th in the Global Innovation Index in 2020, down from 61st in 2019. Iran has increased its publication output nearly tenfold from 1996 through 2004, and has been ranked first in terms of output growth rate, followed by China. According to a study by SCImago Journal Rank, SCImago in 2012, Iran would rank fourth in the world in terms of research output by 2018, if the current trend persists. In 2009, a SUSE Linux-based HPC system made by the Aerospace Research Institute of Iran (ARI) was launched with 32 cores, and now runs 96 cores. Its performance was pegged at 192 FLOPS, GFLOPS. The Iranian humanoid robot Surena (robot), Sorena 2, which was designed by engineers at the University of Tehran, was unveiled in 2010. The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) has placed the name of Surena among the five prominent robots of the world after analyzing its performance. In the biomedical sciences, Iran's Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics has a UNESCO chair in biology. In late 2006, List of contemporary Iranian scientists, scholars, and engineers, Iranian scientists successfully Cloning, cloned a sheep by somatic cell nuclear transfer, at the Royan Institute, Royan Research Center in Tehran. According to a study by David Morrison and Ali Khadem Hosseini (Harvard-MIT and Cambridge), stem cell research in Iran is amongst the top 10 in the world. Iran ranks 15th in the world in nanotechnology, nanotechnologies. Iran placed its domestically built satellite Omid into orbit on the 30th anniversary of the 1979 Revolution, on 2February 2009, through its first expendable launch vehicle Safir (rocket), Safir, becoming the Timeline of first orbital launches by country, ninth country in the world capable of both producing a satellite and sending it into space from a domestically made launch pad, launcher. The Iranian nuclear program was launched in the 1950s. Iran is the seventh country to produce uranium hexafluoride, and controls the entire nuclear fuel cycle. Iranian scientists outside Iran have also made some major contributions to science. In 1960, Ali Javan co-invented the first gas laser, and Fuzzy set, fuzzy set theory was introduced by Lotfi A. Zadeh. Iranian cardiologist Tofy Mussivand, Tofigh Mussivand invented and developed the first artificial cardiac pump, the precursor of the artificial heart Furthering research and treatment of diabetes, the Glycated hemoglobin, HbA1c was discovered by Samuel Rahbar. A substantial number of papers in string theory are published in Iran. Iranian Americans, Iranian American string theorist Cumrun Vafa, Kamran Vafa proposed the Vafa–Witten theorem together with Edward Witten. In August 2014, Iranian mathematician Maryam Mirzakhani became the first woman, as well as the first Iranian, to receive the Fields Medal, the highest prize in mathematics.


Demographics

Iran is a diverse country, consisting of Ethnicities in Iran, numerous ethnic and linguistic groups that are unified through a shared Iranian nationality. Iran's population grew rapidly during the latter half of the 20th century, increasing from about 19 million in 1956 to more than 84 million by July 2020. However, Iran's Total fertility rate, fertility rate has dropped significantly in recent years, coming down from a fertility rate of 6.5 per woman to just a little more than 2 two decades later, leading to a population growth rate of about 1.39% as of 2018. Due to its young population, studies project that the growth will continue to slow until it stabilizes around 105 million by 2050.U.S. Bureau of the Census, 2005. Unpublished work tables for estimating Iran's mortality. Washington, D.C.: Population Division, International Programs Center Iran hosts one of the largest refugee populations in the world, with almost one million refugees, mostly from Afghan refugees, Afghanistan and
Iraq Iraq ( ar, الْعِرَاق, translit=al-ʿIrāq; ku, عێراق, translit=Êraq), officially the Republic of Iraq ( ar, جُمْهُورِيَّة ٱلْعِرَاق '; ku, کۆماری عێراق, translit=Komarî Êraq), is a country i ...

Iraq
. Since 2006, Iranian officials have been working with the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, UNHCR and Afghan officials for their repatriation. According to estimates, about five million Iranian citizens have emigrated to other countries, mostly since the 1979 Revolution. According to the Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran, Iranian Constitution, the government is required to provide every citizen of the country with access to social security, covering retirement, unemployment, old age, disability, accidents, calamities, health and medical treatment and care services. This is covered by Taxation in Iran, tax revenues and income derived from public contributions.


Languages

The majority of the population speak Persian language, Persian, which is also the official language of the country. Others include speakers of a number of other
Iranian languages The Iranian languages or Iranic languages are a branch of the in the that are spoken natively by the . The Iranian languages are grouped in three stages: Old Iranian (until 400 BCE), Middle Iranian (400 BCE–900 CE) and New Iranian (since 9 ...
within the greater Indo-European languages, Indo-European family, and languages belonging to some other ethnicities living in Iran. In northern Iran, mostly confined to Gilan Province, Gilan and Mazandaran Province, Mazenderan, the Gilaki language, Gilaki and Mazanderani language, Mazenderani languages are widely spoken, both having affinities to the neighboring Languages of the Caucasus, Caucasian languages. In parts of Gilan, the Talysh language is also widely spoken, which stretches up to the neighboring Azerbaijan, Republic of Azerbaijan. Varieties of Kurdish languages, Kurdish are widely spoken in the province of Kurdistan Province, Kurdistan and nearby areas. In Khuzestan Province, Khuzestan, Persian dialects in Khuzestan, several distinct varieties of Persian are spoken. Luri language, Luri and Achomi language, Lari are also spoken in southern Iran. Azerbaijani language, Azerbaijani, which is by far the most spoken language in the country after Persian, as well as a number of other Turkic languages and dialects, is spoken in various regions of Iran, especially in the region of Azerbaijan (Iran), Azerbaijan. Notable minority languages in Iran include Armenian language, Armenian, Georgian language, Georgian, Neo-Aramaic languages, Neo-Aramaic, and Arabic. Khuzestani Arabic, Khuzi Arabic is spoken by the Ahwazi Arabs, Arabs in Khuzestan, as well as the wider group of Iranian Arabs. Circassian languages, Circassian was also once widely spoken by the large Circassian minority, but, due to assimilation over the many years, no sizable number of Circassians speak the language anymore. Percentages of spoken language continue to be a point of debate, as many opt that they are politically motivated; most notably regarding the largest and second largest ethnicities in Iran, the Persians and Azerbaijanis. Percentages given by the CIA's World Factbook include 53% Persian, 16% Azerbaijani language, Azerbaijani, 10% Kurdish languages, Kurdish, 7% Mazanderani language, Mazenderani and Gilaki language, Gilaki, 7% Luri language, Luri, 2% Turkmen language, Turkmen, 2% Balochi language, Balochi, 2% Arabic, and 2% the remainder Armenian language, Armenian, Georgian language, Georgian, Neo-Aramaic languages, Neo-Aramaic, and Circassian languages, Circassian.


Ethnic groups

As with the spoken languages, the ethnic group composition also remains a point of debate, mainly regarding the largest and second largest ethnic groups, the Persians and Azerbaijanis, due to the lack of Iranian state censuses based on ethnicity. The World Factbook, The CIA's World Factbook has estimated that around 79% of the population of Iran are a diverse Proto-Indo-Europeans, Indo-European ethnolinguistics, ethno-linguistic group that comprise speakers of various
Iranian languages The Iranian languages or Iranic languages are a branch of the in the that are spoken natively by the . The Iranian languages are grouped in three stages: Old Iranian (until 400 BCE), Middle Iranian (400 BCE–900 CE) and New Iranian (since 9 ...
, with Persian people, Persians (including Mazanderani people, Mazenderanis and Gilaks) constituting 61% of the population,
Kurds Kurds ( ku, کورد ,Kurd, italic=yes, rtl=yes) or Kurdish people are an Iranian peoples, Iranian ethnic group native to the mountainous region of Kurdistan in Western Asia, which spans southeastern Turkey, northwestern Iran, northern Iraq, ...
10%,
Lurs Lurs () are an Iranian people The Iranian peoples or the Iranic peoples, are a diverse Indo-European languages, Indo-European ethnolinguistic group, ethno-linguistic group identified by their use of the Iranian languages and other cultural si ...
6%, and Baloch people, Balochs 2%. Peoples of other ethno-linguistic groups make up the remaining 21%, with Iranian Azerbaijanis, Azerbaijanis constituting 16%, Arabs 2%, Turkmens and other Turkic peoples, Turkic tribes 2%, and others (such as Iranian Armenians, Armenians, Talysh people, Talysh, Iranian Georgians, Georgians, Circassians in Iran, Circassians, Iranian Assyrians, Assyrians) 1%. The Library of Congress issued slightly different estimates: 65% Persians (including Mazenderanis, Gilaks, and the Talysh), 16% Azerbaijanis, 7% Kurds, 6% Lurs, 2% Baloch, 1% Turkic tribal groups (incl. Qashqai people, Qashqai and Turkmens), and non-Iranian, non-Turkic groups (incl. Armenians, Georgians, Assyrians, Circassians, and Arabs) less than 3%. It determined that Persian is the first language of at least 65% of the country's population, and is the second language for most of the remaining 35%.


Religion

Twelver Shia Islam is the official state religion, to which about 90% to 95% of the population adhere. About 4% to 8% of the population are Sunni Muslims, mainly Iranian Kurds, Kurds and Baloches. The remaining 2% are non-Muslim religious minorities, including Christianity in Iran, Christians, Zoroastrians in Iran, Zoroastrians, Persian Jews, Jews, Baháʼí Faith in Iran, Baháʼís, Mandeans, and Yarsanism, Yarsanis. Despite Iran's official census claims that 99.5% of the country is Muslim, independent research claims only 32% of Iranians identified as Shia Muslim. Meanwhile, another 30% of Iranians claimed no religion or Atheism and 8% as Zoroastrian which is perceived as a result of Persian nationalism for Iran's pre-Islamic history. There are a large population of adherents of Yarsanism, a Kurds in Iran, Kurdish indigenous religion, making it the largest (unrecognized) minority religion in Iran. Its followers are mainly Guran (Kurdish tribe), Gorani Kurds and certain groups of
Lurs Lurs () are an Iranian people The Iranian peoples or the Iranic peoples, are a diverse Indo-European languages, Indo-European ethnolinguistic group, ethno-linguistic group identified by their use of the Iranian languages and other cultural si ...
. They are based in Kurdistan Province, Kermanshah Province and Lorestan mainly. Christianity, Judaism, Zoroastrianism, and the Sunni branch of Islam are officially recognized by the government, and have reserved seats in the Iranian Parliament. Historically, early Iranian religions such as the Proto-Iranic religion and the subsequent Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism were the dominant religions in Iran, particularly during the Median, Achaemenid, Parthian, and Sasanian eras. This changed after the fall of the Sasanian Empire by the centuries-long Islamization of Iran, Islamization that followed the Muslim conquest of Persia, Muslim Conquest of Iran. Iran was predominantly Sunni until the conversion of the country (as well as the people of what is today the neighboring Republic of Azerbaijan) to Shia Islam by the order of the Safavid dynasty in the 16th century. History of the Jews in Iran, Judaism has a long history in Iran, dating back to the Fall of Babylon, Achaemenid conquest of Babylonia. Although many left in the wake of the establishment of the State of Israel and the 1979 Revolution, about 8,756 to 25,000 Jewish people live in Iran. Iran has the largest Jewish population in the Middle East outside of Israel. Around 250,000 to 370,000 Christianity in Iran, Christians reside in Iran, and Christianity is the country's largest recognized minority religion. Most are of Armenian background, as well as a sizable minority of Assyrians. A large number of Iranians have converted to Christianity from the predominant Shia Islam.Sanasarian, Eliz (2000). ''Religious Minorities in Iran'' (Cambridge Middle East Studies). Cambridge University Press The Baháʼí Faith is not officially recognized and has been subject to official persecution. According to the United Nations Special Rapporteur on Human Rights in Iran, Baháʼís are the largest non-Muslim religious minority in Iran, with an estimated 350,000 adherents. Since the 1979 Revolution, the persecution of Baháʼís has increased with executions and denial of civil rights, especially the denial of access to higher education and employment. Iranian officials have continued to support the rebuilding and renovation of Armenian churches in the Islamic Republic. The Armenian Monastic Ensembles of Iran has also received continued support. In 2019, the Iranian government registered the Holy Savior Cathedral, commonly referred to as Vank Cathedral, in the New Julfa district of Isfahan, as a UNESCO World Heritage Site, with significant expenditures for its congregation. Currently three Armenian churches in Iran have been included in the UNESCO World Heritage List.


Culture

The earliest attested cultures in Iran date back to the Lower Paleolithic. Owing to its geopolitical position, Iran has influenced cultures as far as Greece and Italy to the west, Russia to the north, the Arabian Peninsula to the south, and South Asia, south and east Asia to the east.


Art

The art of Iran encompasses many disciplines, including Iranian architecture, architecture, stonemasonry, metalworking, Persian carpet, weaving, Persian pottery, pottery, Persian miniature, painting, and Persian calligraphy, calligraphy. Iranian works of art show a great variety in style, in different regions and periods. The art of the Medes remains obscure, but has been theoretically attributed to the Scythian art, Scythian style. The Achaemenids borrowed heavily from the art of their neighboring civilizations, but produced a synthesis of a unique style, with Achaemenid architecture, an eclectic architecture remaining at sites such as Persepolis and Pasargadae. Greek iconography was imported by the Seleucid Empire, Seleucids, followed by the recombination of Hellenistic art, Hellenistic and earlier Near Eastern elements in the Parthian art, art of the Parthians, with remains such as the Temple of Anahita, Kangavar, Temple of Anahita and the Statue, National Museum of Iran 2401, Statue of the Parthian Nobleman. By the time of the Sasanians, Iranian art came across a general renaissance. Although of unclear development, Sasanian art was highly influential, and spread into far regions. Taq Bostan, Taq-e-Bostan, Taq Kasra, Taq-e-Kasra, Naqsh-e Rustam, Naqsh-e-Rostam, and the Falak-ol-Aflak Castle, Shapur-Khwast Castle are among the surviving monuments from the Sasanian period. During the Middle Ages, Sasanian art played a prominent role in the formation of both European and Asian medieval art, which carried forward to the Islamic world, and much of what later became known as Islamic learning—including Medicine in the medieval Islamic world, medicine, Islamic architecture, architecture, Early Islamic philosophy, philosophy, philology, and Islamic literature, literature—were of Sasanian basis. The Safavid era is known as the ''Golden Age'' of Iranian art, and Safavid works of art show a far more unitary development than in any other period, as part of a political evolution that reunified Iran as a cultural entity. Safavid art exerted noticeable influences upon the neighboring Ottoman Empire, Ottomans, the Mughal Empire, Mughals, and the Deccan sultanates, Deccans, and was also influential through its fashion and garden architecture on 11th–17th-century Europe. Iran's Iranian modern and contemporary art, contemporary art traces its origins back to the time of Kamal-ol-molk, Kamal-ol-Molk, a prominent realism (arts), realist painter at the court of the Qajar dynasty who affected the norms of painting and adopted a naturalistic style that would compete with photographic works. A new Iranian school of fine art was established by Kamal-ol-Molk in 1928, and was followed by the so-called "coffeehouse" style of painting. Iran's avant-garde modernists emerged by the arrival of new western influences during World War II. The vibrant contemporary art scene originates in the late 1940s, and Tehran's first modern art gallery, Apadana, was opened in September 1949 by painters Mahmud Javadipur, Hosein Kazemi, and Hushang Ajudani. The new movements received official encouragement by the mid-1950s, which led to the emergence of artists such as Marcos Grigorian, signaling a commitment to the creation of a form of modern art grounded in Iran.


Architecture

The history of architecture in Iran goes back to the seventh millennium BC. Iranians were among the first to use mathematics, geometry and astronomy in architecture. Iranian architecture displays great variety, both structural and aesthetic, developing gradually and coherently out of earlier traditions and experience. The guiding motif (visual arts), motif of Iranian architecture is its cosmic symbolism, "by which man is brought into communication and participation with the powers of heaven". Iran ranks seventh among UNESCO's list of countries with the most archaeological ruins and attractions from antiquity. Traditionally, the guiding formative motif of Iranian architecture has been its cosmic symbolism "by which man is brought into communication and participation with the powers of heaven". This theme has not only given unity and continuity to the architecture of Persia, but has been a primary source of its emotional character as well. According to Persian historian and archaeologist Arthur Upham Pope, Arthur Pope, the supreme Iranian art, in the proper meaning of the word, has always been its architecture. The supremacy of architecture applies to both pre- and post-Islamic periods.


Weaving

Iran's carpet-weaving has its origins in the Bronze Age, and is one of the most distinguished manifestations of Iranian art. Iran is the world's largest producer and exporter of handmade carpets, producing three-quarters of the world's total output and having a share of 30% of world's export markets.


Literature

Iran's oldest literature, literary tradition is that of Avestan, the Old Iranian sacred language of the
Avesta The Avesta () is the primary collection of religious text Religious texts, also known as scripture, scriptures, holy writ, or holy books, are the texts which various religious traditions consider to be sacred, or of central importance to ...

Avesta
, which consists of the legendary and religious texts of Zoroastrianism and the ancient Iranian religion, with its earliest records dating back to the pre-Achaemenid times. Of the various modern languages used in Iran, Persian language, Persian, various dialects of which are spoken throughout the Iranian Plateau, has the most influential literature. Persian has been dubbed as a worthy language to serve as a conduit for poetry, and is considered one of the four main bodies of world literature. In spite of originating from the region of
Persis Persis ( grc-gre, , ''Persís''), better known in English as Persia (Old Persian Old Persian is one of the two directly attested Old Iranian languages (the other being Avestan language, Avestan) and it is the ancestor of Middle Persian (the l ...
(better known as ''Persia'') in southwestern Iran, the Persian language was used and developed further through Persianate society, Persianate societies in Anatolia, Asia Minor, Central Asia, and South Asia, leaving massive influences on Ottoman poetry, Ottoman and Persian language in the Indian subcontinent, Mughal literatures, among others. Iran has a number of famous medieval poets, most notably Rumi, Ferdowsi, Hafez, Saadi Shirazi, Omar Khayyam, and Nizami Ganjavi, Nezami Ganjavi. Iranian literature also inspired writers such as Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Henry David Thoreau, and Ralph Waldo Emerson.


Philosophy

Iranian philosophy originates from Proto-Indo-European religion, Indo-European roots, with Zoroaster's reforms having major influences. According to ''The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy'', the chronology of the subject and science of philosophy starts with the Indo-Iranians, dating this event to 1500 BC. The Oxford dictionary also states, "Zarathushtra's philosophy entered to influence Western tradition through Judaism, and therefore on Middle Platonism." While there are Proto-Indo-Iranian religion, ancient relations between the Indian Vedas and the Iranian
Avesta The Avesta () is the primary collection of religious text Religious texts, also known as scripture, scriptures, holy writ, or holy books, are the texts which various religious traditions consider to be sacred, or of central importance to ...

Avesta
, the two main families of the Indo-Iranian philosophical traditions were characterized by fundamental differences, especially in their implications for the human being's position in society and their view of man's role in the universe. The Cyrus Cylinder, which is known as "the first charter of human rights", is often seen as a reflection of the questions and thoughts expressed by Zoroaster, and developed in Zoroastrian schools of the Achaemenid era. The earliest tenets of Zoroastrian schools are part of the extant scriptures of the Zoroastrian religion in Avestan. Among them are treatises such as the Zatspram, Shikand-gumanig Vizar, Shkand-gumanik Vizar, and Denkard, as well as older passages of the Avesta and the Gathas. The current trends in Iranian philosophy have grown limited in scope because of Islamic frames of thought although the liberal ways of thought remain open to be generated in Iranian publications by Iranian intellectuals, especially outside Iran, where the Iranian regime has less power to restrict Iranian thought and philosophy.


Mythology

Persian mythology, Iranian mythology consists of ancient Iranian folklore and stories, all involving extraordinary beings, reflecting attitudes towards the confrontation of good and evil, actions of the gods, and the exploits of heroes and fabulous creatures. Myths play a crucial part in Iranian culture, and understanding of them is increased when they are considered within the context of actual events in Iranian history. The geography of Greater Iran, a vast area covering present-day Iran, the Caucasus, Anatolia, Mesopotamia and Central Asia, with its high mountain ranges, plays the main role in much of Iranian mythology. Tenth-century Persian poet Ferdowsi's long epic poetry, epic poem ''Shahnameh, Šāhnāme'' ("Book of Kings"), which is for the most part based on ''Xwadāynāmag'', a
Middle Persian Middle Persian or Pahlavi, also known by its endonym Pārsīk or Pārsīg (𐭯𐭠𐭫𐭮𐭩𐭪) in its later form, is a Western Middle Iranian language which became the literary language of the Sasanian Empire. For some time after the Sasan ...
compilation of the history of Iranian kings and heroes from mythical times down to the reign of Khosrow II, Chosroes II, is considered the national epic of Iran. It draws heavily on the stories and characters of the Zoroastrian tradition, from the texts of the
Avesta The Avesta () is the primary collection of religious text Religious texts, also known as scripture, scriptures, holy writ, or holy books, are the texts which various religious traditions consider to be sacred, or of central importance to ...

Avesta
, the Denkard, and the Bundahishn.


Music

Iran is the apparent birthplace of the earliest complex instruments, dating back to the third millennium BC. The use of both vertical and horizontal angular harps have been documented at the sites Madaktu and Kul-e Farah, with the largest collection of
Elam Elam (; Linear Elamite: ''hatamti''; Cuneiform Cuneiform is a Logogram, logo-Syllabary, syllabic writing system, script that was used to write several languages of the Ancient Near East. The script was in active use from the early Bronz ...

Elam
ite instruments documented at Kul-e Farah. Multiple depictions of horizontal harps were also sculpted in Assyrian palaces, dating back between 865 and 650 BC. Xenophon's ''Cyropaedia'' mentions a great number of singing women at the court of the
Achaemenid Empire The Achaemenid Empire (; peo, 𐎧𐏁𐏂, translit=Xšāça, translation=The Empire), also called the First Persian Empire, was an ancient Iranian Iranian may refer to: * Iran Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia and offi ...

Achaemenid Empire
. Athenaeus of Naucratis, in his ''Deipnosophistae'', points out to the capture of Achaemenid singing girls at the court of the last Achaemenid king Darius III (336–330 BC) by Macedonia (ancient kingdom), Macedonian general Parmenion. Under the
Parthian Empire The Parthian Empire (), also known as the Arsacid Empire (), was a major political and cultural power in from 247 BC to 224 AD. Its latter name comes from its founder, , who led the tribe in conquering the region of in 's northeast, ...

Parthian Empire
, the ''Gusans, gōsān'' ( Parthian for "minstrel") had a prominent role in the society. According to Plutarch's ''Life of Crassus'' (32.3), they praised their national heroes and ridiculed their Roman rivals. Likewise, Strabo's ''Geographica'' reports that the Parthian youth were taught songs about "the deeds both of the gods and of the noblest men". The history of Sasanian music is better documented than the earlier periods, and is especially more evident in Avestan texts. iv. First millennium C.E. (1) Sasanian music, 224–651. By the time of Khosrow II, Chosroes II, the Sasanian royal court hosted a number of prominent musicians, namely Azad, Bamshad, Barbad, Nagisa (harpist), Nagisa, Ramtin, and Sarkash. Iranian traditional musical instruments include string instruments such as chang (instrument), chang (harp), qanun (instrument), qanun, santur, rud (oud, barbat (lute), barbat), tar (string instrument), tar, dutar, dotar, setar, tanbur, and kamancheh, kamanche, wind instruments such as sorna (zurna, karnay, karna) and ney, and percussion instruments such as tonbak, tompak, kus, daf (dayereh, dayere), and naqareh, naqare. Iran's first symphony orchestra, the Tehran Symphony Orchestra, was founded by Qolam-Hoseyn Minbashian in 1933. It was reformed by Parviz Mahmoud in 1946, and is currently Iran's oldest and largest symphony orchestra. Later, by the late 1940s, Ruhollah Khaleqi founded the country's first national music society, and established the School of National Music in 1949. Iranian pop music has its origins in the Qajar era. It was significantly developed since the 1950s, using indigenous instruments and forms accompanied by electric guitar and other imported characteristics. The emergence of genres such as Iranian rock, rock in the 1960s and Iranian hip hop, hip hop in the 2000s also resulted in major movements and influences in Iranian music.


Theater

The earliest recorded representations of dancing figures within Iran were found in prehistoric sites such as Tepe Sialk and Tepe Mūsīān. The oldest Iranian initiation of theater and the phenomena of acting can be traced in the ancient epic ceremonial theaters such as ''Sug-e Siāvuš'' ("mourning of Siyâvash, Siāvaš"), as well as dances and theater narrations of Iranian mythological tales reported by Herodotus and Xenophon. Iran's traditional theatrical genres include Baqqāl-bāzi ("grocer play", a form of slapstick comedy), Ruhowzi (or ''Taxt-howzi'', comedy performed over a courtyard pool covered with boards), Siāh-bāzi (in which the central comedian appears in blackface), Sāye-bāzi (shadow play), Xeyme-šab-bāzi (marionette), and Arusak-bāzi (puppetry), and Ta'zieh, Ta'zie (religious tragedy plays). Before the 1979 Revolution, the Iranian national stage had become a famous performing scene for known international artists and troupes, with the Roudaki Hall of Tehran constructed to function as the national stage for opera and ballet. Opened on 26 October 1967, the hall is home to the Tehran Symphony Orchestra, the Tehran Opera Orchestra, and the Iranian National Ballet Company, and was officially renamed ''Vahdat Hall'' after the 1979 Revolution. Loris Tjeknavorian's ''Rostam and Sohrab (opera), Rostam and Sohrab'', based on the tragedy of ''Rostam and Sohrab'' from Ferdowsi's epic poem ''Shahnameh, Šāhnāme'', is an example of opera with Persian libretto. Tjeknavorian, a celebrated Iranian Armenians, Iranian Armenian composer and conductor, composed it in 25 years, and it was finally performed for the first time at Tehran's Roudaki Hall, with Darya Dadvar in the role of Tahmina.


Cinema and animation

A third-millennium BC earthen goblet discovered at the Shahr-e Sukhteh, Burnt City, a Bronze Age urban settlement in southeastern Iran, depicts what could possibly be the world's oldest example of animation. The artifact, associated with Jiroft culture, Jiroft, bears five sequential images depicting a wild goat jumping up to eat the leaves of a tree. The earliest attested Iranian examples of visual representations, however, are traced back to the bas-reliefs of Persepolis, the ritual center of the
Achaemenid Empire The Achaemenid Empire (; peo, 𐎧𐏁𐏂, translit=Xšāça, translation=The Empire), also called the First Persian Empire, was an ancient Iranian Iranian may refer to: * Iran Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia and offi ...

Achaemenid Empire
. The figures at Persepolis remain bound by the rules of grammar and syntax of visual language. The Iranian visual arts reached a pinnacle by the Sasanian Empire, Sasanian era, and several works from this period have been found to articulate movements and actions in a highly sophisticated manner. It is even possible to see a progenitor of the cinematic close-up shot in one of these works of art, which shows a wounded wild pig escaping from the hunting ground. By the early 20th century, the five-year-old industry of cinema came to Iran. The first Iranian filmmaker was probably Mirza Ebrahim Khan Akkas Bashi, Mirza Ebrahim (Akkas Bashi), the court photographer of Mozaffar ad-Din Shah Qajar, Mozaffar-ed-Din Shah of the Qajar dynasty. Mirza Ebrahim obtained a camera and filmed the Qajar ruler's visit to Europe. Later in 1904, Mirza Ebrahim Khan Sahhafbashi, Mirza Ebrahim (Sahhaf Bashi), a businessman, opened the first public movie theater in Tehran. After him, several others like Russi Khan, Ardeshir Khan, and Ali Vakili tried to establish new movie theaters in Tehran. Until the early 1930s, there were around 15 cinema theaters in Tehran and 11 in other provinces. The first Iranian feature film, ''Abi and Rabi'', was a silent comedy directed by Ovanes Ohanian in 1930. The first sounded one, ''Lor Girl'', was produced by Ardeshir Irani and Abdolhossein Sepanta, Abd-ol-Hosein Sepanta in 1932. Iran's animation industry began by the 1950s, and was followed by the establishment of the influential Institute for the Intellectual Development of Children and Young Adults in January 1965. The 1960s was a significant decade for Iranian cinema, with 25 commercial films produced annually on average throughout the early 60s, increasing to 65 by the end of the decade. The majority of the production focused on melodrama and thrillers. With the screening of the films ''Qeysar (film), Qeysar'' and ''The Cow (1969 film), The Cow'', directed by Masoud Kimiai and Dariush Mehrjui respectively in 1969, alternative films set out to establish their status in the film industry and Bahram Beyzai's ''Downpour (film), Downpour'' and Nasser Taghvai's ''Tranquility in the Presence of Others'' followed soon. Attempts to organize a film festival, which had begun in 1954 within the framework of the Golrizan Festival, resulted in the festival of Sepas in 1969. The endeavors also resulted in the formation of the Tehran's World Film Festival in 1973. After the Revolution of 1979, and following the Iranian Cultural Revolution, Cultural Revolution, a new age emerged in Iranian cinema, starting with ''Long Live!'' by Khosrow Sinai and followed by many other directors, such as Abbas Kiarostami and Jafar Panahi. Kiarostami, an acclaimed Iranian director, planted Iran firmly on the map of world cinema when he won the Palme d'Or for ''Taste of Cherry'' in 1997. The continuous presence of Iranian films in prestigious international festivals, such as the Cannes Film Festival, the Venice Film Festival, and the Berlin International Film Festival, attracted world attention to Iranian masterpieces. In 2006, six Iranian films, of six different styles, represented Iranian cinema at the Berlin International Film Festival. Critics considered this a remarkable event in the history of Iranian cinema. Asghar Farhadi, a well-known Iranian director, has received a Golden Globe Award and two Academy Awards, representing Iran for Best Foreign Language Film in 2012 and 2017. In 2012, he was named as one of the 100 Most Influential People in the world by the American news magazine ''Time (magazine), Time''.


Observances

Iran's official New Year begins with
Nowruz Nowruz ( fa, نوروز, ; ) is the Iranian New Year, also known as the Persian New Year, which begins on the spring equinox, marking the first day of Farvardin, the first month of the Iranian solar calendar. It is celebrated worldwide by v ...

Nowruz
, an ancient Iranian tradition celebrated annually on the equinox, vernal equinox. It is enjoyed by people adhering to different religions, but is considered a holiday for the Zoroastrians. It was registered on the UNESCO's list of Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity in 2009, described as the ''Persian New Year'', shared with a number of other countries in which it has historically been celebrated. On the eve of the last Wednesday of the preceding year, as a prelude to Nowruz, the ancient festival of Chaharshanbe Suri, Čāršanbe Suri celebrates Atar, Ātar ("fire") by performing rituals such as jumping over bonfires and lighting off firecrackers and fireworks. The Nowruz celebrations last by the end of the 13th day of the Iranian year (Farvardin 13, usually coincided with 1or 2April), celebrating the festival of Sizdah Be-dar, Sizdebedar, during which the people traditionally go outdoors to picnic. Yaldā Night, Yaldā, another nationally celebrated ancient tradition, commemorates the ancient goddess Mithra and marks the longest night of the year on the eve of the winter solstice (; usually falling on 20 or 21 December), during which families gather together to recite poetry and eat fruits—particularly the red fruits watermelon and pomegranate, as well as mixed nuts. In some regions of the provinces of Mazandaran Province, Mazanderan and Markazi Province, Markazi, there is also the summer solstice, midsummer festival of Tirgan, Tirgān, which is observed on Tir (month), Tir 13 (2 or 3July) as a celebration of water. Alongside the ancient Iranian celebrations, Islamic annual events such as Ramadan, Ramezān, Eid al-Fitr, Eid e Fetr, and Ashura, Ruz e Āšurā are marked by the country's large Muslim population, Christian traditions such as Christmas, Noel, Lent, Čelle ye Ruze, and Easter, Eid e Pāk are observed by the Christian communities, Jewish traditions such as Purim, Hanukkah, Hanukā, and Passover, Eid e Fatir (Pesah) are observed by the Jewish communities, and Zoroastrian traditions such as Sadeh, Sade and Mehregan, Mehrgān are observed by the Zoroastrians.


Public holidays

Iran's civil calendar, official calendar is the Solar Hijri calendar, Solar Hejri calendar, beginning at the March equinox, vernal equinox in the Northern Hemisphere, which was first enacted by the Iranian Parliament on 31 March 1925. Each of the 12 months of the Solar Hejri calendar correspond with a astrological sign, zodiac sign, and the length of each year is absolutely solar. The months are named after the ancient Iranian months, namely Farvardin (Fravashi, ), Ordibehesht, Ordibehešt (Asha, ), Khordad, Xordād (Haurvatat, ), Tir (month), Tir (Tishtrya, ), Mordad, Amordād (Ameretat, ), Shahrivar, Šahrivar (Kshatra Vairya, ), Mehr (month), Mehr (Mithra, ), Aban (month), Ābān (Aban, ), Azar, Āzar (Atar, ), Dey (month), Dey (Ahura Mazda, ), Bahman (Vohu Manah, ), and Esfand (Spenta Armaiti, ). Alternatively, the Islamic calendar, Lunar Hejri calendar is used to indicate Islamic events, and the Gregorian calendar remarks the international events. Legal public holidays based on the Iranian solar calendar include the cultural celebrations of Nowruz (Farvardin 1–4; 21–24 March) and Sizdebedar (Farvardin 13; 2April), and the political events of Iranian Islamic Republic Day, Islamic Republic Day (Farvardin 12; 1April), the death of
Ruhollah Khomeini Sayyid Ruhollah Musavi Khomeini ( , ; fa, سید روح‌الله موسوی خمینی ; 17 May 19003 June 1989), also known as Ayatollah Khomeini, was an Iranian political and religious leader. He was the founder of the Islamic Republic ...

Ruhollah Khomeini
(Khordad 14; 4June), the 5 June 1963, demonstrations in Iran, Khordad 15 event (Khordad 15; 5June), the anniversary of the Iranian Revolution, 1979 Revolution (Bahman 22; 10 February), and Nationalization of the Iranian oil industry, Oil Nationalization Day (Esfand 29; 19 March). Lunar Islamic public holidays include Tasua (Islamic calendar, Muharram 9; 30 September), Ashura (Islamic calendar, Muharram 10; 1October), Arba'een (Islamic calendar, Safar 20; 10 November), the death of Muhammad (Islamic calendar, Safar 28; 17 November), the death of Ali al-Ridha (Islamic calendar, Safar 29 or 30; 18 November), the birthday of Muhammad (Islamic calendar, Rabi-al-Awwal 17; 6December), the death of Fatimah (Islamic calendar, Jumada-al-Thani 3; 2March), the birthday of Ali (Islamic calendar, Rajab 13; 10 April), Muhammad's first revelation (Islamic calendar, Rajab 27; 24 April), the birthday of Muhammad al-Mahdi (Islamic calendar, Sha'ban 15; 12 May), the death of Ali (Islamic calendar, Ramadan 21; 16 June), Eid al-Fitr (Islamic calendar, Shawwal 1–2; 26–27 June), the death of Ja'far al-Sadiq (Islamic calendar, Shawwal 25; 20 July), Eid al-Qurban (Islamic calendar, Zulhijja 10; 1September), and Eid al-Qadir (Islamic calendar, Zulhijja 18; 9September).


Cuisine

Due to its variety of ethnic groups and the influences from the neighboring cultures, the cuisine of Iran is diverse. Herbs are frequently used, along with fruits such as plums, pomegranate, quince, prunes, apricots, and raisins. To achieve a balanced taste, characteristic flavorings such as saffron, dried lime, cinnamon, and parsley are mixed delicately and used in some special dishes. Onion and garlic are commonly used in the preparation of the accompanying course, but are also served separately during meals, either in raw or pickled form. Iranian cuisine includes a wide range of main dishes, including various types of kebab, pilaf, stew (khoresh), soup and āsh, and omelette. Lunch and dinner meals are commonly accompanied by side dishes such as plain yogurt or tzatziki, mast-o-khiar, sabzi khordan, sabzi, Shirazi salad, salad Shirazi, and tursu, torshi, and might follow dishes such as borani, Mirza Ghassemi, Mirza Qasemi, or kashk e bademjan as the appetizer. In Iranian culture, tea () is widely consumed. Iran is the world's seventh major tea producer,Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations—Productio
FAOSTAT
Retrieved 30 April 2010.
and a cup of tea is typically the first thing offered to a guest. One of Iran's most popular desserts is the faloodeh, falude, consisting of vermicelli in a rose water syrup, which has its roots in the fourth century BC. There is also the popular saffron ice cream, known as ''Bastani Sonnati, bastani sonnati'' ("traditional ice cream"), which is sometimes accompanied with carrot juice. Iran is also famous for its caviar.


Sports

Iran is most likely the birthplace of polo, locally known as ''čowgān'', with its earliest records attributed to the ancient
Medes The Medes ( peo, 𐎶𐎠𐎭 ; akk, , ; grc, Μῆδοι ) were an Iranian peoples, ancient Iranian people who spoke the Median language and who inhabited an area known as Media (region), Media between western Iran, western and nor ...
. Freestyle wrestling is traditionally considered the national sport of Iran, and the Iran national freestyle wrestling athletes, national wrestlers have been world champions on many occasions. Iran's traditional wrestling, called ''Pahlevani and zoorkhaneh rituals, košti e pahlevāni'' ("heroic wrestling"), is registered on UNESCO's Intangible Cultural Heritage list. Being a mountainous country, Iran is a venue for skiing, snowboarding, hiking, rock climbing, and mountaineering, mountain climbing. It is home to several ski resorts, the most famous being Tochal Complex, Tochal, Dizin, and Shemshak (ski resort), Shemshak, all within one to three hours traveling from the capital city Tehran. The resort of Tochal, located in the Alborz mountain rage, is the world's fifth-highest ski resort ( at its highest station). Iran's National Olympic Committee of the Islamic Republic of Iran, National Olympic Committee was founded in 1947. Wrestlers and Olympic weightlifting, weightlifters have achieved the country's highest Iran at the Olympics, records at the Olympics. In September 1974, Iran became the first country in West Asia to host the Asian Games. The Azadi Sport Complex, which is the largest sport complex in Iran, was originally built for this occasion. Football in Iran, Football has been regarded as the most popular sport in Iran, with the Iran national football team, men's national team having won the AFC Asian Cup, Asian Cup on three occasions. The men's national team has maintained its position as Asia's best team, ranking 1st in Asia and 22nd in the world according to the FIFA World Rankings (). Volleyball is the second most popular sport in Iran. Having won the 2011 and 2013 Asian Men's Volleyball Championships, the Iran men's national volleyball team, men's national team is currently the strongest team in Asia, and ranks eighth in the FIVB World Rankings (). Basketball is also popular, with the Iran national basketball team, men's national team having won three FIBA Asia Championship, Asian Championships since 2007. In 2016, Iran made global headlines for international female champions boycotting tournaments in Iran in chess (U.S. Woman Grandmaster Nazí Paikidze) and in shooting (Indian world champion Heena Sidhu), as they refused to enter a country where they would be forced to wear a hijab.


Media

Iran is one of the countries with the worst freedom of the press situation, ranking 174th out of 180 countries on the Press Freedom Index (as of 2021). The Ministry of Culture and Islamic Guidance is Iran's main government department responsible for the cultural policy, including activities regarding communications and information. Iran's first newspapers were published during the reign of Naser al-Din Shah Qajar, Naser al-Din Shah of the Qajar dynasty in the mid-19th century. Most of the list of newspapers in Iran, newspapers published in Iran are in Persian, the country's official language. The country's most widely circulated periodicals are based in Tehran, among which are ''Etemad'', ''Ettela'at'', ''Kayhan'', ''Hamshahri'', ''Resalat (newspaper), Resalat'', and ''Shargh''. ''Tehran Times'', ''Iran (newspaper), Iran Daily'', and ''Financial Tribune'' are among English-language newspapers based in Iran. Television was introduced in Iran in 1958. Although the 1974 Asian Games were broadcast in color, full color programming began in 1978. Since the 1979 Revolution, Iran's largest media corporation is the Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting (IRIB). Despite the restrictions on non-domestic television, about 65% of the residents of the capital city and about 30 to 40% of the residents outside the capital city access worldwide television channels through satellite dishes, although observers state that the figures are likely to be higher. Iran received access to the Internet in 1993. According to Internet World Stats, , around 69.1% of the population of Iran are Internet users. Iran ranks 17th among List of countries by number of Internet users, countries by number of Internet users. According to the statistics provided by the web information company of Alexa Internet, Alexa, Google Search is Iran's most widely used search engine and Instagram is the most popular online social networking service. Direct access to many worldwide mainstream websites has been blocked in Iran, including Facebook, which has been blocked since 2009 due to the organization of anti-governmental protests on the website. However, , Facebook has around 40 million subscribers based in Iran (48.8% of the population) who use virtual private networks and proxy servers to access the website. Some of the officials themselves have verified accounts on the social networking websites that are blocked by the authorities, including Facebook and Twitter. About 90% of Iran's e-commerce takes place on the Iranian online store of Digikala, which has around 750,000 visitors per day and more than 2.3 million subscribers and is the most visited online store in the
Middle East The Middle East ( ar, الشرق الأوسط, ISO 233 The international standard An international standard is a technical standard A technical standard is an established norm (social), norm or requirement for a repeatable technical task whi ...

Middle East
.


Fashion and clothing

Fashion in Iran is divided into several historical periods. The exact date of the emergence of weaving in Iran is not yet known, but it is likely to coincide with the emergence of civilization. Clothing in Iran is mentioned in Persian mythology. Ferdowsi and many historians have considered Keyumars to be the inventor of the use of Animal skin, animals' skin and hair as clothing. Some historians have also mentioned Hushang as the first inventor of the use of living skins as clothing. Ferdowsi considers Tahmuras to be a kind of textile initiator in Iran. There are historical discoveries in northern Iran from about 6,000 BC that refer to wool weaving at the time. Other discoveries in central Iran dating back to 4200 BC have shown that the animals' skin has not been the only clothing worn on the Iranian Plateau since those years. The clothing of ancient Iran took an advanced form, and the fabric and color of clothing became very important at that time. Depending on the social status, eminence, climate of the region and the season, Persian clothing during the Achaemenian period took various forms. The philosophy used in this clothing, in addition to being functional, also had an aesthetic role. Beauty pageant festivals inside Iran were not held after the 1979 revolution, and the last selection ceremony of the "beauty queen of Iran" was held in 1978 in this country. Since then, a high number of Iranian girls participated in the Beauty pageant and Miss Universe outside of Iran. Sahar Biniaz (Miss Universe Canada 2012) and Shermine Shahrivar, Shermineh Shahrivar (Miss Germany and Miss Europe) are examples of Iranian models outside Iran. Girls of Enghelab Street was a series of protests in 2017–2019 against a Hijab by country#Iran, compulsory hijab in Iran.


See also

*List of Iran-related topics *Outline of Iran *Name of Iran


Notes


References


Bibliography

* * *
Iran: A Country Study
'. 2008, Washington, DC: Library of Congress, 354 pp. * * *


External links


The e-office of the Supreme Leader of IranThe President of IranIran.irIran
''The World Factbook''. Central Intelligence Agency. * * * {{Authority control Iran, 6th-century BC establishments Countries in Asia G15 nations Iranian countries and territories Iranian Plateau Islamic republics Member states of OPEC Member states of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation Member states of the United Nations Middle Eastern countries Near Eastern countries Persian-speaking countries and territories Places in the deuterocanonical books, Persia States and territories established in the 6th century BC States and territories established in 1979 Western Asian countries 1979 establishments in Iran Former monarchies of Western Asia Kurdish-speaking countries and territories Azerbaijani-speaking countries and territories Developing 8 Countries member states