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The Indo-Aryan languages (or sometimes Indic languagesIn modern and colloquial context, the term "Indic" also refers to both the language families of the Indian subcontinent: Aryan and Dravidian. See e.g. ) are a branch of the
Indo-Iranian languages The Indo-Iranian languages (also Indo-Iranic languages or Aryan languages) constitute the largest and southeasternmost extant branch of the Indo-European languages, Indo-European language family. They have more than 1.5 billion speakers, stretch ...

Indo-Iranian languages
, themselves a branch of the
Indo-European language family The Indo-European languages are a language family A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech ( spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign language) and writing. Most languages have a writing ...
. As of the early 21st century more than 800 million people speak Indo-Aryan languages, primarily in
India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi Hindi (Devanagari: , हिंदी, ISO 15919, ISO: ), or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: , ISO 15919, ISO: ), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken chiefly in Hindi Belt, ...

India
,
Bangladesh Bangladesh (, bn, বাংলাদেশ, ), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh, is a country in South Asia South Asia is the southern region of Asia, which is defined in both geography, geographical and culture, ethno-c ...

Bangladesh
,
Nepal Nepal (; ne, नेपाल ), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal ( ne, सङ्घीय लोकतान्त्रिक गणतन्त्र नेपाल ), is a landlocked country in South Asia. It is ma ...

Nepal
,
Pakistan Pakistan, . Pronounced variably in English as , , , and . officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country in South Asia. It is the world's List of countries and dependencies by population, fifth-most populous country, with a popul ...

Pakistan
and
Sri Lanka Sri Lanka (, ; si, ශ්‍රී ලංකාව, Śrī Laṅkā, translit-std=ISO (); ta, இலங்கை, Ilaṅkai, translit-std=ISO ()), formerly known as Ceylon, and officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is ...

Sri Lanka
. Morever, apart from the Indo subcontinent, large
immigrant Immigration is the international movement of people to a destination country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an individual's birth, residence or citizenship ...

immigrant
and
expatriate An expatriate (often shortened to expat) is a person residing in a country other than their native country. In common usage, the term often refers to professionals, skilled workers, or artists taking positions outside their home country, eit ...
Indo-Aryan-speaking communities live in
Northwestern Europe Northwestern Europe, or Northwest Europe, is a loosely defined subregion A subregion is a part of a larger region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted ...
,
Western Asia Western Asia, West Asia, or Southwest Asia, is the westernmost subregion of the larger geographical region of Asia, as defined by some academics, UN bodies and other institutions. It is almost entirely a part of the Middle East, and includes Anat ...

Western Asia
,
North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven geographical regions are commonly regarded as continen ...

North America
,
Southeast Africa Southeast Africa or Southeastern Africa is an African region that is intermediate between East Africa and Southern Africa. It comprises the countries Botswana, Burundi, Eswatini, Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Tanzania, South Africa, Uganda, Z ...
and
Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous List of islands of Australia, sma ...

Australia
. There are well over 200 known Indo-Aryan languages. Modern Indo-Aryan languages descend from Old Indo-Aryan languages such as early
Vedic upright=1.2, The Vedas are ancient Sanskrit texts of Hinduism. Above: A page from the ''Atharvaveda''. The Vedas (, , ) are a large body of religious texts originating in ancient India. Composed in Vedic Sanskrit, the texts constitute the ol ...
, through
Middle Indo-Aryan languages The Middle Indo-Aryan languages (or Middle Indic languages, sometimes conflated with the Prakrit The Prakrits (; Early Brahmi 𑀧𑁆𑀭𑀸𑀓𑀾𑀢, ''prākṛta''; Devanagari Devanagari ( ; , , Sanskrit pronunciation: ), also cal ...
(or Prakrits). The largest such languages in terms of L1 speakers are
Hindi-Urdu Hindustani (; Devanagari Devanagari ( ; , , Sanskrit pronunciation: ), also called Nagari (''Nāgarī'', ),Kathleen Kuiper (2010), The Culture of India, New York: The Rosen Publishing Group, , page 83 is a left-to-right abugida . ''M ...
(about 329 million),Standard Hindi first language: 260.3 million (2001), as second language: 120 million (1999). Urdu L1: 68.9 million (2001-2014), L2: 94 million (1999): ''Ethnologue'' 19.
Bengali Bengali or Bengalee, or Bengalese may refer to: *something of, from, or related to Bengal, a large region in South Asia * Bengalis, an ethnic and linguistic group of the region * Bengali language, the language they speak ** Bengali alphabet, the wr ...
(242 million),
Punjabi Panjābī (pʌnˈdʒɑːbi) (ਪੰਜਾਬੀ) (پنجابی) Punjabi or Panjabi most often refers to: * Something of, from, or related to Punjab Punjab ( Gurmukhi: ; Shahmukhi: ; , ; , ; ; also romanised as Panjāb or Panj-Āb) is a ge ...
(about 120 million),
Marathi Marathi may refer to: *Marathi people, an Indo-Aryan ethno-linguistic group of Maharashtra, India *Marathi language, the Indo-Aryan language spoken by the Marathi people *Palaiosouda, also known as Marathi, a small island in Greece See also

...
, (112 million), Gujarati (60 million), Rajasthani (58 million),
Bhojpuri Bhojpuri (;Bhojpuri entry, Oxford Dictionaries
, Oxford Un ...
(51 million),
Odia Odia, also spelled Oriya or Odiya, may refer to: * Odia people in Odisha, India * Odia language, an Indian language, belonging to the Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European language family * Odia alphabet, a writing system used for the Odia language ...
(35 million), Maithili (about 34 million),
Sindhi Sindhi may refer to: *something from, or related to Sindh Sindh (; sd, سنڌ; ur, , ;historically romanised as Sind) is one of the four provinces of Pakistan. Located in the southeast of the country, it is the home of the Sindhi and M ...

Sindhi
(25 million),
Nepali
Nepali
(16 million), Assamese (15 million),
Chhattisgarhi Chhattisgarhi (Devanagari Devanagari ( ; , , Sanskrit pronunciation: ), also called Nagari (''Nāgarī'', ),Kathleen Kuiper (2010), The Culture of India, New York: The Rosen Publishing Group, , page 83 is a left-to-right abugida . ''May ...
(18 million),
Sinhala Sinhala may refer to: * Something of or related to the Sinhalese people of Sri Lanka * Sinhalese people * Sinhala language, one of the three official languages used in Sri Lanka * Sinhala script, a writing system for the Sinhala language ** Sinhala ...
(17 million) and
Romani Romani may refer to: Ethnicities *Romani people The Romani (), also known as the Roma, are an Indo-Aryan people, traditionally nomadic itinerants living mostly in Europe Europe is a continent A continent is one of several ...
(ca. 3.5 million). A 2005 estimate placed the total number of native speakers of Indo-Aryan languages at nearly 900 million.


Classification


Theories

The Indo-Aryan family as a whole is thought to represent a
dialect continuum A dialect continuum or dialect chain is a series of language varieties spoken across some geographical area such that neighboring varieties are mutually intelligible In linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of langua ...
, where languages are often transitional towards neighboring varieties. Because of this, the division into languages vs. dialects is in many cases somewhat arbitrary. The classification of the Indo-Aryan languages is controversial, with many transitional areas that are assigned to different branches depending on classification. There are concerns that a
tree model In historical linguistics Historical linguistics, also termed diachronic linguistics, is the scientific study of language change over time. Principal concerns of historical linguistics include: # to describe and account for observed change ...
is insufficient for explaining the development of New Indo-Aryan, with some scholars suggesting the
wave model In historical linguistics Historical linguistics, also termed diachronic linguistics, is the scientific study of language change over time. Principal concerns of historical linguistics include: # to describe and account for observed changes ...
.


Subgroups

The following table of proposals is expanded from . Anton I. Kogan, in 2016, conducted a lexicostatistical study of the New Indo-Aryan languages based on a 100-word
Swadesh list The Swadesh list ("Swadesh" is pronounced ) is a classic compilation of tentatively universal concepts for the purposes of lexicostatistics. Translations of the Swadesh list into a set of languages allow researchers to quantify the interrelatedness ...
, using techniques developed by the glottochronologist and comparative linguist
Sergei Starostin Sergei Anatolyevich Starostin (russian: Серге́й Анато́льевич Ста́ростин; March 24, 1953 – September 30, 2005) was a Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a coun ...
. That grouping system is notable for Kogan's exclusion of Dardic from Indo-Aryan on the basis of his previous studies showing low lexical similarity to Indo-Aryan (43.5%) and negligible difference with similarity to Iranian (39.3%). He also calculated Sinhala–Dhivehi to be the most divergent Indo-Aryan branch. Nevertheless, the modern consensus of Indo-Aryan linguists tends towards the inclusion of Dardic based on morphological and grammatical features.


Inner–Outer hypothesis

The Inner–Outer hypothesis argues for a core and periphery of Indo-Aryan languages, with Outer Indo-Aryan (generally including Eastern and Southern Indo-Aryan, and sometimes Northwestern Indo-Aryan, Dardic and
PahariPahari or Pahadi may refer to: * Pahari language, the name of several languages of South Asia * Pahari people (Nepal), an ethnic group of Nepal * Pahari people, a cover term for many Northern Indo-Aryan languages, Northern Indo-Aryan speaking groups ...
) representing an older stratum of Old Indo-Aryan that has been mixed to varying degrees with the newer stratum that is Inner Indo-Aryan. It is a contentious proposal with a long history, with varying degrees of claimed phonological and morphological evidence. Since its proposal by Rudolf Hoernlé in 1880 and refinement by
George Grierson George Allison Grierson (April 11, 1867–October 18, 1931) was a politician in Manitoba, Canada. He served in the Legislative Assembly of Manitoba from 1914 to 1922, and was a cabinet minister in the government of Tobias Norris. Grierson was ...
it has undergone numerous revisions and a great deal of debate, with the most recent iteration by
Franklin Southworth Franklin C. Southworth (born 1929) is an American linguist and Professor Emeritus of South Asian linguistics at the University of Pennsylvania The University of Pennsylvania (Penn or UPenn) is a Private university, private Ivy League resear ...
and
Claus Peter ZollerClaus Peter Zoller is a linguist and professor of South Asian Studies at the Department of Culture Studies and Oriental Languages of the University of Oslo. His research interests include Hindi literature and Hindi, linguistics, the languages of the ...
based on robust linguistic evidence (particularly an Outer past tense in ''-l-''). Some of the theory's skeptics include
Suniti Kumar Chatterji Bhashacharya Acharya Suniti Kumar Chatterji (26 November 1890 – 29 May 1977) was an India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by popul ...
and Colin P. Masica.


Groups

The below classification follows , and .


Dardic

The Dardic languages (also Dardu or Pisaca) are a group of Indo-Aryan languages largely spoken in the northwestern extremities of the Indian subcontinent. Dardic was first formulated by
George Abraham Grierson Sir George Abraham Grierson (7 January 1851 – 9 March 1941) was an Irish administrator and List of linguists, linguist in British Raj, British India. He worked in the Indian Civil Service (British India), Indian Civil Service but an interest ...
in his Linguistic Survey of India but he did not consider it to be a subfamily of Indo-Aryan. The Dardic group as a genetic grouping (rather than areal) has been scrutinised and questioned to a degree by recent scholarship: Southworth, for example, says "the viability of Dardic as a genuine subgroup of Indo-Aryan is doubtful" and "the similarities among ardic languagesmay result from subsequent convergence". The Dardic languages are thought to be transitional with Punjabi and Pahari (e.g. Zoller describes Kashmiri as "an interlink between Dardic and West Pahāṛī"), as well as non-Indo-Aryan Nuristani; and are renowned for their relatively conservative features in the context of Proto-Indo-Aryan. *Kashmiri: ,
Kishtwari Kishtwari or Kashtwari is a highly distinctive and conservative dialect of the Kashmiri language Kashmiri () or Koshur (, /kəːʃur/) is a language from the Dardic subgroup of Indo-Aryan languages, spoken by around 7 million Kashmiris, pr ...
; *Shina: Brokskad, Kundal Shahi, , Ushojo, Kalkoti,
Palula Palula (also spelt Phalura, Palola, Phalulo) and also known as Ashreti (''Aćharêtâʹ'') or Dangarikwar (the name used by Khowar speakers), is a Dardic language spoken by approximately 10,000 people in the valleys of Ashret and Biori, as well ...
,
Savi Tanvir was the capital of the prior to its capture by the forces of in 1727. An account of the city was given by Robert Norris in 1789 :"Sabee, at that period the metropolis of the kingdom, the residence of their monarch, and seat of their co ...
; *Chitrali:
Kalasha A kalasha, also spelled kalash or kalasa, also called ghat or ghot ( sa, कळश , Kannada: ಕಳಶ literally "pitcher, pot"), is a metal (brass, copper, silver or gold) pot with a large base and small mouth, large enough to hold a coconut. So ...
,
Khowar Khowar (), is an Indo-Aryan language The Indo-Aryan or Indic languages form a major language family A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech ( spoken language), gestures (Signed language, s ...

Khowar
; *Kohistani: , Chilisso, Gowro,
Indus Kohistani Indus Kohistani (''Kōstāĩ'') is a Dardic languages, Dardic language spoken in part of the Indus valley in Kohistan District, Pakistan, Kohistan District, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province, Pakistan. The language was referred to as ...
, ,
Tirahi Tirahi ( ps, تيراهي) were non-Pashtun Dards, Dard people who were the previous inhabitants of Tirah and the Peshawar Valley in modern-day Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. They spoke Tirahi language, a Dardic languages, Dardic language of the Koh ...
, Torwali, Wotapuri-Katarqalai; * Pashayi *Kunar: Dameli, Gawar-Bati, Nangalami, Shumashti.


Northern Zone

The Northern Indo-Aryan languages, also known as the Pahari ('hill') languages, are spoken throughout the Himalayan regions of the subcontinent. *Eastern Pahari: , Jumli,
Doteli Doteli, or Dotyali (डोटेली) is an Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-Aryan language spoken by about 800,000 people, most of whom live in Nepal. It is a dialect of Khas language, Khas , (which is an ancient form of present Nepali langauage), and ...
; *Central Pahari:
GarhwaliGarhwali may refer to: * Garhwali people, an ethno-linguistic group who live in northern India * Garhwali language, the Indo-Aryan language spoken by Garhwali people * anything from or related to: **Garhwal division, a region in state of Uttarakhand ...
, Kumaoni; *
Western Pahari The Western Pahari languages are a group of Northern Indo-Aryan languages The Northern Indo-Aryan languages, also known as Pahāṛi languages, are a group of Indo-Aryan languages spoken in the lower ranges of the Himalayas, from Nepal in ...

Western Pahari
(Himachali):
Dogri Dogri (Dogra The Dogras or Dogra people, are an Indo-Aryan ethno-linguistic group in India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by pop ...
, Kangri,
Bhadarwahi Bhadarwahi (Takri The Tākri script (Takri ( Chamba): ; Takri (Jammu Jammu is the winter capital of the Indian union territory of Jammu and Kashmir. It is the headquarters and the largest city in Jammu district of the union territory ...
, , Bhateali,
Bilaspuri Bilaspuri (Takri script, Takri: ), or Kahluri (Takri script, Takri:) is a language spoken in northern India, predominantly in the Bilaspur district, Himachal Pradesh, Bilaspur district of Himachal Pradesh and in the Rupnagar district of the Punjab ...

Bilaspuri
,
Chambeali Chambeali (Takri script, Takri: ) is a language spoken in the Chamba district of Himachal Pradesh. Classification The Chambeali language is a part of the North-Western branch of the Indo-Aryan languages. It is further classified as a member of t ...
, Gaddi, Pangwali,
Mandeali Mandeali (Takri script, Takri: ) is a language spoken in northern India, predominantly in the Mandi district of Himachal Pradesh by the people of the Mandi Valley and particularly in the major city of Mandi, Himachal Pradesh, Mandi. Other spelling ...
,
Mahasu Pahari Mahasu Pahari (Takri script, Takri: ) is a Western Pahari (Himachali, Takri script, Takri: ) language spoken in Himachal Pradesh. It is also known as Mahasui or Mahasuvi. The speaking population is about 1,000,000 (2001). It is more commonly spoken ...
, Jaunsari,
Kullu Kullu is a municipal council A municipal council is the legislative body A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make laws for a Polity, political entity such as a Sovereign state, country or city. Legislatures form i ...
, Pahari Kinnauri, Hinduri, Sirmauri.


Northwestern Zone

Northwestern Indo-Aryan languages The Indo-Aryan or Indic languages form a major language family of South Asia. They constitute a branch of the Indo-Iranian languages, themselves a branch of the Indo-European languages, Indo-European language family. As of the early 21st centur ...
are spoken throughout the northwestern regions of the Indian subcontinent.
Punjabi Panjābī (pʌnˈdʒɑːbi) (ਪੰਜਾਬੀ) (پنجابی) Punjabi or Panjabi most often refers to: * Something of, from, or related to Punjab Punjab ( Gurmukhi: ; Shahmukhi: ; , ; , ; ; also romanised as Panjāb or Panj-Āb) is a ge ...
is spoken predominantly in the
Punjab region Punjab (; ; ; ; also romanised Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for studying and m ...

Punjab region
and is the official language of the northern Indian state of Punjab; in addition to being the most widely-spoken language in
Pakistan Pakistan, . Pronounced variably in English as , , , and . officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country in South Asia. It is the world's List of countries and dependencies by population, fifth-most populous country, with a popul ...

Pakistan
. To the south,
Sindhi Sindhi may refer to: *something from, or related to Sindh Sindh (; sd, سنڌ; ur, , ;historically romanised as Sind) is one of the four provinces of Pakistan. Located in the southeast of the country, it is the home of the Sindhi and M ...

Sindhi
and its variants are spoken; primarily in
Sindh Sindh (; sd, سنڌ; ur, , ; historically romanized as Sind) is one of the four provinces A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, ad ...

Sindh
. Northwestern languages are ultimately thought to be descended from
Shauraseni Prakrit Shauraseni Prakrit (, ) was a Middle Indo-Aryan language and a Dramatic Prakrit. Shauraseni was the chief language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed lan ...
. *
Punjabi Panjābī (pʌnˈdʒɑːbi) (ਪੰਜਾਬੀ) (پنجابی) Punjabi or Panjabi most often refers to: * Something of, from, or related to Punjab Punjab ( Gurmukhi: ; Shahmukhi: ; , ; , ; ; also romanised as Panjāb or Panj-Āb) is a ge ...

Punjabi
**Eastern Punjabi:
Punjabi Panjābī (pʌnˈdʒɑːbi) (ਪੰਜਾਬੀ) (پنجابی) Punjabi or Panjabi most often refers to: * Something of, from, or related to Punjab Punjab ( Gurmukhi: ; Shahmukhi: ; , ; , ; ; also romanised as Panjāb or Panj-Āb) is a ge ...
,
Doabi Doabi is a dialect of the Punjabi language. The dialect is named for the region in which it was historically spoken, Doaba (also known as Bist Doab); the word doab means "the land between two rivers" and this dialect was historically spoken in the ...
, Majhi, Malwai, Puadhi, Sansi; **Western Punjabi (
Lahnda Lahnda () () also known as Lahndi or Western Punjabi, is a group of north-western Indo-AryanIndo-Aryan refers to: * Indo-Aryan languages ** Indo-Aryan superstrate in Mitanni or Mitanni-Aryan * Indo-Aryan peoples, the various peoples speaking th ...
): Saraiki,
Hindko Hindko (, romanized: , ) is a cover term for a diverse group of Lahnda Lahnda () also known as Lahndi or Western Punjabi, is a group of north-western Indo-Aryan language varieties spoken in Pakistani Punjab and in parts of the neighbouring ...

Hindko
,
Pahari-Pothwari The Indo-Aryan language The Indo-Aryan or Indic languages form a major language family A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech ( spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign language) and ...

Pahari-Pothwari
, Inku†,
Sarazi Sarazi or Sirazi (also spelled Siraji) is an Indo-Aryan language The Indo-Aryan or Indic languages form a major language family A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech ( spoken language), gest ...
; *
Sindhi Sindhi may refer to: *something from, or related to Sindh Sindh (; sd, سنڌ; ur, , ;historically romanised as Sind) is one of the four provinces of Pakistan. Located in the southeast of the country, it is the home of the Sindhi and M ...
:
Sindhi Sindhi may refer to: *something from, or related to Sindh Sindh (; sd, سنڌ; ur, , ;historically romanised as Sind) is one of the four provinces of Pakistan. Located in the southeast of the country, it is the home of the Sindhi and M ...

Sindhi
, Jadgali, , Luwati, Memoni, Khetrani, Kholosi.


Western Zone

Western Indo-Aryan languages, are spoken in the central and western areas within India, such as
Madhya Pradesh Madhya Pradesh (, ; meaning ''Central Province'') is a state in central India. Its capital city, capital is Bhopal, and the largest city is Indore, with Jabalpur, Ujjain, Gwalior, Satna being the other major cities. Madhya Pradesh is the List o ...

Madhya Pradesh
and
Rajasthan Rajasthan (; ; lit. 'Land of Kings') is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspa ...

Rajasthan
, in addition to contiguous regions in Pakistan. Gujarati is the official language of
Gujarat Gujarat (, ) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper i ...

Gujarat
, and is spoken by over 50 million people. In Europe, various Romani languages are spoken by the
Romani people The Romani (also spelled Romany , ), colloquially known as Roma, are an Indo-AryanIndo-Aryan refers to: * Indo-Aryan languages ** Indo-Aryan superstrate in Mitanni or Mitanni-Aryan * Indo-Aryan peoples, the various peoples speaking these ...

Romani people
, an itinerant community who historically migrated from India. The Western Indo-Aryan languages are thought to have diverged from their northwestern counterparts, although they have a common antecedent in
Shauraseni Prakrit Shauraseni Prakrit (, ) was a Middle Indo-Aryan language and a Dramatic Prakrit. Shauraseni was the chief language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed lan ...
. People belonging to this group of languages are also known as 'Gypsy Aryans' (Hindi: घुमंतू आर्य, Marathi: भटके आर्य), as they are habitual to wandering around the world, due to geographical or economic nature. *: Standard Rajasthani, Bagri, Marwari,
Mewati Mewati (Devanagri:मेवाती; Urdu:میواتی) is an Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-Aryan language spoken by about three million speakers in the Mewat Region (Alwar district, Alwar and Bharatpur district, Bharatpur, districts of Rajasthan, ...
,
Dhundari Dhundhari (also known as Jaipuri) is a dialect of Rajasthani language, Rajasthani spoken in the Dhundhar region of northeastern Rajasthan state, India. Dhundari-speaking people are found in four districts – Jaipur District, Jaipur, Sawai Madhop ...
, Harauti,
Mewari Mewari is one of the major dialects of Rajasthani language of Indo-Aryan languages family. It is spoken by about five million speakers in Rajsamand, Bhilwara, Udaipur, Rajasthan, Udaipur, and Chittorgarh districts of Rajasthan state of India. It ...
,
Shekhawati Shekhawati is a semi-arid historical region located in the northeast part of Rajasthan, India. The region is ruled by Shekhawat Rajputs. Shekhawati is located in North Rajasthan, comprising the districts of Jhunjhunu district, Jhunjhunu, Sikar ...
,
Dhatki Dhatki (धाटकी; ڍاٽڪي), also known as Dhatti (धत्ती; ڍاٽي) or Thari (थारी; ٿَري), is one of the Rajasthani languages Rajasthani ( Devanagari: ) refers to a group of Indo-Aryan languages and dialects ...

Dhatki
, Malvi,
Nimadi Nimadi is a Western Indo-Aryan language spoken in the Nimar region of west-central India within the state of Madhya Pradesh. This region lies adjacent to Maharashtra and south of Malwa. The districts where Nimadi is spoken are: Barwani, Khandwa, ...
,
Gujari Gurjari, also known as Gujri (गुर्जरी, ) is a variety of Indo-Aryan spoken by the Gurjars and other tribes of India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of ...

Gujari
, Goaria, Loarki, bhoyari, Kanjari, Od; * Gujarati: Gujarati, Jandavra, Saurashtra, Aer, Vaghri, Parkari Koli,
Kachi Koli Kachi Koli is a Indo-AryanIndo-Aryan refers to: * Indo-Aryan languages ** Indo-Aryan superstrate in Mitanni or Mitanni-Aryan * Indo-Aryan peoples, the various peoples speaking these languages See also *Aryan invasion theory (disambiguation) *In ...
, Wadiyara Koli; *
Bhil Bhils or Bheels are an Indo-Aryan speaking ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people who identity (social science), identify with each other on the basis of shared attributes that distinguish them from other groups. Tho ...
: Kalto,
Vasavi Vasavi Maatha is hailed with veneration for promoting peace through Ahimsa. She is credited with averting war and thereby saving many lives through logic and reason and overcoming brute force. She taught the world harming oneself or others isn't ...
, Wagdi, Gamit, Vaagri Booli; **Northern Bhil: Bauria, Bhilori, Magari; **Central Bhil: Bhili proper, Bhilali, Chodri language, Chodri, Dhodia language, Dhodia, Dhanki language, Dhanki, Dubli language, Dubli; **Bareli: Palya Bareli language, Palya Bareli, Pauri Bareli language, Pauri Bareli, Rathwi Bareli language, Rathwi Bareli, Pardhi language, Pardhi; *Khandeshi language, Khandeshi *Lambadi *Domaaki language, Domaaki *Domari language, Domari *
Romani Romani may refer to: Ethnicities *Romani people The Romani (), also known as the Roma, are an Indo-Aryan people, traditionally nomadic itinerants living mostly in Europe Europe is a continent A continent is one of several ...
: Carpathian Romani, Balkan Romani, Vlax Romani language, Vlax Romani; **Northern Romani dialects, Northern Romani: Sinte Romani, Finnish Kalo language, Finnish Kalo, Baltic Romani.


Central Zone (Madhya ''or'' Hindi)

Within India, Hindi languages are spoken primarily in the Hindi belt regions and Gangetic plains, including Delhi and the surrounding areas; where they are often transitional with neighbouring lects. Many of these languages, including Braj and Awadhi, have rich literary and poetic traditions. Urdu, a Persianized derivative of Khariboli, is the official language of
Pakistan Pakistan, . Pronounced variably in English as , , , and . officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country in South Asia. It is the world's List of countries and dependencies by population, fifth-most populous country, with a popul ...

Pakistan
and also has strong Dakhini, historical connections to
India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi Hindi (Devanagari: , हिंदी, ISO 15919, ISO: ), or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: , ISO 15919, ISO: ), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken chiefly in Hindi Belt, ...

India
, where it also has been designated with official status. Hindi, a standardized and Sanskritized register of Khariboli, is the official language of the Government of India. Hindustani language, Together with Urdu, it is the third most-spoken language in the world. *Western Hindi: Hindustani language, Hindustani (including Hindi, Standard Hindi and Urdu, Standard Urdu), Braj Bhasha, Braj, Haryanvi language, Haryanvi, Bundeli language, Bundeli, Kannauji language, Kannauji, Parya; *Eastern Hindi: Bagheli language, Bagheli,
Chhattisgarhi Chhattisgarhi (Devanagari Devanagari ( ; , , Sanskrit pronunciation: ), also called Nagari (''Nāgarī'', ),Kathleen Kuiper (2010), The Culture of India, New York: The Rosen Publishing Group, , page 83 is a left-to-right abugida . ''May ...
, Surgujia language, Surgujia; **Awadhi language, Awadhi: Fiji Hindi.


Eastern Zone

The Eastern Indo-Aryan languages, also known as Magadhan languages, are spoken throughout the eastern subcontinent, including Odisha and Bihar, alongside other regions surrounding the northwestern Himalayan corridor.
Bengali Bengali or Bengalee, or Bengalese may refer to: *something of, from, or related to Bengal, a large region in South Asia * Bengalis, an ethnic and linguistic group of the region * Bengali language, the language they speak ** Bengali alphabet, the wr ...
is the seventh most-spoken language in the world, and has a strong literary tradition; the national anthems of
India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi Hindi (Devanagari: , हिंदी, ISO 15919, ISO: ), or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: , ISO 15919, ISO: ), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken chiefly in Hindi Belt, ...

India
and
Bangladesh Bangladesh (, bn, বাংলাদেশ, ), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh, is a country in South Asia South Asia is the southern region of Asia, which is defined in both geography, geographical and culture, ethno-c ...

Bangladesh
are written in Bengali. Assamese and
Odia Odia, also spelled Oriya or Odiya, may refer to: * Odia people in Odisha, India * Odia language, an Indian language, belonging to the Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European language family * Odia alphabet, a writing system used for the Odia language ...
are the official languages of Assam and Odisha, respectively. The Eastern Indo-Aryan languages descend from Magadhan Apabhraṃśa and ultimately from Magadhi Prakrit.South Asian folklore: an encyclopedia : Afghanistan, Bangladesh, India, By Peter J. Claus, Sarah Diamond, Margaret Ann Mills, Routledge, 2003, p. 203Ray, Tapas S. (2007)
"Chapter Eleven: "Oriya"
In Jain, Danesh; Cardona, George. ''The Indo-Aryan Languages''. Routledge. p. 445. .
*Bihari languages, Bihari: **
Bhojpuri Bhojpuri (;Bhojpuri entry, Oxford Dictionaries
, Oxford Un ...
, Caribbean Hindustani; **Magahi language, Magahi, Khortha language, Khortha; ** Maithili, Angika, Bajjika; **Sadanic languages, Sadanic: Sadri language, Sadri (Nagpuri), Kurmali language, Kurmali (Panchpargania); **Tharu languages, Tharu, Kochila Tharu, Buksa language, Buksa, Majhi language, Majhi, Musasa language, Musasa; **Kumhali language, Kumhali, Kuswaric: Danwar language, Danwar, Bote-Darai language, Bote-Darai; *Halbic languages, Halbic: Halbi language, Halbi, Kamar language, Kamar, Bhunjia language (Halbic), Bhunjia, Nahari language, Nahari; *
Odia Odia, also spelled Oriya or Odiya, may refer to: * Odia people in Odisha, India * Odia language, an Indian language, belonging to the Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European language family * Odia alphabet, a writing system used for the Odia language ...
: Baleswari Odia, Baleswari, Kataki, Ganjami Odia, Ganjami, Sundargadi Odia, Sundargadi, Sambalpuri language, Sambalpuri, Desia language, Desia; **Bodo Parja language, Bodo Parja, Bhatri language, Bhatri, Reli language, Reli, Kupia language, Kupia; *Bengali–Assamese languages, Bengali–Assamese: Bishnupriya Manipuri language, Bishnupriya Manipuri, Hajong language, Hajong, Chittagonian language, Chittagonian, Chakma language, Chakma, Noakhailla, Tanchangya language, Tanchangya, Rohingya language, Rohingya, Sylheti language, Sylheti,; **Bengali-Gauda:
Bengali Bengali or Bengalee, or Bengalese may refer to: *something of, from, or related to Bengal, a large region in South Asia * Bengalis, an ethnic and linguistic group of the region * Bengali language, the language they speak ** Bengali alphabet, the wr ...
, Bangali (ethnic dialect), Bangali, Rarhi dialect, Rarhi, Varendri dialect, Varendri, Sundarbani, Manbhumi dialect, Manbhumi, Dhakaiya Kutti, Dobhashi; **Kamarupic: Assamese, Kamrupi dialects, Kamrupi, Goalpariya dialects, Goalpariya, Rangpuri language, Rangpuri, Surjapuri language, Surjapuri, Rajbanshi language (Nepal), Rajbanshi;


Southern Zone

Marathi-Konkani languages are ultimately descended from Maharashtri Prakrit, whereas Insular Indo-Aryan languages are descended from Elu, Elu Prakrit and possess several characteristics that markedly distinguish them from most of their mainland Indo-Aryan counterparts. Marathi people are also known as 'Unidentifiables', due to their complex geographical position between North & South India. *Marathi-Konkani languages, Marathi-Konkani **Marathic:
Marathi Marathi may refer to: *Marathi people, an Indo-Aryan ethno-linguistic group of Maharashtra, India *Marathi language, the Indo-Aryan language spoken by the Marathi people *Palaiosouda, also known as Marathi, a small island in Greece See also

...
, Varhadi dialect, Varhadi, Andh language, Andh, Berar-Deccan Marathi, Phudagi language, Phudagi, Katkari language, Katkari, Varli language, Varli, Kadodi language, Kadodi; **Konkanic: Konkani language, Konkani, Canarese Konkani, Maharashtrian Konkani.


=Insular Indic

= Insular Indic languages (of
Sri Lanka Sri Lanka (, ; si, ශ්‍රී ලංකාව, Śrī Laṅkā, translit-std=ISO (); ta, இலங்கை, Ilaṅkai, translit-std=ISO ()), formerly known as Ceylon, and officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is ...

Sri Lanka
and Maldives) started developing independently and diverging from the continental Indo-Aryan languages from around 5th century BCE. *Insular Indo-Aryan **
Sinhala Sinhala may refer to: * Something of or related to the Sinhalese people of Sri Lanka * Sinhalese people * Sinhala language, one of the three official languages used in Sri Lanka * Sinhala script, a writing system for the Sinhala language ** Sinhala ...
**Maldivian language, Maldivian: Dhivehi, Mahl


Unclassified

The following languages are related to each other, but are otherwise unclassified within Indo-Aryan: *Chinali-Lahuli languages, Chinali–Lahul Lohar: Chinali language, Chinali, Lahul Lohar language, Lahul Lohar.


History


Proto-Indo-Aryan

Proto-Indo-Aryan (or sometimes Proto-Indic) is the Linguistic reconstruction, reconstructed proto-language of the Indo-Aryan languages. It is intended to reconstruct the language of the Indo-Aryan peoples#History, pre-Vedic Indo-Aryans. Proto-Indo-Aryan is meant to be the predecessor of #Old Indo-Aryan, Old Indo-Aryan (1500–300 BCE) which is directly attested as
Vedic upright=1.2, The Vedas are ancient Sanskrit texts of Hinduism. Above: A page from the ''Atharvaveda''. The Vedas (, , ) are a large body of religious texts originating in ancient India. Composed in Vedic Sanskrit, the texts constitute the ol ...
and Mitanni-Aryan. Despite the great archaicity of Vedic, however, the other Indo-Aryan languages preserve a small number of Proto-Indo-Aryan language#Differences from Vedic, archaic features lost in Vedic.


Mitanni-Aryan hypothesis

Some theonyms, proper names and other terminology of the Mitanni exhibit an Indo-Aryan superstrate, suggest that an Indo-Aryan elite imposed itself over the Hurrians in the course of the Indo-Aryan migration, Indo-Aryan expansion. In a treaty between the Hittites and the Mitanni, the deities Mitra, Varuna, Indra, and the Ashvins (Nasatya) are invoked. Kikkuli's horse training text includes technical terms such as ''aika'' (cf. Sanskrit ''eka'', "one"), ''tera'' (''tri'', "three"), ''panza'' (''pancha'', "five"), ''satta'' (''sapta'', seven), ''na'' (''nava'', "nine"), ''vartana'' (''vartana'', "turn", round in the horse race). The numeral ''aika'' "one" is of particular importance because it places the superstrate in the vicinity of Indo-Aryan proper as opposed to Indo-Iranian in general or early Iranian (which has ''aiva''). Another text has ''babru'' (''babhru'', "brown"), ''parita'' (''palita'', "grey"), and (''pingala'', "red"). Their chief festival was the celebration of the solstice (''vishuva'') which was common in most cultures in the ancient world. The Mitanni warriors were called ''marya'', the term for "warrior" in Sanskrit as well; note ''mišta-nnu'' (= ''miẓḍha'', ≈ Sanskrit ''mīḍha'') "payment (for catching a fugitive)" (M. Mayrhofer, ''Etymologisches Wörterbuch des Altindoarischen'', Heidelberg, 1986–2000; Vol. II:358). Sanskritic interpretations of Mitanni royal names render Artashumara (''artaššumara'') as ''Ṛtasmara'' "who thinks of Ṛta" (Mayrhofer II 780), Biridashva (''biridašṷa, biriiašṷ''a) as ''Prītāśva'' "whose horse is dear" (Mayrhofer II 182), Priyamazda (''priiamazda'') as ''Priyamedha'' "whose wisdom is dear" (Mayrhofer II 189, II378), Citrarata as ''Citraratha'' "whose chariot is shining" (Mayrhofer I 553), Indaruda/Endaruta as ''Indrota'' "helped by Indra" (Mayrhofer I 134), Shativaza (''šattiṷaza'') as ''Sātivāja'' "winning the race price" (Mayrhofer II 540, 696), Šubandhu as ''Subandhu'' "having good relatives" (a name in Palestine (region), Palestine, Mayrhofer II 209, 735), Tushratta (''tṷišeratta, tušratta'', etc.) as *tṷaiašaratha, Vedic Tvastar "whose chariot is vehement" (Mayrhofer, Etym. Wb., I 686, I 736).


Indian subcontinent

Dates indicate only a rough time frame. * Proto-Indo-Aryan (before 1500 BCE, reconstructed) *Old Indo-Aryan (ca. 1500–300 BCE) **early Old Indo-Aryan: includes Vedic Sanskrit (ca. 1500 to 500 BCE) **late Old Indo-Aryan: Epic Sanskrit, Classical Sanskrit (ca. 200 CE to 1300 CE) **Mitanni Indo-Aryan (ca. 1400 BCE) (middle Indo-Aryan features) *Middle Indo-Aryan languages, Middle Indo-Aryan or Prakrits, (ca. 300 BCE to 1500 CE) **early Buddhist texts (ca. 6th or 5th century BCE) **early Middle Indo-Aryan: e.g. Ashokan Prakrits, Pali, Gandhari language, Gandhari, (ca. 300 BCE to 200 BCE) **middle Middle Indo-Aryan: e.g. Dramatic Prakrits, Elu (ca. 200 BCE to 700 CE) **late Middle Indo-Aryan: e.g. Abahattha (ca. 700 CE to 1500 CE) *Early Modern Indo-Aryan (Late Medieval India): e.g. early Dakhini and emergence of the Dehlavi dialect


Old Indo-Aryan

The earliest evidence of the group is from Vedic Sanskrit, that is used in the ancient preserved texts of the Indian subcontinent, the foundational canon of the Hindu synthesis known as the Vedas. The Indo-Aryan superstrate in Mitanni is of similar age to the language of the Rigveda, but the only evidence of it is a few proper names and specialized loanwords. While Old Indo-Aryan is the earliest stage of the Indo-Aryan branch, from which all known languages of the later stages Middle and New Indo-Aryan are derived, some documented Middle Indo-Aryan variants cannot fully be derived from the documented form of Old Indo-Aryan (i.e. Sanskrit), but betray features that must go back to other undocumented variants/dialects of Old Indo-Aryan. From Vedic Sanskrit, "Sanskrit" (literally "put together", "perfected" or "elaborated") developed as the prestige language of culture, science and religion, as well as the court, theatre, etc. Sanskrit of the later Vedic texts is comparable to Classical Sanskrit, but is largely mutually unintelligible with Vedic Sanskrit.


Middle Indo-Aryan (Prakrits)

Indo-Aryan superstrate in Mitanni, Mitanni inscriptions show some Middle Indo-Aryan characteristics along with Old Indo-Aryan, for example ''sapta'' in Old Indo-Aryan becomes ''satta'' (''pt'' develops into Middle Indo-Aryan ''tt''). According to S.S. Misra, this language can be similar to Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit, Buddhist-hybrid Sanskrit which might not be a mixed language but an early middle Indo-Aryan occurring much before Prakrit.The Indo-Aryan numerals are found in the treatise on horse training composed by Kikkulis of Mitanni (Section 6.9). They are aikawartanna ( Skt ekavartana) 'one turn of the course', terawartanna ( Skt tre-vartana) 'three turns of the course', sattawartanna ( Skt sapta-vartana) 'seven turns of the course', nawartana with haplology for nawawartana ( Skt nava-vartana) 'nine turns of the course'. The forms of numerals in these words are clearly Indo-Aryan. The form aika- is especially confirmatory. The form satta for Skt sapta- is a clearly Middle Indo-Aryan form. The following linguistic features reveal that the language belongs to an early Middle Indo-Aryan stage or to a transitional stage between Old Indo-Aryan and Middle Indo-Aryan. (i) Dissimilar plosives have been assimilated, for example, sapta satta. Gray quotes the MIA form for comparison, but he is silent about the fact that the borrowing in Anatolian is from MIA (1950: 309). (ii) Semi-vowels and liquids were not assimilated in conjuncts with plosives, semi-vowels or liquids as in 1st MIA, for example, vartana wartana, rathya aratiya-, virya Birya-, Vrdhamva Bardamva. (iii) Nasals were also not assimilated to plosives/nasals, unlike in 1st MIA and like in OIA. This characteristic places the language of these documents earlier than 1st MIA, for example, rukma urukmannu, rtanma artamna. (iv) Anaptyxis was quite frequent, for example, Indra Indara smara mumara. (v) v b initially, for example, virya birya, vrdhasva bardamva. (vi) r ar, for example, rta arta, vrdh bard-. Thus, a linguistic study of the borrowed Indo-Aryan forms in the Anatolian records shows that they are definitely Indo-Aryan and not Iranian nor Indo- Iranian. This also shows that this language belongs to a transitional stage between OIA and MIA. Further, this language is comparable to the language of the Indus seals as deciphered by S. R. Rao. This language is the base for Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit, which was wrongly named Hybrid because of a misconception that it was a mixed language. Thus, the language of Middle Indo-Aryan is much before the Afokan Prakrit. On the basis of the borrowed words in Anatolian records and the language of the Indus seals as deciphered by S. R. Rao the date of MIA may go beyond 2000 BC. The transitional stage between OIA and MIA might have started in 2500 BC. There is good evidence that in the Old Indo-Aryan dialect to which the names belong, at the time of the documents, initial v, represented by b, was pronounced like v, while medial v kept its value of semivowel and was pronounced like w. For instance, Birasena(-Virasena), Birya (=Virya). Biryasura (=Viryasura)... 'It seems that in the language to which the names belong, just as in Middle Indic, the group ''pt'' had become ''tt'', as in, for instance, Wasasatta(=Vasasapta), Sattawadza(=Saptavaja) and sausatti (=sausapti 'the son of susapti') Outside the learned sphere of Sanskrit, vernacular dialects (Prakrits) continued to evolve. The oldest attested Prakrits are the Buddhism, Buddhist and Jainism, Jain canonical languages Pali and Ardhamagadhi Prakrit, respectively. Inscriptions in Ashokan Prakrit were also part of this early Middle Indo-Aryan stage. By medieval times, the Prakrits had diversified into various
Middle Indo-Aryan languages The Middle Indo-Aryan languages (or Middle Indic languages, sometimes conflated with the Prakrit The Prakrits (; Early Brahmi 𑀧𑁆𑀭𑀸𑀓𑀾𑀢, ''prākṛta''; Devanagari Devanagari ( ; , , Sanskrit pronunciation: ), also cal ...
. ''Apabhraṃśa'' is the conventional cover term for transitional dialects connecting late Middle Indo-Aryan with early Modern Indo-Aryan, spanning roughly the 6th to 13th centuries. Some of these dialects showed considerable literary production; the ''Śravakacāra'' of Devasena (dated to the 930s) is now considered to be the first Hindi book. The next major milestone occurred with the Muslim conquests in the Indian subcontinent in the 13th–16th centuries. Under the flourishing Turco-Mongol tradition, Turco-Mongol Mughal Empire, Persian language in the Indian subcontinent, Persian became very influential as the language of prestige of the Islamic courts due to adoptation of the foreign language by the Mughal emperors. The two largest languages that formed from Apabhraṃśa were
Bengali Bengali or Bengalee, or Bengalese may refer to: *something of, from, or related to Bengal, a large region in South Asia * Bengalis, an ethnic and linguistic group of the region * Bengali language, the language they speak ** Bengali alphabet, the wr ...
and Hindustani language, Hindustani; others include Assamese,
Sindhi Sindhi may refer to: *something from, or related to Sindh Sindh (; sd, سنڌ; ur, , ;historically romanised as Sind) is one of the four provinces of Pakistan. Located in the southeast of the country, it is the home of the Sindhi and M ...

Sindhi
, Gujarati,
Odia Odia, also spelled Oriya or Odiya, may refer to: * Odia people in Odisha, India * Odia language, an Indian language, belonging to the Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European language family * Odia alphabet, a writing system used for the Odia language ...
,
Marathi Marathi may refer to: *Marathi people, an Indo-Aryan ethno-linguistic group of Maharashtra, India *Marathi language, the Indo-Aryan language spoken by the Marathi people *Palaiosouda, also known as Marathi, a small island in Greece See also

...
, and
Punjabi Panjābī (pʌnˈdʒɑːbi) (ਪੰਜਾਬੀ) (پنجابی) Punjabi or Panjabi most often refers to: * Something of, from, or related to Punjab Punjab ( Gurmukhi: ; Shahmukhi: ; , ; , ; ; also romanised as Panjāb or Panj-Āb) is a ge ...
.


New Indo-Aryan


=Medieval Hindustani

= In the Central Zone (Hindi), Central Zone Hindi-speaking areas, for a long time the prestige dialect was Braj Bhasha, but this was replaced in the 19th century by Dehlavi dialect, Dehlavi-based Hindustani language, Hindustani. Hindustani was strongly influenced by Persian language, Persian, with these and later Sanskrit influence leading to the emergence of Modern Standard Hindi and Modern Standard Urdu as register (sociolinguistics), registers of the Hindustani language. This state of affairs continued until the division of the British Indian Empire in 1947, when Hindi became the official language in India and Urdu became official in Pakistan. Despite the different script the fundamental grammar remains identical, the difference is more sociolinguistics, sociolinguistic than purely linguistic. Today it is widely understood/spoken as a second or third language throughout South Asia and one of the most widely known languages in the world in terms of number of speakers.


Outside the Indian subcontinent


Domari

Domari language, Domari is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by older Dom people scattered across the Middle East. The language is reported to be spoken as far north as Azerbaijan and as far south as central Sudan.*Matras, Y. (2012). ''A grammar of Domari''. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton (Mouton Grammar Library). Based on the systematicity of sound changes, linguists have concluded that the ethnonyms ''Domari'' and ''Romani people, Romani'' derive from the Indo-Aryan word ''ḍom''.


Lomavren

Lomavren is a nearly extinct mixed language, spoken by the Lom people, that arose from language contact between a language related to
Romani Romani may refer to: Ethnicities *Romani people The Romani (), also known as the Roma, are an Indo-Aryan people, traditionally nomadic itinerants living mostly in Europe Europe is a continent A continent is one of several ...
and Domari language, Domari and the Armenian language.


Romani

The Romani language is usually included in the Western Indo-Aryan languages. Romani varieties, which are mainly spoken throughout Europe, are noted for their relatively conservative nature; maintaining the Middle Indo-Aryan present-tense person concord markers, alongside consonantal endings for nominal case. Indeed, these features are no longer evident in most other modern Central Indo-Aryan languages. Moreover, Romani shares an innovative pattern of past-tense person, which corresponds to Dardic languages, such as Kashmiri and Shina. This is believed to be further indication that proto-Romani speakers were originally situated in central regions of the subcontinent, before migrating to northwestern regions. However, there are no known historical sources regarding the development of the Romani language specifically within India. Research conducted by nineteenth-century scholars Pott (1845) and Miklosich (1882–1888) demonstrated that the Romani language is most aptly designated as a New Indo-Aryan language (NIA), as opposed to Middle Indo-Aryan (MIA); establishing that proto-Romani speakers could not have left India significantly earlier than AD 1000. The principal argument favouring a migration during or after the transition period to NIA is the loss of the old system of nominal case, coupled with its reduction to a two-way nominative-oblique case system,. A secondary argument concerns the system of gender differentiation, due to the fact that Romani has only two genders (masculine and feminine). Middle Indo-Aryan languages (named MIA) generally employed three genders (masculine, feminine and neuter), and some modern Indo-Aryan languages retain this aspect today. It is suggested that loss of the neuter gender did not occur until the transition to NIA. During this process, most of the neuter nouns became masculine, while several became feminine. For example, the neuter ''aggi'' "fire" in Prakrit morphed into the feminine ''āg'' in Hindi, and ''jag'' in Romani. The parallels in grammatical gender evolution between Romani and other NIA languages have additionally been cited as indications that the forerunner of Romani remained on the Indian subcontinent until a later period, possibly as late as the tenth century.


Sindhic migrations

Kholosi, Jadgali, and Luwati represent offshoots of the Sindhic subfamily of Indo-Aryan that have established themselves in the Persian gulf region, perhaps through sea-based migrations. These are of a later origin than the Rom and Dom migrations which represent a different part of Indo-Aryan as well.


Indentured labourer migrations

The use by the British East India Company of indentured labourers led to the transplanting of Indo-Aryan languages around the world, leading to locally influenced lects that diverged from the source language, such as Fiji Hindi and Caribbean Hindustani.


Phonology


Consonants


Stop positions

The normative system of New Indo-Aryan stops consists of five points of articulation: Labial consonant, labial, Dental consonant, dental, "Retroflex consonant, retroflex", palatal consonant, palatal, and velar consonant, velar, which is the same as that of Sanskrit. The "retroflex" position may involve retroflexion, or curling the tongue to make the contact with the underside of the tip, or merely retraction. The point of contact may be alveolar consonant, alveolar or postalveolar, and the distinctive quality may arise more from the shaping than from the position of the tongue. Palatals stops have affricate consonant, affricated release and are traditionally included as involving a distinctive tongue position (blade in contact with hard palate). Widely transcribed as , claims to be a more accurate rendering. Moving away from the normative system, some languages and dialects have alveolar affricates instead of palatal, though some among them retain in certain positions: before front vowels (esp. ), before , or when geminated. Alveolar as an ''additional'' point of articulation occurs in
Marathi Marathi may refer to: *Marathi people, an Indo-Aryan ethno-linguistic group of Maharashtra, India *Marathi language, the Indo-Aryan language spoken by the Marathi people *Palaiosouda, also known as Marathi, a small island in Greece See also

...
and Konkani people, Konkani where dialect mixture and others factors upset the aforementioned complementation to produce minimal environments, in some West Pahari dialects through internal developments (, > ), and in . The addition of a Voiceless retroflex affricate, retroflex affricate to this in some Dardic languages maxes out the number of stop positions at seven (barring borrowed ), while a reduction to the inventory involves *ts > , which has happened in Assamese, Chittagonian language, Chittagonian,
Sinhala Sinhala may refer to: * Something of or related to the Sinhalese people of Sri Lanka * Sinhalese people * Sinhala language, one of the three official languages used in Sri Lanka * Sinhala script, a writing system for the Sinhala language ** Sinhala ...
(though there have been other sources of a secondary ), and Southern Mewari. Further reductions in the number of stop articulations are in Assamese and Romany language, Romany, which have lost the characteristic dental/retroflex contrast, and in Chittagonian, which may lose its labial and velar articulations through spirantisation in many positions (> ).


Nasals

Sanskrit was noted as having five nasal stop, nasal-stop articulations corresponding to its oral stops, and among modern languages and dialects Dogri, Kacchi, Kalasha, Rudhari, Shina, Saurasthtri, and Sindhi have been analysed as having this full complement of phonemic nasals , with the last two generally as the result of the loss of the stop from a homorganic nasal + stop cluster ( > and > ), though there are other sources as well.


Charts

The following are consonant systems of major and representative New Indo-Aryan languages, mostly following , though here they are in International Phonetic Alphabet, IPA. Parentheses indicate those consonants found only in loanwords: square brackets indicate those with "very low functional load". The arrangement is roughly geographical.


Sociolinguistics


Register

In many Indo-Aryan languages, the literary register is often more archaic and utilises a different lexicon (Sanskrit or Perso-Arabic) than spoken vernacular. One example is Bengali's high literary form, Sadhu bhasha, Sādhū bhāśā as opposed to the more modern Calita bhasa, Calita bhāśā (Cholito-bhasha). This distinction approaches diglossia.


Language and dialect

In the context of South Asia, the choice between the appellations Dialect#Dialect or language, "language" and "dialect" is a difficult one, and any distinction made using these terms is obscured by their ambiguity. In one general colloquial sense, a language is a "developed" dialect: one that is standardised, has a written tradition and enjoys Prestige (sociolinguistics), social prestige. As there are degrees of development, the boundary between a language and a dialect thus defined is not clear-cut, and there is a large middle ground where assignment is contestable. There is a second meaning of these terms, in which the distinction is drawn on the basis of linguistic similarity. Though seemingly a "proper" linguistics sense of the terms, it is still problematic: methods that have been proposed for quantifying difference (for example, based on mutual intelligibility) have not been seriously applied in practice; and any relationship established in this framework is relative.


See also

*Indo-Aryans *Iranic languages *Indo-Aryan migration *Proto-Vedic Continuity *The family of Brahmic family, Brahmic scripts *Linguistic history of India *Indo-Aryan loanwords in Tamil *Languages of Bangladesh *Languages of India *Languages of Pakistan *Languages of Nepal


Notes


References


Further reading

*John Beames, ''A comparative grammar of the modern Aryan languages of India: to wit, Hindi, Panjabi, Sindhi, Gujarati, Marathi, Oriya, and Bangali''. Londinii: Trübner, 1872–1879. 3 vols. *. *Madhav Deshpande (1979). ''Sociolinguistic attitudes in India: An historical reconstruction''. Ann Arbor: Karoma Publishers. , (pbk). *Byomkes Chakrabarti, Chakrabarti, Byomkes (1994). ''A comparative study of Santali and Bengali''. Calcutta: K.P. Bagchi & Co. *Erdosy, George. (1995). ''The Indo-Aryans of ancient South Asia: Language, material culture and ethnicity''. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter. .
Ernst Kausen, 2006. ''Die Klassifikation der indogermanischen Sprachen''
(Microsoft Word, 133 KB) *Kobayashi, Masato.; & George Cardona (2004). ''Historical phonology of old Indo-Aryan consonants''. Tokyo: Research Institute for Languages and Cultures of Asia and Africa, Tokyo University of Foreign Studies. . *. *Misra, Satya Swarup. (1980). ''Fresh light on Indo-European classification and chronology''. Varanasi: Ashutosh Prakashan Sansthan. *Misra, Satya Swarup. (1991–1993). ''The Old-Indo-Aryan, a historical & comparative grammar'' (Vols. 1–2). Varanasi: Ashutosh Prakashan Sansthan. *Sen, Sukumar. (1995). ''Syntactic studies of Indo-Aryan languages''. Tokyo: Institute for the Study of Languages and Foreign Cultures of Asia and Africa, Tokyo University of Foreign Studies. *Vacek, Jaroslav. (1976). ''The sibilants in Old Indo-Aryan: A contribution to the history of a linguistic area''. Prague: Charles University.


External links


The Indo-Aryan languages
25 October 2009
The Indo-Aryan languages
Colin P.Masica
Survey of the syntax of the modern Indo-Aryan languages
(Rajesh Bhatt), 7 February 2003. {{DEFAULTSORT:Indo-Aryan Languages Indo-European languages Indo-Aryan languages,