Inbetweening, also commonly known as tweening, is a process in animation
that involves generating intermediate frames, called inbetweens, between two keyframe
s. The intended result is to create the illusion of movement by smoothly transitioning one image into another.
Traditional inbetweening involves the use of a light table to draw a set of pencil and paper drawings.
The process of inbetweening in traditional animation
starts with a primary artist, who draws key frame
s to define movement. After the testing and approval of a rough animation, the scene is passed down to assistants, who perform clean-up
and add necessary inbetweening. In large studios, assistants usually add breakdowns, which define the movement in more detail. The scene is then passed down to another assistant, the inbetweener who completes the animation. In small animation teams, animators will often carry out the full inbetweening process themselves.
developed this system in the 1920's, and it has become widely used due to its efficiency.
Typically, the key animator
does not draw in-betweens for all 24 frames required for one second of film length. Only very fast movements require in-betweens, which is referred to as animating "on ones". Most movements can be done with 12 drawings per second—called animating "on twos", drawing one out of every two frames. When the number of in-betweens is too few, such as four frames per second, an animation may begin to lose the illusion
of the movement altogether. Computer-generated animation is usually animated "on ones." Frame frequency often varies depending on animation style and is an artistic choice. Animation "on twos" has been used for over 100 years; ''Fantasmagorie
'' (1908), widely considered the first fully animated movie, was animated on twos.
Modern animation uses various techniques to adapt frame rates. Slow movements may be animated on threes or fours. Different components of a shot might be animated at different frame ratesfor example, a character in a panning shot might be animated "on twos", while everything in the shot is shifted every frame ("on ones") to accomplish a panning effect. Optical effects such as motion blur may be used to simulate the appearance of a higher frame rate.
This animated GIF demonstrates the effects of Adobe Flash shape, motion, and colour tweening.
When animating in a digital context
, the shortened term ''tweening'' is commonly used, and the resulting sequence of frames is called a ''tween''. Sophisticated animation software enables the animator to specify objects in an image and to define how they should move and change during the tweening process. The software may be used to manually render
or adjust transitional frames by hand or may be used to automatically render transitional frames using interpolation
of graphic parameters.
Some of the earliest software that utilises automatic interpolation in the realm of digital animation includes Macromedia Flash
and Animo (developed by Cambridge Animation Systems
) in the late 90s, and Tweenmaker, released around 2006. The free software
specializes in automated tweening.
"Ease-in" and "ease-out" in digital animation
typically refer to a mechanism for defining the physics of the transition between two animation states, i.e., the linearity of a tween.
The use of computers for inbetweening was enhanced bNestor Burtnyk
at the National Research Council of Canada
. They received a Technical Achievement Academy Award
in 1997, for "pioneering work in the development of software techniques for computer-assisted keyframing for character animation".
* Anime Studio
* Flicker fusion threshold
* Onion skinning
* Motion blur
, a Free and Open Source Software (FOSS
Tweener (ActionScript) at GitHub
Category:Computer graphic techniques