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The ITU Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T) coordinates standards for
telecommunications Telecommunication is the transmission of information by various types of technologies over , radio, , or other systems. It has its origin in the desire of humans for communication over a distance greater than that feasible with the , but with ...
and
Information Communication Technology Information and communications technology (ICT) is an extensional term for information technology (IT) that stresses the role of unified communications and the integration of telecommunications (telephone lines and wireless signals) and computers, ...
such as
X.509 In cryptography Cryptography, or cryptology (from grc, , translit=kryptós "hidden, secret"; and ''graphein'', "to write", or ''-logy, -logia'', "study", respectively), is the practice and study of techniques for secure communication in ...
for cybersecurity,
Y.3172 Y.3172 is an ITU-T The ITU Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T) coordinates standards for telecommunications and Information Communication Technology such as X.509 for cybersecurity, Y.3172 and Y.3173 for machine learning, and H.264/M ...
and
Y.3173 Y.3173 is an ITU-T The ITU Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T) coordinates standards for telecommunications and Information Communication Technology such as X.509 for cybersecurity, Y.3172 and Y.3173 for machine learning, and H.264/M ...
for machine learning, and H.264/MPEG-4 AVC for video compression, between its Member States, Private Sector Members, and Academia Members. ITU-T is one of the three Sectors (divisions or units) of the
International Telecommunication Union The International Telecommunication Union is a list of specialized agencies of the United Nations, specialized agency of the United Nations responsible for all matters related to information and communications technology, information and co ...

International Telecommunication Union
(ITU). The
standardization Standardization or standardisation is the process of implementing and developing s based on the consensus of different parties that include firms, users, interest groups, standards organizations and governments. Standardization can help maximize ...
efforts of ITU started in 1865 with the formation of the International Telegraph Union (
ITU 260px, ITU Monument, Bern The International Telecommunication Union is a specialized agency of the United Nations responsible for all matters related to information and communication technologies Information and communications technology ...
). ITU became a
Specialized agency of the United Nations United Nations Specialized Agencies are autonomous organizations working with the United Nations and each other through the co-ordinating machinery of the United Nations Economic and Social Council at the intergovernmental level, and through the C ...
in 1947. The International Telegraph and Telephone Consultative Committee (french: links=no, Comité Consultatif International Téléphonique et Télégraphique, CCITT) was created in 1956, and was renamed ITU-T in 1993. ITU-T has a permanent secretariat called the Telecommunication Standardization Bureau (TSB), which is based at the ITU headquarters in
Geneva, Switzerland , neighboring_municipalities= Carouge Carouge () is a Municipalities of Switzerland, municipality in the Canton of Geneva, Switzerland. History Carouge is first mentioned in the Early Middle Ages as ''Quadruvium'' and ''Quatruvio''. In 124 ...

Geneva, Switzerland
. The current director of the TSB is
Chaesub Lee Chaesub Lee PhD (Korean Korean may refer to: People and culture * Koreans, ethnic group originating in the Korean Peninsula * Korean cuisine * Korean culture * Korean language **Korean alphabet, known as Hangul or Chosŏn'gŭl **Korean dialects ...
, whose first 4-year term commenced on 1 January 2015, and whose second 4-year term commenced on 1 January 2019. Chaesub Lee succeeded Malcolm Johnson of the
United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some prefer to use Britain as shorth ...

United Kingdom
, who was director from 1 January 2007 until 31 December 2014.


Primary function

The ITU-T mission is to ensure the efficient and timely production of standards covering all fields of telecommunications and Information Communication Technology (ICTs) on a worldwide basis, as well as defining tariff and accounting principles for international telecommunication services. The international standards that are produced by the ITU-T are referred to as "''Recommendations''" (with the word capitalized to distinguish its meaning from the common parlance sense of the word "recommendation"), as they become mandatory only when adopted as part of a national law. Since the ITU-T is part of the ITU, which is a United Nations specialized agency, its standards carry more formal international weight than those of most other standards development organizations that publish technical specifications of a similar form.


History

At the initiative of
Napoleon III Napoleon III (Charles Louis Napoléon Bonaparte; 20 April 18089 January 1873) was the first (as Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte) from 1848 to 1852 and the from 1852 to 1870. A nephew of , he was the to rule over France. Elected to the presidency of ...

Napoleon III
, the French government invited international participants to a conference in Paris in 1865 to facilitate and regulate international telegraph services. A result of the conference was the founding of the forerunner of the modern ITU. At the 1925 Paris conference, the ITU created two consultative committees to deal with the complexities of the international telephone services, known as CCIF, as the French acronym, and with long-distance telegraphy (CCIT). In view of the basic similarity of many of the technical problems faced by the CCIF and CCIT, a decision was taken in 1956 to merge them into a single entity, the International Telegraph and Telephone Consultative Committee (CCITT, in the French acronym). The first Plenary Assembly of the new organization was held in Geneva, Switzerland in December 1956. In 1992, the Plenipotentiary Conference (the top policy-making conference of ITU) saw a reform of ITU, giving the Union greater flexibility to adapt to an increasingly complex, interactive and competitive environment. The CCITT was renamed the Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T), as one of three Sectors of the Union alongside the Radiocommunication Sector (
ITU-R The ITU Radiocommunication Sector (ITU-R) is one of the three sectors (divisions or units) of the International Telecommunication Union 260px, ITU Monument, Bern The International Telecommunication Union is a specialized agency of the Unit ...
) and the Telecommunication Development Sector (
ITU-D The ITU Telecommunication Development Sector (ITU-D) is one of the three sectors (divisions or units) of the International Telecommunication Union 260px, ITU Monument, Bern The International Telecommunication Union is a specialized agency ...
). Historically, the Recommendations of the CCITT were presented at plenary assemblies for endorsement, held every four years, and the full set of Recommendations were published after each plenary assembly. However, the delays in producing texts, and translating them into other working languages, did not suit the fast pace of change in the telecommunications industry.


"Real time" standardization

The rise of the
personal computer A personal computer (PC) is a multi-purpose computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern computers can perform generic sets of operations known a ...
industry in the early 1980s created a new common practice among both consumers and businesses of adopting "
bleeding edge ''Bleeding Edge'' is a novel by American author Thomas Pynchon, published by Penguin Press on September 17, 2013. The novel is a detective story, with its major themes being the September 11 attacks in New York City and the transformation of the wo ...
" communications technology even if it was not yet standardized. Thus,
standards organization A standards organization, standards body, standards developing organization (SDO), or standards setting organization (SSO) is an organization whose primary function is developing, coordinating, promulgating, revising, amending, reissuing, interpr ...
s had to put forth standards much faster, or find themselves ratifying
de facto standard A de facto standard is a custom or convention Convention may refer to: * Convention (norm), a custom or tradition, a standard of presentation or conduct ** Treaty, an agreement in international law * Convention (meeting), meeting of a (usually la ...
s after the fact. One of the most prominent examples of this was the
Open Document Architecture The Open Document Architecture (ODA) and interchange format (informally referred to as just ODA) is a free Free may refer to: Concept * Freedom, having the ability to act or change without constraint * Emancipate, to procure political rights, a ...
project, which began in 1985 when a profusion of software firms around the world were still furiously competing to shape the future of the
electronic office The electronic office, or e-office, was a term coined to cover the increasing use of computer-based information technology for office work, especially in the 1980s. It was a popular marketing buzzword during that era, but is no longer so widely used ...
, and was completed in 1999 long after
Microsoft Office Microsoft Office, or simply Office, is a family of , , and services developed by . It was first announced by on August 1, 1988, at in . Initially a marketing term for an (bundled set of productivity ), the first version of Office containe ...
's then-secret binary file formats had become established as the global de facto standard. The ITU-T now operates under much more streamlined processes. The time between an initial proposal of a draft document by a member company and the final approval of a full-status ITU-T Recommendation can now be as short as a few months (or less in some cases). This makes the standardization approval process in the ITU-T much more responsive to the needs of rapid technology development than in the ITU's historical past. New and updated Recommendations are published on an almost daily basis, and nearly all of the library of over 3,270 Recommendations is now free of charge online. (About 30 specifications jointly maintained by the ITU-T and ISO/IEC are not available for free to the public.) ITU-T has moreover tried to facilitate cooperation between the various forums and standard-developing organizations (SDOs). This collaboration is necessary to avoid duplication of work and the consequent risk of conflicting standards in the market place. In the work of standardization, ITU-T cooperates with other SDOs, e.g., the
International Organization for Standardization The International Organization for Standardization (ISO ) is an international standard An international standard is a technical standard A technical standard is an established norm (social), norm or requirement for a repeatable technical task ...
(ISO) and the
Internet Engineering Task Force The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) is an open standards organization A standards organization, standards body, standards developing organization (SDO), or standards setting organization (SSO) is an organization whose primary function ...
(IETF).


Development of Recommendations

Most of the work of ITU-T is carried out by its Sector Members and Associates, while the Telecommunication Standardization Bureau (TSB) is the executive arm of ITU-T and coordinator for a number of workshops and seminars to progress existing work areas and explore new ones. The events cover a wide array of topics in the field of information and communication technologies (ICT) and attract high-ranking experts as speakers, and attendees from engineers to high-level management from all industry sectors. The technical work, the development of Recommendations, of ITU-T is managed by Study Groups (SGs), such as Study Group 13 for network standards, Study Group 16 for multimedia standards, and Study Group 17 for security standards, which are created by the
World Telecommunication Standardization Assembly The world is the Earth and all life on it, including civilization, human civilization. In a philosophical context, the "world" is the whole of the physical Universe, or an Ontology, ontological world (the "world" of an individual). In a theo ...
(WTSA) which is held every four years. The people involved in these SGs are experts in telecommunications from all over the world. There are currently 11 SGs. Study groups meet face to face (or virtually under exceptional circumstances) according to a calendar issued by the TSB. SGs are augmented by Focus Groups (FGs), an instrument created by ITU-T, providing a way to quickly react to ICT standardization needs and allowing great flexibility in terms of participation and working methods. The key difference between SGs and FGs is that the latter have greater freedom to organize and finance themselves, and to involve non-members in their work, but they do not have the authority to approve Recommendations. Focus Groups can be created very quickly, are usually short-lived and can choose their own working methods, leadership, financing, and types of deliverables. Current Focus Groups include the
ITU-WHO Focus Group on Artificial Intelligence for Health The ITU-WHO Focus Group on Artificial Intelligence for Health (AI for Health) is an inter-agency collaboration between the World Health Organization The World Health Organization (WHO) is a list of specialized agencies of the United Nations, s ...
(FG-AI4H) as well as Machine Learning for 5G (which developed
Y.3172 Y.3172 is an ITU-T The ITU Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T) coordinates standards for telecommunications and Information Communication Technology such as X.509 for cybersecurity, Y.3172 and Y.3173 for machine learning, and H.264/M ...
), Quantum Information Technologies for Networks, and Artificial Intelligence for Assisted and Autonomous Driving.


Alternative Approval Process

The Alternative Approval Process (AAP) is a fast-track approval procedure that was developed to allow standards to be brought to market in the timeframe that industry now demands. The AAP is defined in ITU-T Recommendation A.8. This dramatic overhaul of standards-making by streamlining approval procedures was implemented in 2001 and is estimated to have cut the time involved in this critical aspect of the standardization process by 80 to 90 percent. This means that an average standard that took around four years to approve and publish until the mid nineties, and two years until 1997, can now be approved in an average of two months, or as little as five weeks. Besides streamlining the underlying procedures involved in the approval process, an important contributory factor to the use of AAP is electronic document handling. Once the approval process has begun the rest of the process can be completed electronically, in the vast majority of cases, with no further physical meetings. The introduction of AAP also formalizes public/private partnership in the approval process by providing equal opportunities for both sector members and member states in the approval of technical standards. A panel of SG experts drafts a proposal that is then forwarded at an SG meeting to the appropriate body which decides if it is sufficiently ready to be designated a draft text and thus gives its consent for further review at the next level. After this Consent has been given, TSB announces the start of the AAP procedure by posting the draft text to the ITU-T website and calling for comments. This gives the opportunity for all members to review the text. This phase, called ''last call'', is a four-week period in which comments can be submitted by member states and sector members. If no comments other than editorial corrections are received, the Recommendation is considered approved since no issues were identified that might need any further work. However, if there are any comments, the SG chairman, in consultation with TSB, sets up a comment resolution process by the concerned experts. The revised text is then posted on the web for an ''additional review'' period of three weeks. Similar to the last call phase, in ''additional review'' the Recommendation is considered as approved if no comments are received. If comments are received, it is apparent that there are some issues that still need more work, and the draft text and all comments are sent to the next Study Group meeting for further discussion and possible approval. Those Recommendations considered as having policy or regulatory implications are approved through what is known as the Traditional Approval Process (TAP), which allows a longer period for reflection and commenting by member states. TAP Recommendations are also translated into the six working languages of ITU (Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian, and Spanish).


Series and Recommendations

ITU-T Recommendations are the names given to telecommunications and computer protocol specification documents published by ITU-T.


Series of ITU Recommendations

ITU-T issues Recommendations that have names like
X.500 X.500 is a series of computer networking standards covering electronic directory services. The X.500 series was developed by the ITU-T, Telecommunication Standardization Sector of the International Telecommunications Union (ITU-T). ITU-T was former ...
, where X is the series and 500 is an identifying number. When a Recommendation is updated, it will (mostly) keep the same number, so the year of issue may be necessary to identify a specific version of a Recommendation. The term "X.500" is used both to refer to the specific X.500 Recommendation, and to the entire family of Recommendations named X.5xx, where the specific X.500 Recommendation forms the introduction and overview of the set. The vast majority of all finalized Recommendations are available in electronic (PDF) form free of charge to all. Texts that are not free of charge include common ITU-T , ISO / IEC texts for which special arrangements exist.


Key standards published by ITU

*
ASN.1 Abstract Syntax Notation One (ASN.1) is a standard interface description language An interface description language or interface definition language (IDL), is a specification language used to describe a Component-based software engineering, softwa ...
(Abstract Syntax Notation One) * Coding of audio:
G.711 G.711 is a narrowband {{refimprove, date=March 2011 In radio communications, a narrowband channel is a channel in which the bandwidth of the message does not significantly exceed the channel's coherence bandwidth. In the study of wired chan ...
and G.72x series * Coding of still images:
JPEG JPEG ( ) is a commonly used method of for s, particularly for those images produced by . The degree of compression can be adjusted, allowing a selectable tradeoff between storage size and . JPEG typically achieves 10:1 compression with little ...

JPEG
T.8x,
JPEG 2000 JPEG 2000 (JP2) is an image compression Image compression is a type of data compression In signal processing, data compression, source coding, or bit-rate reduction is the process of encoding information using fewer bits than the original r ...
T.80x and
JPEG XR JPEG XR (JPEG extended range) is a still-image compression standard and file format for continuous tone photographic images, based on technology originally developed and patented by Microsoft Microsoft Corporation is an American multination ...
T.83x series * Coding of video:
H.120 H.120 was the first digital video compression standard A video coding format (or sometimes video compression format) is a Content format, content representation format for storage or transmission of Digital data, digital video, video content (suc ...
,
H.261 H.261 is an ITU-T The ITU Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T) coordinates standards for telecommunications and Information Communication Technology such as X.509 for cybersecurity, Y.3172 and Y.3173 for machine learning, and H.264/MP ...
,
H.262 H.262 or MPEG-2 Part 2 (formally known as ITU-T Recommendation H.262 and ISO/IEC 13818-2, also known as MPEG-2 Video) is a video coding format A video coding format (or sometimes video compression format) is a content representation format fo ...
(MPEG-2 Video),
H.263 H.263 is a video compression standard originally designed as a low-bit-rate compressed format for videoconferencing Videotelephony comprises the technologies for the reception and transmission of audio- video signals by users in different loc ...
,
H.264 Advanced Video Coding (AVC), also referred to as H.264 or MPEG-4 MPEG-4 is a method of defining compression of audio and visual (AV) digital data. It was introduced in late 1998 and designated a standard for a group of audio and video codin ...
(MPEG-4 AVC),
H.265 is the eighth letter of the Latin alphabet. H may also refer to: Musical symbols * H number, reference mechanism for music by Honegger and Martinů * H, * H, People * (died after 1279), an unidentified nobleman in the Kingdom of Hung ...

H.265
(HEVC),
H.266 Versatile Video Coding (VVC), also known as H.266, ISO/IEC 23090-3, and MPEG-I Part 3, is a video compression standard A video coding format (or sometimes video compression format) is a content representation format for storage or transmiss ...
(VVC) * Construction, installation and protection of cables and other elements of outside plant, L-series *
Data communication Data transmission and data reception (or, more broadly, data communication or digital communications) is the transfer and reception of data Data are units of information Information can be thought of as the resolution of uncertainty; i ...
over the telephone network, V-series *
Fax , which was modern for fax machines at that time. which required special, relatively expensive thermal paper Thermal paper (sometimes referred to as an audit roll) is a special fine paper that is coated with a material formulated to change col ...

Fax
standards T.2 – T.4, T.30,
T.37 T.37 is an ITU 260px, ITU Monument, Bern The International Telecommunication Union is a specialized agency of the United Nations responsible for all matters related to information and communication technologies Information and communic ...
,
T.38 T.38 is an recommendation for allowing transmission of over s (FoIP) in real time. History The T.38 fax relay standard was devised in 1998 as a way to permit faxes to be transported across IP networks between existing (G3) terminals. T.4 a ...
*
G.114 The ITU Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T) coordinates standards for telecommunications Telecommunication is the transmission of information by various types of technologies over wire, radio, Optical system, optical, or other El ...
is an
ITU 260px, ITU Monument, Bern The International Telecommunication Union is a specialized agency of the United Nations responsible for all matters related to information and communication technologies Information and communications technology ...

ITU
Recommendation that addresses acceptable delays for voice applications, is oriented to national telecommunications, and is more stringent than what is normally applied in private voice networks. One of the issues it addresses is voice delay. It states that 150 milliseconds is acceptable, while 400 milliseconds is unacceptable. * G.191: Software tools for speech and audio coding standardization *
G.651.1 G.651.1 is an international standard An international standard is a technical standard A technical standard is an established norm (social), norm or requirement for a repeatable technical task which is applied to a common and repeated use of rule ...
Multi-mode optical fiber A stripped multi-mode fiber Multi-mode optical fiber is a type of optical fiber An optical fiber (or fibre in British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect of the English language English is a West Germanic ...
(MMF) *
G.652 G.652 is an international standard An international standard is a technical standard A technical standard is an established norm (social), norm or requirement for a repeatable technical task which is applied to a common and repeated use of rules, ...
,
G.655 G.655 is an international standard An international standard is a technical standard A technical standard is an established norm (social), norm or requirement for a repeatable technical task which is applied to a common and repeated use of rules, ...
,
G.657 G.657 is an international standard An international standard is a technical standard developed by one or more international standards organization, standards organizations. International standards are available for consideration and use worldwid ...
Single-mode optical fiber In , a single-mode optical fiber (SMF), also known as fundamental- or mono-mode, is an designed to carry only a single of light - the . Modes are the possible solutions of the for waves, which is obtained by combining and the boundary condi ...
(SMF) *
G.8201 In Optical Transport Networks, G.8201 is an international standard An international standard is a technical standard A technical standard is an established norm (social), norm or requirement for a repeatable technical task which is applied to a c ...
Error performance parameters and objectives for multi-operator international paths within optical transport networks *
G.hn G.hn is a specification for with data rates up to 2 Gbit/s and operation over four types of legacy wires: , s, s and . A single G.hn semiconductor device is able to network over any of the supported home wire types. Some benefits of a multi-wi ...
(Next generation wired home networking over powerlines, phonelines and coaxial cable) * Green ICT standards and supplements (L.1000 series) *
H.323 H.323 is a Recommendation from the ITU Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T) that defines the protocols to provide audio-visual communication sessions on any packet network. The H.323 standard addresses call signaling and control, ...

H.323
family of standards for multimedia and
VoIP Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP), also called IP telephony, is a method and group of technologies for the delivery of voice communications and multimedia Multimedia is a form of communication that combines different content forms such as ...
*
H.870 H.870 "Guidelines for safe listening devices/systems" (formerly F.SLD) is an ITU-T The ITU Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T) coordinates standards for telecommunications and Information Communication Technology such as X.509 for cy ...
safe listening standard (audio) developed together with the
World Health Organization The World Health Organization (WHO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations United Nations Specialized Agencies are autonomous organizations working with the United Nations and each other through the co-ordinating machinery of the Unite ...
* Interconnection rate harmonization, D-series * International Emergency Preference Scheme E.106 * International telecommunication charge card
E.118 E.118 is an international standard An international standard is a technical standard A technical standard is an established norm (social), norm or requirement for a repeatable technical task which is applied to a common and repeated use of rules, ...
* IMSI codes used in SIM cards
E.212 The international mobile subscriber identity (IMSI) is a number that uniquely identifies every user of a cellular network A cellular network or mobile network is a communication network A telecommunications network is a group of nodes In g ...
*
ISDN Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) is a set of communication standards for simultaneous Digital data, digital Transmission (telecommunications), transmission of voice, video, data, and other network services over the digitalised circui ...
and
PSTN The public switched telephone network (PSTN) provides infrastructure Infrastructure is the set of fundamental facilities and systems that support the sustainable functionality of households and firms. Serving a country, city, or other area, in ...
/ videoconferencing systems,
H.320 H.320 or Narrow-band visual telephone systems and terminal equipment is an ''umbrella Recommendation'' by the ITU-T The ITU Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T) coordinates standards for telecommunications and Information Communicat ...
and
H.324 H.324 is an ITU-T recommendation for voice message, voice, video and data transmission over regular analog circuit, analog phone lines. It uses a regular 33,600 bit/s modem for transmission, the H.263 codec for video code, encoding and G.723.1 for ...
* ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network)
Q.931 ITU-T The ITU Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T) coordinates standards for telecommunications and Information Communication Technology such as X.509 for cybersecurity, Y.3172 and Y.3173 for machine learning, and H.264/MPEG-4 AVC for ...
*Objective voice quality measurements P.861, P.862, P.863 *
Open Systems Interconnection The Open Systems Interconnection model (OSI model) is a conceptual model A conceptual model is a representation Representation may refer to: Law and politics *Representation (politics) Political representation is the activity of making citi ...
*
Optical Transport NetworkITU-T The ITU Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T) coordinates standards for telecommunications and Information Communication Technology such as X.509 for cybersecurity, Y.3172 and Y.3173 for machine learning, and H.264/MPEG-4 AVC for vi ...
(OTN) G.709, G.798, G.872 *
Passive optical network A passive optical network (PON) is a telecommunications technology for delivering network access to end-customers. Its architecture implements a point-to-multipoint topology in which a single optical fiber serves multiple endpoints by using unp ...
s (PON) G.983, G.984, G.987 *
Public key infrastructure A public key infrastructure (PKI) is a set of roles, policies, hardware, software and procedures needed to create, manage, distribute, use, store and revoke digital certificate In cryptography Cryptography, or cryptology (from grc, , tr ...

Public key infrastructure
(PKI)
X.509 In cryptography Cryptography, or cryptology (from grc, , translit=kryptós "hidden, secret"; and ''graphein'', "to write", or ''-logy, -logia'', "study", respectively), is the practice and study of techniques for secure communication in ...
* Public telecommunication numbering plan,
E.164 E.164 is an international standard An international standard is a technical standard A technical standard is an established norm (social), norm or requirement for a repeatable technical task which is applied to a common and repeated use of rules, ...
* Security framework X.805 *
Signalling System 7 Signaling System No. 7 (or Signalling System No. 7, SS7) is a set of telephony Telephony ( ) is the field of technology involving the development, application, and deployment of telecommunication services for the purpose of electronic transmissio ...
Q.7xx series * Standards relating to
quality of service Quality of service (QoS) is the description or measurement of the overall performance of a service, such as a telephony Telephony ( ) is the field of technology involving the development, application, and deployment of telecommunication Tel ...
(QoS) *
Specification and Description Language A specification often refers to a set of documented requirements to be satisfied by a material, design, product, or service. A specification is often a type of technical standard A technical standard is an established norm or requirement for a ...
*
Synchronous Digital Hierarchy Synchronous optical networking (SONET) and synchronous digital hierarchy (SDH) are standardized protocols that transfer multiple digital Digital usually refers to something using digits, particularly binary digits. Technology and computing Hard ...
(SDH) G.707, G.783, G.803 * T.192, Cooperative document handling *
Wavelength-division multiplexing In fiber-optic communication Fiber-optic communication is a method of transmitting information from one place to another by sending pulses of infrared Infrared (IR), sometimes called infrared light, is (EMR) with s longer than those ...
(WDM) *
X.25 X.25 is an ITU-T The ITU Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T) coordinates standards for telecommunications and Information Communication Technology such as X.509 for cybersecurity, Y.3172 and Y.3173 for machine learning, and H.264/MPE ...
, packet switching *
X.400 X.400 is a suite of ITU-T The ITU Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T) coordinates standards for telecommunications and Information Communication Technology such as X.509 for cybersecurity, Y.3172 and Y.3173 for machine learning, and H. ...
email * Y.3800 Quantum Key Distribution * (x)DSL (Digital Subscriber Line) series of standards for broadband telecoms * Y.1731, G.8013/Y.1731 Operations, administration and maintenance (OAM) functions and mechanisms for Ethernet-based networks *
Y.3172 Y.3172 is an ITU-T The ITU Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T) coordinates standards for telecommunications and Information Communication Technology such as X.509 for cybersecurity, Y.3172 and Y.3173 for machine learning, and H.264/M ...
*
Y.3173 Y.3173 is an ITU-T The ITU Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T) coordinates standards for telecommunications and Information Communication Technology such as X.509 for cybersecurity, Y.3172 and Y.3173 for machine learning, and H.264/M ...


International Telecommunication Regulations (ITRs)

In addition to the ITU-T Recommendations, which have non-mandatory status unless they are adopted in national laws, ITU-T is also the custodian of a binding international treaty, the International Telecommunication Regulations. The ITRs go back to the earliest days of the ITU when there were two separate treaties, dealing with telegraph and telephone. The ITRs were adopted, as a single treaty, at the World Administrative Telegraphy and Telephone Conference held in Melbourne, 1988 (WATTC-88). The ITRs comprise ten articles which deal, ''inter alia'', with the definition of international telecommunication services, cooperation between countries and national administrations, safety of life and priority of telecommunications and charging and accounting principles. The adoption of the ITRs in 1988 is often taken as the start of the wider liberalization process in international telecommunications, though a few countries, including United States and United Kingdom, had made steps to liberalize their markets before 1988. The Constitution and Convention of ITU provides for the amendment of ITRs through a World Conference on International Telecommunications (WCIT). Accordingly, in 1998 there began a process of review of the ITRs; and in 2009 extensive preparations began for such a conference, WCIT-12. In addition to "regional preparatory meetings," the ITU Secretariat developed 13 "Background Briefs on key issues" that were expected to be discussed at the conference. Convened by former ITU secretary-general Hamadoun Touré, the Conference, WCIT-12, was then held in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, during the period 3–14 December 2014.


AI for Good

The Standardization Sector of ITU also organizes AI for Good, the United Nations platform for the sustainable development of Artificial Intelligence.


Hot topics

* ITU-T has expressed a committment to "bridging the standardization gap" – disparities in the ability of developing countries, relative to developed ones, to access, implement, contribute to and influence international ICT standards. * The ICT Security Standards Roadmap has been developed to assist in the development of security standards by bringing together information about existing standards and current standards work in key standards development organizations. * The Next Generation Networks (NGN) concept takes into consideration new realities in the telecommunication industry characterized by factors such as; the need to converge and optimize the operating networks and the extraordinary expansion of digital traffic (i.e., increasing demand for new multimedia services, mobility, etc.). *


See also

* Global Standards Collaboration * :ITU-R recommendations, ITU-R recommendations * :ITU-T recommendations, ITU-T recommendations * World Summit on the Information Society * World Standards Day


References


External links

*
ITU-T Recommendations
{{DEFAULTSORT:Itu-T International Telecommunication Union, Standards Sector