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''Hun'' () and ''po'' () are types of souls in Chinese philosophy and traditional religion. Within this ancient soul dualism tradition, every living human has both a ''hun'' spiritual, ethereal, yang soul which leaves the body after death, and also a ''po'' corporeal, substantive, yin soul which remains with the corpse of the deceased. Some controversy exists over the number of souls in a person; for instance, one of the traditions within Daoism proposes a soul structure of ''sanhunqipo'' ; that is, "three ''hun'' and seven ''po''". The historian Yü Ying-shih describes ''hun'' and ''po'' as "two pivotal concepts that have been, and remain today, the key to understanding Chinese views of the human soul and the afterlife".

Characters

The Chinese characters and for ''hun'' and ''po'' typify the most common character classification of "radical-phonetic" or "phono-semantic" graphs, which combine a "radical" or "signific" (recurring graphic elements that roughly provide semantic information) with a "phonetic" (suggesting ancient pronunciation). ''Hun'' (or ) and ''po'' have the "ghost radical" ''gui'' "ghost; devil" and phonetics of ''yun'' "cloud; cloudy" and ''bai'' "white; clear; pure". Besides the common meaning of "a soul", ''po'' was a variant Chinese character for ''po'' "a lunar phase" and ''po'' "dregs". The ''Book of Documents'' used ''po'' as a graphic variant for ''po'' "dark aspect of the moon" – this character usually means ''ba'' "overlord; hegemon". For example, "On the third month, when (the growth phase, ) of the moon began to wane, the duke of Chow .e.,_.e.,_[[Duke_of_Zhou">Duke_of_Zhou.html"_style="text-decoration:_none;"class="mw-redirect"_title=".e.,_[[Duke_of_Zhou">.e.,_[[Duke_of_Zhoucommenced_the_foundations,_and_proceeded_to_build_the_new_great_city_of_Lǒ"_(tr._Legge_1865:434)._The_''[[Zhuangzi_(book).html" style="text-decoration: none;"class="mw-redirect" title="Duke_of_Zhou.html" style="text-decoration: none;"class="mw-redirect" title="Duke_of_Zhou.html" style="text-decoration: none;"class="mw-redirect" title=".e., [[Duke of Zhou">.e., [[Duke of Zhou">Duke_of_Zhou.html" style="text-decoration: none;"class="mw-redirect" title=".e., [[Duke of Zhou">.e., [[Duke of Zhoucommenced the foundations, and proceeded to build the new great city of Lǒ" (tr. Legge 1865:434). The ''[[Zhuangzi (book)">Zhuangzi'' "[Writings of] Master Zhuang" wrote ''zaopo'' (lit. "rotten dregs") "worthless; unwanted; waste matter" with a ''po'' variant. A wheelwright sees [[Duke Huan of Qi with books by dead sages and says, "what you are reading there is nothing but the [] chaff and dregs of the men of old!" (tr. Watson 1968:152). In the [[history of writing#Chinese writing|history of Chinese writing, characters for ''po'' "lunar brightness" appeared before those for ''hun'' "soul; spirit". The spiritual ''hun'' and ''po'' "dual souls" are first recorded in Warring States period (475–221 BCE) seal script characters. The lunar ''po'' or "moon's brightness" appears in both Zhou dynasty (1045–256 BCE) Bronzeware script and oracle bone script, but not in Shang dynasty (ca. 1600–1046 BCE) oracle inscriptions. The earliest form of this "lunar brightness" character was found on a (ca. 11th century BCE) Zhou oracle bone inscription (Yü 1987:370).

Etymologies

The ''po'' soul's etymology is better understood than the ''hun'' soul's. Schuessler (2007:290, 417) reconstructs ''hun'' "'spiritual soul' which makes a human personality" and ''po'' "vegetative or animal soul ... which accounts for growth and physiological functions" as Middle Chinese ''γuən'' and ''pʰak'' from Old Chinese *''wûn'' and *''phrâk''. The (c. 80 CE) ''Baihu Tang'' gave pseudo-etymologies for ''hun'' and ''po'' through Chinese character puns. It explains ''hun'' with ''zhuan'' "deliver; pass on; impart; spread" and ''yun'' "rue (used to keep insects out of books); to weed", and ''po'' with ''po'' " compel; force; coerce; urgent" and ''bai'' "white; bright".
What do the words ''hun'' and [''po''] mean? ''Hun'' expresses the idea of continuous propagation ([''zhuan''] ), unresting flight; it is the ''qi'' of the Lesser Yang, working in man in an external direction, and it governs the nature (or the instincts, [''xing''] ). [''Po''] expresses the idea of a continuous pressing urge ([''po''] ) on man; it is the [''qi''] of the Lesser Yin, and works in him, governing the emotions ([''qing''] ). ''Hun'' is connected with the idea of weeding ([''yun''] ), for with the instincts the evil weeds (in man's nature) are removed. [''Po''] is connected with the idea of brightening ([''bai''] ), for with the emotions the interior (of the personality) is governed. (tr. Needham and Lu 1974:87)
Etymologically, Schuessler says ''pò'' "animal soul" "is the same word as" ''pò'' "a lunar phase". He cites the ''Zuozhuan'' (534 BCE, see below) using the lunar ''jishengpo'' to mean "With the first development of a fetus grows the vegetative soul".
''Pò'', the soul responsible for growth, is the same as ''pò'' the waxing and waning of the moon". The meaning 'soul' has probably been transferred from the moon since men must have been aware of lunar phases long before they had developed theories on the soul. This is supported by the etymology 'bright', and by the inverted word order which can only have originated with meteorological expressions ... The association with the moon explains perhaps why the ''pò'' soul is classified as Yin ... in spite of the etymology 'bright' (which should be Yang), hun's Yang classification may be due to the association with clouds and by extension sky, even though the word invokes 'dark'. 'Soul' and 'moon' are related in other cultures, by cognation or convergence, as in Tibeto-Burman and Proto-Lolo–Burmese *''s/ʼ-la'' "moon; soul; spirit", Written Tibetan cognates ''bla'' "soul" and ''zla'' "moon", and Proto-Miao–Yao *''bla'' "spirit; soul; moon". (2007:417)
Lunar associations of ''po'' are evident in the Classical Chinese terms ''chanpo'' "the moon" (with "toad; toad in the moon; moon") and ''haopo'' "moon; moonlight" (with "white; bright; luminous"). The semantics of ''po'' "white soul" probably originated with "lunar whiteness". Zhou bronze inscriptions commonly recorded lunar phases with the terms ''jishengpo'' "after the brightness has grown" and ''jisipo'' "after the brightness has died", which Schuessler explains as "second quarter of the lunar month" and "last quarter of the lunar month". Chinese scholars have variously interpreted these two terms as lunar quarters or fixed days, and (Shaughnessy 1992:136–145) Wang Guowei's lunar-quarter analysis the most likely. Thus, ''jishengpo'' is from the 7th/8th to the 14th/15th days of the lunar month and ''jisipo'' is from the 23rd/24th to the end of the month. Yü (1987:370) translates them as "after the birth of the crescent" and "after the death of the crescent". Etymologically, lunar and spiritual ''po'' < ''pʰak'' < *''phrâk'' are cognate with ''bai'' < ''bɐk'' < *''brâk'' "white" (Matisoff 1980, Yü 1981, Carr 1985). According to Hu Shih (1946:30), ''po'' etymologically means "white, whiteness, and bright light"; "The primitive Chinese seem to have regarded the changing phases of the moon as periodic birth and death of its 'po'' its 'white light' or soul." Yü (1981:83) says this ancient association between the ''po'' soul and the "growing light of the new moon is of tremendous importance to our understanding of certain myths related to the seventh day of the months." Two celebrated examples in Chinese mythology are Xi Wangmu and Emperor Wu meeting on the seventh day of the first lunar month and The Princess and the Cowherd or Qixi Festival held on the seventh day of the seventh lunar month. The etymology of ''hun'' < ''γuən'' < *''wûn'' is comparatively less certain. Hu (1946:31) said, "The word ''hun'' is etymologically the same as the word ''yun'', meaning "clouds." The clouds float about and seem more free and more active than the cold, white-lighted portion of the growing and waning moon." Schuessler cites two possibilities.
Since ''pò'' is the 'bright' soul, ''hún'' is the 'dark' soul and therefore cognate to ''yún'' 'cloud' [Carr 1985:62], perhaps in the sense of 'shadowy' because some believe that the ''hún'' soul will live after death in a world of shadows [Eberhard 1967:17]. (2007:290)


Semantics

The correlative "soul" words ''hun'' and ''po'' have several meanings in Chinese plus many translations and explanations in English. The table below shows translation equivalents from some major Chinese-English dictionaries. Both Chinese ''hun'' and ''po'' are translatable as English "soul" or "spirit", and both are basic components in "soul" compounds. In the following examples, all Chinese-English translation equivalents are from DeFrancis (2003). *''hunpo'' "soul; psyche" *''linghun'' "soul; spirit" *''hunling'' "(colloquial) soul; ghost" *''yinhun'' "soul; spirit; apparition" *''sanhunqipo'' "soul; three finer spirits and several baser instincts that motivate a human being" *''xinpo'' "soul" ''Hunpo'' and ''linghun'' are the most frequently used among these "soul" words. Joseph Needham and Lu Gwei-djen, eminent historians of science and technology in China (1974:88), define ''hun'' and ''po'' in modern terms. "Peering as far as one can into these ancient psycho-physiological ideas, one gains the impression that the distinction was something like that between what we would call motor and sensory activity on the one hand, and also voluntary as against vegetative processes on the other." Farzeen Baldrian-Hussein (2008:521) cautions about ''hun'' and ''po'' translations: "Although the term "souls" is often used to refer to them, they are better seen as two types of vital entities, the source of life in every individual. The ''hun'' is Yang, luminous, and volatile, while the ''po'' is Yin, somber, and heavy."

History

Based on ''Zuozhuan'' usages of ''hun'' and ''po'' in four historical contexts, Yü (1987:370) extrapolates that ''po'' was the original name for a human soul, and the dualistic conception of ''hun'' and ''po'' "began to gain currency in the middle of the sixth century" BCE. Two earlier 6th century contexts used the ''po'' soul alone. Both describe ''Tian'' "heaven; god" ''duo'' "seizing; taking away" a person's ''po'', which resulted in a loss of mental faculties. In 593 BCE (Duke Xuan 15th year, tr. Legge 1872:329), after Zhao Tong behaved inappropriately at the Zhou court, an observer predicted: "In less than ten years [Zhao Tong] will be sure to meet with great calamity. Heaven has taken his [] wits away from him." In 543 BCE (Duke Xiang 29th year, tr. Legge 1872:551), Boyou from the state of Zheng acted irrationally, which an official interpreted as: "Heaven is destroying [Boyou], and has taken away his [] reason." Boyou's political enemies subsequently arranged to take away his hereditary position and assassinate him. Two later sixth-century ''Zuozhuan'' contexts used ''po'' together with the ''hun'' soul. In 534 BCE, the ghost of Boyou (above) was seeking revenge on his murderers, and terrifying the people of Zheng (Duke Zhao, Year &, tr. Legge 1872:618). The philosopher and statesman Zi Chan, realizing that Boyou's loss of hereditary office had caused his spirit to be deprived of sacrifices, reinstated his son to the family position, and the ghost disappeared. When a friend asked Zi Chan to explain ghosts, he gave what Yu calls "the ''locus classicus'' on the subject of the human soul in the Chinese tradition" (Yu 1972:372). Compare the translation of Needham and Lu, who interpret this as an early Chinese discourse on embryology. In 516 BCE (Duke Zhao, Year 20), the Duke of Song and a guest named Shusun were both seen weeping during a supposedly joyful gathering. Yue Qi , a Song court official, said: ''Hun'' and ''po'' souls, explains Yu (1987:371), "are regarded as the very essence of the mind, the source of knowledge and intelligence. Death is thought to follow inevitably when the ''hun'' and the ''p'o'' leave the body. We have reason to believe that around this time the idea of ''hun'' was still relatively new." Soon after death, it was believed that a person's ''hun'' and ''po'' could be temporarily reunited through a ritual called the ''fu'' "recall; return", ''zhaohun'' "summon the ''hun'' soul", or ''zhaohun fupo'' "to summon the ''hun''-soul to reunite with the ''po''-soul". The earliest known account of this ritual is found in the (3rd century BCE) ''Chuci'' poems ''Zhao Hun'' "Summons of the Soul" and ''Dazhao'' "The Great Summons"(Csíkszentmihályi 2006:140–141). For example, the ''wu'' Yang () summons a man's soul in the "Zhao Hun". Hu (1946:31–32) proposed, "The idea of a ''hun'' may have been a contribution from the southern peoples" (who originated ''Zhao Hun'' rituals) and then spread to the north sometime during the sixth century BCE. Calling this southern hypothesis "quite possible", Yu (1987:373) cites the ''Chuci'', associated with the southern state of Chu, demonstrating "there can be little doubt that in the southern tradition the ''hun'' was regarded as a more active and vital soul than the ''p'o''. The ''Chuci'' uses ''hun'' 65 times and ''po'' 5 times (4 in ''hunpo'', which the ''Chuci'' uses interchangeably with ''hun'', Brashier 1996:131). The identification of the ''yin-yang'' principle with the ''hun'' and ''po'' souls evidently occurred in the late fourth and early third centuries BCE (Yü 1987:374), and by "the second century at the latest, the Chinese dualistic conception of soul had reached its definitive formulation." The ''Liji'' (11, tr. Legge 1885:444) compounds ''hun'' and ''po'' with ''qi'' "breath; life force" and ''xing'' "form; shape; body" in ''hunqi'' and ''xingpo'' . "The [] intelligent spirit returns to heaven the [] body and the animal soul return to the earth; and hence arose the idea of seeking (for the deceased) in sacrifice in the unseen darkness and in the bright region above." Compare this modern translation (Yü 1987:374), "The breath-soul (''hun-ch'I'' ) returns to heaven; the bodily soul (''hsing-p'o'' ) returns to earth. Therefore, in sacrificial-offering one should seek the meaning in the ''yin-yang'' principle." Yü summarizes ''hun''/''po'' dualism. Loewe (1979:9) explains with a candle metaphor; the physical ''xing'' is the "wick and substance of a candle", the spiritual ''po'' and ''hun'' are the "force that keeps the candle alight" and "light that emanates from the candle". The Yin ''po'' and Yang ''hun'' were correlated with Chinese spiritual and medical beliefs. ''Hun'' is associated with ''shen'' "spirit; god" and ''po'' with ''gui'' "ghost; demon; devil" (Carr 1985:62). The (ca. 1st century BCE) ''Lingshu Jing'' medical text spiritually applies Wu Xing "Five Phase" theory to the ''Zang-fu'' "organs", associating the ''hun'' soul with liver (Chinese medicine) and blood, and the ''po'' soul with lung (Chinese medicine) and breath. The ''Lingshu Jing'' (Brashier 1996:142) also records that the ''hun'' and ''po'' souls taking flight can cause restless dreaming, and eye disorders can scatter the souls causing mental confusion. Han medical texts reveal that ''hun'' and ''po'' departing from the body does not necessarily cause death but rather distress and sickness. Brashier (1996:145–6) parallels the translation of ''hun'' and ''po'', "If one were to put an English word to them, they are our 'wits', our ability to demarcate clearly, and like the English concept of "wits," they can be scared out of us or can dissipate in old age." During the Han Dynasty, the belief in ''hun'' and ''po'' remained prominent, although there was a great diversity of different, sometimes contradictory, beliefs about the afterlife (Hansen 2000:119; Csikszentmihalyi 2006:116–117, 140–142). Han burial customs provided nourishment and comfort for the ''po'' with the placement of grave goods, including food, commodities, and even money within the tomb of the deceased (Hansen 2000:119). Chinese jade was believed to delay the decomposition of a body. Pieces of jade were commonly placed in bodily orifices, or rarely crafted into jade burial suits. Generations of sinologists have repeatedly asserted that Han-era people commonly believed the heavenly ''hun'' and earthly ''po'' souls separated at death, but recent scholarship and archeology suggest that ''hunpo'' dualism was more an academic theory than a popular faith. Anna Seidel analyzed funerary texts discovered in Han tombs, which mention not only ''po'' souls but also ''hun'' remaining with entombed corpses, and wrote (1982:107), "Indeed, a clear separation of a ''p'o'', appeased with the wealth included in the tomb, from a ''hun'' departed to heavenly realms is not possible." Seidel later (1987:227) called for reappraising Han abstract notions of ''hun'' and ''po'', which "do not seem to have had as wide a currency as we assumed up to now." Pu Muzhou surveyed usages of the words ''hun'' and ''po'' on Han Dynasty ''bei'' "stele" erected at graves and shrines, and concluded (1993:216, tr. Brashier 1996126), "The thinking of ordinary people seems to have been quite hazy on the matter of what distinguished the ''hun'' from the ''po''." These stele texts contrasted souls between a corporeal ''hun'' or ''hunpo'' at the cemetery and a spiritual ''shen'' at the family shrine. Kenneth Brashier (1996:158) reexamined the evidence for ''hunpo'' dualism and relegated it "to the realm of scholasticism rather than general beliefs on death." Brashier (1996:136–137) cited several Han sources (grave deeds, ''Book of the Later Han'', and ''Jiaoshi Yilin'') attesting beliefs that "the ''hun'' remains in the grave instead of flying up to heaven", and suggested it "was sealed into the grave to prevent its escape." Another Han text, the ''Fengsu Tongyi'' says, "The vital energy of the ''hun'' of a dead person floats away; therefore a mask is made in order to retain it.

Daoism

''Hun'' and ''po'' spiritual concepts were important in several Daoist traditions. For instance (Baldrian-Hussein 2008:522), "Since the volatile ''hun'' is fond of wandering and leaving the body during sleep, techniques were devised to restrain it, one of which entailed a method of staying constantly awake." The ''sanhunqipo'' "three ''hun'' and seven ''po''" were anthropomorphized and visualized. Ge Hong's (ca. 320 CE) ''Baopuzi'' frequently mentions the ''hun'' and ''po'' "ethereal and gross souls". The "Genii" Chapter argues that the departing of these dual souls cause illness and death.
All men, wise or foolish, know that their bodies contain ethereal as well as gross breaths, and that when some of them quit the body, illness ensues; when they all leave him, a man dies. In the former case, the magicians have amulets for restraining them; in the latter case, ''The Rites'' Yili''.html" style="text-decoration: none;"class="mw-redirect" title="Yili_(text).html" style="text-decoration: none;"class="mw-redirect" title=".e., ''[[Yili (text)">Yili''">Yili_(text).html" style="text-decoration: none;"class="mw-redirect" title=".e., ''[[Yili (text)">Yili''provide ceremonials for summoning them back. These breaths are most intimately bound up with us, for they are born when we are, but over a whole lifetime probably nobody actually hears or sees them. Would one conclude that they do not exist because they are neither seen nor heard? (2, tr. Ware 1966:49–50)
This "magicians" translates [[fangshi "doctor; diviner' magician". Both ''fangshi'' and ''daoshi'' "Daoist priests" developed methods and rituals to summon ''hun'' and ''po'' back into a person's body. The "Gold and Cinnabar" chapter records a Daoist alchemical reanimation pill that can return the ''hun'' and ''po'' souls to a recent corpse: ''Taiyi zhaohunpo dan fa'' "The Great One's Elixir Method for Summoning Souls".
In T'ai-i's elixir for Summoning Gross and Ethereal Breaths the five minerals .e.,_[[cinnabar,_[[realgar.html" style="text-decoration: none;"class="mw-redirect" title="cinnabar.html" style="text-decoration: none;"class="mw-redirect" title=".e., [[cinnabar">.e., [[cinnabar, [[realgar">cinnabar.html" style="text-decoration: none;"class="mw-redirect" title=".e., [[cinnabar">.e., [[cinnabar, [[realgar, [[arsenolite, [[malachite, and [[magnetite] are used and sealed with Six-One lute as in the Nine-crucible cinnabars. It is particularly effective for raising those who have died of a stroke. In cases where the corpse has been dead less than four days, force open the corpse's mouth and insert a pill of this elixir and one of sulphur, washing them down its gullet with water. The corpse will immediately come to life. In every case the resurrected remark that they have seen a messenger with a baton of authority summoning them. (4, tr. Ware 1966:87)
For visualizing the ten souls, the ''Baopuzi'' "Truth on Earth" chapter recommends taking ''dayao'' "great medicines" and practicing a ''fenxing'' "divide/multiply the body" multilocation technique.
My teacher used to say that to preserve Unity was to practice jointly Bright Mirror, and that on becoming successful in the mirror procedure a man would be able to multiply his body to several dozen all with the same dress and facial expression. My teacher also used to say that you should take the great medicines diligently if you wished to enjoy Fullness of Life, and that you should use metal solutions and a multiplication of your person if you wished to communicate with the gods. By multiplying the body, the three ''Hun'' and the seven ''Po'' are automatically seen within the body, and in addition it becomes possible to meet and visit the powers of heaven and the deities of earth and to have all the gods of the mountains and rivers in one's service. (18, tr. Ware 1966:306)
The Daoist Shangqing School has several meditation techniques for visualizing the ''hun'' and ''po''. In Shangqing Neidan "Internal Alchemy", Baldrian-Hussein says,
the ''po'' plays a particularly somber role as it represents the passions that dominate the ''hun''. This causes the vital force to decay, especially during sexual activity, and eventually leads to death. The inner alchemical practice seeks to concentrate the vital forces within the body by reversing the respective roles of ''hun'' and ''po'', so that the ''hun'' (Yang) controls the ''po'' (Yin). (2008:533)


Number of souls

The number of human "souls" has been a long-standing source of controversy among Chinese religious traditions. Stevan Harrell (1979:521) concludes, "Almost every number from one to a dozen has at one time or another been proposed as the correct one." The most commonly believed numbers of "souls" in a person are one, two, three, and ten. One "soul" or ''linghun'' is the simplest idea. Harrell gives a fieldwork example.
When rural Taiwanese perform ancestral sacrifices at home, they naturally think of the ''ling-hun'' in the tablet; when they take offerings to the cemetery, they think of it in the grave; and when they go on shamanistic trips, they think of it in the ''yin'' world. Because the contexts are separate, there is little conflict and little need for abstract reasoning about a nonexistent problem. (1979:523)
Two "souls" is a common folk belief, and reinforced by ''yin-yang'' theory. These paired souls can be called ''hun'' and ''po'', ''hunpo'' and ''shen'', or ''linghun'' and ''shen''. [[Three Treasures (traditional Chinese medicine)|Three "souls"

comes from widespread beliefs that the soul of a dead person can exist in the multiple locations. The missionary [[Justus Doolittle recorded that Chinese people in [[Fuzhou
Believe each person has ''three distinct'' souls while living. These souls separate at the death of the adult to whom they belong. One resides in the ancestral tablet erected to his memory, if the head of a family; another lurks in the coffin or the grave, and the third departs to the infernal regions to undergo its merited punishment. (1865 II:401–2)
Ten "souls" of ''sanhunqipo'' "three ''hun'' and seven ''po''" is not only Daoist; "Some authorities would maintain that the three-seven "soul" is basic to all Chinese religion" (Harrell 1979:522). During the Later Han period, Daoists fixed the number of ''hun'' souls at three and the number of ''po'' souls at seven. A newly deceased person may return () to his home at some nights, sometimes one week () after his death and the seven po would disappear one by one every 7 days after death. According to Needham and Lu (1974:88), "It is a little difficult to ascertain the reason for this, since fives and sixes (if they corresponded to the viscera) would have rather been expected." Three ''hun'' may stand for the ''sangang'' "three principles of social order: relationships between ruler-subject, father-child, and husband-wife" (Needham 1974:89). Seven ''po'' may stand for the ''qiqiao'' "seven apertures (in the head, eyes, ears, nostrils, and mouth)" or the ''qiqing'' "seven emotions (joy, anger, sorrow, fear, worry, grief, fright)" in traditional Chinese medicine (Baldrian-Hussein 2008:522). Sanhunqipo also stand for other names.

See also

* Soul dualism, similar beliefs in other animistic beliefs * Ancient Egyptian beliefs of the soul, in which the ancient Egyptians believed that every person's soul consisted of the ''jb'' (heart), ''sheut'' (shadow), ''ren'' (name), ''ba'' (personality), and ''ka'' (vitality), along with other souls known as ''aakhu'', ''khaibut'', and ''khat''. Once the deceased was given the proper funerary rites and constant offerings, his or her ''ba'' and ''ka'' unite to become an ''akh'' (effective one). * ''The ''Ti bon ange'' and the ''Gros bon ange'' in Haitian Vodou''; ''Soul dualism'' in ''Haitian Vodou''. * ''Baci'', a religious ceremony in Laos practiced to synchronize the effects of the 32 souls of an individual person, known as ''kwan''. * ''Diyu'', the Chinese underworld, eventually understood as a form of Hell * "The Great Summons" a ''Chuci'' piece focused on the ''hun''. * Heaven, known in modern Chinese as ''Tiantang'' * ''Hugr'' (inner self), ''fetch'' (the soul that reincarnates into a new body), ''fylgja'' (fortune), and ''hamingja'' (luck), which are considered as the multiple souls of every person in Norse paganism and Heathenry. * "Hymn to the Fallen" a piece from ''Chuci'', featuring ''hunpo'' being steadfast and acting as hero-ghosts (). * ''Mingqi'', traditional Chinese grave goods * "''Zhao Hun''", a ''Chuci'' poem focused on the ''hun''.

References

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External links


page 1461
Kangxi Dictionary entries for ''hun'' and ''po''
What Is Shen (Spirit)?
Appendix: Hun and Po

Singapore Paranormal Investigators – link obsolete

Singapore Paranormal Investigators – link obsolete

Chinese Buddhist Electronic Text Association {{DEFAULTSORT:Hun And Po Category:Chinese culture Category:Chinese philosophy Category:Chinese folk religion Category:Afterlife Category:Spiritualism pl:Hun (religia chińska)