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Hindi (
Devanagari Devanagari ( ; , , Sanskrit pronunciation: ), also called Nagari (),Kathleen Kuiper (2010), The Culture of India, New York: The Rosen Publishing Group, , page 83 is a left-to-right abugida, based on the ancient Brahmi script, ''Brāhmī'' sc ...

Devanagari
: , हिंदी,
ISO The International Organization for Standardization (ISO ) is an international standard An international standard is a technical standard A technical standard is an established norm (social), norm or requirement for a repeatable technical task w ...
: ), or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi (
Devanagari Devanagari ( ; , , Sanskrit pronunciation: ), also called Nagari (),Kathleen Kuiper (2010), The Culture of India, New York: The Rosen Publishing Group, , page 83 is a left-to-right abugida, based on the ancient Brahmi script, ''Brāhmī'' sc ...

Devanagari
: ,
ISO The International Organization for Standardization (ISO ) is an international standard An international standard is a technical standard A technical standard is an established norm (social), norm or requirement for a repeatable technical task w ...
: ), is an
Indo-Aryan language The Indo-Aryan or Indic languages form a major language family A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech ( spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign language) and writing. Most languages h ...
spoken chiefly in
North India North India is a loosely defined region consisting of the northern part of India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by area, seventh-largest count ...

North India
. Hindi has been described as a standardised and Sanskritised
register A register is an authoritative list of one kind of information. Register or registration may refer to: Arts entertainment, and media Music * Register (music), the relative "height" or range of a note, melody, part, instrument, etc. * ''Regis ...
of the
Hindustani language Hindustani (; Devanagari Devanagari ( ; , , Sanskrit pronunciation: ), also called Nagari (),Kathleen Kuiper (2010), The Culture of India, New York: The Rosen Publishing Group, , page 83 is a left-to-right abugida, based on the ancie ...
, which itself is based primarily on the
Khariboli The Kauravi ( hi, कौरवी, ur, ), also known as Khariboli or the Delhi dialect, is any of several Central Indo-Aryan dialects spoken in and around Delhi. It is believed to have initially developed contemporaneously with the neighbour ...
dialect of
Delhi Delhi (; ''Dillī''; ''Dillī''; ''Dêhlī''), officially the National Capital Territory (NCT) of Delhi, is a city and a of containing , the capital of India. * * * Straddling the river, but primarily its western or right bank, Delhi ...

Delhi
and neighbouring areas of
Northern India North India is a loosely defined region consisting of the northern part of India India, officially the Republic of India (: ), is a country in . It is the by area, the country, and the most populous in the world. Bounded by the on ...
. Hindi, written in the
Devanagari Devanagari ( ; , , Sanskrit pronunciation: ), also called Nagari (),Kathleen Kuiper (2010), The Culture of India, New York: The Rosen Publishing Group, , page 83 is a left-to-right abugida, based on the ancient Brahmi script, ''Brāhmī'' sc ...

Devanagari
script, is one of the two
official language An official language is a language given a special status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction. Typically the term "official language" does not refer to the language used by a people or country, but by its government (e.g. judiciar ...

official language
s of the
Government of India The Government of India (ISO The International Organization for Standardization (ISO ) is an international standard An international standard is a technical standard A technical standard is an established norm (social), norm or requiremen ...
, along with the
English language English is a West Germanic language of the Indo-European language family The Indo-European languages are a language family A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech ( spoken language), g ...
. It is an
official language An official language is a language given a special status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction. Typically the term "official language" does not refer to the language used by a people or country, but by its government (e.g. judiciar ...
in 9
States State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in Columbia, South Carolina, Un ...
and 3
Union Territories #REDIRECT Union territory #REDIRECT Union territory#REDIRECT Union territory A union territory ( hi, script=latn, kendraśāsit pradeś, , centrally administered province) is a type of administrative division Administrative division, administ ...
and an additional official language in 3 other States. Hindi is also one of the 22 scheduled languages of the Republic of India. Hindi is the ''
lingua franca A lingua franca (; ; for plurals see ), also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language, auxiliary language, vehicular language, or link language, is a language or dialect The term dialect (from , , from the word , 'disco ...
'' of the
Hindi belt The Hindi Belt is a linguistic region encompassing parts of northern, central Central is an adjective usually referring to being in the center (disambiguation), center of some place or (mathematical) object. Central may also refer to: Di ...

Hindi belt
and to a lesser extent other parts of India (usually in a simplified or pidginised variety such as Bazaar Hindustani or Haflong Hindi). Outside India, several other languages are recognised officially as "Hindi" but do not refer to the Standard Hindi language described here and instead descend from other dialects, such as
Awadhi Awadhi (; अवधी; 𑂃𑂫𑂡𑂲) is an Eastern Hindi The Central Indo-Aryan languages or Hindi languages are a group of related language variety (linguistics), varieties spoken across North India and Central India. These language ...

Awadhi
and
Bhojpuri Bhojpuri (;Bhojpuri entry, Oxford Dictionaries
, Oxford Uni ...

Bhojpuri
. Such languages include
Fiji Hindi Fiji Hindi () is an Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-Aryan language spoken by Indo-Fijians, though a few speak other languages at home. It is an Eastern Hindi language, considered to be a dialect of Awadhi language, Awadhi that has also been subject ...
, which is official in
Fiji Fiji ( ; fj, Viti, ; hif, फ़िजी, ''Fijī''), officially the Republic of Fiji, is an island country in Melanesia, part of Oceania in the South Pacific Ocean. It lies about northeast of New Zealand. Fiji consists of an archipelago ...

Fiji
, and
Caribbean Hindustani Caribbean Hindustani is an Indo-Aryan language The Indo-Aryan or Indic languages form a major language family A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech ( spoken language), gestures (Signed langu ...
, which is spoken in
Trinidad and Tobago Trinidad and Tobago (, ), officially the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago, is the southernmost island country in the Caribbean The Caribbean (, ; es, Caribe; french: Caraïbes; ht, Karayib; also gcf, label=Antillean Creole Antillean C ...

Trinidad and Tobago
,
Guyana Guyana ( or ), officially the Cooperative Republic of Guyana, is a country on the northern mainland of South America and the capital city is Georgetown Guyana, Georgetown. Guyana is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the north, Brazil to the ...

Guyana
, and
Suriname Suriname () or Surinam, officially known as the Republic of Suriname ( nl, Republiek Suriname ), is a country on the northeastern Atlantic coast of South America South America is a entirely in the and mostly in the , with a rela ...

Suriname
. Apart from the script and formal
vocabulary A vocabulary is a set of familiar words In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed la ...
, standard Hindi is
mutually intelligible In linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for studying and modeling them. The traditional areas of linguistic analysis include p ...
with
standard Urdu Urdu (; ur, , ALA-LC ALA-LC ( American Library Association - Library of Congress) is a set of standards for romanization, the representation of text in other writing system A writing system is a method of visually representing verbal ...
, another recognised register of Hindustani as both share a common colloquial base. As a linguistic variety, Hindi is the in the world, after
Mandarin Mandarin may refer to: * Mandarin (bureaucrat), a bureaucrat of Imperial China (the original meaning of the word) ** by extension, any senior government bureaucrat A bureaucrat is a member of a bureaucracy and can compose the administration o ...
,
Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Canada * Spanish River (disambiguation), the name of several ...

Spanish
and English.Mikael Parkvall, "Världens 100 största språk 2007" (The World's 100 Largest Languages in 2007), in ''
Nationalencyklopedin ''Nationalencyklopedin'' (; "The National Encyclopedia" in English), abbreviated NE, is a comprehensive contemporary Swedish-language Swedish (Swedish: ) is a North Germanic languages, North Germanic language spoken First language, natively by ...

Nationalencyklopedin
''. Asterisks mark th
2010 estimates
for the top dozen languages.
Hindi alongside Urdu as
Hindustani Hindustani may refer to: * something of, from, or related to Hindustan (another name of India) * Hindustani language, an Indo-Aryan language, whose two official norms are Hindi and Urdu * Fiji Hindi, a variety of Eastern Hindi spoken in Fiji, and i ...
is the third most-spoken language in the world, after Mandarin and English.


Etymology

The term ''Hindī'' originally was used to refer to inhabitants of the
Indo-Gangetic Plain #REDIRECT Indo-Gangetic Plain#REDIRECT Indo-Gangetic Plain Image:India-Pakistan Borderlands at Night.JPG, 250px, Clusters of yellow lights on the Indo-Gangetic Plain reveal numerous cities large and small in this astronaut photograph of norther ...

Indo-Gangetic Plain
. It was borrowed from
Classical Persian Persian (), also known by its endonym Farsi (, ', ), is a Western Iranian language belonging to the Iranian branch of the Indo-Iranian subdivision of the Indo-European languages The Indo-European languages are a language family native ...
''Hindī'' (
Iranian Persian Iranian Persian, Western Persian or Western Farsi, natively simply known as Persian (, ), refers to the Variety (linguistics), varieties of the modern Persian language spoken in Iran and by minorities in neighboring countries, as well as by Irani ...
pronunciation: ''Hendi''), meaning "of or belonging to '''' (India)" (hence, "Indian"). Another name ''Hindavī'' (हिन्दवी) or ''Hinduī'' (हिन्दुई) (from fa, هندوی "of or belonging to the Hindu/Indian people") was often used in the past, for example by
Amir Khusrow Abu'l Hasan Yamīn ud-Dīn Khusrau (1253–1325 AD) (Urdu:ابوالحسن یامین الدّین خُسرو), better known as Amīr Khusrau Dehlavī (Urdu: امیر خُسرو دہلوی), was an Indian Sufi singer, musician, poet and scholar ...
in his poetry. The terms ''"Hindi"'' and ''"Hindu"'' trace back to Old Persian which derived these names from the
Sanskrit Sanskrit (; attributively , ; nominalization, nominally , , ) is a classical language of South Asia that belongs to the Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European languages. It arose in South Asia after its predecessor langua ...

Sanskrit
name ''Sindhu'' (सिन्धु ), referring to the
river Indus#REDIRECT Indus River#REDIRECT Indus River {{Redirect category shell, {{R from move {{R from miscapitalisation {{R unprintworthy ...
{{Redirect category shell, {{R from move {{R from miscapitalisation {{R unprintworthy ...
. The Greek cognates of the same terms are "''Indus''" (for the river) and "''India''" (for the land of the river).


History


Middle Indo-Aryan to Hindi

Like other Indo-Aryan languages, Hindi is a direct descendant of an early form of
Vedic Sanskrit Vedic Sanskrit was an ancient language of the Indo-AryanIndo-Aryan refers to: * Indo-Aryan languages ** Indo-Aryan superstrate in Mitanni or Mitanni-Aryan * Indo-Aryan peoples, the various peoples speaking these languages See also *Aryan invasi ...
, through
Sauraseni Prakrit Shauraseni Prakrit (, ) was a Middle Indo-Aryan language The Middle Indo-Aryan languages (or Middle Indic languages, sometimes conflated with the Prakrits, which are a stage of Middle Indic) are a historical group of languages of the Indo-Arya ...
and Śauraseni Apabhraṃśa (from Sanskrit ''apabhraṃśa'' "corrupt"), which emerged in the 7th century CE. The sound changes that characterized the transition from Middle Indo-Aryan to Hindi are: *
Compensatory lengthening Compensatory lengthening in phonology Phonology is a branch of linguistics that studies how languages or dialects systematically organize their sounds (or signs, in sign languages). The term also refers to the sound system of any particular la ...
of vowels preceding
geminate In phonetics Phonetics is a branch of linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Linguistics encompasses the analysis of eve ...
consonants, sometimes with spontaneous nasalization: Skt. ''hasta'' "hand" > Pkt. ''hattha'' > ''hāth'' * Loss of all word-final vowels: ''rātri'' "night" > ''rattī'' > ''rāt'' * Formation of nasalized long vowels from nasal consonants (-VNC- > -V̄̃C-): ''bandha'' "bond" > ''bā̃dh'' * Loss of unaccented or unstressed short vowels (reflected in schwa deletion): ''susthira'' "firm" > ''sutthira'' > ''suthrā'' * Collapsing of adjacent vowels (including separated by a hiatus: ''apara'' "other" > ''avara'' > ''aur'' * Final ''-m'' to ''-ṽ'': ''grāma'' "village" > ''gāma'' > ''gāṽ'' * Intervocalic ''-ḍ-'' to ''-ṛ-'' or ''-l-'': ''taḍāga'' "pond" > ''talāv'', ''naḍa'' "reed" > ''nal''. * ''v'' > ''b'': ''vivāha'' "marriage" > ''byāh''


Hindustani

After the arrival of Islamic administrative rule in northern India,
Old Hindi Old Hindi ( hi, पुरानी हिन्दी, ur, پرانی ہندی; ''Purānī Hindī'') was the earliest stage of the Delhi dialect (Khariboli) of the Hindustani language Hindustani may refer to: * something of, from, or related to ...
acquired many loanwords from
Persian Persian may refer to: * People and things from Iran, historically called ''Persia'' in the English language ** Persians, Persian people, the majority ethnic group in Iran, not to be conflated with the Iranian peoples ** Persian language, an Iranian ...
, as well as
Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East The Middle East is a list of transcontinental countries, transcontinental region ...

Arabic
, which led to the development of
Hindustani Hindustani may refer to: * something of, from, or related to Hindustan (another name of India) * Hindustani language, an Indo-Aryan language, whose two official norms are Hindi and Urdu * Fiji Hindi, a variety of Eastern Hindi spoken in Fiji, and i ...
. In the 18th century, an intensively Persianised version of Hindustani emerged and came to be called
Urdu Urdu (; ur, , ALA-LC ALA-LC (American Library Association The American Library Association (ALA) is a nonprofit organization A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or nonpr ...

Urdu
. The growing importance of Hindustani in colonial India and the association of Urdu with Muslims prompted Hindus to develop a Sanskritised version of Hindustani, leading to the formation of Modern Standard Hindi.


Dialects

Before the standardisation of Hindi on the Delhi dialect, various dialects and languages of the Hindi belt attained prominence through literary standardisation, such as
Avadhi Awadhi (; अवधी; 𑂃𑂫𑂡𑂲) is an Eastern Hindi The Central Indo-Aryan languages or Hindi languages are a group of related language variety (linguistics), varieties spoken across North India and Central India. These language v ...
and
Braj Bhasha The Braj language, ''Braj Bhāshā'', also known as Braji or Brij Bhasha or Braj Boli, is a Western Hindi languages, Western Hindi language. Along with Awadhi (a variety of Eastern Hindi), it was one of the two predominant literary languages o ...
. Early Hindi literature came about in the 12th and 13th centuries CE. This body of work included the early epics such as renditions of the '' Dhola Maru'' in the Marwari of
Marwar Marwar (also called Jodhpur region) is a list of regions in India, region of southwestern Rajasthan state in North Western India. It lies partly in the Thar Desert. The word 'maru' is Sanskrit for desert. In Rajasthani languages, Rajasthani d ...
, the ''
Prithviraj Raso The ''Prithviraj Raso'' (IAST The International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration (IAST) is a transliteration scheme that allows the lossless romanisation of Brahmic family, Indic scripts as employed by Sanskrit and related Indic language ...

Prithviraj Raso
'' in the
Braj Bhasha The Braj language, ''Braj Bhāshā'', also known as Braji or Brij Bhasha or Braj Boli, is a Western Hindi languages, Western Hindi language. Along with Awadhi (a variety of Eastern Hindi), it was one of the two predominant literary languages o ...
of
Braj Braj, also known as Brij or Brijbhoomi, is a region in India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by area, seventh-largest country by area, the Lis ...

Braj
, and the works of
Amir Khusrow Abu'l Hasan Yamīn ud-Dīn Khusrau (1253–1325 AD) (Urdu:ابوالحسن یامین الدّین خُسرو), better known as Amīr Khusrau Dehlavī (Urdu: امیر خُسرو دہلوی), was an Indian Sufi singer, musician, poet and scholar ...
in the dialect of Delhi. Modern Standard Hindi is based on the Delhi dialect, the vernacular of
Delhi Delhi (; ''Dillī''; ''Dillī''; ''Dêhlī''), officially the National Capital Territory (NCT) of Delhi, is a city and a of containing , the capital of India. * * * Straddling the river, but primarily its western or right bank, Delhi ...

Delhi
and the surrounding region, which came to replace earlier prestige dialects such as
Awadhi Awadhi (; अवधी; 𑂃𑂫𑂡𑂲) is an Eastern Hindi The Central Indo-Aryan languages or Hindi languages are a group of related language variety (linguistics), varieties spoken across North India and Central India. These language ...

Awadhi
, Maithili and
Braj Braj, also known as Brij or Brijbhoomi, is a region in India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by area, seventh-largest country by area, the Lis ...

Braj
. ''
Urdu Urdu (; ur, , ALA-LC ALA-LC (American Library Association The American Library Association (ALA) is a nonprofit organization A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or nonpr ...

Urdu
'' – considered another form of Hindustani – acquired linguistic prestige in the latter part of the
Mughal period The Mughal, Mogul, or Moghul Empire was an early modern The early modern period of modern history Human history, or world history, is the narrative of 's past. It is understood through , , , and , and since the , from and s. ...
(1800s), and underwent significant
Persian Persian may refer to: * People and things from Iran, historically called ''Persia'' in the English language ** Persians, Persian people, the majority ethnic group in Iran, not to be conflated with the Iranian peoples ** Persian language, an Iranian ...
influence. Modern Hindi and its literary tradition evolved towards the end of the 18th century. John Gilchrist was principally known for his study of the
Hindustani language Hindustani (; Devanagari Devanagari ( ; , , Sanskrit pronunciation: ), also called Nagari (),Kathleen Kuiper (2010), The Culture of India, New York: The Rosen Publishing Group, , page 83 is a left-to-right abugida, based on the ancie ...
, which was adopted as the
lingua franca A lingua franca (; ; for plurals see ), also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language, auxiliary language, vehicular language, or link language, is a language or dialect The term dialect (from , , from the word , 'disco ...
of northern India (including what is now present-day
Pakistan Pakistan, . Pronounced variably in English as , , , and . officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country in South Asia. It is the world's List of countries and dependencies by population, fifth-most populous country, with a popul ...

Pakistan
) by British colonists and indigenous people. He compiled and authored ''An English-Hindustani Dictionary'', ''A Grammar of the Hindoostanee Language'', ''The Oriental Linguist'', and many more. His
lexicon A lexicon is the vocabulary A vocabulary is a set of familiar words In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequence of phonemes that can be uttered in isolation with semantic, objective or pragmatics, pra ...

lexicon
of Hindustani was published in the
Perso-Arabic script The Persian alphabet ( fa, الفبای فارسی, Alefbā-ye Fārsi) is a writing system A writing system is a method of visually representing verbal communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or ...
,
Nāgarī script The Nāgarī script or Northern Nagari is the ancestor of Devanagari Devanagari ( ; , , Sanskrit pronunciation: ), also called Nagari (),Kathleen Kuiper (2010), The Culture of India, New York: The Rosen Publishing Group, , page 83 is a lef ...
, and in Roman transliteration. He is also known for his role in the foundation of
University College London University College London, which Trade name, operates as UCL, is a major public university , public research university located in London, United Kingdom. UCL is a Member institutions of the University of London, member institution of the Federa ...
and for endowing the Gilchrist Educational Trust. In the late 19th century, a movement to further develop Hindi as a standardised form of Hindustani separate from Urdu took form. In 1881,
Bihar Bihar (; ) is a states and union territories of India, state in eastern India. It is the list of states and union territories of India by population, third-largest state by population and list of states and union territories of India by area ...

Bihar
accepted Hindi as its sole official language, replacing Urdu, and thus became the first state of India to adopt Hindi.


Independent India

After independence, the government of India instituted the following conventions: * standardisation of grammar: In 1954, the Government of India set up a committee to prepare a grammar of Hindi; The committee's report was released in 1958 as ''A Basic Grammar of Modern Hindi''. * standardisation of the orthography, using the
Devanagari Devanagari ( ; , , Sanskrit pronunciation: ), also called Nagari (),Kathleen Kuiper (2010), The Culture of India, New York: The Rosen Publishing Group, , page 83 is a left-to-right abugida, based on the ancient Brahmi script, ''Brāhmī'' sc ...

Devanagari
script, by the Central Hindi Directorate of the Ministry of Education and Culture to bring about uniformity in writing, to improve the shape of some Devanagari characters, and introducing diacritics to express sounds from other languages. On 14 September 1949, the
Constituent Assembly of India The Constituent Assembly of India was elected to write the Constitution of India The Constitution of India (International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration, IAST: ) is the supreme law of India. The document lays down the framework that ...
adopted Hindi written in the Devanagari script as the official language of the Republic of India replacing Urdu's previous usage in
British India The Provinces of India, earlier Presidencies of British India and still earlier, Presidency towns, were the administrative divisions of British governance in the Indian subcontinent. Collectively, they have been called British India. In one ...

British India
. To this end, several stalwarts rallied and lobbied pan-India in favour of Hindi, most notably Beohar Rajendra Simha along with
Hazari Prasad Dwivedi Hazari Prasad Dwivedi (19 August 190719 May 1979) was a Hindi Hindi ( Devanagari: हिन्दी, IAST/ ISO 15919: ''Hindī''), or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi ( Devanagari: मानक हिन्दी, IAST/ ISO 15919: ...
,
Kaka Kalelkar Dattatreya Balkrishna Kalelkar (1 December 1885 – 21 August 1981), popularly known as Kaka Kalelkar, was an Indian independence activist, social reformer, journalist and an eminent follower of the philosophy and methods of Mahatma Gandhi. Bi ...
,
Maithili Sharan Gupt Maithili Sharan Gupt (3 August 1886 – 12 December 1964) was one of the most important modern Hindi Hindi ( Devanagari: हिन्दी, IAST/ ISO 15919: ''Hindī''), or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi ( Devanagari: मानक ...
and
Seth Govind Das Seth Govind Das (16 October 1896 – 18 June 1974) was an Indian independence activist and a distinguished parliamentarian. He belonged to the Maheshwari merchant family of Raja Gokuldas of Jabalpur Jabalpur (, US also , ; formerly kn ...
who even debated in Parliament on this issue. As such, on the 50th birthday of Beohar Rajendra Simha on 14 September 1949, the efforts came to fruition following the adoption of Hindi as the official language. Now, it is celebrated as Hindi Day.


Official status


India

Part XVII of the Indian Constitution deals with the official language of the Indian Commonwealth. Under Article 343, the official languages of the Union has been prescribed, which includes Hindi in Devanagari script and English:
(1) The official language of the Union shall be Hindi in Devanagari script. The form of numerals to be used for the official purposes of the Union shall be the international form of Indian numerals.
(2) Notwithstanding anything in clause (1), for a period of fifteen years from the commencement of this Constitution, the English language shall continue to be used for all the official purposes of the Union for which it was being used immediately before such commencement: Provided that the President may, during the said period, by order authorise the use of the Hindi language in addition to the English language and of the Devanagari form of numerals in addition to the international form of Indian numerals for any of the official purposes of the Union.
Article 351 of the
Indian constitution The Constitution of India ( IAST: ) is the supreme law of India. The document lays down the framework that demarcates fundamental political code, structure, procedures, powers, and duties of government institutions and sets out fundamental ri ...
states
It shall be the duty of the Union to promote the spread of the Hindi language, to develop it so that it may serve as a medium of expression for all the elements of the composite culture of India and to secure its enrichment by assimilating without interfering with its genius, the forms, style and expressions used in Hindustani and in the other languages of India specified in the Eighth Schedule, and by drawing, wherever necessary or desirable, for its vocabulary, primarily on Sanskrit and secondarily on other languages.
It was envisioned that Hindi would become the sole working language of the Union Government by 1965 (per directives in Article 344 (2) and Article 351), with state governments being free to function in the language of their own choice. However, widespread resistance to the imposition of Hindi on non-native speakers, especially in
South India South India is a region consisting of the southern part of India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, second-most populous ...

South India
(such as the those in Tamil Nadu) led to the passage of the Official Languages Act of 1963, which provided for the continued use of English indefinitely for all official purposes, although the constitutional directive for the Union Government to encourage the spread of Hindi was retained and has strongly influenced its policies. Article 344 (2b) stipulates that official language commission shall be constituted every ten years to recommend steps for progressive use of Hindi language and imposing restrictions on the use of the English language by the union government. In practice, the official language commissions are constantly endeavouring to promote Hindi but not imposing restrictions on English in official use by the union government. At the state level, Hindi is the official language of the following Indian states:
Bihar Bihar (; ) is a states and union territories of India, state in eastern India. It is the list of states and union territories of India by population, third-largest state by population and list of states and union territories of India by area ...

Bihar
,
Chhattisgarh Chhattisgarh (lit. thirty-six forts) is a landlocked and heavily forested States and union territories of India, state located in the region of Central India. Formerly part of Madhya Pradesh it was granted statehood on Chhattisgarh Rajyotsava, 1 ...

Chhattisgarh
,
Haryana Haryana (; ) is a in India located in the northern-part of the country. It was carved out of the former state of on 1 November 1966 on a basis. It is ranked 21st in terms of area, with less than 1.4% () of India's land area. The state capital ...

Haryana
,
Himachal Pradesh Himachal Pradesh (; ; "Province of the Snow-laden Mountains") is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper ...

Himachal Pradesh
,
Jharkhand Jharkhand (; ; meaning 'the land of forests') is a States and union territories of India, state in East India, eastern India. The state shares its border with the states of Bihar to the north, Uttar Pradesh to the northwest, Chhattisgarh to the ...

Jharkhand
,
Madhya Pradesh Madhya Pradesh (, ; meaning ''Central Province'') is a state in central India. Its capital city, capital is Bhopal, and the largest city is Indore, with Jabalpur, Ujjain, Gwalior, Satna being the other major cities. Madhya Pradesh is the List o ...

Madhya Pradesh
,
Mizoram Mizoram () is a state in northeastern India Northeast India (officially North Eastern Region, NER) is the easternmost region of India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the ...

Mizoram
,
Rajasthan Rajasthan (; ; lit. 'Land of Kings') is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspa ...

Rajasthan
,
Uttar Pradesh Uttar Pradesh (; , 'Northern Province') is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (new ...

Uttar Pradesh
and
Uttarakhand Uttarakhand ( , or ; , lit. 'Northern Land'), formerly known as Uttaranchal ( ), is a state in the northern part of India. It is often referred to as the "Devbhumi" (literally "Land of the Gods") due to its religious significance and numerous ...

Uttarakhand
. Hindi is an official language of
Gujarat Gujarat (, ) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper i ...

Gujarat
, along with Gujarati. It acts as an additional official language of
West Bengal West Bengal (, Bengali Bengali or Bengalee, or Bengalese may refer to: *something of, from, or related to Bengal, a large region in South Asia * Bengalis, an ethnic and linguistic group of the region * Bengali language, the language they sp ...

West Bengal
in blocks and sub-divisions with more than 10% of the population speaking Hindi. Each may also designate a "co-official language"; in Uttar Pradesh, for instance, depending on the political formation in power, this language is generally
Urdu Urdu (; ur, , ALA-LC ALA-LC (American Library Association The American Library Association (ALA) is a nonprofit organization A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or nonpr ...

Urdu
. Similarly, Hindi is accorded the status of official language in the following
Union Territories #REDIRECT Union territory #REDIRECT Union territory#REDIRECT Union territory A union territory ( hi, script=latn, kendraśāsit pradeś, , centrally administered province) is a type of administrative division Administrative division, administ ...
:
Delhi Delhi (; ''Dillī''; ''Dillī''; ''Dêhlī''), officially the National Capital Territory (NCT) of Delhi, is a city and a of containing , the capital of India. * * * Straddling the river, but primarily its western or right bank, Delhi ...

Delhi
,
Andaman and Nicobar Islands Andaman and Nicobar Islands is a union territory of India consisting of 572 islands, of which 38 are inhabited, at the juncture of the Bay of Bengal and the Andaman Sea. The territory is about north of Aceh in Indonesia and separated from Thai ...

Andaman and Nicobar Islands
and
Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu is a union territory A union territory ( hi, script=latn, kendraśāsit pradeś, , centrally administered province) is a type of administrative division Administrative division, administrative unit ...

Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu
. In 2010, the
Gujarat High Court The Gujarat High Court is the High Court High court usually refers to the superior court In common law systems, a superior court is a court A court is any person or institution, often as a government institution, with the authority to Ad ...
clarified that Hindi is not the national language of India because the constitution does not mention it as such.


Fiji

Outside
Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere, Eastern and Northern Hemisphere, Northern Hemisphere of the Earth, Hemispheres. It shares the continental landmass of Eurasia with the cont ...

Asia
, the
Awadhi language Awadhi (; अवधी; 𑂃𑂫𑂡𑂲) is an Eastern Hindi The Central Indo-Aryan languages or Hindi languages are a group of related language variety (linguistics), varieties spoken across North India and Central India. These language v ...
(an Eastern Hindi dialect) with influence from
Bhojpuri Bhojpuri (;Bhojpuri entry, Oxford Dictionaries
, Oxford Uni ...

Bhojpuri
,
Bihari languages Bihari is a subgroup of the Indo-Aryan languages that is usually included in the Eastern branch of Indo-Aryan. The Bihari languages are mainly spoken in the Indian states India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (H ...

Bihari languages
, Fijian and
English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually become the World language, leading lan ...

English
is spoken in Fiji. It is an official language in
Fiji Fiji ( ; fj, Viti, ; hif, फ़िजी, ''Fijī''), officially the Republic of Fiji, is an island country in Melanesia, part of Oceania in the South Pacific Ocean. It lies about northeast of New Zealand. Fiji consists of an archipelago ...

Fiji
as per the 1997 Constitution of Fiji, where it referred to it as "Hindustani", however in the 2013 Constitution of Fiji, it is simply called "
Fiji Hindi Fiji Hindi () is an Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-Aryan language spoken by Indo-Fijians, though a few speak other languages at home. It is an Eastern Hindi language, considered to be a dialect of Awadhi language, Awadhi that has also been subject ...
". It is spoken by 380,000 people in Fiji.


Nepal

Hindi is spoken as a first language by about 77,569 people in
Nepal Nepal (; ne, नेपाल ), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal ( ne, सङ्घीय लोकतान्त्रिक गणतन्त्र नेपाल ), is a landlocked country in South Asia. It is ma ...

Nepal
according to the
2011 Nepal census Nepal conducted a widespread national census in 2011 by the Central Bureau of Statistics (Nepal), Nepal Central Bureau of Statistics. Working with the 58 List of cities in Nepal, municipalities and the 3915 Village Development Committee (Nepal), Vi ...
, and further by 1,225,950 people as a second language.


South Africa

Hindi is a protected language in
South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. With over 60 million people, it is the world's 23rd-most populous nation and covers an area of . South Africa has three capital citie ...

South Africa
. According to the
Constitution of South Africa The Constitution of South Africa is the supreme law of the Republic of South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. With over Demographics of South Africa, 59 millio ...
, the
Pan South African Language Board The Pan South African Language Board ( af, Pan-Suid-Afrikaanse Taalraad , abbreviated PanSALB) is an organization in South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. With over D ...
must promote and ensure respect for Hindi along with other languages.


United Arab Emirates

Hindi is adopted as the third official court language.


Geographical distribution

Hindi is the
lingua franca A lingua franca (; ; for plurals see ), also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language, auxiliary language, vehicular language, or link language, is a language or dialect The term dialect (from , , from the word , 'disco ...
of
northern India North India is a loosely defined region consisting of the northern part of India. The dominant geographical features of North India are the Indus-Gangetic Plain and the Himalayas, which demarcate the region from the Tibetan Plateau and Central ...
(which contains the
Hindi Belt The Hindi Belt is a linguistic region encompassing parts of northern, central Central is an adjective usually referring to being in the center (disambiguation), center of some place or (mathematical) object. Central may also refer to: Di ...

Hindi Belt
), as well as an official language of the Government of India, along with English. In
Northeast India Northeast India (officially North Eastern Region, NER) is the easternmost region of India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by area, seventh-large ...

Northeast India
a pidgin known as Haflong Hindi has developed as a ''lingua franca'' for the people living in Haflong,
Assam Assam (, ) is a state in Northeast India, northeastern India, south of the eastern Himalayas along the Brahmaputra Valley, Brahmaputra and Barak River valleys. Assam covers an area of . The state is bordered by Bhutan and Arunachal Pradesh to ...

Assam
who speak other languages natively. In Arunachal Pradesh, Hindi emerged as a lingua franca among locals who speak over 50 dialects natively. Hindi is quite easy to understand for many
Pakistan Pakistan, . Pronounced variably in English as , , , and . officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country in South Asia. It is the world's List of countries and dependencies by population, fifth-most populous country, with a popul ...

Pakistan
is, who speak Urdu, which, like Hindi, is a standard register of the Hindustani language; additionally, Indian media are widely viewed in Pakistan. A sizeable population in
Afghanistan Afghanistan (; Pashto Pashto (,; / , ), sometimes spelled Pukhto or Pakhto, is an Eastern Iranian language The Eastern Iranian languages are a subgroup of the Iranian languages The Iranian or Iranic languages are a branch of t ...

Afghanistan
, especially in
Kabul Kabul (; ps, , translit=Kābəl, ; prs, , translit=Kābol, ) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capital ...

Kabul
, can also speak and understand Hindi-Urdu due to the popularity and influence of
Bollywood Hindi cinema, often known as Bollywood and formerly as ''Bombay cinema'', is the Indian Hindi-language film industry based in Mumbai (formerly Bombay). The term is a portmanteau of "Bombay" and "Cinema of the United States, Hollywood". The ...

Bollywood
films, songs and actors in the region. Hindi is also spoken by a large population of
Madheshi The term Madheshi people ( ne, मधेशी) is used for people of Indian ancestry residing in the Terai of Nepal that comprises various cultural groups such as Hindu caste groups, Muslims, Marwari people, Marwaris and indigenous people of th ...
s (people having roots in north-India but having migrated to Nepal over hundreds of years) of
Nepal Nepal (; ne, नेपाल ), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal ( ne, सङ्घीय लोकतान्त्रिक गणतन्त्र नेपाल ), is a landlocked country in South Asia. It is ma ...

Nepal
. Apart from this, Hindi is spoken by the large
Indian diaspora Overseas Indians, officially known as Non-Resident Indians (NRIs) or Persons of Indian Origin (PIOs), are people of Indian Indian or Indians refers to people or things related to India, or to the indigenous people of the Americas, or Aborigin ...
which hails from, or has its origin from the "Hindi Belt" of India. A substantially large North Indian diaspora lives in countries like the
United States of America The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States of America
, the United Kingdom, the
United Arab Emirates The United Arab Emirates (UAE; ar, الإمارات العربية المتحدة ) or the Emirates ( ar, الإمارات ), is a country in Western Asia Western Asia, West Asia, or Southwest Asia, is the westernmost subregion A subregio ...

United Arab Emirates
, Trinidad and Tobago, Guyana, Suriname, South Africa, Fiji and
Mauritius Mauritius ( ; french: Maurice, link=no ; mfe, label=Mauritian Creole Mauritian Creole or Morisien or formerly Morisyen ( mfe, kreol morisien, links=no ) is a French-based creole language spoken in Mauritius Mauritius ( ; french: ...

Mauritius
, where it is natively spoken at home and among their own Hindustani-speaking communities. Outside India, Hindi speakers are 8 million in
Nepal Nepal (; ne, नेपाल ), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal ( ne, सङ्घीय लोकतान्त्रिक गणतन्त्र नेपाल ), is a landlocked country in South Asia. It is ma ...

Nepal
; 863,077 in
United States of America The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States of America
; 450,170 in Mauritius; 380,000 in Fiji; 250,292 in South Africa; 150,000 in Suriname;Frawley, p. 481 100,000 in
Uganda Uganda (Ugandan Languages: Yuganda), officially the Republic of Uganda ( sw, Jamhuri ya Uganda), is a landlocked A landlocked country is a country that does not have territory connected to an ocean or whose coastlines lie on endorheic ba ...

Uganda
; 45,800 in United Kingdom; 20,000 in
New Zealand New Zealand ( mi, Aotearoa ''Aotearoa'' (; commonly pronounced by English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon Engl ...

New Zealand
; 20,000 in
Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin Berlin (; ) is the Capital city, capital and List of cities in Germany by population, largest city of Germany by both area and population. Its 3,769,495 inh ...

Germany
; 26,000 in Trinidad and Tobago; 3,000 in
Singapore Singapore (), officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign state, sovereign island city-state in maritime Southeast Asia. It lies about one degree of latitude () north of the equator, off the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, bor ...

Singapore
.


Comparison with Modern Standard Urdu

, Hindi and Urdu are two registers of the same language and are mutually intelligible. Both Hindi & Urdu share a core vocabulary of native Prakrit and Sanskrit-derived words. However, Hindi is written in the Devanagari script and contains more
Sanskrit Sanskrit (; attributively , ; nominalization, nominally , , ) is a classical language of South Asia that belongs to the Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European languages. It arose in South Asia after its predecessor langua ...

Sanskrit
-derived words than Urdu, whereas Urdu is written in the Perso-Arabic script and uses more Arabic and Persian loanwords compared to Hindi. Because of this, as well as the fact that the two registers share an identical grammar, a consensus of linguists consider them to be two standardised forms of the same language,
Hindustani Hindustani may refer to: * something of, from, or related to Hindustan (another name of India) * Hindustani language, an Indo-Aryan language, whose two official norms are Hindi and Urdu * Fiji Hindi, a variety of Eastern Hindi spoken in Fiji, and i ...
or Hindi-Urdu. Hindi is the most commonly used official language in India. Urdu is the
national language A national language is a language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign language) and writing. Most languages have a writing system composed o ...
and ''lingua franca'' of Pakistan and is one of 22 official languages of India, also having official status in
Uttar Pradesh Uttar Pradesh (; , 'Northern Province') is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (new ...

Uttar Pradesh
,
Jammu and Kashmir Jammu is the winter capital of the Indian union territory of Jammu and Kashmir (union territory), Jammu and Kashmir. It is the headquarters and the largest city in Jammu district of the union territory. Lying on the banks of the river Tawi River ...
,
Delhi Delhi (; ''Dillī''; ''Dillī''; ''Dêhlī''), officially the National Capital Territory (NCT) of Delhi, is a city and a of containing , the capital of India. * * * Straddling the river, but primarily its western or right bank, Delhi ...

Delhi
and
Telangana Telangana (, , ) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspape ...

Telangana
.


Script

Hindi is written in the Devanagari script, an
abugida An abugida (, from Ge'ez language, Ge'ez: አቡጊዳ), sometimes known as alphasyllabary, neosyllabary or pseudo-alphabet, is a segmental Writing systems#Segmental writing system, writing system in which consonant-vowel sequences are writt ...
. Devanagari consists of 11
vowels A vowel is a syllabicSyllabic may refer to: *Syllable, a unit of speech sound, considered the building block of words **Syllabic consonant, a consonant that forms the nucleus of a syllable *Syllabary, writing system using symbols for syllables * ...

vowels
and 33
consonants In articulatory phonetics The field of articulatory phonetics is a subfield of phonetics that studies articulation and ways that humans produce speech. Articulatory phoneticians explain how humans produce speech sounds via the interaction of d ...

consonants
and is written from left to right. Unlike for Sanskrit, Devanagari is not entirely phonetic for Hindi, especially failing to mark schwa dropping in spoken Standard Hindi.


Romanization

The
Government of India The Government of India (ISO The International Organization for Standardization (ISO ) is an international standard An international standard is a technical standard A technical standard is an established norm (social), norm or requiremen ...
uses
Hunterian transliteration The Hunterian transliteration system is the "national system of romanization Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics, is the conversion of writing from a different writing system to the Latin script, Roman (Latin) script, or a system for doi ...
as its official system of writing Hindi in the Latin script. Various other systems also exist, such as
IAST The International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration (IAST) is a transliteration scheme that allows the lossless romanisation Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It ...
,
ITRANS The "Indian languages TRANSliteration" (ITRANS) is an ASCII ASCII ( ), abbreviated from American Standard Code for Information Interchange, is a character encoding In computing Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefi ...
and
ISO 15919 ISO 15919 "Transliteration of Devanagari and related Indic scripts into Latin characters" is one of a List of ISO romanizations, series of international standards for romanization by the International Organization for Standardization. It was publ ...
.


Phonology


Vocabulary

Traditionally, Hindi words are divided into five principal categories according to their etymology: * Tatsam (तत्सम "same as that") words: These are words which are spelled the same in Hindi as in Sanskrit (except for the absence of final case inflections).Masica, p. 65 They include words inherited from Sanskrit via
Prakrit The Prakrits (; Early Brahmi 𑀧𑁆𑀭𑀸𑀓𑀾𑀢, ''prākṛta''; Devanagari Devanagari ( ; , , Sanskrit pronunciation: ), also called Nagari (),Kathleen Kuiper (2010), The Culture of India, New York: The Rosen Publishing Group, ...
which have survived without modification (e.g. Hindi नाम ''nām'' / Sanskrit नाम ''nāma'', "name"; Hindi कर्म ''karm'' / Sanskrit कर्म ''karma'', "deed, action;
karma Karma (; sa, कर्म}, ; pi, kamma, italic=yes) means action, work, or deed. For the believers in spirituality the term also refers to the Spirituality, spiritual principle of cause and effect, often descriptively called the principl ...

karma
"), as well as forms borrowed directly from Sanskrit in more modern times (e.g. प्रार्थना ''prārthanā'', "prayer"). Pronunciation, however, conforms to Hindi norms and may differ from that of classical Sanskrit. Amongst nouns, the ''tatsam'' word could be the Sanskrit non-inflected word-stem, or it could be the nominative singular form in the Sanskrit nominal declension. * Ardhatatsam (अर्धतत्सम "semi-tatsama") words: Such words are typically earlier loanwords from Sanskrit which have undergone sound changes subsequent to being borrowed. (e.g. Hindi सूरज ''sūraj'' from Sanskrit सूर्य ''sūrya'') * Tadbhav (तद्भव "born of that") words: These are native Hindi words derived from Sanskrit after undergoing phonological rules (e.g. Sanskrit कर्म ''karma'', "deed" becomes
Sauraseni Prakrit Shauraseni Prakrit (, ) was a Middle Indo-Aryan language The Middle Indo-Aryan languages (or Middle Indic languages, sometimes conflated with the Prakrits, which are a stage of Middle Indic) are a historical group of languages of the Indo-Arya ...
कम्म ''kamma'', and eventually Hindi काम ''kām'', "work") and are spelled differently from Sanskrit. * Deshaj (देशज) words: These are words that were not borrowings but do not derive from attested Indo-Aryan words either. Belonging to this category are
onomatopoetic Onomatopoeia is the process of creating a word that phonetics, phonetically imitates, resembles, or suggests the sound that it describes. Such a word itself is also called an onomatopoeia. Common onomatopoeias include animal noises such as "Oin ...
words or ones borrowed from local non-
Indo-Aryan languages The Indo-Aryan or Indic languages form a major language family A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech ( spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign language) and writing. Most languages h ...
. * Videshī (विदेशी "foreign") words: These include all
loanwords A loanword (also loan word or loan-word) is a word In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gesture ...
from non-indigenous languages. The most frequent source languages in this category are
Persian Persian may refer to: * People and things from Iran, historically called ''Persia'' in the English language ** Persians, Persian people, the majority ethnic group in Iran, not to be conflated with the Iranian peoples ** Persian language, an Iranian ...
,
Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East The Middle East is a list of transcontinental countries, transcontinental region ...

Arabic
,
English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually become the World language, leading lan ...

English
and
Portuguese Portuguese may refer to: * anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Portugal ** Portuguese cuisine, traditional foods ** Portuguese language, a Romance language *** Portuguese dialects, variants of the Portuguese language ** Portug ...

Portuguese
. Examples are क़िला ''qila'' "fort" from Persian, कमेटी ''kameṭī'' from English ''committee'' and साबुन ''sābun'' "soap" from Arabic. Hindi also makes extensive use of
loan translation In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign language) and writing. Most languag ...
( calqueing) and occasionally
phono-semantic matching Phono-semantic matching (PSM) is the incorporation of a word into one language from another, often creating a neologism, where the word's non-native quality is hidden by replacing it with Phonetics, phonetically and semantically similar words or r ...
of
English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually become the World language, leading lan ...

English
.


Prakrit

Hindi has naturally inherited a large portion of its vocabulary from Śaurasenī Prākṛt, in the form of ''tadbhava'' words. This process usually involves
compensatory lengthening Compensatory lengthening in phonology Phonology is a branch of linguistics that studies how languages or dialects systematically organize their sounds (or signs, in sign languages). The term also refers to the sound system of any particular la ...
of vowels preceding consonant clusters in Prakrit, e.g. Sanskrit ''tīkṣṇa'' > Prakrit ''tikkha'' > Hindi ''tīkhā''.


Sanskrit

Much of Modern Standard Hindi's vocabulary is borrowed from Sanskrit as ''tatsam'' borrowings, especially in technical and academic fields. The formal Hindi standard, from which much of the Persian, Arabic and English vocabulary has been replaced by
neologism A neologism (; from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is appro ...
s compounding ''tatsam'' words, is called ''Śuddh Hindi'' (pure Hindi), and is viewed as a more prestigious dialect over other more colloquial forms of Hindi. Excessive use of ''tatsam'' words sometimes creates problems for native speakers. They may have Sanskrit consonant clusters which do not exist in native Hindi, causing difficulties in pronunciation. As a part of the process of
Sanskritization In sociology, Sanskritisation ( Indian and British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect of the English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon E ...
, new words are coined using Sanskrit components to be used as replacements for supposedly foreign vocabulary. Usually these neologisms are
calque In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Linguistics encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the me ...

calque
s of English words already adopted into spoken Hindi. Some terms such as ''dūrbhāṣ'' "telephone", literally "far-speech" and ''dūrdarśan'' "television", literally "far-sight" have even gained some currency in formal Hindi in the place of the English borrowings ''(ṭeli)fon'' and ''ṭīvī''.


Persian

Hindi also features significant
Persian Persian may refer to: * People and things from Iran, historically called ''Persia'' in the English language ** Persians, Persian people, the majority ethnic group in Iran, not to be conflated with the Iranian peoples ** Persian language, an Iranian ...
influence, standardised from spoken
Hindustani Hindustani may refer to: * something of, from, or related to Hindustan (another name of India) * Hindustani language, an Indo-Aryan language, whose two official norms are Hindi and Urdu * Fiji Hindi, a variety of Eastern Hindi spoken in Fiji, and i ...
. Early borrowings, beginning in the mid-12th century, were specific to
Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodness", "ah gosh", "ah gawd"; see interjection An interjection is a word or ex ...
(e.g. ''Muhammad'', ''islām'') and so Persian was simply an intermediary for Arabic. Later, under the
Delhi Sultanate The Delhi Sultanate was an Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodness", "ah gosh", "ah gawd"; see int ...
and
Mughal Empire The Mughal, Mogul, or Moghul Empire was an early modern The early modern period of modern history Human history, or world history, is the narrative of Human, humanity's past. It is understood through archaeology, anthropology, ge ...
, Persian became the primary administrative language in the Hindi heartland. Persian borrowings reached a heyday in the 17th century, pervading all aspects of life. Even grammatical constructs, namely the izafat, were assimilated into Hindi. Post-Partition of India, Partition the Indian government advocated for a policy of Sanskritization leading to a marginalisation of the Persian element in Hindi. However, many Persian words (e.g. ''muśkil'' "difficult", ''bas'' "enough", ''havā'' "air", ''x(a)yāl'' "thought", ''kitab'' "Book", ''khud'' "Self") have remained entrenched in Modern Standard Hindi, and a larger amount are still used in Urdu poetry written in the Devanagari script.


Arabic

Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East The Middle East is a list of transcontinental countries, transcontinental region ...

Arabic
also shows influence in Hindi, often via Persian but sometimes directly.


Media


Literature

Hindi literature is broadly divided into four prominent forms or styles, being ''Bhakti'' (devotional – Kabirdas, Kabir, Raskhan); ''Śṛṇgār'' (beauty – Keshav, Bihari (poet), Bihari); ''Vīgāthā'' (epic); and ''Ādhunik'' (modern). Medieval Hindi literature is marked by the influence of Bhakti movement and the composition of long, epic poems. It was primarily written in other Hindi languages, varieties of Hindi, particularly
Avadhi Awadhi (; अवधी; 𑂃𑂫𑂡𑂲) is an Eastern Hindi The Central Indo-Aryan languages or Hindi languages are a group of related language variety (linguistics), varieties spoken across North India and Central India. These language v ...
and
Braj Bhasha The Braj language, ''Braj Bhāshā'', also known as Braji or Brij Bhasha or Braj Boli, is a Western Hindi languages, Western Hindi language. Along with Awadhi (a variety of Eastern Hindi), it was one of the two predominant literary languages o ...
, but to a degree also in Delhavi, the basis for Modern Standard Hindi. During the British Raj, Hindustani became the prestige dialect. Chandrakanta (novel), ''Chandrakanta'', written by Devaki Nandan Khatri in 1888, is considered the first authentic work of prose in modern Hindi. The person who brought realism in the Hindi prose literature was Munshi Premchand, who is considered as the most revered figure in the world of Hindi fiction and progressive movement. Literary, or ''Sāhityik'', Hindi was popularised by the writings of Swami Dayananda Saraswati, Bhartendu Harishchandra and others. The rising numbers of newspapers and magazines made Hindustani popular with the educated people. The ''Dvivedī Yug'' ("Age of Dwivedi") in Hindi literature lasted from 1900 to 1918. It is named after Mahavir Prasad Dwivedi, who played a major role in establishing Modern Standard Hindi in poetry and broadening the acceptable subjects of Hindi poetry from the traditional ones of religion and romantic love. In the 20th century, Hindi literature saw a romantic upsurge. This is known as ''Chhayavaad, Chāyāvād'' (''shadow-ism'') and the literary figures belonging to this school are known as ''Chāyāvādī''. Jaishankar Prasad, Suryakant Tripathi 'Nirala', Mahadevi Varma and Sumitranandan Pant, are the four major ''Chāyāvādī'' poets. ''Uttar Ādhunik'' is the post-modernist period of Hindi literature, marked by a questioning of early trends that copied the West as well as the excessive ornamentation of the ''Chāyāvādī'' movement, and by a return to simple language and natural themes.


Internet

Hindi literature, music, and Bollywood, film have all been disseminated via the internet. In 2015, Google reported a 94% increase in Hindi-content consumption year-on-year, adding that 21% of users in India prefer content in Hindi. Many Hindi newspapers also offer digital editions.


Sample text

The following is a sample text in High Hindi, of the Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (by the United Nations): ;Hindi :अनुच्छेद 1 (एक) ''–'' सभी मनुष्यों को गौरव और अधिकारों के विषय में जन्मजात स्वतन्त्रता और समानता प्राप्त हैं । उन्हें बुद्धि और अन्तरात्मा की देन प्राप्त है और परस्पर उन्हें भाईचारे के भाव से बर्ताव करना चाहिए । ;Transliteration (
ISO The International Organization for Standardization (ISO ) is an international standard An international standard is a technical standard A technical standard is an established norm (social), norm or requirement for a repeatable technical task w ...
): : ;Transcription (International Phonetic Alphabet, IPA): : ;Gloss (word-to-word): :Article 1 (one) ''–'' All human-beings to dignity and rights' matter in from-birth freedom and equality acquired is. Them to reason and conscience's endowment acquired is and always them to brotherhood's spirit with behaviour to do should. ;Translation (grammatical): :Article 1 ''–'' All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.


See also

*
Hindi Belt The Hindi Belt is a linguistic region encompassing parts of northern, central Central is an adjective usually referring to being in the center (disambiguation), center of some place or (mathematical) object. Central may also refer to: Di ...

Hindi Belt
*Bengali Language Movement (Manbhum) *Hindi Divas – the official day to celebrate Hindi as a language. *Languages of India *Languages with official status in India * Indian States by most popular languages *List of English words of Hindi or Urdu origin *List of Hindi television channels broadcast in Europe (by country) *List of Hindi channels in Europe (by type) *List of languages by number of native speakers in India *List of Sanskrit and Persian roots in Hindi *World Hindi Secretariat


Notes


References


Bibliography

* * George Abraham Grierson, Grierson, G. A. Linguistic Survey of India, ''Linguistic Survey of India'' Vol I-XI, Calcutta, 1928,
(searchable database)
* * * * * * * * * * * Taj, Afroz (2002)
A door into Hindi
'. Retrieved 8 November 2005. * Tiwari, Bholanath ([1966] 2004) ''हिन्दी भाषा (Hindī Bhasha)'', Kitab Pustika, Allahabad, .


Dictionaries

* . * * * Academic Room Hindi Dictionary Mobile App developed in the Harvard Innovation Lab (iOS, Android and Blackberry) *


Further reading

* * Bhatia, Tej K. ''A History of the Hindi Grammatical Tradition''. Leiden, Netherlands & New York, NY: E.J. Brill, 1987.


External links

*
The Union: Official Language

Official Unicode Chart for Devanagari (PDF)
{{Authority control Hindi, Hindi languages Hindustani language Fusional languages Indo-Aryan languages Official languages of India Standard languages, Hindi Languages of Uttar Pradesh Languages of Rajasthan Languages of Himachal Pradesh Languages of Madhya Pradesh Languages of Bihar Languages of Jharkhand Languages of Jammu and Kashmir Languages of Maharashtra Languages of Arunachal Pradesh Languages of West Bengal Languages of Assam Languages of Gujarat Languages of Mizoram Subject–object–verb languages Articles containing video clips