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Gujarat (, ) is a
state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in Columbia, South Carolina, Un ...
on the
western coast
western coast
of
India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, second-most populous country, the List of countries and dependencies by area, seventh-largest ...

India
with a coastline of – most of which lies on the
Kathiawar Kathiawar () is a peninsula A peninsula ( la, paeninsula from ' "almost" and ' "island") is a landform surrounded by water on most of its border while being connected to a mainland from which it extends. The surrounding water is usually under ...

Kathiawar
peninsula – and a population of 60.4 million. It is the fifth-largest Indian state by area and the ninth-largest state by population. Gujarat is bordered by
Rajasthan Rajasthan ( ; literally, "Land of Kings") is a States and union territories of India, state in northern India. The state covers an area of or 10.4 percent of the total geographical area of India. It is the List of states and union territories ...

Rajasthan
to the
northeast The points of the compass are the vectors by which planet A planet is an astronomical body orbiting a star or Stellar evolution#Stellar remnants, stellar remnant that is massive enough to be Hydrostatic equilibrium, rounded by its own gravity ...

northeast
,
Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu is a union territory A union territory ( hi, script=latn, kendraśāsit pradeś, , centrally administered province) is a type of administrative division Administrative division, administrative unit ...
to the south,
Maharashtra Maharashtra (; , abbr. MH or Maha, is a states and union territories of India, state in the western and central peninsular region of India occupying a substantial portion of the Deccan Plateau. Maharashtra is the List of states and union territo ...

Maharashtra
to the southeast,
Madhya Pradesh Madhya Pradesh (, ; meaning ''Central Province'') is a state in central India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, second-most ...

Madhya Pradesh
to the east, and the
Arabian Sea The Arabian Sea ( ar, بحر العرب ''Bahr al-Arab'') is a region of the northern Indian Ocean The Indian Ocean is the third-largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering or 19.8% of the water Water is an Inorganic co ...
and the
Pakistan Pakistan, . Pronounced variably in English as , , , and . officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country in South Asia South Asia is the southern region of Asia, which is defined in both geography, geographical and culture, e ...

Pakistan
i province of
Sindh Sindh (; sd, سنڌ; ur, , ; historically romanized as Sind) is one of the four Administrative units of Pakistan, provinces of Pakistan. Located in the Geography of Pakistan, southeastern region of the country, Sindh is the third-largest ...

Sindh
to the west. Its
capital city A capital or capital city is the municipality holding primary status in a country, Constituent state, state, province, Department (country subdivision), department, or other administrative region, usually as its seat of the government. A capital ...
is
Gandhinagar Gandhinagar (, ) is the capital of the state of Gujarat Gujarat (, ) is a state on the western coast of India with a coastline of – most of which lies on the Kathiawar peninsula – and a population of 60.4 million. It is the L ...

Gandhinagar
, while its largest city is
Ahmedabad Ahmedabad ( Gujarati: Amdavad, ) is the largest city and former capital of the Indian state of Gujarat Gujarat (, ) is a state on the western coast of India with a coastline of – most of which lies on the Kathiawar peninsula – and ...
. The
Gujarati people The Gujarati people or Gujaratis, are an Indo-Aryan peoples, Indo-Aryan ethnolinguistic group who speak Gujarati language, Gujarati, an Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-Aryan language. While they mainly inhabit the Indian state of Gujarat, they have ...
of India are indigenous to the state and their language, Gujarati, is the state's official language. The
economy of Gujarat The economy of Gujarat, a state in Western India, has significant agricultural as well as Manufacturing, industrial production within India. Major agricultural produce of the state includes cotton, peanut, groundnuts (peanuts), Date (fruit), dates ...
is the fifth-largest in India, with a gross state domestic product (GSDP) of and has the country's 10th-highest GSDP per capita of . Gujarat ranks 21st among Indian states in human development index. The state traditionally has low unemployment and is widely considered one of the most industrially developed states of India and a manufacturing hub. The state encompasses 23 sites of the ancient
Indus Valley Civilisation , c. 2500 BCE. Terracotta Terracotta, terra cotta, or terra-cotta (; Italian language, Italian: "baked earth", from the Latin ''terra cocta''), a type of earthenware, is a clay-based ceramic glaze, unglazed or glazed ceramic, where the ...
(more than any other state). The most important sites are
Lothal Lothal () was one of the southernmost cities of the ancient Indus Valley Civilization oxen for pulling a cart and the presence of the chicken The chicken (''Gallus gallus domesticus''), a subspecies of the red junglefowl, is a t ...

Lothal
(the world's first dry dock),
Dholavira Dholavira ( gu, ધોળાવીરા) is an archaeological site An archaeological site is a place (or group of physical sites) in which evidence of past activity is preserved (either prehistoric or recorded history, historic or contempora ...

Dholavira
(the fifth largest site), and Gola Dhoro (where 5 uncommon seals were found). Lothal is believed to have been one of the world's first
seaports The Porticciolo del Cedas port in Trieste.html"_;"title="Barcola_near_Trieste">Barcola_near_Trieste,_a_small_local_port A_port_is_a_ Barcola_near_Trieste,_a_small_local_port">Trieste.html"_;"title="Barcola_near_Trieste">Barcola_near ...
. Gujarat's coastal cities, chiefly
Bharuch Bharuch (), formerly known as Broach, is a city at the mouth of the river Narmada The Narmada River, also called the ''Reva'' and previously also known as ''Narbada (Nerbudda)''.This river is located in Madhya Pradesh Madhya Pradesh ...
and
Khambhat Khambhat (, ) (Gujarati language, Gujarati: ખંભાત), also known as Khambat, Khambaj, and Cambay, is a town and the surrounding urban agglomeration in Khambhat Tehsil, Taluka, Anand district in the Indian States and territories of India, ...
, served as ports and trading centres in the
Maurya The Maurya Empire was a geographically extensive Iron Age The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age system, three-age division of the prehistory and protohistory of Homo sapiens, humanity. It was preceded by the Bronze Age and the ...
and
Gupta Gupta () is a common surname of India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, second-most populous country, the List of countrie ...

Gupta
empires, and during the succession of royal
Saka The Saka, Śaka, Shaka, Śāka or Sacae ( ''Sakā''; Kharosthi: 𐨯𐨐 ''Saka''; Brahmi: , ''Śaka''; sa, शक, शाक, ''Śaka'', ''Śāka''; grc, Σάκαι, ''Sákai''; la, Sacae; , old ''*Sək'', mod. ''Sāi''; egy ...

Saka
dynasties in the
Western Satraps The Western Satraps, or Western Kshatrapas (Brahmi:, ''Mahakṣatrapa'', "Great Satraps") were Indo-Scythian (Saka) rulers of the western and central part of India (Saurashtra (region), Saurashtra and Malwa: modern Gujarat, Maharashtra, Rajasthan ...
era. Along with
Bihar Bihar (; ) is a states and union territories of India, state in eastern India. It is the list of states and union territories of India by population, third-largest state by population and list of states and union territories of India by area, ...
,
Mizoram Mizoram () is a state in northeastern India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, second-most populous country, the List of cou ...

Mizoram
and
Nagaland Nagaland is a state in north-eastern India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, second-most populous country, the List of cou ...

Nagaland
, Gujarat is one of four Indian states to prohibit the sale of alcohol. The
Gir Forest National Park Gir National Park and Wildlife Sanctuary, also known as Sasan Gir, is a forest and wildlife sanctuary near Talala (Gir), Talala Gir in Gujarat, India. It is located north-east of Somnath, south-east of Junagadh and south-west of Amreli. It wa ...

Gir Forest National Park
in Gujarat is home to the only wild population of the
Asiatic lion The Asiatic lion is a '' Panthera leo leo'' population In biology, a population is a number of all the organisms of the same group or species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a ...
in the world.


Etymology

Gujarat is derived from the Pratihar dynasty of gurjars, who ruled Gujarat in the 8th and 9th centuries CE. Parts of modern
Rajasthan Rajasthan ( ; literally, "Land of Kings") is a States and union territories of India, state in northern India. The state covers an area of or 10.4 percent of the total geographical area of India. It is the List of states and union territories ...

Rajasthan
and Gujarat have been known as ''Gurjaratra'' or ''Gurjarabhumi'' for centuries before the
Mughal Mughal or Moghul may refer to: * The Mughal Empire of South Asia ** Mughal dynasty ** Mughal emperors ** Mughal people, a social group of South Asia ** Mughal Army, the Army of Mughal Empire * Cultural influences of the Mughal Empire ** Mughal arc ...
period.


History


Ancient history

Gujarat was one of the main central areas of the
Indus Valley Civilisation , c. 2500 BCE. Terracotta Terracotta, terra cotta, or terra-cotta (; Italian language, Italian: "baked earth", from the Latin ''terra cocta''), a type of earthenware, is a clay-based ceramic glaze, unglazed or glazed ceramic, where the ...
. It contains ancient metropolitan cities from the
Indus Valley#REDIRECT Indus River#REDIRECT Indus River {{Redirect category shell, {{R from move {{R from miscapitalisation {{R unprintworthy ...
{{Redirect category shell, {{R from move {{R from miscapitalisation {{R unprintworthy ...

Indus Valley
such as
Lothal Lothal () was one of the southernmost cities of the ancient Indus Valley Civilization oxen for pulling a cart and the presence of the chicken The chicken (''Gallus gallus domesticus''), a subspecies of the red junglefowl, is a t ...

Lothal
,
Dholavira Dholavira ( gu, ધોળાવીરા) is an archaeological site An archaeological site is a place (or group of physical sites) in which evidence of past activity is preserved (either prehistoric or recorded history, historic or contempora ...

Dholavira
and Gola Dhoro. The ancient city of Lothal was where India's first port was established. The ancient city of Dholavira is one of the largest and most prominent archaeological sites in India, belonging to the Indus Valley Civilisation. The most recent discovery was Gola Dhoro. Altogether, about fifty Indus Valley settlement ruins have been discovered in Gujarat. The ancient history of Gujarat was enriched by the commercial activities of its inhabitants. There is clear historical evidence of trade and commerce ties with
Egypt Egypt ( ar, مِصر, Miṣr), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identif ...
,
Bahrain Bahrain ( ; ar, البحرين, al-Baḥrayn, , locally ), officially the Kingdom of Bahrain ( ar, مملكة البحرين, links=no '), is a country in the Persian Gulf. The island nation comprises a small archipelago An archipelag ...
and
Sumer Sumer ()The name is from AkkadianAkkadian or Accadian may refer to: * The Akkadian language Akkadian ( ''akkadû'', ''ak-ka-du-u2''; logogram: ''URIKI'')John Huehnergard & Christopher Woods, "Akkadian and Eblaite", ''The Cambridge Encyclo ...

Sumer
in the
Persian Gulf The Persian Gulf ( fa, خلیج فارس, translit=xalij-e fârs, lit=Gulf of Fars, ) is a mediterranean sea The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely en ...
during the time period of 1000 to 750 BCE. There was a succession of
Hindu Hindus () are persons who regard themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism Hinduism () is an Indian religion and ''dharma'', or way of life. It is the Major religious groups, world's third-l ...

Hindu
and
Buddhist Buddhism (, ) is the world's fourth-largest religion Religion is a social system, social-cultural system of designated religious behaviour, behaviors and practices, morality, morals, beliefs, worldviews, religious text, texts, shrine, ...
states such as the
Mauryan Dynasty The Maurya Empire was a geographically extensive Iron Age list of ancient great powers, historical power in South Asia based in Magadha, founded by Chandragupta Maurya in 322 BCE, and existing in loose-knit fashion until 185 BCE. Quote: "Ma ...
,
Western Satraps The Western Satraps, or Western Kshatrapas (Brahmi:, ''Mahakṣatrapa'', "Great Satraps") were Indo-Scythian (Saka) rulers of the western and central part of India (Saurashtra (region), Saurashtra and Malwa: modern Gujarat, Maharashtra, Rajasthan ...
,
Satavahana dynasty The Satavahanas (''Sādavāhana'' or ''Sātavāhana'', IAST The International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration (IAST) is a transliteration scheme that allows the lossless romanisation of Brahmic family, Indic scripts as employed by Sa ...
,
Gupta Empire The Gupta Empire was an Outline of ancient India, ancient Indian empire which existed from the early 4th century CE to late 6th century CE. At its zenith, from approximately 319 to 467 CE, it covered much of the Indian subcontinent. This period ...

Gupta Empire
,
Chalukya dynasty The Chalukya dynasty () was a Classical Indian royal dynasty that ruled large parts of southern and central India between the 6th and the 12th centuries. During this period, they ruled as three related yet individual dynasties. The earliest ...
,
Rashtrakuta Empire Rashtrakuta (IAST The International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration (IAST) is a transliteration scheme that allows the lossless romanisation of Brahmic family, Indic scripts as employed by Sanskrit and related Indic languages. It is b ...
,
Pala Empire The Pala Empire ( bn, পাল সাম্রাজ্য) was an imperial power during the Post-classical history, post-classical period in the Indian subcontinent, which originated in the region of Bengal. It is named after its ruling dynast ...
and
Gurjara-Pratihara The Gurjara-Pratihara dynasty was an imperial power during the Late Classical period on the Indian subcontinent, that ruled much of Northern India from the mid-8th to the 11th century. They ruled first at Ujjain and later at Kannauj Kann ...
Empire, as well as local dynasties such as the
Maitraka The Maitraka dynasty ruled western India (now Gujarat Gujarat (, ) is a state on the western coast of India with a coastline of – most of which lies on the Kathiawar peninsula – and a population of 60.4 million. It is the List of ...
s and then the Chaulukyas. The early history of Gujarat includes the imperial grandeur of
Chandragupta Maurya Chandragupta Maurya (reign: 321–297 BCE) was the founder of the Maurya Empire The Maurya Empire was a geographically extensive Iron Age The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age system, three-age division of the prehistory ...
who conquered a number of earlier states in what is now Gujarat. Pushyagupta, a
Vaishya Vaishya is one of the four varnas of the Hindu Hindus () are persons who regard themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism Hinduism () is an Indian religion and ''dharma'', or way of li ...
, was appointed the governor of Saurashtra by the Mauryan regime. He ruled Girinagar (modern-day
Junagadh Junagadh () is the headquarters of Junagadh district Junagadh district is a district of the Indian state of Gujarat. Its administrative headquarters is the city of Junagadh. Geography The district is located on the Kathiawar peninsula in west ...

Junagadh
) (322 BCE to 294 BCE) and built a dam on the Sudarshan lake. Emperor
Ashoka Ashoka (; Brāhmi: 𑀅𑀲𑁄𑀓, ''Asoka'', IAST The International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration (IAST) is a transliteration scheme that allows the lossless romanisation of Brahmic family, Indic scripts as employed by Sanskrit ...

Ashoka
, the grandson of Chandragupta Maurya, not only ordered his edicts engraved in the rock at
Junagadh Junagadh () is the headquarters of Junagadh district Junagadh district is a district of the Indian state of Gujarat. Its administrative headquarters is the city of Junagadh. Geography The district is located on the Kathiawar peninsula in west ...

Junagadh
, but also asked Governor Tusherpha to cut canals from the lake where an earlier Mauryan governor had built a dam. Between the decline of Mauryan power and Saurashtra coming under the sway of the
Samprati Samprati () was an emperor of the Maurya dynasty. He was the son of Ashoka Ashoka (; Brāhmi: 𑀅𑀲𑁄𑀓, ''Asoka'', IAST The International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration (IAST) is a transliteration scheme that allows the ...
Mauryas of
Ujjain Ujjain () is a city in Ujjain district of the States and territories of India, Indian state of Madhya Pradesh. It is the fifth largest city in Madhya Pradesh by population and is the public administration, administrative centre of Ujjain distric ...

Ujjain
, there was an
Indo-Greek The Indo-Greek Kingdom, or Graeco-Indian Kingdom, also known historically as the Yavana Kingdom (Yavanarajya), was a Hellenistic period, Hellenistic-era Ancient Greece, Greek kingdom covering various parts of Afghanistan and the northwest region ...
defeat in Gujarat of
Demetrius Demetrius is the Latinized form of the Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language used in ancient Greece and the classical antiquity, ancient world from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It is often roughly divided in ...

Demetrius
. In 16th century manuscripts, there is an apocryphal story of a merchant of King
Gondophares Gondophares I (Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million ...

Gondophares
landing in Gujarat with
Apostle Thomas Thomas the Apostle ( hbo, תוֹמָאס הקדוש; grc, Θωμᾶς; cop, ⲑⲱⲙⲁⲥ; syc, ܬܐܘܡܐ ܫܠܝܚܐ ''Tʾōmā šliḥā''; mal, മാര്‍ തോമാ ശ്ലീഹ ''mar thoma sliha''), also called Didymus ("twi ...
. The incident of the cup-bearer torn apart by a lion might indicate that the port city described is in Gujarat. For nearly 300 years from the start of the 1st century CE,
Saka The Saka, Śaka, Shaka, Śāka or Sacae ( ''Sakā''; Kharosthi: 𐨯𐨐 ''Saka''; Brahmi: , ''Śaka''; sa, शक, शाक, ''Śaka'', ''Śāka''; grc, Σάκαι, ''Sákai''; la, Sacae; , old ''*Sək'', mod. ''Sāi''; egy ...

Saka
rulers played a prominent part in Gujarat's history. The weather-beaten rock at Junagadh gives a glimpse of the ruler
Rudradaman I Rudradāman I (r. 130–150) was a Śaka ruler from the Western Kshatrapas dynasty. He was the grandson of the king Caṣṭana. Rudradāman I was instrumental in the decline of the Sātavāhana Empire. Rudradāman I took up the title of ''M ...
(100 CE) of the Saka satraps known as
Western Satraps The Western Satraps, or Western Kshatrapas (Brahmi:, ''Mahakṣatrapa'', "Great Satraps") were Indo-Scythian (Saka) rulers of the western and central part of India (Saurashtra (region), Saurashtra and Malwa: modern Gujarat, Maharashtra, Rajasthan ...
, or Kshatraps. Mahakshatrap
Rudradaman I Rudradāman I (r. 130–150) was a Śaka ruler from the Western Kshatrapas dynasty. He was the grandson of the king Caṣṭana. Rudradāman I was instrumental in the decline of the Sātavāhana Empire. Rudradāman I took up the title of ''M ...
founded the Kardamaka dynasty which ruled from on the banks of the
Narmada The Narmada River, also called the Reva and previously also known as ''Narbada'' or anglicised as ''Nerbudda'', is the 5th longest river and overall longest west-flowing river in India, and largest flowing river of the state of Madhya Pradesh ...

Narmada
up to the
Aparanta Aparanta, or Aparantaka (meaning "Western border") was a geographical region of ancient India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population ...

Aparanta
region bordering Punjab. In Gujarat, several battles were fought between the south Indian
Satavahana dynasty The Satavahanas (''Sādavāhana'' or ''Sātavāhana'', IAST The International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration (IAST) is a transliteration scheme that allows the lossless romanisation of Brahmic family, Indic scripts as employed by Sa ...
and the Western Satraps. The greatest and the mightiest ruler of the Satavahana Dynasty was
Gautamiputra Satakarni Gautamiputra Satakarni ( Brahmi: 𑀕𑁄𑀢𑀫𑀺𑀧𑀼𑀢 𑀲𑀸𑀢𑀓𑀡𑀺, ''Gotamiputa Sātakaṇi'', IAST The International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration (IAST) is a transliteration scheme that allows the lossless ...
who defeated the Western Satraps and conquered some parts of Gujarat in the 2nd century CE. The Kshatrapa dynasty was replaced by the
Gupta Empire The Gupta Empire was an Outline of ancient India, ancient Indian empire which existed from the early 4th century CE to late 6th century CE. At its zenith, from approximately 319 to 467 CE, it covered much of the Indian subcontinent. This period ...

Gupta Empire
with the conquest of Gujarat by Chandragupta Vikramaditya. Vikramaditya's successor
Skandagupta Skandagupta ( Gupta script: ''Ska-nda-gu-pta'', r. c. 455-467) was a Gupta Emperor of northern India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies b ...
left an inscription (450 CE) on a rock at Junagadh which gives details of the governor's repairs to the embankment surrounding Sudarshan lake after it was damaged by floods. The
Anarta Anarta ( sa, आनर्त, ) was an ancient India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, second-most populous country, the ...
and Saurashtra regions were both parts of the Gupta empire. Towards the middle of the 5th century, the Gupta empire went into decline. Senapati Bhatarka, the general of the Guptas, took advantage of the situation and in 470 set up what came to be known as the
Maitraka The Maitraka dynasty ruled western India (now Gujarat Gujarat (, ) is a state on the western coast of India with a coastline of – most of which lies on the Kathiawar peninsula – and a population of 60.4 million. It is the List of ...
state. He shifted his capital from Giringer to
Valabhi Vallabhi (or Valabhi or Valabhipur, modern Vala) is an ancient city located in the Saurashtra peninsula A peninsula ( la, paeninsula from ' "almost" and ' "island") is a landform surrounded by water on most of its border while being connecte ...
, near
Bhavnagar Bhavnagar is a city in the Bhavnagar district of the Saurashtra region of Gujarat, a States of India, state of India. It was founded in 1724 by Gohil, Bhavsinhji Gohil (1703–1764). It was the capital of Bhavnagar State, which was a princely s ...
, on Saurashtra's east coast. The Maitrakas of Vallabhi became very powerful with their rule prevailing over large parts of Gujarat and adjoining
Malwa Malwa is an Indian historical region, historical Doab#Malwa Doab, doab list of regions in India, region of west-central India occupying a plateau of volcanic origin. Geologically, the Malwa Plateau generally refers to the volcanic plateau, volc ...
. A university was set up by the Maitrakas, which came to be known far and wide for its scholastic pursuits and was compared with the noted
Nalanda University Nalanda University (also known as Nalanda International University) is an international and research-intensive university located in the historical city of Rajgir in Bihar Bihar (; ) is a states and union territories of India, state in ...

Nalanda University
. It was during the rule of Dhruvasena Maitrak that Chinese philosopher-traveler
Xuanzang Xuanzang (; fl. 602 – 664), born Chen Hui / Chen Yi (), was a Chinese Buddhist monk A monk (, from el, μοναχός, ''monachos'', "single, solitary" via Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic lan ...

Xuanzang
/ I Tsing visited in 640 along the
Silk Road The Silk Road () was and is a network of trade route A trade route is a logistical network identified as a series of pathways and stoppages used for the commercial transport of cargo. The term can also be used to refer to trade over bodies of ...

Silk Road
. Gujarat was known to the
ancient Greeks Ancient Greece ( el, Ἑλλάς, Hellás) was a civilization A civilization (or civilisation) is any complex society that is characterized by urban development, social stratification, a form of government, and symbol A symbol i ...
and was familiar with other Western centers of civilisation through the end of the European
Middle Ages In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages or medieval period lasted approximately from the 5th to the late 15th centuries, similarly to the Post-classical, Post-classical period of global history. It began with the fall of the Western Roma ...
. The oldest written record of Gujarat's 2,000-year maritime history is documented in a Greek book titled '' The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea: Travel and Trade in the Indian Ocean by a Merchant of the First Century''.


Medieval history

In the early 8th century, the
Arabs The Arabs (singular Arab ; singular ar, عَرَبِيٌّ, ISO 233: , Arabic pronunciation: , plural ar, عَرَبٌ, ISO 233: , Arabic pronunciation: ) are an ethnic group mainly inhabiting the Arab world. In modern usage the term refers ...
of the
Umayyad Caliphate The Umayyad Caliphate (661–750 CE; , ; ar, ٱلْخِلَافَة ٱلْأُمَوِيَّة, al-Khilāfah al-ʾUmawīyah) was the second of the four major caliphate A caliphate ( ar, خِلَافَة, ) is an Islamic state under th ...
established an empire in the name of the rising religion of
Islam Islam (;There are ten pronunciations of ''Islam'' in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the ''s'' is or , and whether the ''a'' is pronounced , or (when the stress is on the first syllable) ( ...
, which stretched from Spain in the west to Afghanistan and modern-day Pakistan in the east. Al-Junaid, the successor of
QasimQasim, Qasem or Casim may refer to: Name * Qasim (name) ( ar, قاسم ' or '), a given name of Arabic origin which means "the owner of beauty", and the name of several people Iran * Qasem Beygi, Qasem Begi, two different villages in Kuhdasht C ...
, finally subdued the Hindu resistance within
Sindh Sindh (; sd, سنڌ; ur, , ; historically romanized as Sind) is one of the four Administrative units of Pakistan, provinces of Pakistan. Located in the Geography of Pakistan, southeastern region of the country, Sindh is the third-largest ...

Sindh
and established a secure base. The Arab rulers tried to expand their empire southeast, which culminated in the
Caliphate campaigns in India In the first half of the 8th century CE, a series of battles took place between the Umayyad Caliphate The Umayyad Caliphate (661–750 CE; , ; ar, ٱلْخِلَافَة ٱلْأُمَوِيَّة, al-Khilāfah al-ʾUmawīyah) was the secon ...
fought in 730; they were defeated and expelled west of the
Indus#REDIRECT Indus River
{{Redirect category shell, {{R from move {{R from miscapitalisation {{R unprintworthy ...

Indus river, probably by a coalition of the Hindu rulers
Nagabhata I Nagabhata I (r. c. 730-760 CE) was an Indian king who founded the imperial Gurjara Pratihara dynasty. He ruled the Avanti (or Malava) region in present-day Madhya Pradesh Madhya Pradesh (, ; meaning ''Central Province'') is a state in centr ...
of the
Gurjara-Pratihara The Gurjara-Pratihara dynasty was an imperial power during the Late Classical period on the Indian subcontinent, that ruled much of Northern India from the mid-8th to the 11th century. They ruled first at Ujjain and later at Kannauj Kann ...
dynasty,
Vikramaditya II Vikramaditya II (reigned 733 – 744 CE) was the son of King Vijayaditya and ascended the Badami Chalukya throne following the death of his father. This information comes from the Lakshmeshwar inscriptions in Kannada } Kannada (; ಕನ ...
of the
Chalukya The Chalukya dynasty () was a Classical Indian royal dynasty that ruled large parts of southern and central India between the 6th and the 12th centuries. During this period, they ruled as three related yet individual dynasties. The earliest ...
dynasty and
Bappa Rawal Bappa Rawal, also spelled as "Bappa Raval", (c. 8th century) was a ruler of the Mewar (Medapata) region in Rajasthan Rajasthan ( ; literally, "Land of Kings") is a States and union territories of India, state in northern India. The state cov ...
of the
Guhila dynasty The Guhila dynasty ruled the Medapata (modern Mewar) region in present-day Rajasthan Rajasthan ( ; literally, "Land of Kings") is a States and union territories of India, state in northern India. The state covers an area of or 10.4 percen ...
. After this victory, the Arab invaders were driven out of Gujarat. General Pulakeshin, a Chalukya prince of
Lata 350px, Map of LATAs in the US Local access and transport area (LATA) is a term used in U.S. telecommunications regulation. It represents a geographical area of the United States under the terms of the Modification of Final Judgment (MFJ) entered ...
, received the title ''Avanijanashraya'' (refuge of the people of the earth) and honorific of "Repeller of the unrepellable" by the Chalukya emperor
Vikramaditya II Vikramaditya II (reigned 733 – 744 CE) was the son of King Vijayaditya and ascended the Badami Chalukya throne following the death of his father. This information comes from the Lakshmeshwar inscriptions in Kannada } Kannada (; ಕನ ...
for his victory at the battle at
Navsari Navsari (Gujarati: ) is a city, the ninth biggest municipality of Gujarat and the administrative headquarters Navsari District of Gujarat, India, located between Surat & Mumbai. Navsari is also the Twin City of Surat, and only 37 km south ...
, where the Arab troops suffered a crushing defeat. In the late 8th century, the Kannauj Triangle period started. The three major Indian dynasties – the northwest Indian
Gurjara-Pratihara The Gurjara-Pratihara dynasty was an imperial power during the Late Classical period on the Indian subcontinent, that ruled much of Northern India from the mid-8th to the 11th century. They ruled first at Ujjain and later at Kannauj Kann ...
Dynasty, the south Indian
Rashtrakuta Dynasty Rashtrakuta ( IAST: ') was a royal dynasty ruling large parts of the Indian subcontinent between the sixth and 10th centuries. The earliest known Rashtrakuta inscription is a 7th-century copper plate grant detailing their rule from Manapura, ...
and the east Indian
Pala Empire The Pala Empire ( bn, পাল সাম্রাজ্য) was an imperial power during the Post-classical history, post-classical period in the Indian subcontinent, which originated in the region of Bengal. It is named after its ruling dynast ...
dominated India from the 8th to 10th centuries. During this period the northern part of Gujarat was ruled by the north Indian
Gurjara-Pratihara The Gurjara-Pratihara dynasty was an imperial power during the Late Classical period on the Indian subcontinent, that ruled much of Northern India from the mid-8th to the 11th century. They ruled first at Ujjain and later at Kannauj Kann ...
dynasty and the southern part of Gujarat was ruled by the south Indian
Rashtrakuta Dynasty Rashtrakuta ( IAST: ') was a royal dynasty ruling large parts of the Indian subcontinent between the sixth and 10th centuries. The earliest known Rashtrakuta inscription is a 7th-century copper plate grant detailing their rule from Manapura, ...
.Ancient India by Ramesh Chandra Majumdar p. 366 However, the earliest epigraphical records of the Gurjars of Broach attest that the royal bloodline of the Gurjara-Pratihara dynasty of Dadda I, II and III (650–750) ruled south Gujarat. Southern Gujarat was ruled by the south Indian
Rashtrakuta dynasty Rashtrakuta ( IAST: ') was a royal dynasty ruling large parts of the Indian subcontinent between the sixth and 10th centuries. The earliest known Rashtrakuta inscription is a 7th-century copper plate grant detailing their rule from Manapura, ...
until it was captured by the south Indian ruler
Tailapa II Tailapa II (r. c. 973-997), also known as Taila II and by his title ''Ahavamalla'', was the founder of the Western Chalukya dynasty in southern India. Tailapa claimed descent from the earlier Chalukyas of Vatapi, and initially ruled as a Rasht ...
of the
Western Chalukya Empire The Western Chalukya Empire ruled most of the Deccan Plateau, western Deccan, South India, between the 10th and 12th centuries. This Kannadiga dynasty is sometimes called the ''Kalyani Chalukya'' after its regal capital at Kalyani, today's Basava ...

Western Chalukya Empire
.History, Religion and Culture of India, by S. Gajrani p.32 Zoroastrians from
Greater Iran ( BC) at its greatest extent () File:Achaemenid_(greatest_extent).svg, Achaemenid Empire (550 BC–330 BC) at its greatest extent () Greater Iran ( fa, ایران بزرگ, translit=Irān-e Bozorg) refers to the regions of Western Asia, ...
migrated to the western borders of South Asia (Gujarat and
Sindh Sindh (; sd, سنڌ; ur, , ; historically romanized as Sind) is one of the four Administrative units of Pakistan, provinces of Pakistan. Located in the Geography of Pakistan, southeastern region of the country, Sindh is the third-largest ...

Sindh
) during the 8th or 10th century, to avoid
persecution Persecution is the systematic mistreatment of an individual or group by another individual or group. The most common forms are religious persecution Religious persecution is the systematic mistreatment of an individual or a group of individua ...
by Muslim invaders who were in the process of conquering Iran. The descendants of those Zoroastrian refugees came to be known as the
Parsi Parsis () or Parsees ( in the Persian language), are an ethnoreligious group who migrated to the Indian subcontinent from Persia during the Muslim conquest of Persia of 633–654 Common Era, CE; one of two such groups to have done so, with th ...

Parsi
. Subsequently, Lāṭa in southern Gujarat was ruled by the
Rashtrakuta dynasty Rashtrakuta ( IAST: ') was a royal dynasty ruling large parts of the Indian subcontinent between the sixth and 10th centuries. The earliest known Rashtrakuta inscription is a 7th-century copper plate grant detailing their rule from Manapura, ...
until it was captured by the
Western Chalukya The Western Chalukya Empire ruled most of the Deccan Plateau, western Deccan, South India, between the 10th and 12th centuries. This Kannadiga dynasty is sometimes called the ''Kalyani Chalukya'' after its regal capital at Kalyani, today's Basava ...
ruler
Tailapa II Tailapa II (r. c. 973-997), also known as Taila II and by his title ''Ahavamalla'', was the founder of the Western Chalukya dynasty in southern India. Tailapa claimed descent from the earlier Chalukyas of Vatapi, and initially ruled as a Rasht ...
. The
Chaulukya dynasty The Chaulukya dynasty () was a dynasty that ruled parts of what are now Gujarat and Rajasthan in north-western India, between and . Their capital was located at Anahilavada (modern Patan). At times, their rule extended to the Malwa region i ...
ruled Gujarat from c. 960 to 1243. Gujarat was a major center of Indian Ocean trade, and their capital at
Anhilwara Patan () was the capital of Gujarat's Chalukya Dynasty in medieval times. It is said to have been established by Vanaraja Chavda, Vanraj Chavada (વનરાજ ચાવડા), a Chavda dynasty, Chavda king . The city has had an old histo ...
( Patan) was one of the largest cities in India, with a population estimated at 100,000 in the year 1000. After 1243, the Solankis lost control of Gujarat to their feudatories, of whom the Vaghela chiefs of
Dholka Dholka is a city and municipality in the Ahmedabad district, Ahmedabad District of the Indian state of Gujarat. It is the headquarters of Dholka Taluka, and is 48 km by road via National Highway 8A (India), National Highway 8A southwest of ...
came to dominate Gujarat. In 1292 the Vaghelas became tributaries of the
Yadava The Yadavas (literally, descended from Yadu) were an ancient Indian people Indians are the nationals and citizens Citizenship is the Status (law), status of a person recognized under the law of a country (and/or local jurisdiction) of ...
dynasty of
Devagiri Daulatabad Fort, also known as Devagiri or Deogiri, is a historic fortified citadel located in Daulatabad (Devagiri) village near Aurangabad Aurangabad () is a city in the Indian state of Maharashtra. It is the administrative headquarters o ...
in the Deccan. Karandev of the
Vaghela dynasty The Vaghela dynasty was a short-lived dynasty that ruled Gujarat from its capital of Dholka in the 13th century CE. The Vaghelas were the last Hindu monarchs to rule large parts of Gujarat, before the Alauddin Khalji's conquest of Gujarat, Muslim ...
was the last Hindu ruler of Gujarat. He was defeated and overthrown by the superior forces of
Alauddin Khalji Alaud-Dīn Khaljī (), born Ali Gurshasp, was an emperor of the Khalji dynasty that ruled the Delhi Sultanate in the Indian subcontinent. Alauddin instituted a number of significant administrative changes, related to revenue reforms of Alauddin ...
from Delhi in 1297. With his defeat, Gujarat became part of the
Delhi Sultanate The Delhi Sultanate was an Islamic empire based in Delhi that stretched over large parts of the Indian subcontinent for 320 years (1206–1526).
, and the Rajput hold over Gujarat would never be restored. Fragments of printed cotton from Gujarat have been discovered in Egypt, providing evidence for medieval trade in the western Indian Ocean. These fragments represent the Indian cotton traded in Egypt during the
Fatimid The Fatimid Caliphate ( ar, ٱلْخِلَافَة ٱلْفَاطِمِيَّة , al-Ḫilāfa al-Fāṭimiyya) was an Isma'ilism, Ismaili Shia caliphate of the 10th to the 12th centuries AD. Spanning a large area of North Africa, it range ...

Fatimid
,
Ayyubid The Ayyubid dynasty ( ar, الأيوبيون '; Kurdish languages, Kurdish: ئەیووبیەکان Eyûbiyan) was a Sunni Muslim dynasty of Kurds, Kurdish origin, founded by Saladin and centered in Egypt in the Middle Ages, Egypt, ruling over th ...

Ayyubid
and
Mamluk Mamluk ( ar, مملوك, mamlūk (singular), , ''mamālīk'' (plural), translated as "one who is owned", meaning "History of slavery in the Muslim world, slave", also Arabic transliteration, transliterated as ''Mameluke'', ''mamluq'', ''mamluke' ...
periods, from the tenth to sixteenth centuries. Similar Gujarati cotton was also traded as far east as Indonesia.


Muslim rule


Islamic conquests, 1197–1614

After the Ghoris had assumed a position of Muslim supremacy over North India, Qutbuddin Aibak attempted to conquer Gujarat and annex it to his empire in 1197, but failed in his ambitions. An independent Muslim community continued to flourish in Gujarat for the next hundred years, championed by Arab merchants settling along the western coast. From 1297 to 1300,
Alauddin Khalji Alaud-Dīn Khaljī (), born Ali Gurshasp, was an emperor of the Khalji dynasty that ruled the Delhi Sultanate in the Indian subcontinent. Alauddin instituted a number of significant administrative changes, related to revenue reforms of Alauddin ...
, the Turko-Afghan
Sultan of Delhi The following list of Indian monarchs is one of several lists of incumbents These are lists of incumbents (individuals holding offices or positions), including Head of state, heads of states or of Administrative division, subnational entities. ...
, destroyed the Hindu metropolis of
Anhilwara Patan () was the capital of Gujarat's Chalukya Dynasty in medieval times. It is said to have been established by Vanaraja Chavda, Vanraj Chavada (વનરાજ ચાવડા), a Chavda dynasty, Chavda king . The city has had an old histo ...
and incorporated Gujarat into the
Delhi Sultanate The Delhi Sultanate was an Islamic empire based in Delhi that stretched over large parts of the Indian subcontinent for 320 years (1206–1526).
. After
Timur Timur ; chg, ''Aqsaq Temür'', 'Timur the Lame') or as ''Sahib-i-Qiran'' ( 'Lord of the Auspicious Conjunction'), his epithet. ( chg, ''Temür'', 'Iron'; 9 April 133617–19 February 1405), later Timūr Gurkānī ( chg, ''Temür Kür ...

Timur
sacked
Delhi Delhi (; ''Dillī''; ''Dillī''; ''Dêhlī''), officially the National Capital Territory (NCT) of Delhi, is a city and a union territory of India containing New Delhi, the capital of India. * * * Straddling the Yamuna river, but primarily ...
at the end of the 14th century, weakening the Sultanate, Gujarat's Muslim
Khatri Khatri is a caste system in India, caste, originally found in South Asia. Apart from India, they are also found in Afghanistan and Pakistan. Afghans, Afghan Hindus and Sikhs are predominantly of Khatri and Arora origin. From the medieval I ...
governor Zafar Khan Muzaffar (
Muzaffar Shah I Muzaffar Shah I, born Zafar Khan, was a ruler of the Muzaffarid dynasty, who reigned over the Gujarat Sultanate from 1391 to 1403 and later again from 1404 to 1411. Appointed as the governor of Gujarat by Tughluq of Delhi sultanate The De ...
) asserted his independence, and his son, Sultan Ahmed Shah (ruled 1411–1442), established
Ahmedabad Ahmedabad ( Gujarati: Amdavad, ) is the largest city and former capital of the Indian state of Gujarat Gujarat (, ) is a state on the western coast of India with a coastline of – most of which lies on the Kathiawar peninsula – and ...
as the capital.
Khambhat Khambhat (, ) (Gujarati language, Gujarati: ખંભાત), also known as Khambat, Khambaj, and Cambay, is a town and the surrounding urban agglomeration in Khambhat Tehsil, Taluka, Anand district in the Indian States and territories of India, ...
eclipsed
Bharuch Bharuch (), formerly known as Broach, is a city at the mouth of the river Narmada The Narmada River, also called the ''Reva'' and previously also known as ''Narbada (Nerbudda)''.This river is located in Madhya Pradesh Madhya Pradesh ...
as Gujarat's most important trade port. Gujarat's relations with
Egypt Egypt ( ar, مِصر, Miṣr), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identif ...
, which was then the premier Arab power in the Middle East, remained friendly over the next century and the
Egyptian Egyptian describes something of, from, or related to Egypt. Egyptian or Egyptians may refer to: Nations and ethnic groups * Egyptians, a national group in North Africa ** Egyptian culture, a complex and stable culture with thousands of years of r ...
scholar, ''Badruddin-ad-Damamimi'', spent several years in Gujarat in the shade of the Sultan before proceeding to the
Bahmani Sultanate The Bahmani Sultanate (also called the ''Bahmanid Empire'' or ''Bahmani Kingdom'') was a Persianate Muslim empire of the Deccan in South India. It was the first independent Muslim kingdom of the Deccan,
on the Deccan Plateau.
Shah e Alam Shah e Alam is born on 17 Dhul Qidah 817 Hijri/18 January 1415 AD at Patan city in Gujarat, India. He is a Muslim religious teacher and great Wali residing in Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India during the Mughal era. Life Syed Sirajuddin Muhammad, the so ...
, a famous Sufi saint of the
Chishti The Chishtī Order ( fa, ''chishtī'') is a Sunni Sufi order within the mystic Sufi Sufism ( ar, ٱلصُّوفِيَّة), also known as Tasawwuf ( ar, ٱلتَّصَوُّف, link=no), is mysticism Mysticism is popularly known ...

Chishti
order who was the descendant of Makhdoom
Jahaniyan Jahangasht Jahaniyan Jahangasht (مخدوم سید جہانیاں جہان گشت البخاری) (b 1308- d 1384) was a Sufi Sufism ( ar, ٱلصُّوفِيَّة), also known as Tasawwuf ( ar, ٱلتَّصَوُّف, link=no), is mysticism Mys ...
from
Bukhara Bukhara (; Uzbek language, Uzbek: /; Tajik language, Tajik: Бухоро, ) is the List of cities in Uzbekistan, fifth-largest city in Uzbekistan, with a population of 247,644 , and the capital of Bukhara Region. People have inhabited the region ...

Bukhara
, soon arrived in a group that included Arab theologian ''Ibn Suwaid'', several
Sayyid ''Sayyid'' (, ; ar, سيد ; ; meaning 'Lord', 'Master'; Arabic plural: ; feminine: ; ) is an honorific An honorific is a title that conveys esteem, courtesy, or respect for position or rank when used in addressing or referring to a pe ...

Sayyid
Sufi members of the Aydarus family of
TarimTarim may refer to: *Tarim, Yemen, a city in Yemen *Tarim District, Yemen *Tarim River, China *Tarim Basin, China ** Tarim Mummies, a series of mummies which have been excavated at Niya, an oasis in the Tarim Basin *Tarim, the monotheistic god worsh ...
in Yemen,J. Spencer Trimingham, John O. Voll, ''The Sufi Orders in Islam'', pg 73 Iberian court interpreter ''Ali al-Andalusi'' from Granada, and the Arab jurist ''Bahraq'' from Hadramaut who was appointed a tutor of the prince. Among the illustrious names who arrived during the reign of Mahmud Begada was the philosopher ''Haibatullah Shah Mir'' from Shiraz, and the scholar intellectual ''Abu Fazl Ghazaruni'' from Persia who tutored and adopted Abu'l-Fazl ibn Mubarak, author of the ''Akbarnama''. Later, a close alliance between the Ottoman Empire, Ottoman Turkish people, Turks and Gujarati sultans to effectively safeguard Jeddah and the Red Sea trade from Portuguese imperialism, encouraged the existence of powerful Rumi elites within the kingdom who took the post of viziers in Gujarat keen to maintain ties with the Ottoman Empire, Ottoman state. Humayun also briefly occupied the province in 1536, but fled due to the threat Bahadur Shah of Gujarat, Bahadur Shah, the Gujarat king, imposed. The Sultanate of Gujarat remained independent until 1572, when the Mughal emperor Akbar conquered it and annexed it to the Mughal Empire. The Surat port (the only Indian port facing west) then became the principal port of India during Mughal rule, gaining widespread international repute. The city of Surat, famous for its exports of silk and diamonds, had reached a par with contemporary Venice and Beijing, great mercantile cities of Europe and Asia, and earned the distinguished title, ''Bab al-Makkah'' (Gate of Mecca). Drawn by the religious renaissance taking place under Akbar, Mohammed Ghaus moved to Gujarat and established spiritual centers for the Shattari Sufi order from Iran, founding the Ek Toda Mosque and producing such devotees as Wajihuddin Alvi of Ahmedabad whose many successors moved to Bijapur during the height of the Adil Shahi dynasty. At the same time, Zoroastrian high priest Azar Kayvan who was a native of Fars province, Fars, immigrated to Gujarat founding the Zoroastrian school of Illuminationism, illuminationists which attracted key Shi'ite Muslim admirers of the Safavid philosophical revival from Isfahan. Early 14th-century Maghrebi adventurer, Ibn Batuta, who famously visited India with his entourage, recalls in his memoirs about Cambay, one of the great emporia of the Indian Ocean that indeed: Many of these "foreign merchants" were transient visitors, men of South Arabian and
Persian Gulf The Persian Gulf ( fa, خلیج فارس, translit=xalij-e fârs, lit=Gulf of Fars, ) is a mediterranean sea The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely en ...
ports, who migrated in and out of Cambay with the rhythm of the monsoons. But others were men with Arab or Persian patronyms whose families had settled in the town generations, even centuries earlier, intermarrying with Gujarati women, and assimilating everyday customs of the Hindu hinterland. The Age of Discovery heralded the dawn of pioneer Portuguese and Spanish long-distance travel in search of alternative trade routes to "Indies, the East Indies", moved by the trade of gold, silver and spices. In 1497, Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama is said to have discovered the Discovery of the sea route to India, Europe-to-India sea route which changed the course of history, thanks to Kutchi people, Kutchi sailor Kanji Malam, who showed him the route from the East African coasts of Mozambique sailing onwards to Calicut off the Malabar coast in India. Later, the Gujarat Sultanate allied with the Ottomans and Mamluks, Egyptian Mamluks naval fleets led by governor-generals Malik Ayyaz and Amir Husain Al-Kurdi, vanquished the Portuguese in the 1508 Battle of Chaul resulting in the first Portuguese defeat at sea in the Indian Ocean. To 16th-century European observers, Gujarat was a fabulously wealthy country. The customs revenue of Gujarat alone in the early 1570s was nearly three times the total revenue of the whole Portuguese empire in Asia in 1586–87, when it was at its height. Indeed, when the British arrived on the coast of Gujarat, houses in Surat already had windows of Venetian glass imported from Constantinople through the Ottoman empire. In 1514, the Portuguese explorer Duarte Barbosa described the cosmopolitan atmosphere of Rander known otherwise as ''City of Mosques'' in Surat province, which gained the fame and reputation of illustrious Islamic scholars, Sufi-saints, merchants and intellectuals from all over the world: The conquest of the Kingdom of Gujarat marked a significant event of Akbar's reign. Being the major trade gateway and departure harbour of pilgrim ships to Mecca, it gave the Mughal Empire free access to the Arabian sea and control over the rich commerce that passed through its ports. The territory and income of the empire were vastly increased.


The Sultanate of Gujarat and the merchants

For the best part of two centuries, the independent
Khatri Khatri is a caste system in India, caste, originally found in South Asia. Apart from India, they are also found in Afghanistan and Pakistan. Afghans, Afghan Hindus and Sikhs are predominantly of Khatri and Arora origin. From the medieval I ...
Sultanate of Gujarat was the cynosure of its neighbours on account of its wealth and prosperity, which had long made the Gujarati merchant a familiar figure in the ports of the Indian Ocean. Gujaratis, including Hindus and Muslims as well as the enterprising
Parsi Parsis () or Parsees ( in the Persian language), are an ethnoreligious group who migrated to the Indian subcontinent from Persia during the Muslim conquest of Persia of 633–654 Common Era, CE; one of two such groups to have done so, with th ...

Parsi
class of Zoroastrians, had been specialising in the organisation of overseas trade for many centuries, and had moved into various branches of commerce such as commodity trade, brokerage, money-changing, money-lending and banking. By the 17th century, Arab (Gujarat), Chavuse and Baghdadi Jews had assimilated into the social world of the Surat province, later on their descendants would give rise to the David Sassoon (treasurer), Sassoons of Bombay and the Ezra Mir, Ezras of Calcutta, and other influential Indian-Jewish figures who went on to play a philanthropical role in the commercial development of 19th-century British Crown Colony of Shanghai. Spearheaded by Khoja, Mustaali, Bohra, Bhatia caste, Bhatiya shahbandars and Moorish nakhudas who dominated sea navigation and shipping, Gujarat's transactions with the outside world had created the legacy of an international transoceanic empire which had a vast commercial network of permanent agents stationed at all the great port cities across the Indian Ocean. These networks extended to the Philippines in the east, East Africa in the west, and via maritime and the inland caravan route to Russia in the north. Tomé Pires, a Portuguese official at Malacca City, Malacca, wrote of conditions during the reigns of Mahmud I and Mozaffar II: He also described Gujarat's active trade with Goa, the Deccan Plateau and the Malabar region, Malabar. His contemporary, Duarte Barbosa, describing Gujarat's maritime trade, recorded the import of horses from the Middle East and elephants from Malabar, and lists exports which included muslins, chintzes and silks, carnelian, ginger and other spices, aromatics, opium, indigo and other substances for dyeing, cereals and legumes. Persia was the destination for many of these commodities, and they were partly paid for in horses and pearls taken from Hormuz Island, Hormuz. The latter item, in particular, led Sultan Sikandar Lodi of
Delhi Delhi (; ''Dillī''; ''Dillī''; ''Dêhlī''), officially the National Capital Territory (NCT) of Delhi, is a city and a union territory of India containing New Delhi, the capital of India. * * * Straddling the Yamuna river, but primarily ...
, according to Ali-Muhammad Khan, author of the Mirat-i-Ahmadi, to complain that the Hence, the sultans of Gujarat possessed ample means to sustain lavish patronage of religion and the arts, to build madrasas and ḵānaqāhs, and to provide douceurs for the literati, mainly poets and historians, whose presence and praise enhanced the fame of the dynasty.GUJARAT – Encyclopædia Iranica
. Iranicaonline.org. Retrieved 28 July 2013.
Even at the time of Tomé Pires' travel to the East Indies in the early 16th century, Gujarati merchants had earned an international reputation for their commercial acumen and this encouraged the visit of merchants from Cairo, Armenia, Ethiopian Empire, Abyssinia, Greater Khorasan, Khorasan, Shiraz, Turkestan and Gilan Province, Guilans from Aden and Hormuz. Pires noted in his ''Suma Orientale'':


Gujarat in the Mughal Empire

Gujarat was one of the twelve original subahs (imperial top-level provinces) established by Mughal Emperor (''Badshah'') Akbar, with seat at
Ahmedabad Ahmedabad ( Gujarati: Amdavad, ) is the largest city and former capital of the Indian state of Gujarat Gujarat (, ) is a state on the western coast of India with a coastline of – most of which lies on the Kathiawar peninsula – and ...
, bordering on Thatta (Sindh), Ajmer,
Malwa Malwa is an Indian historical region, historical Doab#Malwa Doab, doab list of regions in India, region of west-central India occupying a plateau of volcanic origin. Geologically, the Malwa Plateau generally refers to the volcanic plateau, volc ...
and later Ahmadnagar subahs. Aurangzeb, who was better known by his imperial title Alamgir I, Alamgir ("Conqueror of the World"), was born at Dahod, Gujarat, and was the sixth Mughal Emperor ruling with an iron fist over most of the Indian subcontinent. He was the third son and sixth child of Shah Jahan and Mumtaz Mahal. At the time of his birth, his father, Shah Jahan, was then the Subahdar (governor) of Gujarat, and his grandfather, Jehangir, was the Mughal Emperor. Before he became emperor, Aurangzeb was made Subahdar of Gujarat subah as part of his training and was stationed at
Ahmedabad Ahmedabad ( Gujarati: Amdavad, ) is the largest city and former capital of the Indian state of Gujarat Gujarat (, ) is a state on the western coast of India with a coastline of – most of which lies on the Kathiawar peninsula – and ...
. Aurangzeb was a notable expansionist and was among the wealthiest of the Mughal rulers, with an annual yearly tribute of £38,624,680 (in 1690). During his lifetime, victories in the south expanded the Mughal Empire to more than 3.2 million square kilometres and he ruled over a population estimated as being in the range of 100–150 million subjects. Aurangzeb had great love for his place of birth. In 1704, he wrote a letter to his eldest son, Muhammad Azam Shah, asking him to be kind and considerate to the people of Dahod as it was his birthplace. Muhammad Azam was then the Subedar (governor) of Gujarat. In his letter, Aurangzeb wrote:


Maratha Empire

When the cracks had started to develop in the edifice of the Mughal Empire in the mid-17th century, the Marathas were consolidating their power in the west, Chatrapati Shivaji, the great Maratha ruler, attacked Surat in southern Gujarat twice first in 1664 and again in 1672. These attacks marked the entry of the Marathas into Gujarat. However, before the Maratha had made inroads into Gujarat, the Europeans had made their presence felt, led by the Portuguese, and followed by the Dutch and the English. The Peshwas had established sovereignty over parts of Gujarat and collected taxes and tributes through their representatives. Damaji Rao Gaekwad and Kadam (clan), Kadam Bande divided the Peshwa territory between them, with Damaji establishing the sway of Gaekwad dynasty, Gaekwad over Gujarat and making Baroda (present day Vadodara in southern Gujarat) his capital. The ensuing internecine war among the Marathas was fully exploited by the British, who interfered in the affairs of both Gaekwads and the Peshwas. In Saurashtra, as elsewhere, the Marathas were met with resistance. The decline of the Mughal Empire helped form larger peripheral states in Saurashtra, including Junagadh State, Junagadh, Nawanagar State, Jamnagar, Bhavnagar State, Bhavnagar and a few others, which largely resisted the Maratha incursions.


European colonialism, 1614–1947

In the 1600s, the Dutch, French, English and Portugal, Portuguese all established bases along the western coast of the region. Portugal was the first European power to arrive in Gujarat, and after the Battle of Diu, acquired several enclaves along the Gujarati coast, including Daman and Diu as well as Dadra and Nagar Haveli. These enclaves were administered by Portuguese India under a single union territory for over 450 years, only to be later incorporated into the Republic of India on 19 December 1961 by military conquest. The British East India Company established a Factory (trading post), factory in Surat in 1614 following the commercial treaty made with Mughal Emperor Nuruddin Salim Jahangir, which formed their first base in India, but it was eclipsed by Mumbai, Bombay after the English received it from Portugal in 1668 as part of the marriage treaty of Charles II of England and Catherine of Braganza, daughter of King John IV of Portugal. The state was an early point of contact with the west, and the first British commercial outpost in India was in Gujarat.WINGS Birding Tours to India: the West – Gujarat and the Rann of Kutch – Itinerary
. Wingsbirds.com (14 December 2011). Retrieved 28 July 2013.
17th-century French explorer François Pyrard de Laval, who is remembered for his 10-year sojourn in South Asia, bears witness in his account that the Gujaratis were always prepared to learn workmanship from the Portuguese, and in turn imparted skills to the Portuguese: Later in the 17th century, Gujarat came under control of the Hindu Maratha Empire that arose, defeating the Muslim Mughals who had dominated the politics of India. Most notably, from 1705 to 1716, Senapati Khanderao Dabhade led the Maratha Empire forces in Baroda. Pilaji Gaekwad, first ruler of Gaekwad dynasty, established the control over Baroda and other parts of Gujarat. The British East India Company wrested control of much of Gujarat from the Marathas during the Second Anglo-Maratha War in 1802–1803. Many local rulers, notably the Maratha Gaekwad Maharajas of Baroda (Vadodara), made a separate peace with the British and acknowledged British sovereignty in return for retaining local self-rule. An epidemic outbreak in 1812 killed half the population of Gujarat. Gujarat was placed under the political authority of the Bombay Presidency, with the exception of Baroda State, which had a direct relationship with the Governor-General of India. From 1818 to 1947, most of present-day Gujarat, including
Kathiawar Kathiawar () is a peninsula A peninsula ( la, paeninsula from ' "almost" and ' "island") is a landform surrounded by water on most of its border while being connected to a mainland from which it extends. The surrounding water is usually under ...

Kathiawar
, Kutch and northern and eastern Gujarat were divided into hundreds of princely states, but several districts in central and southern Gujarat, namely Ahmedabad district, Ahmedabad, Broach (Bharuch district, Bharuch), Kaira (Kheda district, Kheda), Panchmahal district, Panchmahal and Surat district, Surat, were governed directly by British officials.


Post-independence

After Independence of India, Indian independence and the partition of India in 1947, the new Indian government grouped the former princely states of Gujarat into three larger units; Saurashtra, which included the former princely states on the Kathiawad peninsula, Kutch, and Bombay state, which included the former British districts of Bombay Presidency together with most of Baroda State and the other former princely states of eastern Gujarat. Bombay state was enlarged to include Kutch, Saurashtra (Kathiawar) and parts of Hyderabad state and
Madhya Pradesh Madhya Pradesh (, ; meaning ''Central Province'') is a state in central India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, second-most ...

Madhya Pradesh
in central India. The new state had a mostly Gujarati-speaking north and a Marathi-speaking south. Agitation by Gujarati nationalists, the Mahagujarat Movement, and Marathi nationalists, the Samyukta Maharashtra Samiti, Samyukta Maharashtra, for their own states led to the split of Bombay state on linguistic lines; on 1 May 1960, it became the new states of Gujarat and
Maharashtra Maharashtra (; , abbr. MH or Maha, is a states and union territories of India, state in the western and central peninsular region of India occupying a substantial portion of the Deccan Plateau. Maharashtra is the List of states and union territo ...

Maharashtra
. In 1969 Gujarat riots, 1969 riots, at least 660 died and properties worth millions were destroyed. The first capital of Gujarat was
Ahmedabad Ahmedabad ( Gujarati: Amdavad, ) is the largest city and former capital of the Indian state of Gujarat Gujarat (, ) is a state on the western coast of India with a coastline of – most of which lies on the Kathiawar peninsula – and ...
; the capital was moved to
Gandhinagar Gandhinagar (, ) is the capital of the state of Gujarat Gujarat (, ) is a state on the western coast of India with a coastline of – most of which lies on the Kathiawar peninsula – and a population of 60.4 million. It is the L ...

Gandhinagar
in 1970. ''Nav Nirman Andolan'' was a socio-political movement of 1974. It was a students' and middle-class people's movement against economic crisis and corruption in public life. This was the first and last successful agitation after the Independence of
India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, second-most populous country, the List of countries and dependencies by area, seventh-largest ...

India
that ousted an elected government. The Morvi dam failure, in 1979, resulted in the death of thousands of people and large economic loss. In the 1980s, a Reservation in India, reservation policy was introduced in the country, which led to anti-reservation protests in 1981 and 1985. The protests witnessed violent clashes between people belonging to various Indian caste system, castes. The 2001 Gujarat earthquake was located about 9 km south-southwest of the village of Chobari in the Bhachau taluka of Kutch District. This magnitude 7.7 shock killed around 20,000 people (including at least 18 in South-eastern Pakistan), injured another 167,000 and destroyed nearly 400,000 homes. In February 2002, the Godhra train burning led to statewide 2002 Gujarat violence, riots, resulting in the deaths of 1044 people – 790 Muslims and 254 Hindus, and hundreds missing still unaccounted for.BBC News. 11 May 2005
, These figures were reported to the Rajya Sabha by the Union Minister of State for Home Affairs Sriprakash Jaiswal in May 2005
Akshardham Temple attack, Akshardham Temple was attacked by two terrorists in September 2002, killing 32 people and injuring more than 80 others. National Security Guards intervened to end the siege killing both terrorists. On 26 July 2008 a 2008 Ahmedabad serial blasts, series of seventeen bomb blasts rocked the city, killing and injuring several people.


Geography

Gujarat borders the Tharparkar District, Tharparkar, Badin District, Badin and Thatta District, Thatta districts of
Pakistan Pakistan, . Pronounced variably in English as , , , and . officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country in South Asia South Asia is the southern region of Asia, which is defined in both geography, geographical and culture, e ...

Pakistan
's
Sindh Sindh (; sd, سنڌ; ur, , ; historically romanized as Sind) is one of the four Administrative units of Pakistan, provinces of Pakistan. Located in the Geography of Pakistan, southeastern region of the country, Sindh is the third-largest ...

Sindh
province to the northwest, is bounded by the
Arabian Sea The Arabian Sea ( ar, بحر العرب ''Bahr al-Arab'') is a region of the northern Indian Ocean The Indian Ocean is the third-largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering or 19.8% of the water Water is an Inorganic co ...
to the southwest, the state of
Rajasthan Rajasthan ( ; literally, "Land of Kings") is a States and union territories of India, state in northern India. The state covers an area of or 10.4 percent of the total geographical area of India. It is the List of states and union territories ...

Rajasthan
to the northeast,
Madhya Pradesh Madhya Pradesh (, ; meaning ''Central Province'') is a state in central India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, second-most ...

Madhya Pradesh
to the east, and by Maharashtra, the Union Territory of
Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu is a union territory A union territory ( hi, script=latn, kendraśāsit pradeś, , centrally administered province) is a type of administrative division Administrative division, administrative unit ...
to the south. Historically, the north was known as
Anarta Anarta ( sa, आनर्त, ) was an ancient India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, second-most populous country, the ...
, the Kathiawar peninsula, "Saurastra", and the south as "Lata". Gujarat was also known as Pratichya and Varuna. The Arabian Sea makes up the state's western coast. The capital,
Gandhinagar Gandhinagar (, ) is the capital of the state of Gujarat Gujarat (, ) is a state on the western coast of India with a coastline of – most of which lies on the Kathiawar peninsula – and a population of 60.4 million. It is the L ...

Gandhinagar
is a planned city. Gujarat has an area of with the longest coastline (24% of Indian sea coast) , dotted with 41 ports: one major, 11 intermediate and 29 minor. The Narmada River, Narmada is the largest river in Gujarat followed by the Tapti River, Tapi. The Sabarmati River, Sabarmati has the longest course through the state. The Sardar Sarovar Project is built on Narmada, one of the major rivers of peninsular India where it is one of only three major rivers that run from east to west – the others being the Tapi and the Mahi River, Mahi. It is about long. Several riverfront embankments have been built on the Sabarmati River. The eastern borders have fringes of low mountains of India, the Aravalli Range, Aravalli, Western Ghats, Sahyadri (Western Ghats), Vindhya Range, Vindhya and Saputara. Apart from this the Gir hills, Barda, Jessore and Chotila together make up a large minority of Gujarat. Girnar is the tallest peak and Saputara is the only hill-station (hilltop resort) in the state.


Rann of Kutch

Rann (રણ) is Gujarati for desert. The Rann of Kutch is a seasonally marshy saline clay desert in the Thar Desert biogeographic region between the Pakistani province of
Sindh Sindh (; sd, سنڌ; ur, , ; historically romanized as Sind) is one of the four Administrative units of Pakistan, provinces of Pakistan. Located in the Geography of Pakistan, southeastern region of the country, Sindh is the third-largest ...

Sindh
and the rest of the state of Gujarat; it commences from the village of Kharaghoda, Surendranagar District. File:Mount Kiro.jpg, Mount Karo, Kutch File:Cracked earth in the Rann of Kutch.jpg, Cracked earth in the Rann of Kutch File:Kutch White Rann Tents (8335851293).jpg, The colourful Rann Utsav Festival is held annually in the Rann of Kutch. File:People in the Twilight.jpg, People enjoying Raan Utsav at Dhordo, Kutch File:Kutch Adventures India.jpg, Camel ride in Rann of Kutch File:Greater Flamingo at Kutch.jpg, Greater Flamingo at Rann of Kutch


Demographics

The population of Gujarat was 60,439,692 (31,491,260 males and 28,948,432 females) according to the 2011 census data. The population density is 308 persons per square kilometer (797.6/sq mi), lower than other Indian states. As per the census of 2011, the state has a sex ratio of 918 females for every 1000 males, one of the lowest (ranked 24) among the 29 states in India. While Gujarati speakers constitute a majority of Gujarat's population, the metropolitan areas of
Ahmedabad Ahmedabad ( Gujarati: Amdavad, ) is the largest city and former capital of the Indian state of Gujarat Gujarat (, ) is a state on the western coast of India with a coastline of – most of which lies on the Kathiawar peninsula – and ...
, Vadodara and Surat are cosmopolitan, with numerous other ethnic and language groups. Marwari people, Marwaris compose large minorities of economic migrants; smaller communities of people from the other states of India have also migrated to Gujarat for employment. Luso-Indians, Anglo-Indians, Jews and
Parsi Parsis () or Parsees ( in the Persian language), are an ethnoreligious group who migrated to the Indian subcontinent from Persia during the Muslim conquest of Persia of 633–654 Common Era, CE; one of two such groups to have done so, with th ...

Parsi
s also live in the areas. Sindhi people, Sindhi presence is traditionally important here following the Partition of India in 1947. The Koli people, Koli forms the largest caste-cluster, comprising 24% of the total population of the state.


Religion

According to 2011 census, the religious makeup in Gujarat was 88.6%
Hindu Hindus () are persons who regard themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism Hinduism () is an Indian religion and ''dharma'', or way of life. It is the Major religious groups, world's third-l ...

Hindu
, 9.7% Muslim, 1.0% Jain, 0.5% Christians, Christian, 0.1% Sikh, 0.05%
Buddhist Buddhism (, ) is the world's fourth-largest religion Religion is a social system, social-cultural system of designated religious behaviour, behaviors and practices, morality, morals, beliefs, worldviews, religious text, texts, shrine, ...
and 0.03% others. Around 0.1% Irreligion, did not state any religion. Hinduism is the major religion of the state, as about 89% population of the state is Hindu. Gujarati Muslims, Muslims are the biggest minority in the state accounting for 9.5% of the population. Gujarat has the third-largest population of Jains in India, following
Maharashtra Maharashtra (; , abbr. MH or Maha, is a states and union territories of India, state in the western and central peninsular region of India occupying a substantial portion of the Deccan Plateau. Maharashtra is the List of states and union territo ...

Maharashtra
and
Rajasthan Rajasthan ( ; literally, "Land of Kings") is a States and union territories of India, state in northern India. The state covers an area of or 10.4 percent of the total geographical area of India. It is the List of states and union territories ...

Rajasthan
. The Zoroastrians, also known in India as
Parsi Parsis () or Parsees ( in the Persian language), are an ethnoreligious group who migrated to the Indian subcontinent from Persia during the Muslim conquest of Persia of 633–654 Common Era, CE; one of two such groups to have done so, with th ...

Parsi
and Irani (India), Irani, Refugees in India#Refugees from Greater Iran, migrated to Gujarat as refugees to escape adverse conditions and religious persecution from Islam in Persia in order to maintain their faith and traditions. They have also played an instrumental role in economic development, with several of the best-known business conglomerates of India run by Parsi-Zoroastrians, including the tata family, Tata, Godrej family, Godrej, and Wadia family, Wadia families. There is a small Judaism, Jewish community centred around Magen Abraham Synagogue. File:Huteesingh ni vadi.JPG, Hathisingh Jain Temple,
Ahmedabad Ahmedabad ( Gujarati: Amdavad, ) is the largest city and former capital of the Indian state of Gujarat Gujarat (, ) is a state on the western coast of India with a coastline of – most of which lies on the Kathiawar peninsula – and ...
File:Palitana.jpg, Palitana temples File:Sun Temple Sabha Mandap.JPG, Modhera Sun Temple built by Bhimdev File:Gurudwara Govinddham.JPG, Gurudwara Govinddham, Ahmedabad File:Ahmedabad Synagogue.jpg, Magen Abraham Synagogue, Magen Abraham Jewish Synagogue File:Ahmedabad Jama Masjid 2.jpg, Jama Masjid, Ahmedabad, Jama Masjid (Friday Mosque, 15th century), Ahmedabad


Language

Gujarati is the official language of the state. It is spoken natively by 86% of the state's population, or 52 million people (as of 2011). Other major languages, according to the 2001 census, are Bhil language, Bhili (4.8%), Hindi (4.7%, includes speakers of the Rajasthani languages, Rajasthani varieties), Sindhi language, Sindhi (1.9%, includes figures for Kutchi language, Kutchi), Marathi language, Marathi (1.5%) and Urdu (1.1%). People from the Kutch region of Gujarat also speak in the Kutchi language, Kutchi mother tongue, and to a great extent appreciate Sindhi language, Sindhi as well. Memoni is the mother tongue of Kathiawar and Sindhi Memons, most whom are Muslims. Almost 88% of the Gujarati Muslims speak Gujarati as their mother tongue, whilst the other 12% speak Urdu. A sizeable proportion of Gujarati Muslims are bilingual in both languages; Islamic academic institutions (Darul Uloom) place a high prestige on learning Urdu and Arabic, with students' memorising the Quran and ''ahadith'', and emphasising the oral and literary importance of mastering these languages as a compulsory rite of religion. Other native languages spoken in low proportions are Bhili language, Bhili and Gamit language, Gamit. Apart from this, English, Bengali language, Bengali, Kannada, Malayalam language, Malayalam, Marwari language, Marwari, Odia language, Odia, Punjabi language, Punjabi, Tamil language, Tamil, Telugu language, Telugu and others are spoken by a considerable number of economic migrants from other states of India seeking employment. The languages taught in schools under the three-language formula are: First language: Gujarati/Hindi/English Second language: Gujarati/English Third language: Hindi


Governance and administration

Gujarat has 33 districts and 250 talukas. They can broadly be defined into four regions.DNA : Daily News & Analysis , HighBeam Research
State Govt Announces 23 New Talukas – DNA : Daily News & Analysis , HighBeam Research
accessdate: 6 January 2016
Gujarat is governed by a Gujarat Legislative Assembly, Legislative Assembly of 182 members. Members of the Legislative Assembly are elected on the basis of adult suffrage from one of 182 constituencies, of which 13 are reserved for Scheduled Castes and Tribes, scheduled castes and 27 for scheduled tribes. The term of office for a member of the Legislative Assembly is five years. The Legislative Assembly elects a speaker who presides over the meetings of the legislature. A governor is appointed by the President of India, and is to address the state legislature after every general election and the commencement of each year's first session of the Legislative Assembly. The leader of the majority party or coalition in the legislature (Chief Minister) or his or her designee acts as the Leader of the Legislative Assembly. The administration of the state is led by the Chief Minister. After the independence of India in 1947, the Indian National Congress (INC) ruled the Bombay State (which included present-day Gujarat and
Maharashtra Maharashtra (; , abbr. MH or Maha, is a states and union territories of India, state in the western and central peninsular region of India occupying a substantial portion of the Deccan Plateau. Maharashtra is the List of states and union territo ...

Maharashtra
). Congress continued to govern Gujarat after the state's creation in 1960. During and after India's The Emergency (India), State of Emergency of 1975–1977, public support for the INC eroded, but it continued to hold government until 1995 with the brief rule of nine months by Janata Morcha. In the 1995 Assembly elections, the Congress lost to the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) led by Keshubhai Patel who became the Chief Minister. His government lasted only two years. The fall of that government was provoked by a split in the BJP led by Shankersinh Vaghela. BJP again won election in 1998 with clear majority. In 2001, following the loss of two assembly seats in by-elections, Keshubhai Patel resigned and yielded power to Narendra Modi. BJP retained a majority in the 2002 election, and Narendra Modi remained as Chief Minister. On 1 June 2007, Narendra Modi became the longest serving Chief Minister of Gujarat. BJP retained the power in subsequent elections in 2007 and 2012 and Narendra Modi continued as the chief minister. After Narendra Modi became the prime minister of India in 2014, Anandiben Patel became the first female chief minister of the state. Vijay Rupani took over as chief minister and Nitin Patel as deputy chief minister on 7 August 2016 after Anandiben Patel resigned earlier on 3 August.


Economy

During the British Raj, Gujarati businesses served to play a major role to enrich the economy of Karachi and Mumbai. Major agricultural produce of the state includes cotton, peanut, groundnuts (peanuts), Date (fruit), dates, sugar cane, milk and milk products. Industrial products include cement and gasoline, petrol. Gujarat is ranked number one in the pharmaceutical industry in India, with a 33% share in drug manufacturing and 28% share in drug exports. The state has 130 USFDA certified drug manufacturing facilities. Ahmedabad and Vadodara are considered as pharmaceutical hubs as there are many big and small pharma companies established in these cities. Gujarat has the longest coastline in India (1600 km), and its ports (both private and public sector) handle around 40% of India's ocean cargo, with Mundra Port located in Gulf of Kutch being the largest port of India by cargo handled (144 million tons) due to its favorable location on the westernmost part of India and closeness to global shipping lanes. Gujarat also contributes around 20% share in India's industrial production and merchandise exports. According to a 2009 report on economic freedom by the Cato Institute, Gujarat is the most free state in India (the second one being Tamil Nadu). Reliance Industries operates the oil refinery at Jamnagar, which is the world's largest grass-roots refinery at a single location. The world's largest shipbreaking yard is in Gujarat near Bhavnagar at Alang. India's only Liquid Chemical Port Terminal at Dahej, developed by Gujarat Chemical Port Terminal Co Ltd. Gujarat has two of the three liquefied natural gas (LNG) terminals in the country (Dahej and Hazira). Two more LNG terminals are proposed, at Pipavav and Mundra. Gujarat has 85% village connectivity with all‐weather roads. Nearly 100% of Gujarat's 18,000 villages have been connected to the electrical grid for 24-hour power to households and eight hours of power to farms, through the Jyotigram Yojana. , Gujarat ranks States of India by installed power capacity, first nationwide in gas-based thermal electricity generation with a national market share of over 8%, and second nationwide in nuclear electricity generation with national market share of over 1%. The state registered 12.8% agricultural growth in the last five years against the national average of 2%. Gujarat records highest decadal agricultural growth rate of 10.97%. Over 20% of the ''S&P CNX 500'' conglomerates have corporate offices in Gujarat. As per RBI report, in year 2006–07, 26% out of total bank finance in India was in Gujarat. As per a recent survey report of the Chandigarh Labour Bureau, Gujarat has the lowest unemployment rate of 1% against the national average of 3.8%. Legatum Institute's Global Prosperity Index 2012 has recognised Gujarat as one of the two highest-scoring among all states of India on matters of social capital. The state ranks 15th alongside Germany in a list of 142 nations worldwide: higher than several developed nations.


Infrastructure

The tallest tower in Gujarat, GIFT One was inaugurated on 10 January 2013. One other tower called GIFT Two has been finished and more towers are planned.


Industrial growth

Gujarat's major cities include
Ahmedabad Ahmedabad ( Gujarati: Amdavad, ) is the largest city and former capital of the Indian state of Gujarat Gujarat (, ) is a state on the western coast of India with a coastline of – most of which lies on the Kathiawar peninsula – and ...
, Surat, Vadodara, Rajkot, Jamnagar and
Bhavnagar Bhavnagar is a city in the Bhavnagar district of the Saurashtra region of Gujarat, a States of India, state of India. It was founded in 1724 by Gohil, Bhavsinhji Gohil (1703–1764). It was the capital of Bhavnagar State, which was a princely s ...
. In 2010, ''Forbes'' list of the world's fastest growing cities included Ahmedabad at number 3 after Chengdu and Chongqing from China. The state is rich in calcite, gypsum, manganese, lignite, bauxite, limestone, agate, feldspar, and quartz sand, and successful mining of these minerals is done in their specified areas. Jamnagar is the hub for manufacturing brass parts. Gujarat produces about 98% of India's required amount of soda ash, and gives the country about 78% of the national requirement of salt. It is one of India's most prosperous states, having a per-capita GDP significantly above India's average. Kalol (Panchmahal), Kalol,
Khambhat Khambhat (, ) (Gujarati language, Gujarati: ખંભાત), also known as Khambat, Khambaj, and Cambay, is a town and the surrounding urban agglomeration in Khambhat Tehsil, Taluka, Anand district in the Indian States and territories of India, ...
, and Ankleshwar are today known for their oil and natural gas production. Dhuvaran has a thermal power station, which uses coal, oil, and gas. Also, on the Gulf of Khambhat, southeast of
Bhavnagar Bhavnagar is a city in the Bhavnagar district of the Saurashtra region of Gujarat, a States of India, state of India. It was founded in 1724 by Gohil, Bhavsinhji Gohil (1703–1764). It was the capital of Bhavnagar State, which was a princely s ...
, is the Alang Ship Recycling Yard (the world's largest). MG Motor India manufactures its cars at Halol near Vadodara, Tata Motors manufactures the Tata Nano from Sanand near Ahmedabad, and AMW trucks are made near Bhuj. Surat, a city by the Gulf of Khambhat, is a hub of the global diamond trade. In 2003, 92% of the world's diamonds were cut and polished in Surat. The diamond industry employs 500,000 people in Gujarat. At an investor's summit entitled "Vibrant Gujarat Global Investor Summit", arranged between 11 and 13 January 2015, at Mahatma Mandir, Gandhinagar, the state government signed 21000 Memoranda of Understanding for Special Economic Zones worth a total of 2.5 million crores (Long and short scales, short scale). However, most of the investment was from domestic industry. In the fourth Vibrant Gujarat Global Investors' Summit held at Science City, Ahmedabad, in January 2009, there were 600 foreign delegates. In all, 8668 MOUs worth 12500 billion were signed, estimated to create 2.5 million new job opportunities in the state. In 2011, Vibrant Gujarat Global Investors' Summit MOUs worth 21 trillion ( 463 billion) were signed. Gujarat is a state with surplus electricity. The Kakrapar Atomic Power Station is a nuclear power station run by NPCIL that lies in the proximity of the city of Surat. According to the official sources, against demand of 40,793 million units during the nine months since April 2010, Gujarat produced 43,848 million units. Gujarat sold surplus power to 12 states: Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Delhi, Haryana, Karnataka, Chhattisgarh, Uttarakhand, Madhya Pradesh, and West Bengal.


Energy

As of 2020, the peak power requirement of state is 18,000 MW. Total installed power generation capacity is 30,500 MW. Of this 11,264 MW (37%) is generated from the renewable energy sources including 7,845 MW from wind, 3,273 MW from solar, 81.6 MW from biomass, and 63.33 MW from mini-hydro power projects.


Agriculture

The total geographical area of Gujarat is 19,602,400 hectares, of which crops take up 10,630,700 hectares. The three main sources of growth in Gujarat's agriculture are from cotton production, the rapid growth of high-value foods such as livestock, fruits and vegetables, and from wheat production, which saw an annual average growth rate of 28% between 2000 and 2008 (According to the International Food Policy Research Institute). Other major produce includes bajra, groundnut, cotton, rice, maize, wheat, mustard, sesame, pigeon pea, green gram, sugarcane, mango, banana, sapota, lime, guava, tomato, potato, onion, cumin, garlic, isabgul and fennel. Whilst, in recent times, Gujarat has seen a high average annual growth of 9% in the agricultural sector, the rest of India has an annual growth rate of around 3%. This success was lauded by former President of India, Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam. The strengths of Gujarat's agricultural success have been attributed to diversified crops and cropping patters; climatic diversity (8 climatic zones for agriculture); the existence of 4 agricultural universities in the state, which promote research in agricultural efficiency and sustainability; co-operatives; adoption of hi-tech agriculture such as tissue culture, green houses and shed-net houses; agriculture export zones; strong marketing infrastructure, which includes cold storage, processing units, logistic hubs and consultancy facilities. Gujarat is the main producer of tobacco, cotton, and groundnuts in India. Other major food crops produced are rice, wheat, ''jowar, bajra'', maize, ''tur'', and ''gram''. The state has an agricultural economy; the total crop area amounts to more than one-half of the total land area. Animal husbandry and dairying have played vital roles in the rural economy of Gujarat. Dairy farming, primarily concerned with milk production, functions on a co-operative basis and has more than a million members. Gujarat is the largest producer of milk in India. The Amul milk co-operative federation is well known all over India, and it is Asia's biggest dairy. Among the livestock raised are, buffaloes and other cattle, sheep, and goats. As per the results of livestock census 1997, there were 20.97 million head of livestock in Gujarat State. In the estimates of the survey of major livestock products, during the year 2002–03, Gujarat produced 6.09 million tonnes of milk, 385 million eggs and 2.71 million kg of wool. Gujarat also contributes inputs to the textiles, oil, and soap industries. The adoption of cooperatives in Gujarat is widely attributed to much of the success in the agricultural sector, particularly sugar and dairy cooperatives. Cooperative farming has been a component of India's strategy for agricultural development since 1951. Whilst the success of these was mixed throughout the country, their positive impact on the states of
Maharashtra Maharashtra (; , abbr. MH or Maha, is a states and union territories of India, state in the western and central peninsular region of India occupying a substantial portion of the Deccan Plateau. Maharashtra is the List of states and union territo ...

Maharashtra
and Gujarat have been the most significant. In 1995 alone, the two states had more registered co-operatives than any other region in the country. Out of these, the agricultural cooperatives have received much attention. Many have focused on subsidies and credit to farmers and rather than collective gathering, they have focused on facilitating collective processing and marketing of produce. However, whilst they have led to increased productivity, their effect on equity in the region has been questioned, because membership in agricultural co-operatives has tended to favour landowners whilst limiting the entry of landless agricultural labourers. An example of co-operative success in Gujarat can be illustrated through dairy co-operatives, with the particular example of Amul (Anand Milk Union Limited). Amul was formed as a dairy cooperative in 1946, in the city of Anand, Gujarat. The cooperative, Gujarat Co-operative Milk Marketing Federation Ltd. (GCMMF), is jointly owned by around 2.6 million milk producers in Gujarat. Amul has been seen as one of the best examples of cooperative achievement and success in a developing economy and the Amul pattern of growth has been taken as a model for rural development, particularly in the agricultural sector of developing economies. The company stirred the White Revolution of India (also known as Operation Flood), the world's biggest dairy development program, and made the milk-deficient nation of India the largest milk producer in the world, in 2010. The "Amul Model" aims to stop the exploitation by middlemen and encourage freedom of movement since the farmers are in control of procurement, processing and packaging of the milk and milk products. The company is worth 2.5 billion US dollars (). 70% of Gujarat's area is classified as semi-arid to arid climatically, thus the demand on water from various economic activities puts a strain on the supply. Of the total gross irrigated area, 16–17% is irrigated by government-owned canals and 83–84% by privately owned tube wells and other wells extracting groundwater, which is the predominant source of irrigation and water supply to the agricultural areas. As a result, Gujarat has faced problems with overdrafting, groundwater depletion, especially after demand for water increased in the 1960s. As access to electricity in rural areas increased, submersible electric pumps became more popular in the 1980s and 1990s. However, the Gujarat Electricity Board switched to flat tariff rates linked to the horsepower of pumps, which increased tubewell irrigation again and decreased the use of electric pumps. By the 1990s, groundwater abstraction rates exceeded groundwater recharge rate in many districts, whilst only 37.5% of all districts has "safe" recharge rates. Groundwater maintenance and preventing unnecessary loss of the available water supplies is now an issue faced by the state. The Sardar Sarovar Project, a debated dam project in the Narmada valley consisting of a network of canals, has significantly increased irrigation in the region. However, its impact on communities who were displaced is still a contested issue. Recently, in 2012, Gujarat began an experiment to reduce water loss due to evaporation in canals and to increase sustainability in the area by constructing solar panels over the canals. One megawatt (MW) solar power project set up at Chandrasan, Gujarat uses solar panels fixed over a 750-metre stretch of an irrigation canal. Unlike many solar power projects, this one does not take up large amounts of land since the panels are constructed over the canals, and not on additional land. This results in lower upfront costs since land does not need to be acquired, cleared or modified to set up the panels. The Chandrasan project is projected to save 9 million litres of water per year. The Government of Gujarat, to improve soil management and introduce farmers to new technology, started on a project which involved giving every farmer a Soil Health Card. This acts like a ration card, providing permanent identification for the status of cultivated land, as well as farmers' names, account numbers, survey numbers, soil fertility status and general fertiliser dose. Samples of land from each village are taken and analysed by the Gujarat Narmada Valley Fertilisers, Gujarat Narmada Valley Fertiliser Corporation, State Fertiliser Corporation and Indian Farmers Fertiliser Cooperative Limited, Indian Farmers Fertilisers Co-operative. 1,200,000 soil test data from the villages was collected as of 2008, from farmer's field villages have gone into a database. Assistance and advice for this project was given by local agricultural universities and crop and soil-specific data was added to the database. This allows the soil test data to be interpreted and recommendations or adjustments made in terms of fertiliser requirements, which are also added to the database.


Culture

Gujarat is home for the
Gujarati people The Gujarati people or Gujaratis, are an Indo-Aryan peoples, Indo-Aryan ethnolinguistic group who speak Gujarati language, Gujarati, an Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-Aryan language. While they mainly inhabit the Indian state of Gujarat, they have ...
. Gujarat was also the home of Mahatma Gandhi, a worldwide figure known for his non-violent struggle against British rule, and Vallabhbhai Patel, a founding father of the Republic of India.


Literature

Gujarati literature's history may be traced to 1000 CE. Well-known laureates of Gujarati literature are Hemchandracharya, Narsinh Mehta, Mirabai, Akho, Premanand Bhatt, Shamal Bhatt, Dayaram, Dalpatram, Narmad, Govardhanram Tripathi, Mahatma Gandhi, K. M. Munshi, Umashankar Joshi, Suresh Joshi, Swaminarayan, Pannalal Patel and Rajendra Shah (author), Rajendra Shah. Kavi Kant, Zaverchand Meghani and Kalapi are famous Gujarati poets. Gujarat Vidhya Sabha, Gujarat Sahitya Sabha, and Gujarati Sahitya Parishad are
Ahmedabad Ahmedabad ( Gujarati: Amdavad, ) is the largest city and former capital of the Indian state of Gujarat Gujarat (, ) is a state on the western coast of India with a coastline of – most of which lies on the Kathiawar peninsula – and ...
based literary institutions promoting the spread of Gujarati literature. Saraswatichandra (novel), Saraswatichandra is a landmark novel by Govardhanram Tripathi. Writers like Aanand Shankar Dhruv, Ashvini Bhatt, Balwantray Thakore, Bhaven Kachhi, Bhagwatikumar Sharma, Chandrakant Bakshi, Gunvant Shah, Harindra Dave, Harkisan Mehta, Jay Vasavada, Jyotindra Dave, Kanti Bhatt, Kavi Nanalal, Khabardar, Tribhuvandas Luhar, Sundaram, Makarand Dave, Ramesh Parekh, Suresh Dalal, Tarak Mehta, Vinod Bhatt, Dhruv Bhatt and Varsha Adalja have influenced Gujarati thinkers. A notable contribution to Gujarati language literature came from the Bhagwan Swaminarayan, Swaminarayan paramhanso, like Bramhanand, Premanand, with prose like Vachanamrut and poetry in the form of bhajans. Shrimad Rajchandra Vachnamrut and Shri Atma Siddhi Shastra, written in 19th century by philosopher Shrimad Rajchandra (Mahatma Gandhi's guru) are very well known. Gujarati theatre owes a lot to Bhavai. Bhavai is a Folk music, folk musical performance of stage plays. Ketan Mehta and Sanjay Leela Bhansali explored artistic use of bhavai in films such as ''Bhavni Bhavai'', ''Oh Darling! Yeh Hai India'' and ''Hum Dil De Chuke Sanam''. Dayro (gathering) involves singing and conversation reflecting on human nature. Mumbai theatre veteran, Alyque Padamsee, best known in the English-speaking world for playing Muhammad Ali Jinnah in Sir Richard Attenborough's ''Gandhi (film), Gandhi'', was from a traditional Gujarati-Kutchi family from Kathiawar.


Cuisine

Gujarati food is primarily vegetarian. The typical Gujarati ''thali'' consists of ''roti, rotli'' or ''bhakri, bhakhari or thepala or rotlo'', ''dal'' or ''kadhi'', ''khichdi'', Bhat and ''Curry, shak''. South Asian pickle#India, Athanu (Indian pickle) and ''chhundo'' are used as condiments. The four major regions of Gujarat all bring their own styles to Gujarati food. Many Gujarati dishes are distinctively sweet, salty, and spicy at the same time. In the Saurashtra (region), Saurashtra region, ''chass, chhash'' (buttermilk) is believed to be a must-have in their daily food.


Cinema

The Gujarati film industry dates back to 1932, when the first Gujarati film, ''Narsinh Mehta (1932 film), Narsinh Mehta'', was released. After flourishing through the 1960s to 1980s, the industry saw a decline. The industry is revived in recent times. The film industry has produced more than one thousand films since its inception. The Government of Gujarat announced a 100% entertainment tax exemption for Gujarati films in 2005 and a policy of incentives in 2016.


Music

Gujarati folk music, known as ''Sugam Sangeet'', is a hereditary profession of the Barot (caste), Barot community. Gadhvi and Charan communities have contributed heavily in modern times. The omnipresent instruments in Gujarati folk music include wind instruments, such as , , and , string instruments, such as the , , and and percussion instruments, such as the and pot drum.


Festivals

File:Navratri Garba.jpg, Garba (dance), Garba during Navaratri in
Ahmedabad Ahmedabad ( Gujarati: Amdavad, ) is the largest city and former capital of the Indian state of Gujarat Gujarat (, ) is a state on the western coast of India with a coastline of – most of which lies on the Kathiawar peninsula – and ...
File:Navratri garba at Ambaji temple.jpg, Navratri Garba at Ambaji temple File:Dandiya Raas.jpg, Tourists playing Dandiya Raas File:International Kite Festival,India.JPG, International Kite Festival in Gujarat – Uttarayan, International Kite Festival, Ahmedabad
The folk traditions of Gujarat include and . ''Bhavai'' is a folk theatre; it is partly entertainment and partly ritual, and is dedicated to Durga, Amba. The is a folk dance done as a celebration of Navratri by Gujarati people. The folk costume of this dance is ''Gagra choli, chaniya choli'' for women and for men. Different styles and steps of include , simple five, simple seven, , (hand movement which forms an imagery triangle), , , butterfly, , two claps and many more. is one of the oldest form of garba where all the women wear red patola sari and sing along while dancing. It is a very graceful form of garba. ''Makar Sankranti'' is a festival where people of Gujarat fly kites. In Gujarat, from December through to ''Makar Sankranti'', people start enjoying kite flying. ''Undhiyu'', a special dish made of various vegetables, is a must-have of Gujarati people on ''Makar Sankranti''. Surat is especially well known for the strong string which is made by applying glass powder on the row thread to provide it a cutting edge. Apart from Navratri and Uttarayana, Diwali, Holi, Muslim holidays, Eid, Chup Tazia, Tazia, Paryushana and others are also celebrated.


Diffusion of culture

Due to close proximity to the Arabian Sea, Gujarat has developed a mercantile ethos which maintained a cultural tradition of seafaring, long-distance trade, and overseas contacts with the outside world since ancient times, and the diffusion of culture through Gujarati diaspora was a logical outcome of such a tradition. During the pre-modern period, various European sources have observed that these merchants formed diaspora communities outside of Gujarat, and in many parts of the world, such as the
Persian Gulf The Persian Gulf ( fa, خلیج فارس, translit=xalij-e fârs, lit=Gulf of Fars, ) is a mediterranean sea The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely en ...
, Middle East, Horn of Africa, Hong Kong, Indonesia, and Philippines. long before the internal rise of the Maratha Dynasty, and the British Raj colonial occupation. Early 1st-century Western historians such as Strabo and Dio Cassius are testament to Gujarati people's role in the spread of Buddhism in the Mediterranean, when it was recorded that the ''Shramana, sramana'' monk Zarmanochegas (Ζαρμανοχηγὰς) of Barygaza met Nicholas of Damascus in Antioch while Augustus ruled the Roman Empire, and shortly thereafter proceeded to Athens where he burnt himself to death in to demonstrate his faith. A tomb to the ''sramana'', was still visible in the time of Plutarch, which bore the mention "ΖΑΡΜΑΝΟΧΗΓΑΣ ΙΝΔΟΣ ΑΠΟ ΒΑΡΓΟΣΗΣ" ("The ''sramana'' master from Bharuch, Barygaza in
India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, second-most populous country, the List of countries and dependencies by area, seventh-largest ...

India
"). The progenitor of the Sinhala language is believed to have been Prince Vijaya, son of King Simhabahu, who ruled Simhapura (modern-day Sihor near
Bhavnagar Bhavnagar is a city in the Bhavnagar district of the Saurashtra region of Gujarat, a States of India, state of India. It was founded in 1724 by Gohil, Bhavsinhji Gohil (1703–1764). It was the capital of Bhavnagar State, which was a princely s ...
). Prince Vijaya was banished by his father for his lawlessness and set forth with a band of adventurers. This tradition was followed by other Gujaratis. For example, in the Ajanta Caves, Ajanta frescoes, a Gujarati prince is shown entering Sri Lanka.P. 4 ''Shyamji Krishna Varma, the unknown patriot'' by Ganeshi Lal Verma, India. Ministry of Information and Broadcasting. Publications Division Many Indians migrated to Indonesia and the Philippines, most of them Gujaratis. King Aji Saka, who is said to have come to Java in Indonesia in year 1 of the Saka calendar, is believed by some to have been a king of Gujarat.P. 67 ''An era of peace'' By Krishna Chandra Sagar The first Indian settlements in the Philippines and Java Island of Indonesia are believed to have been established with the coming of Prince Dhruvavijaya of Gujarat, with 5000 traders. Some stories propose a Brahmin named Tritresta was the first to bring Gujarati migrants with him to Java, so some scholars equate him with Aji Saka. A Gujarati ship has been depicted in a sculpture at Borabudur, Java.


Flora and fauna


Prehistoric fauna

In the early 1980s, palaeontologists found dinosaur egg hatcheries and fossils of at least 13 species in Balasinor. The most important find was that of a carnivorous Abelisauridae, abelisaurid named ''Rajasaurus, Rajasurus narmadensis'' which lived in the Late Cretaceous period.The dinosaur wonders of India's Jurassic Park
. BBC News. 11 May 2010.


Extant species

According to the ''India State of Forest Report 2011'', Gujarat has 9.7% of its total geographical area under forest cover. As per the districts, The Dangs has the largest area under forest cover. Gujarat has four national parks and 21 sanctuaries. It is the only home of
Asiatic lion The Asiatic lion is a '' Panthera leo leo'' population In biology, a population is a number of all the organisms of the same group or species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a ...
s and outside Africa, is the only present natural habitat of lions.
Gir Forest National Park Gir National Park and Wildlife Sanctuary, also known as Sasan Gir, is a forest and wildlife sanctuary near Talala (Gir), Talala Gir in Gujarat, India. It is located north-east of Somnath, south-east of Junagadh and south-west of Amreli. It wa ...

Gir Forest National Park
in the southwest part of the state covers part of the lions' habitat. Apart from lions, Indian leopards are also found in state. They are spread across the large plains of Saurashtra and the mountains of South Gujarat. Other National parks include Vansda National Park, Blackbuck National Park, Velavadar and Marine National Park, Gulf of Kutch, Narara Marine National Park, Gulf of Kutchh, Jamnagar. Wildlife sanctuaries include Wild Ass Wildlife Sanctuary, Nal Sarovar Bird Sanctuary, Porbandar Bird Sanctuary, Kutch Desert Wildlife Sanctuary, Kutch Bustard Sanctuary, Narayan Sarovar Sanctuary, Jessore Sloth Bear Sanctuary, Anjal, Balaram Ambaji Wildlife Sanctuary, Balaram-Ambaji, Barda Wildlife Sanctuary, Barda, Jambughoda Wildlife Sanctuary, Jambughoda, Khavda, Paniya, Purna Wildlife Sanctuary, Purna, Rampura, Ratan Mahal Wildlife Sanctuary, Ratan Mahal, and Surpaneshwar. In February 2019, a Bengal tiger claimed to be from Ratapani Tiger Reserve, Ratapani in
Madhya Pradesh Madhya Pradesh (, ; meaning ''Central Province'') is a state in central India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, second-most ...

Madhya Pradesh
was spotted in the area of Lunavada in Mahisagar district, in the eastern part of the state, before being found dead later that month, likely from starvation.


Tourism

Gujarat's natural environment includes the Great Rann of Kutch and the hills of Saputara, and it is the sole home of pure
Asiatic lion The Asiatic lion is a '' Panthera leo leo'' population In biology, a population is a number of all the organisms of the same group or species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a ...
s in the world. During the historic reigns of the sultans, Hindu craftsmanship blended with Islamic architecture, giving rise to the Indo-Saracenic style. Many structures in the state are built in this fashion. It is also the birthplace of Mahatma Gandhi and Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, great iconic figures of Indian independence movement, India's Independence movement. Amitabh Bachchan is currently the brand ambassador of Gujarat Tourism. ;Museums and memorials Gujarat has a variety of museums on different genres that are run by the state's Department of Museums located at the principal state museum, Baroda Museum & Picture Gallery in Vadodara, which is also the location of the Maharaja Fateh Singh Museum. The Kirti Mandir, Porbandar, Sabarmati Ashram, and Kaba Gandhi No Delo are museums related to Mahatma Gandhi, the former being the place of his birth and the latter two where he lived in his lifetime. Kaba Gandhi No Delo in Rajkot exhibits part of a rare collection of photographs relating to the life of Mahatma Gandhi. Sabarmati Ashram is the place where Gandhi initiated the Dandi March. On 12 March 1930 he vowed that he would not return to the Ashram until India won independence. The Maharaja Fateh Singh Museum is housed within Lakshmi Vilas Palace, the residence of the erstwhile Maharajas, located in Vadodara. The Calico Museum of Textiles is managed by the Sarabhai Foundation and is one of the most popular tourist spots in Ahmedabad. The Lakhota Museum at Jamnagar is a palace transformed into museum, which was residence of the Jadeja Rajputs. The collection of the museum includes artefacts spanning from 9th to 18th centuries, pottery from medieval villages nearby and the skeleton of a whale. Other well-known museums in the state include the Kutch Museum in Bhuj, which is the oldest museum in Gujarat founded in 1877, the Watson Museum of human history and culture in Rajkot, Gujarat Science City and Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel National Memorial in Ahmedabad. In October 2018, the world's tallest statue commemorating the independence leader Sardar Patel was unveiled. At 182 metres tall the Statue of Unity is the newest tourist attraction with over 30,000 visitors every day. ;Religious sites Religious sites play a major part in the tourism of Gujarat. Somnath is the first of the twelve Jyotirlingas, and is mentioned in the Rigveda. The Dwarkadheesh temple, Gujrat, Dwarakadheesh Temple, Radha Damodar Temple, Junagadh and Dakor are holy pilgrimage sites with temples dedicated to Krishna, Lord Krishna. The Sun Temple, Modhera is a ticketed monument, handled by the Archaeological Survey of India. Other religious sites in state include Ambaji, Dakor, Shamlaji, Chotila, Becharaji, Mahudi, Shankheshwar etc. The Palitana temples of Jainism on Mount Shatrunjaya, Palitana are considered the holiest of all Tirtha (Jainism), pilgrimage places by the Svetambara and Digambara Jain community. Palitana is the world's only mountain with more than 900 temples. The Sidi Saiyyed Mosque and Jama Masjid, Ahmedabad, Jama Masjid are holy mosques for Gujarati Muslims. ;Fairs A five-day festival is held during Maha Shivaratri at the fort of Girnar,
Junagadh Junagadh () is the headquarters of Junagadh district Junagadh district is a district of the Indian state of Gujarat. Its administrative headquarters is the city of Junagadh. Geography The district is located on the Kathiawar peninsula in west ...

Junagadh
, known as the Bhavanth Mahadev Fair ( Gujarati: ભવનાથ નો મેળો). The Kutch Festival or Rann Festival ( Gujarati: કચ્છ or રણ ઉત્સવ) is a festival celebrated at Kutch during Mahashivratri. The ''Modhra Dance Festival'' is a festival for classical dance, arranged by the Government of Gujarat's Cultural Department, to promote tourism in state and to keep traditions and culture alive. The Ambaji Fair is held in the Hindu month of Bhadrapad (around August–September) at Ambaji, during a time which is particularly suitable for farmers, when the busy monsoon season is about to end. The Bhadrapad fair is held at Ambaji which is in the Danta Taluka of Banaskantha district, near the Gujarat-Rajasthan border. The walk from the bus station to the temple is less than one kilometre, under a roofed walkway. Direct buses are available from many places, including Mount Abu (45 km away), Palanpur (65 km away), Ahmedabad and Idar. The Bhadrapad fair is held in the centre of the Ambaji village just outside the temple premises. The village is visited by the largest number of sanghas (pilgrim groups) during the fair. Many of them go there on foot, which is particularly enriching as it happens immediately after the monsoon, when the landscape is rich with greenery, streams are full of sparkling water and the air is fresh. About 1.5 million devotees are known to attend this fair each year from all over the world. Not only Hindus, but some devout Jains and Parsis also attend the functions, whilst some Muslims attend the fair for trade. The Tarnetar Fair is held during the first week of ''Bhadrapad'', (September–October according to Gregorian calendar), and mostly serves as a place to find a suitable bride for tribal people from Gujarat. The region is believed to be the place where Arjuna took up the difficult task of piercing the eye of a fish, rotating at the end of a pole, by looking at its reflection in the pond water, to marry Draupadi. Other fairs in Gujarat include Dang Durbar, Shamlaji Fair, Chitra Vichitra Fair, Dhrang Fair and Vautha Fair. The Government of Gujarat has Alcohol laws of India, banned alcohol since 1960. Gujarat government collected the ''Best State Award'' for 'Citizen Security' by IBN7 Diamond States on 24 December 2012. File:Statue of Gandhi at Sabarmati Ashram.jpg, Statue of Mahatma Gandhi in Sabarmati Ashram,
Ahmedabad Ahmedabad ( Gujarati: Amdavad, ) is the largest city and former capital of the Indian state of Gujarat Gujarat (, ) is a state on the western coast of India with a coastline of – most of which lies on the Kathiawar peninsula – and ...
File:Somnath-current.jpg, Somnath Temple, Veraval File:Dwarkadheesh temple.jpg, Dwarkadhish Temple, Dwarka File:Damodar Kund - Junagadh - Gujarat - DSC001.jpg, Radha Damodar Temple, Junagadh File:Vadnagar Torana.JPG, Kirti Toran, Vadnagar File:Akshardham Gandhinagar Gujarat.jpg, Akshardham (Gandhinagar), Akshardham
Gandhinagar Gandhinagar (, ) is the capital of the state of Gujarat Gujarat (, ) is a state on the western coast of India with a coastline of – most of which lies on the Kathiawar peninsula – and a population of 60.4 million. It is the L ...

Gandhinagar
File:Jama masjid in Champaner.JPG, Jama Mosque, Champaner File:Lakhota Lake Museum.JPG, Lakhota Museum in Jamnagar File:Sun Temple, Modhera 06.jpg, Sun Temple, Modhera File:Laxmi Vilas Palace - Vadodara.jpg, Laxmi Vilas Palace, Vadodara, Laxmi Vilas Palace, Vadodara File:Vijay Vilas - 2009.JPG, Vijay Vilas Palace, Mandvi, Kutch File:Bahauddin Maqbara by Kshitij.jpg, Mahabat Maqbara,
Junagadh Junagadh () is the headquarters of Junagadh district Junagadh district is a district of the Indian state of Gujarat. Its administrative headquarters is the city of Junagadh. Geography The district is located on the Kathiawar peninsula in west ...

Junagadh
File:Kutch Bhadreshwar Jain Temple.jpg, Vasai Jain Temple, Kutch File:Wankaner-palace.png, Wankaner palace, Wankaner File:Mandvi Beach.jpg, Mandvi Beach, Kutch


Transport


Air

There are two international airports (Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel International Airport, Ahmedabad and Surat Airport, Surat), nine domestic airports (Bhavnagar Airport, Bhavnagar, Bhuj Airport, Bhuj, Jamnagar Airport, Jamnagar, Kandla Airport, Kandla, Porbandar Airport, Porbandar, Rajkot Airport, Rajkot, Vadodara Airport, Vadodara, Amreli Airport, Amreli, Keshod Airport, Keshod), two private airports (Mundra Airport, Mundra, Mithapur) and three military bases (Bhuj Rudra Mata Air Force Base, Bhuj, Jamnagar Airport, Jamnagar, Naliya Air Force Station, Naliya) in Gujarat. Two more airports (Ankleshwar Airport, Ankleshwar, Rajkot Greenfield Airport, Rajkot) are under construction. There are three disused airports situated at Deesa Airport, Deesa, Mandvi and Mehsana Airport, Mehsana; the last serving as a flying school. Gujarat State Aviation Infrastructure Company Limited (GUJSAIL) has been established by the Government of Gujarat to foster development of aviation infrastructure in the state. These airports are operated and owned by either the Airport Authority of India, Airports Authority of India, Indian Air Force, Government of Gujarat or private companies.


Rail

Gujarat comes under the Western Railway Zone of the Indian Railways. Ahmedabad Railway Station is most important, centrally located and biggest railway station in Gujarat which connects to all important cities of Gujarat and India. Vadodara Railway Station is also the busiest railway station in Gujarat and the ninth busiest railway station in India. Other important railway stations are Surat railway station, Bhavnagar Terminus, Rajkot Railway Station, Sabarmati Junction, Valsad Railway Station, Bharuch Junction,Gandhidham Junction, Anand Junction, Godhra Railway Station, etc. Indian Railways is planning Delhi–Mumbai dedicated rail freight route passing through the state. The long tracks of the first phase of Metro-Link Express for Gandhinagar and Ahmedabad, MEGA, a rapid transit, metro rail system for
Ahmedabad Ahmedabad ( Gujarati: Amdavad, ) is the largest city and former capital of the Indian state of Gujarat Gujarat (, ) is a state on the western coast of India with a coastline of – most of which lies on the Kathiawar peninsula – and ...
and
Gandhinagar Gandhinagar (, ) is the capital of the state of Gujarat Gujarat (, ) is a state on the western coast of India with a coastline of – most of which lies on the Kathiawar peninsula – and a population of 60.4 million. It is the L ...

Gandhinagar
is under construction. It is expected to complete by 2024. The construction started on 14 March 2015.


Sea

Gujarat State has the longest sea coast of 1214 km in India. Kandla Port is one of the largest ports serving Western India. Other important ports in Gujarat are the Port of Navlakhi, Port of Magdalla, Port Pipavav, Jamnagar, Bedi Port, Port of Porbandar, Port of Veraval and the privately owned Mundra Port. The state also has RORO ferry service, Gujarat, Ro-Ro ferry service.


Road

Gujarat State Road Transport Corporation (GSRTC) is the primary body responsible for providing the bus services within the state of Gujarat and also with the neighbouring states. It is a public transport corporation providing bus services and public transit within Gujarat and to the other states in India. Apart from this, there are a number of services provided by GSRTC. * Mofussil Services – connects major cities, smaller towns and villages within Gujarat. * Intercity Bus Services – connects major cities – Ahmedabad, Surat, Veraval, Vapi, Vadodara (Baroda),Rajkot,Bharuch etc. * Interstate Bus Services – connects various cities of Gujarat with the neighbouring states of Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra and Rajasthan. * City Services – GSRTC provides city bus services at Surat, Vadodara, Vapi, Gandhinagar and Ahmedabad, within the state of Gujarat. * Parcel Services – service used for transporting goods. Apart from this, the GSRTC provides special bus services for festivals, industrial zones, schools, colleges and pilgrim places also buses are given on contract basis to the public for certain special occasions. * There are also city buses in cities like Ahmedabad (Ahmedabad Municipal Transport Service, AMTS and Ahmedabad BRTS), Surat (Surat BRTS), Bhavnagar (BMC CITY BUS) ) Vadodara (Vinayak Logistics), Gandhinagar (VTCOS), Rajkot (RMTS and Rajkot BRTS), Anand (VTCOS) etc. Auto rickshaws are common mode of transport in Gujarat. The Government of Gujarat is promoting bicycles to reduce pollution by the way of initiative taken by free cycle rides for commuters..


Education and research

The Gujarat Secondary and Higher Secondary Education Board (GSHSEB) are in charge of the schools run by the Government of Gujarat. However, most of the private schools in Gujarat are affiliated to the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) and Council for the Indian School Certificate Examinations (CISCE) board. Gujarat has 13 state universities and four agricultural universities. Institutes for Engineering and Research in the area include IIT Gandhinagar, Indian Institute of Information Technology, Vadodara, Indian Institute of Information Technology Vadodara (IIITV), Institute of Infrastructure, Technology, Research and Management, Institute of Infrastructure Technology Research and Management (IITRAM), Dhirubhai Ambani Institute of Information and Communication Technology (DA-IICT) also in Gandhinagar, Sardar Vallabhbhai National Institute of Technology (SVNIT) and P P Savani University in Surat, Pandit Deendayal Petroleum University (PDPU) in Gandhinagar, Nirma University in Ahmedabad, M.S. University in Vadodara, Marwadi Education Foundation's Group of Institutions (MEFGI) in Rajkot and Birla Vishwakarma Mahavidyalaya (BVM) in Vallabh Vidyanagar (a suburb in Anand district). MICA (institute), Mudra Institute of Communications Ahmedabad (MICA) is an institute for mass communication. In addition, Institute of Rural Management Anand (IRMA) is one of the leading sectoral institution in rural management. IRMA is a unique institution in the sense that it provides professional education to train managers for rural management. It is the only one of its kind in all Asia. The National Institute of Design, Ahmedabad, National Institute of Design (NID) in Ahmedabad and Gandhinagar is internationally acclaimed as one of the foremost multi-disciplinary institutions in the field of design education and research. Centre for Environmental Planning & Technology University, popularly known as (CEPT) is one of the best planning and architectural school not in India, but across the world; providing various technical and professional courses. In the emerging area of legal education, a premier institution Gujarat National Law University was founded in the capital city
Gandhinagar Gandhinagar (, ) is the capital of the state of Gujarat Gujarat (, ) is a state on the western coast of India with a coastline of – most of which lies on the Kathiawar peninsula – and a population of 60.4 million. It is the L ...

Gandhinagar
which started imparting education in 2004 and is ranked in top institutions in the country. Lalbhai Dalpatbhai College of Engineering (LDCE) is also one of the top engineering college of the state. The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda, Vadodara, is a premier university of Gujarat. It is one of the oldest universities of Gujarat and provides education in Faculty of Fine Arts, Engineering, Arts, Journalism, Education, Law, Social Work, Medicine, Science and Performing Arts. Originally known as the Baroda College of Science (established 1881), it became a university in 1949 after the independence of the country and later renamed after its benefactor Maharaja Sayajirao Gaekwad III, the former ruler of Baroda State. Gujarat University, Kadi Sarva Vishwavidyalaya, Sardar Patel University, Ahmedabad University, Saurashtra University, Veer Narmad South Gujarat University, Dharmsinh Desai University and Hemchandracharya North Gujarat University are also among reputed universities, affiliating many reputed colleges.


Research

The Space Applications Centre (SAC) is an institution for space research and satellite communication in Ahmedabad, India, under the aegis of the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO). Dr. Vikram Sarabhai, a renowned scientist, industrialist, and visionary Gujarati, played an important role in it. He also founded Physical Research Laboratory, a research institute encompasses Astrophysics, Solar System, and cosmic radiation. He also envisioned Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad, one of the internationally reputed management research institute that is located in Gujarat's commercial capital Ahmedabad and is the top ranked management institutes in the country. Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute has been established under Council of Scientific and Industrial Research Government of India at Bhavnagar. It was inaugurated by Late Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, the List of Prime Ministers of India, first Prime Minister of India on 10 April 1954, with a view to carry out research on marine salt, and salt from inland lakes and sub-soil brine. It is working on reverse osmosis, electro membrane process, salt and marine chemicals, analytical science, marine biotechnology, and other related fields. The Gujarat National Law University situated at
Gandhinagar Gandhinagar (, ) is the capital of the state of Gujarat Gujarat (, ) is a state on the western coast of India with a coastline of – most of which lies on the Kathiawar peninsula – and a population of 60.4 million. It is the L ...

Gandhinagar
is the 5th Best Law School currently in India. Gujarat Science City, is a government initiative to draw more students towards education in science, which hosts India's first IMAX 3D theatre, an energy park, a hall of science, an amphitheatre, and dancing musical fountains among others. Institute of Management under Nirma University is constantly ranked among the top MBA colleges in India. International Institute of Management and Technical Studies affiliated with Gujarat Knowledge Society, European Association for Distance Learning, Association of Indian Management Schools and Ahmedabad Textile Industry's Research Association has performed globally for its higher education certification courses for working professionals. IIMT STUDIES also launched GET SET GO programme in 2013 in affiliation with Gujarat Technological University and Gujarat Knowledge Society, Department of Technical Education- Government of Gujarat. B.K. School of Business Management is ranked sixth in financial management. K. S. School of Business Management is also an MBA college in Gujarat University providing a five-year integrated MBA course. Shanti Business School in
Ahmedabad Ahmedabad ( Gujarati: Amdavad, ) is the largest city and former capital of the Indian state of Gujarat Gujarat (, ) is a state on the western coast of India with a coastline of – most of which lies on the Kathiawar peninsula – and ...
is a business school offering a post-graduate diploma in management through a corporate citizenship initiative. The Institute of Seismological Research (ISR) was established by the Science and Technology Department, Government of Gujarat, in 2003 and is registered as a society. ISR campus is at Raisan, Gandhinagar, in a sprawling and picturesque area on the banks of Sabarmati river. Aims and objectives include assigning optimum seismic factors for buildings in different regions and long-term assessment of potential. The ISR is the only institute in India fully dedicated to seismological research and is planned to be developed into a premier international institute in few years time.


Notable people

*Dhirubhai Ambani, founder of Reliance Industries; from Chorvad, Gujarat *Morarji Desai, 4th Prime Minister of India (1977–1979); from Valsad *Dadudan Gadhvi (Kavi DadBapu), poet, singer and lyricist of Gujarati cinema, Gujarati Cinema, Padma Shri, Padmashri title given in 2021 *Mahatma Gandhi, spearheaded the Indian independence movement against British India, British colonial rule; Gujarati people, Gujarati *Muhammad Ali Jinnah, founder and first Governor general of Pakistan; from Rajkot *Narendra Modi, 14th and current Prime Minister of India; from Vadnagar, Gujarat *Urjit Patel, former Governor of Reserve Bank of India; from Kheda district, Gujarat *Vallabhbhai Patel, Independent India's first Deputy Prime Minister and Home Minister; from Karamsad *Azim Premji, software magnate and chairman of Wipro Limited; ethnically Gujarati *Shrimad Rajchandra, poet, philosopher and reformer best known as the spiritual guru of Mahatma Gandhi *Vikram Sarabhai, "father of the Indian space programme"; from Ahmedabad *Amit Shah, 31st and current Minister of Home Affairs (India), Current Home Minister of India, former Minister of State, Government of Gujarat; born in Mumbai *Jamsetji Tata, pioneer industrialist, founder of the Tata Group; from a
Parsi Parsis () or Parsees ( in the Persian language), are an ethnoreligious group who migrated to the Indian subcontinent from Persia during the Muslim conquest of Persia of 633–654 Common Era, CE; one of two such groups to have done so, with th ...

Parsi
family of
Navsari Navsari (Gujarati: ) is a city, the ninth biggest municipality of Gujarat and the administrative headquarters Navsari District of Gujarat, India, located between Surat & Mumbai. Navsari is also the Twin City of Surat, and only 37 km south ...
*Shyamji Krishna Varma was an Indian revolutionary fighter, an Indian patriot, lawyer and journalist From Kutch


Sister states

* New Jersey, United States (September 2019) * Delaware, United States (September 2019) * California, United States * Hyōgo Prefecture, Japan (November 2019) * Guangdong, China (2014) * Astrakhan Oblast, Russia


See also

* List of Koli people * List of Koli states and clans * Navnirman Andolan * Outline of Gujarat * Dharasana Satyagraha


References


Further reading

* Yazdani, Kaveh. ''India, Modernity and the Great Divergence: Mysore and Gujarat (17th to 19th C.)'' (Leiden: Brill), 2017. xxxi + 669 pp
online review


External links


Government


Official site of Gujarat, India

Official tourism site of Gujarat, India


General information

* * {{Authority control Gujarat, States and union territories of India States and territories established in 1960 1960 establishments in India