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The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, known as FR Yugoslavia or simply Yugoslavia, was a country in the
Balkans The Balkans ( ), also known as the Balkan Peninsula, are a geographic area in southeastern Europe Europe is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rathe ...

Balkans
that existed from 1992 to 2003, following the
breakup A relationship breakup, or simply just breakup, is the termination of an intimate relationship An intimate relationship is an interpersonal relationship that involves Physical intimacy, physical or emotional intimacy. Although an intimate re ...

breakup
of the
Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, commonly referred to as SFR Yugoslavia or simply Yugoslavia, was a Socialist state, socialist country in Southeast Europe, Southeast and Central Europe that existed from its foundation in the afte ...
. The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia comprised the
Republic of Serbia Serbia (, ; sr, Србија, Srbija, ),, * cs, Srbsko, * ro, Serbia * rue, Сербия *german: Serbien *french: Serbie * uk, Сербія * hu, Szerbia * bg, Сърбия * sq, Serbia * bs, Srbija * officially the Republic of Serbia,, ...
and the
Republic of Montenegro A republic ( la, res publica, links=yes, meaning "public affair") is a List of forms of government, form of government in which "power is held by the people and their elected representatives". In republics, the country is considered a "public m ...
. In February 2003, FR Yugoslavia was transformed from a
federal republic A federal republic is a federation A federation (also known as a federal state) is a political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective identity, who are organized by some form of I ...
to a
political union A political union is a type of political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective identity, who are organized by some form of Institutionalisation, institutionalized social relation, social re ...
officially known as the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro, or Serbia and Montenegro for short. In 2006, Montenegro seceded from the union, leading to the full independence of
Serbia Serbia (, ; Serbian Serbian may refer to: * someone or something related to Serbia, a country in Southeastern Europe * someone or something related to the Serbs, a South Slavic people * in both meanings, depending on the context, it may ref ...

Serbia
and
Montenegro Montenegro (; cnr, Crna Gora, , , ; sq, Mali i zi) is a country in Southeastern Europe Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe () is a geographical subregion A subregion is a part of a larger region In geography Geography (fro ...

Montenegro
. Its aspirations to be the sole legal
successor state Successor is someone who, or something which succeeds or comes after (see success and succession) Film and TV * ''The Successor'' (film), a 1996 film including Laura Girling * ''The Successor'' (TV program), a 2007 Israeli television program Mu ...
to SFR Yugoslavia were not recognized by the
United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization aiming to maintain international peace and international security, security, develop friendly relations among nations, achieve international cooperation, and be a centre for harm ...

United Nations
, following the passing of United Nations Security Council Resolution 777, which affirmed that the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia had ceased to exist, and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was a new state. All former republics were entitled to state succession while none of them continued SFR Yugoslavia's international legal personality. However, the government of
Slobodan Milošević Slobodan Milošević ( sr-Cyrl, Слободан Милошевић, ; 20 August 1941 – 11 March 2006) was a Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Yugoslav and Serbian politician who served as the President of Serbia, president of Republic o ...
opposed any such claims, and as such, FR Yugoslavia was not allowed to join the United Nations. Throughout its existence, FR Yugoslavia had a tense relationship with the International Community, as
economic sanctions Economic sanctions are commercial Commercial may refer to: * a dose of advertising conveyed through media (such as - for example - radio or television) ** Radio advertisement ** Television advertisement * (adjective for:) commerce, a system of ...
were issued against the state during the course of the
Yugoslav Wars The Yugoslav Wars were a series of separate but related Naimark (2003), p. xvii. ethnic conflict A refugee camp for displaced Rwandans in Zaire following the Rwandan genocide of 1994 An ethnic conflict is a conflict between two or more con ...
and
Kosovo War The Kosovo War was an armed conflict in Kosovo Kosovo, or ; sr-Cyrl, Косово officially the Republic of Kosovo,; sr, / is a partially recognised state in Southeast Europe Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe () i ...
. This also resulted in hyperinflation between 1992 and 1994. FR Yugoslavia's involvement in the Yugoslav Wars ended with the
Dayton Agreement The General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina, also known as the Dayton Agreement or the Dayton Accords ( hr, Daytonski sporazum, Serbian and Bosnian: / ), is the peace agreement reached at Wright-Patterson Air Force Bas ...
, which recognized the independence of the Republics of Croatia, Slovenia, and Bosnia and Herzegovina, as well as establishing diplomatic relationships between the states, and a guaranteed role of the Serbian population within Bosnian politics. Later on, growing separatism within the
Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija The Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija,; al, Krahina Autonome e Kosovës dhe Metohisë commonly known as Kosovo and Metohija; al, Kosova dhe Metohija or Kosovo; al, Kosova for short and abbreviated as KiM or Kosmet,; from ''Ko ...
, a region of Serbia heavily populated by
Albanians The Albanians (; sq, Shqiptarët, ) are an ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people A people is any plurality of person A person (plural people or persons) is a being that has certain capacities or attrib ...

Albanians
, resulted in an insurrection by the
Kosovo Liberation Army The Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA; , ) was an ethnic-Albanian separatist militia that sought the separation of Kosovo Kosovo, or ; sr-Cyrl, Косово officially the Republic of Kosovo,; sr, / is a international recognition of K ...
, an Albanian separatist group. The outbreak of the Kosovo War reintroduced western sanctions, as well as eventual Western involvement in the conflict. The conflict ended with the adoption of
United Nations Security Council Resolution 1244 United Nations Security Council resolution 1244, adopted on 10 June 1999, after recalling resolutions United Nations Security Council Resolution 1160, 1160 (1998), United Nations Security Council Resolution 1199, 1199 (1998), United Nations Secu ...
, which guaranteed economic and political separation of Kosovo from FR Yugoslavia, to be placed under UN
Administration Administration may refer to: Management of organizations * Management, the act of directing people towards accomplishing a goal ** Administration (government), management in or of government *** Administrative division ** Academic administratio ...
. Economic hardship and war resulted in growing discontent with the government of Slobodan Milošević and his allies, who ran both Serbia and Montenegro as an effective dictatorship. This would eventually cumulate in the
Bulldozer revolution A bulldozer or dozer (also called a crawler) is a large, motorized machine that travels on Continuous track, tracks and is equipped with a metal #Blade, blade to the front for pushing material: soil, sand, snow, rubble, or rock during construct ...
, which saw his government overthrown, and replaced by one led by the
Democratic Opposition of Serbia The Democratic Opposition of Serbia ( sr, Демократска oпозиција Cрбије / Demokratska opozicija Srbije), commonly referred to as DOS, was a wide alliance of political parties in Serbia, intent on ousting the ruling Sociali ...
and
Vojislav Koštunica Vojislav Koštunica ( sr-cyrl, Војислав Коштуница, ; born 24 March 1944) is a Serbian former politician and statesman who served as the last president of FR Yugoslavia from 2000 to 2003, and as the prime minister of Serbia T ...

Vojislav Koštunica
, which also joined the UN. The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia ended in 2003 after the
Federal Assembly of Yugoslavia The Parliament of Yugoslavia was the deliberative body of Yugoslavia Yugoslavia (; sh, Jugoslavija / ; sl, Jugoslavija ; mk, Југославија ;; rup, Iugoslavia; hu, Jugoszlávia; Pannonian Rusyn language, Pannonian Rusyn: , Tr ...
voted to enact the
Constitutional Charter of Serbia and Montenegro The Constitutional Charter of Serbia and Montenegro ( sr, Уставна повеља Србије и Црне Горе, ''Ustavna povelja Srbije i Crne Gore'') came into force on 4 February 2003, creating a confederacy Confederacy may refer to: ...
, which established the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro. As such, Yugoslavia was consigned to history. Growing separatism in Montenegro, led by
Milo Đukanović Milo Đukanović ( cnr, Мило Ђукановић, ; born 15 February 1962) is a Montenegrin politician serving as the President of Montenegro since 2018, previously serving the role from 1998 to 2003. He also served as the Prime Minister of M ...

Milo Đukanović
meant that the Constitution of Serbia and Montenegro included a stanza allowing for a referendum on the question of Montenegrin independence, after a period of three years had passed. In 2006, the
referendum A referendum (plural: referendums or less commonly referenda) is a direct Direct may refer to: Mathematics * Directed set In mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number th ...
was called, and passed, by a narrow margin. This led to the dissolution of the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro, and the establishment of the independent republics of Serbia and Montenegro, turning Serbia into a
landlocked country A landlocked country is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an individual's birth, residence or citizenship. A country may be an independent sovereign s ...
. This can be considered the last act which finalized the dissolution of Yugoslavia.


Name

The official name of the country was the "Federal Republic of Yugoslavia" (Савезна Република Југославија / Savezna Republika Jugoslavija), or "FR Yugoslavia" for short. The name Yugoslavia, an Anglicised transcription of Jugoslavija, is a composite word made up of jug ('yug') (with the 'j' pronounced like an English 'y') and slavija. The Slavic word jug means 'south', while slavija ('Slavia") denotes a 'land of the Slavs'. Thus, a translation of "Jugoslavija" would be 'South-Slavia' or 'South Slav Land'. This is because the initial idea of 'Yugoslavia,' was a state of
Southern Slavs The South Slavs are a subgroup of Slavic peoples Slavs are a European ethno-linguistic group of people who speak the various Slavic languages of the larger Balto-Slavic language, Balto-Slavic linguistic group of the Indo-European languages. Th ...
which could protect themselves from foreign empires. The native name of Yugoslavia remained the same in all South Slavic languages, spoken within the country.


History

After the collapse of SFR Yugoslavia in the 1990s, the two Serb majority republics, Serbia and Montenegro, agreed to remain as Yugoslavia, and established a new Constitution in 1992, which established the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia as essential
rump state A rump state is the remnant of a once much larger state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (n ...
, consisting majority of Serbs. The new state abandoned Communist legacy: the Red Star was removed from the national flag, and the Communist Coat of Arms was replaced by a new Coat of Arms representing Serbia and Montenegro. The new state also established the office of the president, held by a single person, initially appointed with the consent of the republics of Serbia and Montenegro until 1997 after which the president was democratically elected. The President of Yugoslavia acted alongside the Presidents of the republics of Serbia and Montenegro. Initially, all three offices were dominated by allies of Slobodan Milosevic and his
Socialist Party of Serbia The Socialist Party of Serbia ( sr, Социјалистичка партија Србије, Socijalistička partija Srbije; Abbreviation, abbr. СПС, SPS) is a political party in Serbia led by Ivica Dačić. It was founded in 1990 as the dir ...
.


Foundation

On 26 December 1991, Serbia, Montenegro, and the Serb rebel-held territories in Croatia agreed that they would form a new "third Yugoslavia". Efforts were also made in 1991 to include
SR Bosnia and Herzegovina The Socialist Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina ( sh, Socijalistička Republika Bosna i Hercegovina / Социјалистичка Pепублика Босна и Херцеговина), commonly referred to as Socialist Bosnia or simply Bosni ...
within the federation, with negotiations between Miloševic, Bosnia's Serbian Democratic Party, and the Bosniak proponent of union – Bosnia's Vice-President Adil Zulfikarpašić taking place on this matter.Steven L. Burg, Paul S. Shoup. ''The War in Bosnia-Herzegovina: Ethnic Conflict and International Intervention''. Armonk, New York, US: M.E. Sharpe, 2000. pp. 72–73. Zulfikarpašić believed that Bosnia could benefit from a union with Serbia, Montenegro, and Krajina, thus he supported a union which would secure the unity of Serbs and Bosniaks. Miloševic continued negotiations with Zulfikarpašić to include Bosnia within a new Yugoslavia, however efforts to include the whole of Bosnia within a new Yugoslavia effectively terminated by late 1991 as Izetbegović planned to hold a referendum on independence while the Bosnian Serbs and Bosnian Croats formed autonomous territories. Violence between ethnic Serbs and Bosniaks soon broke out. Thus, FR Yugoslavia was restricted to the republics of Serbia and Montenegro, and became closely associated with breakaway Serbian republics during the Yugoslav Wars.


Yugoslav Wars

The FRY was suspended from a number of international institutions. This was due to the ongoing
Yugoslav wars The Yugoslav Wars were a series of separate but related Naimark (2003), p. xvii. ethnic conflict A refugee camp for displaced Rwandans in Zaire following the Rwandan genocide of 1994 An ethnic conflict is a conflict between two or more con ...
during the 1990s, which had prevented agreement being reached on the disposition of federal assets and liabilities, particularly the national debt. The Government of Yugoslavia supported Croatian and Bosnian Serbs in the
wars War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (new ...
from 1992 to 1995. Because of that, the country was under economic and political sanctions, which resulted in economic disaster that forced thousands of its young citizens to emigrate from the country. FR Yugoslavia acted to support Serbian separatist movements in breakaway states, including the
Republic of Serbian Krajina The Republic of Serbian Krajina or Serb Republic of Krajina ( sh, Република Српска Крајина, italics=no / or РСК / ''RSK'', ), known as the Serbian Krajina ( / ) or simply Krajina, was a self-proclaimed Serbs of Croatia, ...
and the
Republika Srpska Republika Srpska ( sr-cyr, Република Српска, ) is one of the two entities Entity may refer to: Computing * Character entity reference, replacement text for a character in HTML or XML * Entity class, a thing of interest within ...
, and sought to establish them as independent Serbian republics, with potential eventual reintegration with FR Yugoslvia. However, the Government of FR Yugoslavia would treat these republics as separate entities, and gave unofficial, rather than active, aid by transferring control of units from the JNA to the secessionist movements. In this way, FR Yugoslavia avoided potential accusations of committing acts of aggression against the breakaway republics recognised by the international community.
Slobodan Milošević Slobodan Milošević ( sr-Cyrl, Слободан Милошевић, ; 20 August 1941 – 11 March 2006) was a Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Yugoslav and Serbian politician who served as the President of Serbia, president of Republic o ...
, the
President of Serbia The president of Serbia ( sr, Председник Србије, Predsednik Srbije), officially styled as the President of the Republic ( sr, Председник Републике, Predsednik Republike) is the head of state of Serbia. The curr ...
, did not consider himself to be at war with the breakaway republics of Yugoslavia. Following the transfer of Yugoslav Army units, the state of FR Yugoslavia ceased to play an important military role in the Yugoslav Wars, barring conflicts on the border with Croatia, such as the
Siege of Dubrovnik The siege of Dubrovnik ( sh, Opsada Dubrovnika, Опсада Дубровника) was a military engagement fought between the Yugoslav People's Army (JNA) and Croatian forces defending the city of Dubrovnik and its surroundings during the Croa ...
. It instead provided economic and political aid, to avoid provoking the international community further, and to preserve FR Yugoslavia as the republics of Serbia and Montenegro, rather than 'Greater Serbia.' In 1995, following
Operation Storm Operation Storm ( sh, Operacija Oluja / ) was the last major battle of the Croatian War of Independence The Croatian War of Independence was fought from 1991 to 1995 between Croat Croats (; hr, Hrvati ), also known as Croati ...
, a military offensive by the
Croatian Army The Croatian Army ( hr, Hrvatska vojska or HV) and Croatian Ground Army ( hr, Hrvatska kopnena vojska or HKoV) is the largest and most significant component of the Croatian Armed Forces (CAF). Role and deployment The fundamental role and purpo ...
, and NATO involvement in the Bosnian War, President Slobodan Milošević agreed to negotiate, as the Serbian position within Bosnia had become substantially worse. Under threat of economically crippling the Republika Srpska, he took over negotiating powers for all Serbian secessionist movements, as well as FR Yugoslavia. The ensuing Dayton Agreements, signed between representatives from the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, the
Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina The Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina ( sh, Republika Bosna i Hercegovina / ) was a state in Southeastern Europe, existing from 1992 to 1995. It is the direct legal predecessor to the modern-day state of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Bosnia and Herze ...
and the
Republic of Croatia , image_flag = Flag of Croatia.svg , image_coat = Coat of arms of Croatia.svg , anthem = "Lijepa naša domovino ''Lijepa naša domovino'' (; ) is the national anthem A national anthem is a song that ...

Republic of Croatia
, resulted in each state being recognised as sovereign states. It also provided recognition for Serbian
institutions Institutions, according to Samuel P. Huntington, are "stable, valued, recurring patterns of behavior." Institutions can refer to social mechanism, mechanisms which govern the behavior of a set of individuals within a given community, and are id ...

institutions
and a rotating presidency within Bosnia and Herzegovina, and the Serbian populated areas of the former Socialist Republic of Bosnia were absorbed into Bosnia and Herzegovina. Thus the Yugoslav Wars ended, and Western sanctions on FR Yugoslavia were lifted. However, Slobodan Milošević would not achieve his dreams of admitting FR Yugoslavia to the United Nations as the successor state of SFR Yugoslavia, as an 'outer wall' of Western sanctions prohibited this.


Economic collapse during Yugoslav Wars

Following the adoption of economic sanctions by the international community against FR Yugoslavia, its economy experienced a collapse. Sanctions on fuel meant that fuel stations across the country ran out of petrol, and foreign assets were seized. The average income of inhabitants of FR Yugoslavia was halved from $3,000 to $1,500. An estimated 3 million Yugoslavs (Serbs and Montenegrins) lived below the poverty line, suicide rates increased by 22% and hospitals lacked basic equipment. Along with this, supply links were cut, which meant that the Yugoslav economy could not grow, and imports or exports needed for industries could not be obtained, forcing them to close. The crippled state of the Yugoslav economy also affected its ability to wage war, and after 1992, Yugoslavia had an extremely limited military role within the Yugoslav Wars, due to the JNA units being unable to operate without oil or munitions. On top of this, starting in 1992 and until 1994, the Yugoslav dinar experienced a major hyperinflation, leading to inflation reaching 313 million percent, the second worst hyperinflation in history. Many parts of FR Yugoslavia, including all of Montenegro, adopted the
Deutsche Mark The Deutsche Mark (, "German mark"), abbreviated "DM" or "D-Mark" (), was the official currency A currency, "in circulation", from la, currens, -entis, literally meaning "running" or "traversing" in the most specific sense is money Im ...

Deutsche Mark
and
Euro The euro (currency symbol, symbol: euro sign, €; ISO 4217, code: EUR) is the official currency of 19 of the Member state of the European Union, member states of the European Union. This group of states is known as the eurozone or euro area ...

Euro
currencies instead of the Yugoslav dinar. Western sanctions crippled the Yugoslav economy, and prevented it from playing an active role in aiding Serb breakaway republics. Following the Dayton Agreement, the UN Security Council voted to lift most sanctions, but they were reissued following the outbreak of an Albanian insurgency in Kosovo. The lasting economic impact can be attributed to the eventual downfall of FR Yugoslavia and Slobodan Milošević's government, as well as a deeper desire in Montenegro to leave Yugoslavia.


Kosovo War

In the
Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija The Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija,; al, Krahina Autonome e Kosovës dhe Metohisë commonly known as Kosovo and Metohija; al, Kosova dhe Metohija or Kosovo; al, Kosova for short and abbreviated as KiM or Kosmet,; from ''Ko ...
, a growing desire for independence emerged among the Albanian majority population. Already, an unrecognised
Republic of Kosova The Republic of Kosova ( sq, Republika e Kosovës) or First Republic of Kosovo was a self-declared proto-state A quasi-state or state-like entity, to include what is termed a proto-state, is a political entity that does not represent a fully i ...
had emerged with underground institutions. In 1996, the
Kosovo Liberation Army The Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA; , ) was an ethnic-Albanian separatist militia that sought the separation of Kosovo Kosovo, or ; sr-Cyrl, Косово officially the Republic of Kosovo,; sr, / is a international recognition of K ...
, an Albanian militia promoting Kosovar independence, launched attacks against Serbian police stations, killing at least ten Serbian policemen in direct attacks between 1996 and 1998. The low level
insurgency An insurgency is a violent, armed rebellion Rebellion, uprising, or insurrection is a refusal of obedience or order. It refers to the open resistance against the orders of an established authority In the fields of sociology Sociol ...
eventually escalated. After Slobodan Milošević was elected President of Yugoslavia in 1997, having served his maximum two terms as President of Serbia, he ordered JNA units to move into Kosovo to aid in the suppression of the insurrection. The governments of FR Yugoslavia and the US declared the Kosovo Liberation Army a terrorist organisation, following repeated deadly attacks against Yugoslav law enforcement agencies. US intelligence also mentioned illegal arms sources of the Kosovo Liberation Army, including conducting raids during the course of the
Albanian Civil War The Albanian Civil War was a civil war A civil war, also known as an intrastate war in polemology, is a war between organized groups within the same state or country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or politi ...
, and drug dealing. Despite this, substantial evidence now shows that the
CIA The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA; ), known informally as "The Agency" and "The Company", is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the federal government of the United States The federal government of the United States (U.S. ...
had aided in training units of the KLA, although not necessarily providing them with arms and funding. In 1998, the Kosovo War began, following increased open combat with Yugoslav police and JNA units deployed by Milošević. The KLA found itself heavily outnumbered and outgunned in open combat, and had to use guerrilla tactics. Serbian police and JNA units attacked KLA outposts, attempting to destroy them, as KLA units attempted to avoid direct confrontation and use terrorist attacks, including bombings and ambushes, to weaken Yugoslav control. Although unable to gain a strategic advantage, Yugoslav Army units found themselves in a tactical advantage against KLA units which lacked proper training. JNA units themselves lacked morale, and attacks were often directed against civilian targets rather than military targets. 863,000 Albanian civilians were forcibly expelled between March and June 1999 from Kosovo. 169,824 Serb and Romani civilians were estimated by the UNHCR's Belgrade office to have fled from Kosovo to Serbia and Montenegro by 20 June 1999. Out of 10,317 civilians, 8,676 Albanians, 1,196 Serbs and 445 Roma, Bosniaks, Montenegrins and others were killed or went missing in connection with the war between 1 January 1998 - 31 December 2000. The Serbian government attributed 1,953 Serbian, 361 Albanian and 266 other civilian deaths or disappearances from 1 January 1998 - 1 November 2001 to “Albanian terrorism in Kosovo-Metohija”. The international community was quick to respond, issuing a peace proposal to Yugoslavia in 1999. The agreement was seen as an essential ultimatum by
NATO The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO, ; french: Organisation du traité de l'Atlantique nord, ), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance A military alliance is a formal agreement betwe ...
to Yugoslavia, and this rejected by the Yugoslav government. NATO responded in March 1999 by ordering airstrikes against Yugoslav military targets and infrastructure, including roads, railroads, administrative buildings and the headquarters of
Radio Television Serbia Radio Television of Serbia ( sr, Radio-televizija Srbije, italics=yes, sr-Cyrl, Радио-телевизија Србије; abbr. RTS/PTC) is Serbia's public broadcasting, public broadcaster. It broadcasts and produces news, drama, and sports ...
. NATO's bombing campaign was not approved by the UN Security Council, for fear of a veto by
Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the eastern region of . There is no consistent definition of the precise area it covers, partly because th ...

Russia
, which would cause controversy as to its
legality Legality, in respect of an act, agreement, or contract is the state of being consistent with the law or of being lawful or unlawful in a given jurisdiction, and the construct of power. According to the Merriam-Webster Dictionary, legality is 1 : ...
. The UN Security Council adopted
United Nations Security Council Resolution 1160 United Nations Security Council resolution 1160, adopted on 31 March 1998, after noting the situation in Kosovo, the council, acting under Chapter VII of the United Nations Charter, imposed an arms embargo and economic sanctions on the Serbia and ...
, renewing arms and oil sanctions against FR Yugoslavia, and thus crippling its economy. The effects of continuous aerial bombardment and sanctions cost the Yugoslav economy hundreds of billions of USD and eventually forced Milošević's government to comply with an agreement put forward by an international delegation.
United Nations Security Council Resolution 1244 United Nations Security Council resolution 1244, adopted on 10 June 1999, after recalling resolutions United Nations Security Council Resolution 1160, 1160 (1998), United Nations Security Council Resolution 1199, 1199 (1998), United Nations Secu ...
led to substantial autonomy for Kosovo, and the establishment of a UN mission to Kosovo, as well as the complete withdrawal of units of the Yugoslav National Army. As such, Kosovo remained an Autonomous Province of Serbia, but politically and economically independent. The damage to FR Yugoslavia was immense, with the government estimating $100 billion in infrastructure damage, as well as 1,200 Serbian and Albanian civilians or soldiers confirmed dead. Economists have estimated at least $29 billion in direct damages caused by the bombings. In the aftermath of the Kosovo War, a low level
insurgency An insurgency is a violent, armed rebellion Rebellion, uprising, or insurrection is a refusal of obedience or order. It refers to the open resistance against the orders of an established authority In the fields of sociology Sociol ...
continued in parts of Southern Serbia, which had Albanian minorities. However, this insurgency lacked international support, and the Yugoslav Armed Forces were able to put down the insurgency.


Bulldozer Revolution

The string of defeats, as well as a complete collapse of the Yugoslav economy, led to mass unpopularity of the essential dictatorship of Slobodan Milošević and his allies in the
Socialist Party of Serbia The Socialist Party of Serbia ( sr, Социјалистичка партија Србије, Socijalistička partija Srbije; Abbreviation, abbr. СПС, SPS) is a political party in Serbia led by Ivica Dačić. It was founded in 1990 as the dir ...
. In September 2000, amongst accusations of electoral fraud, large scale protests struck the nation. Milošević was eventually removed from power, as his
Socialist Party of Serbia The Socialist Party of Serbia ( sr, Социјалистичка партија Србије, Socijalistička partija Srbije; Abbreviation, abbr. СПС, SPS) is a political party in Serbia led by Ivica Dačić. It was founded in 1990 as the dir ...
lost in the federal elections to the
Democratic Opposition of Serbia The Democratic Opposition of Serbia ( sr, Демократска oпозиција Cрбије / Demokratska opozicija Srbije), commonly referred to as DOS, was a wide alliance of political parties in Serbia, intent on ousting the ruling Sociali ...
. In the aftermath, a new government in Yugoslavia negotiated with the United Nations, accepting that it was not the sole legal successor to the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, and was allowed to join the UN. Milošević would later be put on trial for corruption and war crimes, especially during the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia, although he died in prison before his trial could end in 2006. His culpability, especially of the charges brought against him in the context of the ICTY, remains a subject of controversy within Serbia.


Gradual dissolution

In 2002, Serbia and Montenegro came to a new agreement regarding continued co-operation, which, among other changes, promised the end of the name Yugoslavia (since they were part of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia). On 4 February 2003, the
Federal Assembly of Yugoslavia The Parliament of Yugoslavia was the deliberative body of Yugoslavia Yugoslavia (; sh, Jugoslavija / ; sl, Jugoslavija ; mk, Југославија ;; rup, Iugoslavia; hu, Jugoszlávia; Pannonian Rusyn language, Pannonian Rusyn: , Tr ...
created a loose
state union A political union is a type of polity, political entity which is composed of, or created from smaller polities, or the process which achieves this. These smaller polities are federated states in a Federation#Federal governments, federal government ...
or confederacy—the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro, although Yugoslavia was still commonly used. A new constitutional charter was agreed to provide a framework for the governance of the country. On Sunday, 21 May 2006,
Montenegrins Montenegrins (Montenegrin language, Montenegrin and Serbian language, Serbian: Crnogorci / Црногорци, or ; literal translation, lit. "Black Mountain People") are a South Slavs, South Slavic ethnic group native to Montenegro. Genetic orig ...
voted in an
independence referendum An independence referendum is a type of referendum A referendum (plural: referendums or less commonly referenda) is a Direct democracy, direct and Universal suffrage, universal vote in which an entire Constituency, electorate is invited to vote ...
, with 55.5% supporting independence. Fifty-five percent or more of affirmative votes were needed to dissolve the confederation and Yugoslavia. The turnout was 86.3% and 99.73% of the more than 477,000 votes cast were deemed valid. The subsequent Montenegrin proclamation of independence on 3 June 2006 and the Serbian proclamation of independence on 5 June ended the confederation of Serbia and Montenegro and thus the last remaining vestiges of the former
Yugoslavia Yugoslavia (; sh, Jugoslavija / ; sl, Jugoslavija ; mk, Југославија ;; rup, Iugoslavia; hu, Jugoszlávia; Pannonian Rusyn Image:Novi Sad mayor office.jpg, 250px, Mayor office written in four official languages used in the ...

Yugoslavia
.


Politics

The Federal Assembly of Yugoslavia, representing FR Yugoslavia (1992–2003) was composed of two chambers: the Council of Citizens and the Council of Republics. Whereas the Council of Citizens served as an ordinary assembly, representing the people of FR Yugoslavia, the Council of Republics was made equally by representatives from the federation's constituent republics, to ensure federal equality between Serbia and Montenegro. The first president from 1992 to 1993 was
Dobrica Ćosić Dobrica Ćosić ( sr, Добрица Ћосић, ; 29 December 1921 – 18 May 2014) was a Yugoslav and Serbian politician, writer, and political theorist. Ćosić was twice awarded the prestigious NIN Prize, NIN award for literature and Medal of ...
, a former communist
Yugoslav partisan The Yugoslav Partisans,Serbo-Croatian Serbo-Croatian () – also called Serbo-Croat (), Serbo-Croat-Bosnian (SCB), Bosnian-Croatian-Serbian (BCS), and Bosnian-Croatian-Montenegrin-Serbian (BCMS) – is a South Slavic language and the primar ...
during World War II and later one of the fringe contributors of the controversial
Memorandum of the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts The Memorandum of the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts, known simply as the SANU Memorandum ( sr-cyr, Меморандум САНУ), was a draft document produced by a 16-member committee of the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts The Serbi ...
. Despite being head of the country, Ćosić was forced out of office in 1993 due to his opposition to Serbian President
Slobodan Milošević Slobodan Milošević ( sr-Cyrl, Слободан Милошевић, ; 20 August 1941 – 11 March 2006) was a Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Yugoslav and Serbian politician who served as the President of Serbia, president of Republic o ...
. Ćosić was replaced by Zoran Lilić who served from 1993 to 1997, and then followed by Milošević becoming Yugoslav President in 1997 after his last legal term as Serbian president ended in 1997. FR Yugoslavia was dominated by Milosevic and his allies, until the presidential election in 2000. There were accusations of vote fraud and Yugoslav citizens took to the streets and engaged in riots in Belgrade demanding that Milošević be removed from power. Shortly afterwards Milošević resigned and
Vojislav Koštunica Vojislav Koštunica ( sr-cyrl, Војислав Коштуница, ; born 24 March 1944) is a Serbian former politician and statesman who served as the last president of FR Yugoslavia from 2000 to 2003, and as the prime minister of Serbia T ...

Vojislav Koštunica
took over as Yugoslav president and remained president until the state's reconstitution as the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro. Federal Prime Minister Milan Panić became frustrated with Milošević's domineering behaviour during diplomatic talks in 1992, and told Milošević to "shut up" because Milošević's position was officially subordinate to his position. Milošević later forced Panić to resign. However, this situation changed after 1997 when Milošević's second and last legal term as Serbian President ended. He then had himself elected Federal President, thus entrenching the power that he already de facto held. Sabrina P. Ramet. ''Serbia Since 1989: Politics and Society Under Milošević and After''. University of Washington Press, 2005. p. 61. (During Milošević's tenure as President of Serbia, the government of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was de facto subordinate to his government, with Milošević installing and forcing the removal of several Federal Presidents and Prime Ministers. However this changed after 1997 when Milošević's last legal term as Serbian President ended and he became Federal President that year, in which Milošević entrenched the power of the Federal Presidency.) After the federation was reconstituted as a State Union, the new Assembly of the State Union was created. It was unicameral and was made up of 126 deputies, of which 91 were from Serbia and 35 were from Montenegro. The Assembly convened in the building of the old Federal Assembly of Yugoslavia, which now houses the
National Assembly of Serbia The National Assembly ( sr-Cyr, Народна скупштина, Narodna skupština, ) is the unicameral In government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a State (polity), state ...

National Assembly of Serbia
. In 2003, after the constitutional changes and creation of the
State Union of Serbia and Montenegro The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, known as FR Yugoslavia or simply Yugoslavia, was a country in the Balkans The Balkans ( ), also known as the Balkan Peninsula, are a geographic area in southeastern Europe Europe is a continen ...
, a new
President of Serbia and Montenegro The president of Serbia and Montenegro ( sr, Председник Србије и Црне Горе, italic=yes) was the head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona who officially embodies a state (polity), stat ...
was elected. He was also president of the
Council of Ministers of Serbia and Montenegro {{Politics of Serbia and Montenegro The Council of Ministers of Serbia and Montenegro ( sr, Савет Министара Србије и Црне Горе, ''Savet Ministara Srbije i Crne Gore'') was the federal executive Executive may refer to: ...
. was the first and last President of Serbia and Montenegro until its breakup in 2006.


Military

The
Armed Forces of Yugoslavia The Armed Forces of Serbia and Montenegro ( sr, Војска Србије и Црне Горе / ''Vojska Srbije i Crne Gore'', ВСЦГ / ''VSCG'') included ground forces with internal and border troops, navy, naval forces, air force, air and ai ...
(
Serbian Serbian may refer to: * someone or something related to Serbia, a country in Southeastern Europe * someone or something related to the Serbs, a South Slavic people * Serbian language * Serbian names See also

* * * Serbian Uprising (disamb ...
: Војска Југославије/Vojska Jugoslavije, ВЈ/VJ) included
ground forces An army (from Latin ''arma'' "arms, weapons" via Old French ''armée'', "armed" eminine, ground force or land force is a fighting force that fights primarily on land. In the broadest sense, it is the land-based military branch Military branch ...
with internal and border troops,
naval forces A navy, naval force, or maritime force is the branch of a Nation's armed forces principally designated for naval warfare, naval and amphibious warfare; namely, lake-borne, riverine, littoral zone, littoral, or ocean-borne combat operations and ...

naval forces
, air and air defense forces, and
civil defense Civil defense ( en, region=gb, civil defence) or civil protection is an effort to protect the citizens of a state (generally non-combatant Non-combatant is a term of art Jargon is the specialized terminology Terminology is a general wor ...
. It was established from the remnants of the
Yugoslav National Army The Yugoslav People's Army ( sr, / ; hr, Jugoslavenska narodna armija, JNA; sl, Jugoslovanska ljudska armada, JLA; mk, Југословенска народна армија, ЈНА, Jugoslovenska narodna armija, JNA), also called the Yugosl ...
(JNA), the military of
SFR Yugoslavia The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, commonly referred to as SFR Yugoslavia or simply Yugoslavia, was a country in Southeast Europe, Southeast and Central Europe that existed from its foundation in the aftermath of World War II until ...

SFR Yugoslavia
. Several Bosnian Serb units of the VJ were transferred over to the
Republika Srpska Republika Srpska ( sr-cyr, Република Српска, ) is one of the two entities Entity may refer to: Computing * Character entity reference, replacement text for a character in HTML or XML * Entity class, a thing of interest within ...
, during the course of the
Bosnian War The Bosnian War ( sh, Rat u Bosni i Hercegovini / Рат у Босни и Херцеговини) was an international armed conflict War is an intense armed conflict between State (polity), states, governments, Society, societies, ...
, leaving only units directly from Serbia and Montenegro in the armed forces. The VJ saw military action during the
Yugoslav Wars The Yugoslav Wars were a series of separate but related Naimark (2003), p. xvii. ethnic conflict A refugee camp for displaced Rwandans in Zaire following the Rwandan genocide of 1994 An ethnic conflict is a conflict between two or more con ...
, including the
Siege of Dubrovnik The siege of Dubrovnik ( sh, Opsada Dubrovnika, Опсада Дубровника) was a military engagement fought between the Yugoslav People's Army (JNA) and Croatian forces defending the city of Dubrovnik and its surroundings during the Croa ...
and the
Battle of Vukovar The Battle of Vukovar was an 87-day siege of Vukovar in eastern Croatia by the Yugoslav People's Army (JNA), supported by various paramilitary forces from Republic of Serbia (1990-2006), Serbia, between August and November 1991. Before the Croati ...
, as well as the
Kosovo War The Kosovo War was an armed conflict in Kosovo Kosovo, or ; sr-Cyrl, Косово officially the Republic of Kosovo,; sr, / is a partially recognised state in Southeast Europe Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe () i ...
, and played combat roles during ethnic
insurgencies An insurgency is a violent, armed rebellion against authority waged by small, lightly armed bands who practice Guerrilla warfare, guerilla warfare from primarily rural base areas. The key descriptive feature of insurgency is its asymmetric nat ...
. Following the Kosovo War, the VJ was forced to evacuate Kosovo, and in 2003 it was renamed the ''Armed Forces of Serbia and Montenegro.'' Following the dissolution of the Union between Serbia and Montenegro, units from each army were assigned to the independent republics of Serbia and Montenegro, as recruitment in the army was on a local, rather than Federal, level. Montenegro inherited the small navy of FR Yugoslavia, due to Serbia being landlocked.


Administrative divisions

FR Yugoslavia was composed of four principal political units, consisting of two Republics, and two subordinate Autonomous Provinces, as following: * The
Republic of Serbia Serbia (, ; sr, Србија, Srbija, ),, * cs, Srbsko, * ro, Serbia * rue, Сербия *german: Serbien *french: Serbie * uk, Сербія * hu, Szerbia * bg, Сърбия * sq, Serbia * bs, Srbija * officially the Republic of Serbia,, ...
(capital:
Belgrade Belgrade ( ; sr-cyr, Београд, Beograd, lit='White City', ; Names of European cities in different languages: B, names in other languages) is the Capital city, capital and List of cities in Serbia, largest city of Serbia. It is located ...

Belgrade
), including
Central Serbia Central Serbia ( sr, централна Србија, centralna Srbija), also referred to as Serbia proper ( sr, link=no, ужа Србија, uža Srbija), is the region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "e ...
; **
Kosovo and Metohija The Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija,; al, Krahina Autonome e Kosovës dhe Metohisë commonly known as Kosovo and Metohija; al, Kosova dhe Metohija or Kosovo; al, Kosova for short and abbreviated as KiM or Kosmet,; from ''K ...
– Autonomous province within Serbia (capital:
Pristina Pristina ; sr, / (, ) is the capital of Kosovo Kosovo, or ; sr-Cyrl, Косово officially the Republic of Kosovo,; sr, / is a partially recognised state in Southeast Europe Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe () ...

Pristina
). Under
United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization aiming to maintain international peace and international security, security, develop friendly relations among nations, achieve international cooperation, and be a centre for harm ...

United Nations
administration from June 1999 under the terms of the
Kumanovo Agreement The Military Technical Agreement, also known as the Kumanovo Agreement, signed between the International Security Force ( KFOR) and the Governments of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, commonly referred to ...
. **
Vojvodina Vojvodina ( )See Vojvodina#Name, Name section. Officially the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina (Serbian language, Serbian: Аутономна Покрајина Војводина / ''Autonomna Pokrajina Vojvodina'', Hungarian language, Hungarian ...
, Autonomous province within Serbia (capital:
Novi Sad Novi Sad ( sr-cyr, Нови Сад, ; hu, Újvidék, ; see #Name, below for other names) is the List of cities in Serbia, second largest city in Serbia and the capital of the autonomous province of Vojvodina. It is located in the southern portio ...

Novi Sad
). * The
Republic of Montenegro A republic ( la, res publica, links=yes, meaning "public affair") is a List of forms of government, form of government in which "power is held by the people and their elected representatives". In republics, the country is considered a "public m ...
(capital:
Podgorica Podgorica ( Montenegrin: Подгорица, ; lit. "area below the little hill") is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger ...

Podgorica
).


Serbia

The territorial organisation of the Republic of Serbia was regulated by the Law on Territorial Organisation and Local Self-Government, adopted in the Assembly of Serbia on 24 July 1991. Under the Law, the municipalities, cities and settlements make the bases of the territorial organization.Law on Territorial Organization and Local Self-Government
, Parliament of Serbia
Serbia was divided into 195
municipalities A municipality is usually a single administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, ...
and 4
cities A city is a large human settlement In geography, statistics and archaeology, a settlement, locality or populated place is a community in which people live. The complexity of a settlement can range from a small number of dwellings grouped to ...
, which were the basic units of local autonomy. It had two autonomous provinces:
Kosovo and Metohija The Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija,; al, Krahina Autonome e Kosovës dhe Metohisë commonly known as Kosovo and Metohija; al, Kosova dhe Metohija or Kosovo; al, Kosova for short and abbreviated as KiM or Kosmet,; from ''K ...
in the south (with 30 municipalities), which was under the administration of
UNMIK The United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) is the officially mandated mission of the United Nations in Kosovo. The UNMIK describes its mandate as being to "help the United Nations Security Council achieve an overall o ...
after 1999, and
Vojvodina Vojvodina ( )See Vojvodina#Name, Name section. Officially the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina (Serbian language, Serbian: Аутономна Покрајина Војводина / ''Autonomna Pokrajina Vojvodina'', Hungarian language, Hungarian ...

Vojvodina
in the north (with 46 municipalities and 1 city). The territory between Kosovo and Vojvodina was called
Central Serbia Central Serbia ( sr, централна Србија, centralna Srbija), also referred to as Serbia proper ( sr, link=no, ужа Србија, uža Srbija), is the region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "e ...
. Central Serbia was not an administrative division on its own and had no regional government of its own. In addition, there were four cities: Belgrade,
Niš Niš (; sr-cyr, Ниш, ; names of European cities in different languages (M–P)#N, names in other languages) is the list of cities in Serbia, third largest city in Serbia and the administrative center of the Nišava District. It is located ...
,
Novi Sad Novi Sad ( sr-cyr, Нови Сад, ; hu, Újvidék, ; see #Name, below for other names) is the List of cities in Serbia, second largest city in Serbia and the capital of the autonomous province of Vojvodina. It is located in the southern portio ...

Novi Sad
and
Kragujevac Kragujevac ( sr-cyr, Крагујевац, ) is the fourth largest city in Serbia Serbia (, ; Serbian Serbian may refer to: * someone or something related to Serbia, a country in Southeastern Europe * someone or something related to the S ...

Kragujevac
, each having an assembly and budget of its own. The cities comprised several municipalities, divided into "urban" (in the city proper) and "other" (suburban). Competences of cities and their municipalities were divided. Municipalities were gathered into
districts A district is a type of administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, are generic ...

districts
, which are regional centres of state authority, but have no assemblies of their own; they present purely administrative divisions, and host various state institutions such as funds, office branches and courts. The Republic of Serbia was then and is still today divided into 29 districts (17 in Central Serbia, 7 in Vojvodina and 5 in Kosovo, which are now defunct), while the city of Belgrade presents a district of its own.


Montenegro

Montenegro was divided into .


Geography

Serbia and Montenegro had an area of 102,350 square kilometres (39,518 sq mi), with 199 kilometres (124 mi) of coastline. The terrain of the two republics is extremely varied, with much of Serbia comprising plains and low hills (except in the more mountainous region of Kosovo and Metohija) and much of Montenegro consisting of high mountains. Serbia is entirely landlocked, with the coastline belonging to Montenegro. The climate is similarly varied. The north has a
continental climate Continental climates often have a significant annual variation in temperature (hot summers and cold winters). They tend to occur in the middle latitudes (40 to 55 north), within large landmasses where prevailing winds blow overland, and temperat ...
(cold winters and hot summers); the central region has a combination of a continental and
Mediterranean climate A Mediterranean climate or dry summer climate is characterized by dry summers and mild, wet winters. The climate Climate is the long-term pattern of weather Weather is the state of the atmosphere, describing for example the degre ...
; the southern region had an along the coast, with inland regions experiencing hot, dry summers and autumns and relatively cold winters with heavy snowfall inland.
Belgrade Belgrade ( ; sr-cyr, Београд, Beograd, lit='White City', ; Names of European cities in different languages: B, names in other languages) is the Capital city, capital and List of cities in Serbia, largest city of Serbia. It is located ...

Belgrade
, with its population of 1,574,050, is the largest city in the two nations: and the only one of significant size. The country's other principal cities were
Novi Sad Novi Sad ( sr-cyr, Нови Сад, ; hu, Újvidék, ; see #Name, below for other names) is the List of cities in Serbia, second largest city in Serbia and the capital of the autonomous province of Vojvodina. It is located in the southern portio ...

Novi Sad
,
Niš Niš (; sr-cyr, Ниш, ; names of European cities in different languages (M–P)#N, names in other languages) is the list of cities in Serbia, third largest city in Serbia and the administrative center of the Nišava District. It is located ...
,
Kragujevac Kragujevac ( sr-cyr, Крагујевац, ) is the fourth largest city in Serbia Serbia (, ; Serbian Serbian may refer to: * someone or something related to Serbia, a country in Southeastern Europe * someone or something related to the S ...

Kragujevac
,
Podgorica Podgorica ( Montenegrin: Подгорица, ; lit. "area below the little hill") is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger ...

Podgorica
,
Subotica Subotica ( sr-cyrl, Суботица, ; hu, Szabadka) is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science E ...

Subotica
,
Pristina Pristina ; sr, / (, ) is the capital of Kosovo Kosovo, or ; sr-Cyrl, Косово officially the Republic of Kosovo,; sr, / is a partially recognised state in Southeast Europe Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe () ...

Pristina
, and
Prizren ) , settlement_type = Municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, fi ...

Prizren
, each with populations of about 100,000–250,000 people.


Demographics

FR Yugoslavia had more demographic variety than most other European countries. According to the 1992 census, the Federal Republic had 10,394,026 inhabitants. The three largest named nationalities were
Serbs Serbs ( sr-Cyr, Срби, Srbi, ) are a South Slavic ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people who identity (social science), identify with each other on the basis of shared attributes that distinguish them from ...
(6,504,048 inhabitants, or 62.6%),
Albanians The Albanians (; sq, Shqiptarët, ) are an ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people A people is any plurality of person A person (plural people or persons) is a being that has certain capacities or attrib ...

Albanians
(1,714,768 inhabitants, or 16.5%) and
Montenegrins Montenegrins (Montenegrin language, Montenegrin and Serbian language, Serbian: Crnogorci / Црногорци, or ; literal translation, lit. "Black Mountain People") are a South Slavs, South Slavic ethnic group native to Montenegro. Genetic orig ...
(519,766 inhabitants, or 5%). The country also had significant populations of
Hungarians Hungarians, also known as Magyars ( ; hu, magyarok ), are a nation and ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people A people is any plurality of person A person (plural people or persons) is a being that has ...
, ethnic Yugoslavs,
ethnic Muslims Muslims (in all South Slavic languages: ''Muslimani'', Муслимани) as a designation for a particular ethnic group, refers to one of six officially recognized constituent peoples of Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. The term was ado ...
,
Roma Roma or ROMA may refer to: Places Australia * Roma, Queensland, a town ** Roma Airport ** Roma Courthouse ** Electoral district of Roma Roma was an electoral district An electoral district, also known as an election district, legislative ...

Roma
,
Croats Croats (; hr, Hrvati ), also known as Croatians, are a nation A nation is a community A community is a social unit (a group of living things) with commonality such as Norm (social), norms, religion, values, Convention (norm), customs, o ...

Croats
,
Bulgarians Bulgarians ( bg, българи, Bǎlgari, ) are a nation A nation is a community A community is a social unitThe term "level of analysis" is used in the social sciences to point to the location, size, or scale of a research target. "Le ...
,
Macedonians Macedonian most often refers to someone or something from or related to Macedonia (disambiguation), Macedonia. Macedonian may specifically refer to: People Modern * Macedonians (ethnic group), the South Slavic ethnic group primarily associated w ...
,
Romanians The Romanians ( ro, români, ; dated exonym An endonym (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeas ...
,
Vlachs "Vlach" ( or ), also "Wallachian" (and many other variants), is a historical term and exonym An endonym (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the ...
and others (under 1%). Most of the ethnic diversity was situated in the provinces of
Kosovo Kosovo, or ; sr-Cyrl, Косово officially the Republic of Kosovo,; sr, / is a partially recognised state in Southeast Europe Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe () is a geographical subregion A subregion is a part of a ...

Kosovo
and
Vojvodina Vojvodina ( )See Vojvodina#Name, Name section. Officially the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina (Serbian language, Serbian: Аутономна Покрајина Војводина / ''Autonomna Pokrajina Vojvodina'', Hungarian language, Hungarian ...

Vojvodina
, where smaller numbers of other minority groups could be found. The large
Albania Albania ( ; sq, Shqipëri or Shqipëria), officially the Republic of Albania ( sq, Republika e Shqipërisë), is a country in Southeastern Europe Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe () is a geographical subregion A subregion is a par ...

Albania
n population was chiefly concentrated in
Kosovo Kosovo, or ; sr-Cyrl, Косово officially the Republic of Kosovo,; sr, / is a partially recognised state in Southeast Europe Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe () is a geographical subregion A subregion is a part of a ...

Kosovo
, with smaller populations in the , and in the
Ulcinj Ulcinj ( cyrl, Улцињ, ; sq, Ulqin or ''Ulqini''; tr, Ülgün; it, Dulcigno) is a town on the southern coast of Montenegro and the capital of Ulcinj Municipality. It has an urban population of 10,707 (2011), the majority being Albanians. As ...

Ulcinj
municipality in Montenegro. The ''Muslims'' (Slavic Muslims, including
Bosniaks The Bosniaks or Bosniacs ( bs, Bošnjaci, ; , ) are a and native to the an of , which is today part of . A native minority of Bosniaks live in other countries in the ; especially in the region of and (where Bosniaks form a regional ...
) population lived mostly in the federal border region (mainly
Novi Pazar Novi Pazar ( sr-cyr, Нови Пазар, Literal translation, lit. "New Bazaar"; ) is a List of cities in Serbia, city located in the Raška District of southwestern Serbia. As of the 2011 census, the urban area has 66,527 inhabitants, while the ...

Novi Pazar
in Serbia, and
Rožaje Rožaje ( cyrl, Рожаје, ; sq, Rozhajë) is a town in northeastern Montenegro Montenegro (; cnr, Црна Гора, Crna Gora, lit. "Black Mountain", ) is a country in Southeast Europe Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe () is ...
in Montenegro). It is important to note that the Montenegrin population often considered themselves as Serbs. ;Total Population of FR Yugoslavia – 10,019,657 *
Serbia Serbia (, ; Serbian Serbian may refer to: * someone or something related to Serbia, a country in Southeastern Europe * someone or something related to the Serbs, a South Slavic people * in both meanings, depending on the context, it may ref ...
(total): 9,396,411 ** Vojvodina: 2,116,725 ** Central Serbia: 5,479,686 ** Kosovo: 1,800,000 *
Montenegro Montenegro (; cnr, Crna Gora, , , ; sq, Mali i zi) is a country in Southeastern Europe Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe () is a geographical subregion A subregion is a part of a larger region In geography Geography (fro ...
: 623,246 * Major cities (over 100,000 inhabitants) – 2002 data (2003 for Podgorica): **
Beograd Belgrade ( ; sr-cyr, Београд, Beograd, lit='White City', ; Names of European cities in different languages: B, names in other languages) is the Capital city, capital and List of cities in Serbia, largest city of Serbia. It is located ...

Beograd
(Belgrade): 1,280,639 (1,574,050 metro) **
Novi Sad Novi Sad ( sr-cyr, Нови Сад, ; hu, Újvidék, ; see #Name, below for other names) is the List of cities in Serbia, second largest city in Serbia and the capital of the autonomous province of Vojvodina. It is located in the southern portio ...

Novi Sad
: 215,600 (298,139 metro) **
Pristina Pristina ; sr, / (, ) is the capital of Kosovo Kosovo, or ; sr-Cyrl, Косово officially the Republic of Kosovo,; sr, / is a partially recognised state in Southeast Europe Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe () ...

Pristina
: 200,000 (2002 estimate) **
Niš Niš (; sr-cyr, Ниш, ; names of European cities in different languages (M–P)#N, names in other languages) is the list of cities in Serbia, third largest city in Serbia and the administrative center of the Nišava District. It is located ...
: 173,390 (234,863 metro) **
Kragujevac Kragujevac ( sr-cyr, Крагујевац, ) is the fourth largest city in Serbia Serbia (, ; Serbian Serbian may refer to: * someone or something related to Serbia, a country in Southeastern Europe * someone or something related to the S ...

Kragujevac
: 145,890 (175,182 metro) **
Podgorica Podgorica ( Montenegrin: Подгорица, ; lit. "area below the little hill") is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger ...

Podgorica
: 139,500 (169,000 metro) **
Prizren ) , settlement_type = Municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, fi ...

Prizren
: 121,000 (2002 estimate) **
Subotica Subotica ( sr-cyrl, Суботица, ; hu, Szabadka) is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science E ...

Subotica
: 99,471 (147,758 metro) According to a 2004 estimate the State Union had 10,825,900 inhabitants. According to a July 2006 estimate, the State Union had 10,832,545 inhabitants.


Economy

The state suffered significantly economically due to the breakup of Yugoslavia and mismanagement of the economy, and an extended period of economic sanctions. In the early 1990s, the FRY suffered from hyperinflation of the Yugoslav dinar. By the mid-1990s, the FRY had overcome the inflation. Further damage to Yugoslavia's infrastructure and industry caused by the
Kosovo War The Kosovo War was an armed conflict in Kosovo Kosovo, or ; sr-Cyrl, Косово officially the Republic of Kosovo,; sr, / is a partially recognised state in Southeast Europe Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe () i ...
left the economy only half the size it was in 1990. Since the ousting of former Federal Yugoslav President
Slobodan Milošević Slobodan Milošević ( sr-Cyrl, Слободан Милошевић, ; 20 August 1941 – 11 March 2006) was a Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Yugoslav and Serbian politician who served as the President of Serbia, president of Republic o ...
in October 2000, the
Democratic Opposition of Serbia The Democratic Opposition of Serbia ( sr, Демократска oпозиција Cрбије / Demokratska opozicija Srbije), commonly referred to as DOS, was a wide alliance of political parties in Serbia, intent on ousting the ruling Sociali ...
(DOS) coalition government has implemented stabilization measures and embarked on an aggressive market reform program. After renewing its membership in the
International Monetary Fund The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international financial institution, headquartered in Washington, D.C. ) , image_skyline = , image_caption = Clockwise from top left: the Washington Monument The ...

International Monetary Fund
in December 2000, Yugoslavia continued to reintegrate with other world nations by rejoining the
World Bank The World Bank is an international financial institution An international financial institution (IFI) is a financial institution that has been established (or chartered) by more than one country, and hence is subject to international law. Its o ...
and the
European Bank for Reconstruction and Development The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) is an international financial institution An international financial institution (IFI) is a financial institution that has been established (or chartered) by more than one country, and ...
. The smaller republic of
Montenegro Montenegro (; cnr, Crna Gora, , , ; sq, Mali i zi) is a country in Southeastern Europe Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe () is a geographical subregion A subregion is a part of a larger region In geography Geography (fro ...

Montenegro
severed its economy from federal control and from Serbia during the Milošević era. Afterwards, the two republics had separate central banks whilst Montenegro began to use different currencies – it first adopted the
Deutsche Mark The Deutsche Mark (, "German mark"), abbreviated "DM" or "D-Mark" (), was the official currency A currency, "in circulation", from la, currens, -entis, literally meaning "running" or "traversing" in the most specific sense is money Im ...

Deutsche Mark
, and continued to use it until the Mark fell into disuse to be replaced by the
Euro The euro (currency symbol, symbol: euro sign, €; ISO 4217, code: EUR) is the official currency of 19 of the Member state of the European Union, member states of the European Union. This group of states is known as the eurozone or euro area ...

Euro
. Serbia continued to use the Yugoslav Dinar, renaming it the ''
Serbian Dinar The Serbian dinar ( sr-cyr, динар, ; paucal In linguistics, grammatical number is a grammatical category A grammatical category or grammatical feature is a property of items within the grammar In linguistics Linguistics is t ...
''. The complexity of the FRY's political relationships, slow progress in privatisation, and stagnation in the European economy were detrimental to the economy. Arrangements with the IMF, especially requirements for fiscal discipline, were an important element in policy formation. Severe unemployment was a key political and economic problem. Corruption also presented a major problem, with a large
black market A black market, underground economy or shadow economy, is a clandestine ''The ClanDestine'' (also known simply as ''ClanDestine'') is an appellation used to refer to the Destines, a fictional secret family of long-lived superhuman beings ...
and a high degree of criminal involvement in the formal economy.


Transport

Serbia, and in particular the valley of the Morava is often described as "the crossroads between the
East East or Orient is one of the four cardinal direction The four cardinal directions, or cardinal points, are the directions , , , and , commonly denoted by their initials N, E, S, and W. East and west are (at s) to north and south, with east ...

East
and the
West West or Occident is one of the four cardinal directions or points of the compass The points of the compass are an evenly spaced set of horizontal directions (or azimuth An azimuth (; from Arabic اَلسُّمُوت ''as-sumūt'', 'the di ...

West
" – one of the primary reasons for its turbulent history. The valley is by far the easiest land route from continental Europe to Greece and
Asia Minor Anatolia,, tr, Anadolu Yarımadası), and the Anatolian plateau. also known as Asia Minor, is a large peninsula A peninsula ( la, paeninsula from 'almost' and 'island') is a landform A landform is a natural or artificial feature of ...

Asia Minor
. Major international highways going through Serbia were E75 and E70. E763/ E761 was the most important route connecting Serbia with Montenegro. The
Danube The Danube ( ; ) is the List of rivers of Europe#Longest rivers, second-longest river in Europe, after the Volga in Russia. It flows through much of Central Europe, Central and Southeastern Europe, from the Black Forest into the Black Sea. It ...

Danube
, an important international waterway, flowed through Serbia. The Port of Bar was the largest seaport located in Montenegro.


Holidays

;Holidays celebrated only in Serbia * 15 February – Sretenje (
National Day A national day is a day on which celebrations mark the nationhood A nation is a community A community is a social unit (a group of living things) with commonality such as norms, religion Religion is a social system, social-cultural ...

National Day
, non-working) ;Holidays celebrated only in Montenegro * 13 July – Statehood Day (non-working)


Proposed national flag and anthem for the State Union

After the formation of the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro, the Yugoslav tricolour was to be replaced by a new compromise flag. Article 23 of the Law for the implementation of the Constitutional Charter stated that a law specifying the new flag was to be passed within 60 days of the first session of the new joint parliament. Among the flag proposals, the popular choice was a flag with a shade of blue in between the Serbian tricolor and the Montenegrin tricolor of 1993 through 2004. The color shade Pantone 300C was perceived as the best choice. However the parliament failed to vote on the proposal within the legal time-frame and the flag was not adopted. In 2004, Montenegro adopted a radically different flag, as its independence-leaning government sought to distance itself from Serbia. Proposals for a compromise flag were dropped after this and the Union of Serbia and Montenegro never adopted a flag. A similar fate befell the country's state anthem and coat-of-arms to be; the above-mentioned Article 23 also stipulated that a law determining the State Union's flag and anthem was to be passed by the end of 2003. The official proposal for a state anthem was a combination piece consisting of one verse of the former (now current) Serbian national anthem "
Bože pravde "Bože pravde" ( sr-Cyrl, Боже правде, , "God give us justice") is the national anthem A national anthem is a patriotic Patriotism or national pride is the feeling of love, devotion, and sense of attachment to a homeland and ...
" followed by a verse of the Montenegrin folk song, "
Oj, svijetla majska zoro ''Oj, svijetla majska zoro'' (Cyrillic , bg, кирилица , mk, кирилица , russian: кириллица , sr, ћирилица, uk, кирилиця , fam1 = Egyptian hieroglyphs Egyptian hieroglyphs () were the formal writing ...
". This proposal was dropped after some public opposition, notably by Serbian Patriarch Pavle. Another legal deadline passed and no state anthem was adopted. Serious proposals for the coat of arms were never put forward, probably because the coat of arms of the FRY, adopted in 1994 combining Serbian and Montenegrin heraldic elements, was considered adequate. Thus, the State Union never officially adopted state symbols and continued to use the flag and national anthem of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia by inertia until its dissolution in 2006.


Sports


Association football

FR Yugoslavia, later Serbia and Montenegro, was considered by
FIFA FIFA ( french: Fédération Internationale de Football Association; en, International Federation of Association Football, link=yes; : ''Federación Internacional de Fútbol Asociación''; : ''Internationaler Verband des Association-Fußball'' ...
and
UEFA The Union of European Football Associations (UEFA ; french: Union des associations européennes de football; german: Union der europäischen Fußballverbände) is the administrative body for football, futsal and beach soccer in Europe, as wel ...

UEFA
to be the only successor-state of Yugoslavia.Serbia
at
FIFA FIFA ( french: Fédération Internationale de Football Association; en, International Federation of Association Football, link=yes; : ''Federación Internacional de Fútbol Asociación''; : ''Internationaler Verband des Association-Fußball'' ...
official website
News: Serbia
at
UEFA The Union of European Football Associations (UEFA ; french: Union des associations européennes de football; german: Union der europäischen Fußballverbände) is the administrative body for football, futsal and beach soccer in Europe, as wel ...

UEFA
official website, published 1 January 2011, Retrieved 4 October 2012
Football was experiencing major success during the 1980s and early 1990s; however, due to the imposed economic sanctions, the country was excluded from all international competitions between 1992 and 1996. After the sanctions were lifted, the national team qualified for two
FIFA World Cup The FIFA World Cup, often simply called the World Cup, is an international association football Association football, more commonly known as simply football or soccer, is a played with a between two teams of 11 . It is played by ...
s—in
1998 1998 was designated as the ''International Year of the Ocean''. Events January * January 2 – Russia begins to Monetary reform in Russia, 1998, circulate new rubles to stem inflation and promote confidence. * January 4 – Wilaya of Reliza ...
as FR Yugoslavia and in
2006 2006 was designated as the International Year of Deserts and Desertification and the International Asperger syndrome, Asperger's Year. Events January * January 1 – Russia cuts the shipment of natural gas to Ukraine over a Russia–U ...

2006
as Serbia and Montenegro. It also qualified for
Euro 2000 The 2000 UEFA European Football Championship, also known as Euro 2000, was the 11th UEFA European Championship The UEFA European Football Championship, less formally the European Championship and informally the Euros, is the primary asso ...

Euro 2000
, as FR Yugoslavia. The 1998 World Cup appearance in France was accompanied with plenty of expectation and quiet confidence as the team was considered to be one of the tournament's dark horses due to being stacked with proven world-class players such as 29-year-old Predrag Mijatović, 33-year-old Dragan Stojković, 29-year-old , 28-year-old Vladimir Jugović, and 31-year-old
Dejan Savićević Dejan Savićević ( sr-cyrl, Дејан Савићевић, ; born 15 September 1966) is a Montenegrin former footballer A football player or footballer is a sportsperson, sport person who plays one of the different types of football. The main ...

Dejan Savićević
, as well as emerging 19-year-old youngster
Dejan Stanković Dejan "Deki" Stanković ( sr-cyr, Дејан „Деки” Станковић, , born 11 September 1978) is a Serbian professional Manager (association football), football manager and former Football player, player who is the manager of Serbi ...
, and tall 24-year-old target forwards
Savo Milošević Savo Milošević ( sr-cyr, Саво Милошевић, ; born 2 September 1973) is a Serbian professional football Football is a family of s that involve, to varying degrees, a to score a . Unqualified, normally means the form of foot ...

Savo Milošević
and Darko Kovačević. Another reason for heightened expectations was that this was the country's first major international appearance following the UN-imposed exile. However, the squad never managed to hit top gear—although it did make it out of the group, it got eliminated by the
Netherlands ) , national_anthem = ( en, "William of Nassau") , image_map = EU-Netherlands.svg , map_caption = , image_map2 = BES islands location map.svg , map_caption2 = , image_map3 ...
via an injury-time goal in the round-of-16. Two years later at Euro 2000, nearly the same team again made it out of the group and was again eliminated from the tournament by the Netherlands, this time convincingly, 1–6, in the quarter finals. The country was also represented at the
1996 1996 was designated as: * International Year for the Eradication of Poverty Events January * January 3 Events Pre-1600 * 69 – The Roman legions on the Rhine refuse to declare their allegiance to Galba Galba (; born Servius Sulpi ...
, the
2000 2000 was designated as the International Year for the Culture of Peace and the World Mathematics, Mathematical Year. Popular culture holds the year 2000 as the first year of the 21st century and the 3rd millennium due to a tendency of group ...
, and
2004 Summer Olympics The 2004 Summer Olympics ( ell, Θερινοί Ολυμπιακοί Αγώνες 2004, link=no, ), officially known as the Games of the XXVIII Olympiad and commonly known as Athens 2004 ( ell, ΑΘΗΝΑ 2004, link=no, ), was an international ...
, and at the
1998 1998 was designated as the ''International Year of the Ocean''. Events January * January 2 – Russia begins to Monetary reform in Russia, 1998, circulate new rubles to stem inflation and promote confidence. * January 4 – Wilaya of Reliza ...
,
2002 2002 was designated as the International Year of Ecotourism and the International Year of Mountains. Events January * January 1 ** The Treaty on Open Skies, Open Skies mutual surveillance treaty, initially signed in 1992, officially enters ...
, and
2006 Winter Olympics The 2006 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XX Olympic Winter Games ( it, XX Giochi olimpici invernali) and commonly known as or Turin 2006, was a winter multi-sport event A multi-sport event is an organized sporting Sporting may refer ...
. Serbia and Montenegro were represented by a single national team in the
2006 FIFA World Cup The 2006 FIFA World Cup was the 18th FIFA World Cup The FIFA World Cup, often simply called the World Cup, is an international association football Association football, more commonly known as simply football or soccer, is a ...

2006 FIFA World Cup
tournament, despite having formally split just weeks prior to its start. The final squad was made up of players born in both Serbia and Montenegro. They played their last ever international on 21 June 2006, a 3–2 loss to
Ivory Coast Ivory Coast, also known as Côte d'Ivoire, officially the Republic of Côte d'Ivoire, is a country located on the south coast of West Africa. Côte d'Ivoire's political capital is Yamoussoukro in the centre of the country, while its largest ...
. Following the World Cup, this team has been inherited by Serbia, while a new one was to be organized to represent Montenegro in future international competitions.


Basketball

The senior men's basketball team dominated European and world basketball during the mid-to-late 1990s and early 2000s, with three
EuroBasket EuroBasket, also commonly referred to as the ''European Basketball Championship'', is the main international basketball competition that is contested quadrennially, by the senior men's national teams that are governed by FIBA Europe, which is t ...
titles (
1995 1995 was designated as: * United Nations Year for Tolerance * World Year of Peoples’ Commemoration of the Victims of the Second World War This was the first year that the Internet The Internet (or internet) is the global syste ...
,
1997 1997 was designated as: * International Year for the Culture of Peace Events January * January 11 Events Pre-1600 *532 – Nika riots in Constantinople: A quarrel between supporters of different Chariot racing, chariot teams—th ...
, and
2001 2001 was designated as International Year of Volunteers. Events January * January 1 – Kolkata (in West Bengal, India) officially restores its name from Calcutta. * January 9 – iTunes is launched. * January 10 – The U.S. ...
), two
FIBA World Cup The FIBA Basketball World Cup, also known as the FIBA World Cup of Basketball or simply the FIBA World Cup, between 1950 and 2010 known as the FIBA World Championship, is an international basketball Basketball is a team sport in which two ...
titles (
1998 1998 was designated as the ''International Year of the Ocean''. Events January * January 2 – Russia begins to Monetary reform in Russia, 1998, circulate new rubles to stem inflation and promote confidence. * January 4 – Wilaya of Reliza ...
and
2002 2002 was designated as the International Year of Ecotourism and the International Year of Mountains. Events January * January 1 ** The Treaty on Open Skies, Open Skies mutual surveillance treaty, initially signed in 1992, officially enters ...
), and a
Summer Olympic Games The Summer Olympic Games, also known as the Games of the Olympiad, are a major international multi-sport event A multi-sport event is an organized sporting Sporting may refer to: *Sport, recreational games and play *Sporting (neighborhood), ...
silver medal (
1996 1996 was designated as: * International Year for the Eradication of Poverty Events January * January 3 Events Pre-1600 * 69 – The Roman legions on the Rhine refuse to declare their allegiance to Galba Galba (; born Servius Sulpi ...
). The national team started competing internationally in 1995, after a three-year exile, due to a UN trade embargo. During that time, FR Yugoslavia was not allowed to compete at the
1992 Summer Olympics The 1992 Summer Olympics (Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Canada * Spanish River ...
in
Barcelona Barcelona ( , , ) is a city on the coast of northeastern Spain. It is the capital and largest city of the autonomous community of Catalonia, as well as the second most populous municipality of Spain. With a population of 1.6 million within ci ...

Barcelona
, the 1993 EuroBasket, and also the
1994 FIBA World Championship The 1994 FIBA World Championship was the 12th FIBA World Championship The FIBA Basketball World Cup, also known as the FIBA World Cup of Basketball or simply the FIBA World Cup, between 1950 and 2010 known as the FIBA World Championship, is a ...
, which was originally supposed to be hosted by
Belgrade Belgrade ( ; sr-cyr, Београд, Beograd, lit='White City', ; Names of European cities in different languages: B, names in other languages) is the Capital city, capital and List of cities in Serbia, largest city of Serbia. It is located ...

Belgrade
, before being taken away from the city and moved to
Toronto, Canada Toronto is the capital city of the Canadian province of Ontario , Label_map = yes , image_map = Ontario in Canada 2.svg , map_alt = Map showing Ontario's location east/central of Canada. , ...

Toronto, Canada
. At the 1995 EuroBasket in
Athens , image_skyline = File:Athens Montage L.png, center, 275px, alt=Athens montage. Clicking on an image in the picture causes the browser to load the appropriate article. rect 15 15 985 460 Acropolis of Athens rect 15 475 48 ...

Athens
, its first international competition, the hungry and highly motivated FR Yugoslav team, which was led by head coach , featured a starting five full of world-class talent, with established European stars at positions
one 1 (one, also called unit, and unity) is a number A number is a mathematical object used to counting, count, measurement, measure, and nominal number, label. The original examples are the natural numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, and so forth. Numbers can ...
through four — 27-year-old Saša Đorđević, 25-year-old Predrag Danilović, 29-year-old Žarko Paspalj, 22-year-old Dejan Bodiroga — capped off with 27-year-old Vlade Divac, the starting center for the LA Lakers at the center (basketball), five position. With a bench that was just as capable — with experienced Zoran Sretenović (the only player over 30 in the team), Saša Obradović, talisman power forward Zoran Savić, and up-and-coming young center Željko Rebrača — the team rampaged through its preliminary group, which featured medal contenders Greek national basketball team, Greece and Lithuania men's national basketball team, Lithuania, with a 6–0 record. At the first direct elimination stage, the quarterfinals, FR Yugoslavia scored 104 points to destroy French national basketball team, France, thus setting up a semifinal clash with the tournament hosts Greece. In the highly charged atmosphere of the O.A.C.A. Olympic Indoor Hall, OAKA Indoor Arena, the FR Yugoslav team demonstrated its versatility, using defensive prowess in that game to pull off a famous eight-point win, in a tense, low-scoring 60–52 game. In the final, FR Yugoslavia played against the experienced Lithuanian team, which was led by basketball legend Arvydas Sabonis, in addition to other world class players like Šarūnas Marčiulionis, Rimas Kurtinaitis, and Valdemaras Chomičius. The final became a classic game of international basketball, with the crafty Yugoslavs prevailing, by a score of 96–90, behind Đorđević's 41 points. They were represented by a single team at the 2006 FIBA World Championship as well, even though tournament was played in mid/late-August and early-September of that year, and the Serbia–Montenegro breakup had occurred in May. That team was also inherited by
Serbia Serbia (, ; Serbian Serbian may refer to: * someone or something related to Serbia, a country in Southeastern Europe * someone or something related to the Serbs, a South Slavic people * in both meanings, depending on the context, it may ref ...

Serbia
after the tournament, while
Montenegro Montenegro (; cnr, Crna Gora, , , ; sq, Mali i zi) is a country in Southeastern Europe Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe () is a geographical subregion A subregion is a part of a larger region In geography Geography (fro ...

Montenegro
created a separate senior national basketball team afterwards, as well as their own national teams in all other team sports.


Entertainment

Serbia and Montenegro was represented after its formal dissolution in the Miss Earth 2006 pageant by a single delegate, Dubravka Skoric. Serbia and Montenegro also participated in the Eurovision Song Contest on two occasions and in Junior Eurovision Song Contest 2005 only on one occasion. The country debuted in the Eurovision Song Contest under the name Serbia and Montenegro in 2004, when Željko Joksimović got 2nd place. The next to follow was the Montenegrin boyband No Name. In 2006, the year of Montenegrin independence, the country Serbia and Montenegro did not have a representative due to the scandal in Evropesma#2006 event and controversy, Evropesma 2006, but was still able to vote in both the semi-final and the final.


See also

* List of national border changes since World War I * Military of Serbia and Montenegro, Military of FR Yugoslavia


Notes


References


Citations


Sources

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * *


External links

* *
Country Profile: Serbia and Montenegro
BBC {{DEFAULTSORT:Serbia And Montenegro Serbia and Montenegro, Former federations Former confederations Modern history of Serbia Former countries in the Balkans Former Slavic countries Former state unions States and territories established in 1992 States and territories disestablished in 2006 1992 establishments in Europe 2006 disestablishments in Europe 2000s in Kosovo 2000s in Montenegro 2000s in Serbia 20th century rump states 2006 disestablishments in Serbia and Montenegro