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The Emperor of Japan is the
head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona who officially embodies a stateFoakes, pp. 110–11 "he head of statebeing an embodiment of the State itself or representatitve of its international persona." in its unity and legitim ...

head of state
and the head of the
Imperial Family A royal family is the immediate family of kings/queens, emirs/emiras, or sultans/sultanas, and sometimes their extended family. The term imperial family appropriately describes the family of an emperor or empress, and the term papal family desc ...

Imperial Family
of
Japan | image_flag = Flag of Japan.svg | alt_flag = Centered deep red circle on a white rectangle | image_coat = Imperial Seal of Japan.svg | alt_coat = Golden circle subdivided ...

Japan
. Under the
Constitution of Japan The Constitution of Japan (Shinjitai: , Kyūjitai: , Hepburn: ) is the constitution of Japan and the supreme law in the state. It is a heavily amended version of the Meiji Constitution and came into effect on 3 May 1947. The constitution prov ...

Constitution of Japan
, he is defined as "the Symbol of the State and of the Unity of the People" and his title is derived from "the Will of the People, who are the Sovereign".
Imperial Household Law is a statute in Japanese law that governs the line of imperial succession, the membership of the imperial family, and several other matters pertaining to the administration of the Imperial Household. In 2017, the National Diet changed the law to ...

Imperial Household Law
governs the line of
imperial succession
imperial succession
. The
Supreme Court The supreme court is the highest court within the hierarchy of courts in many legal jurisdictions. Other descriptions for such courts include court of last resort, apex court, and high (or final) court of appeal. Broadly speaking, the decisio ...

Supreme Court
does not have judicial power
does not have judicial power
over him. He is also the Head of the
Shinto Shinto (神道 ''Shintō''), also termed ''kami-no-michi'', is a religion which originated in Japan. Classified as an East Asian religion by scholars of religion, its practitioners often regard it as Japan's indigenous religion and as a nature rel ...

Shinto
religion. In
Japanese Japanese may refer to: * Something from or related to Japan, an island country in East Asia * Japanese language, spoken mainly in Japan * Japanese people, the ethnic group that identifies with Japan through culture or ancestry ** Japanese diaspora ...

Japanese
, the Emperor is called , literally "
emperor An emperor (from la|imperator, via fro|empereor) is a monarch, and usually the sovereign ruler of an empire or another type of imperial realm. Empress, the female equivalent, may indicate an emperor's wife (empress consort), mother (empress ...

emperor
of
God God, in monotheistic thought, is conceived of as the supreme being, creator, and principal object of faith.Swinburne, R.G. "God" in Honderich, Ted. (ed)''The Oxford Companion to Philosophy'', Oxford University Press, 1995. God is usually conceiv ...

God
". The Japanese Shinto religion holds him to be the direct descendant of the sun goddess
Amaterasu Amaterasu, also known as Amaterasu-Ōmikami () or Ōhirume-no-Muchi-no-Kami () among other names, is the goddess of the sun in Japanese mythology. One of the major deities (''kami'') of Shinto, she is also portrayed in Japan's earliest literary t ...

Amaterasu
. The Emperor is also the head of all national
Japanese orders, decorations, medals, and awards
Japanese orders, decorations, medals, and awards
. In English, the use of the term for the emperor was once common but is now considered obsolete. Currently, the Emperor of Japan is the only remaining head of state in the world with the highest monarchical title of "Emperor". The
Imperial House of Japan The , also referred to as the Imperial Family, comprises those members of the extended family of the reigning Emperor of Japan who undertake official and public duties. Under the present Constitution of Japan, the Emperor is "the symbol of the Sta ...

Imperial House of Japan
is the oldest continuing monarchical house in the world. The historical origins of the emperors lie in the late
Kofun period#REDIRECT Kofun period#REDIRECT Kofun period {{Redirect category shell|1= {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{Redirect category shell|1= {{R from other capitalisation ...

Kofun period
of the 3rd–6th centuries AD, but according to the traditional account of the ''
Kojiki , also sometimes read as ''Furukotofumi'' or ''Furukotobumi'', is an early Japanese chronicle of myths, legends, songs, genealogies, oral traditions, and semi-historical accounts down to 641 concerning the origin of the Japanese archipelago, the ...

Kojiki
'' (finished 712) and ''
Nihon Shoki The , sometimes translated as ''The Chronicles of Japan'', is the second-oldest book of classical Japanese history. The book is also called the . It is more elaborate and detailed than the ''Kojiki'', the oldest, and has proven to be an importan ...

Nihon Shoki
'' (finished 720), Japan was founded in 660 BC by
Emperor Jimmu was the first legendary emperor of Japan according to the ''Nihon Shoki'' and ''Kojiki''. His accession is traditionally dated as 660 BC.Kelly, Charles F"Kofun Culture"
, who was said to be a
direct descendant
direct descendant
of Amaterasu.
Naruhito is the emperor of Japan. He acceded to the Chrysanthemum Throne on 1 May 2019, beginning the Reiwa era, following the abdication of his father, Akihito. He is the 126th monarch according to Japan's traditional order of succession. Name Befo ...

Naruhito
is the current Emperor of Japan. He
acceded
acceded
to the
Chrysanthemum Throne The is the throne of the Emperor of Japan. The term also can refer to very specific seating, such as the throne in the Shishin-den at Kyoto Imperial Palace. Various other thrones or seats that are used by the Emperor during official functions, ...

Chrysanthemum Throne
upon the
abdication Abdication is the act of formally relinquishing monarchical authority. Abdications have played various roles in the succession procedures of monarchies. While some cultures have viewed abdication as an extreme abandonment of duty, in other societies ...

abdication
of his father,
Emperor Emeritus
Emperor Emeritus
Akihito is a member of the Imperial House of Japan who reigned as the 125th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession, from 7 January 1989 until 30 April 2019, Heisei era. He succeeded to the Chrysanthemum Throne upon the deat ...

Akihito
on 1 May 2019. The role of the Emperor of Japan has historically alternated between a largely ceremonial symbolic role and that of an actual imperial ruler. Since the establishment of the first
shogunate was the title of the military dictators of Japan during most of the period spanning from 1185 to 1868. Nominally appointed by the Emperor, shoguns were usually the ''de facto'' rulers of the country, though during part of the Kamakura period sho ...

shogunate
in 1199, the Emperors of Japan have rarely taken on a role as supreme battlefield commander, unlike many
Western monarchs
Western monarchs
. Japanese emperors have nearly always been controlled by external political forces, to varying degrees. For example, between 1192 and 1867, the ''
shōgun was the title of the military dictators of Japan during most of the period spanning from 1185 to 1868. Nominally appointed by the Emperor, shoguns were usually the ''de facto'' rulers of the country, though during part of the Kamakura period sho ...

shōgun
s'', or their ''
shikken The was a titular post held by a member of the Hōjō clan, officially a regent of the shogunate, from 1199 to 1333, during the Kamakura period, and so he was head of the ''bakufu'' (shogunate). It was part of the era referred to as . During roug ...

shikken
'' regents in
Kamakura is a city in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan. Kamakura has an estimated population of 172,929 (1 September 2020) and a population density of 4,359 persons per km² over the total area of . Kamakura was designated as a city on 3 November 1939. Kamaku ...

Kamakura
(1203–1333), were the ''de facto'' rulers of Japan, although they were nominally appointed by the
emperor An emperor (from la|imperator, via fro|empereor) is a monarch, and usually the sovereign ruler of an empire or another type of imperial realm. Empress, the female equivalent, may indicate an emperor's wife (empress consort), mother (empress ...

emperor
. After the
Meiji Restoration The , referred to at the time as the , and also known as the Meiji Renovation, Revolution, Reform, or Renewal, was a political event that restored practical imperial rule to Japan in 1868 under Emperor Meiji. Although there were ruling Emperors be ...

Meiji Restoration
in 1867, the emperor was the embodiment of all sovereign power in the realm, as enshrined in the
Meiji Constitution The Constitution of the Empire of Japan (Kyūjitai: ; Shinjitai: , ), known informally as the Meiji Constitution (, ''Meiji Kenpō''), was the constitution of the Empire of Japan which was proclaimed on February 11, 1889, and remained in for ...

Meiji Constitution
of 1889. Since the enactment of the 1947 constitution, the role of emperor has been relegated to that of a ceremonial head of state without even nominal political powers. Since the mid-nineteenth century, the
Imperial PalaceImperial Palace may refer to: Palaces *Tokyo Imperial Palace (Kōkyo), Tokyo, Japan *Kyoto Imperial Palace, Kyoto, Japan *Imperial Palace of Goslar, Goslar, Germany Hotels *IP Casino Resort Spa, Biloxi, Mississippi; formerly the Imperial Palace Bil ...

Imperial Palace
has been called , later , and is on the former site of
Edo Castle , also known as , is a flatland castle that was built in 1457 by Ōta Dōkan. It is today part of the Tokyo Imperial Palace and is in Chiyoda, Tokyo (then known as Edo), Toshima District, Musashi Province. Tokugawa Ieyasu established the Tokugawa ...

Edo Castle
in the heart of
Tokyo Tokyo ( , ; Japanese: 東京, ''Tōkyō'' ), officially the Tokyo Metropolis (Japanese: 東京都, ''Tōkyō-to''), is the de facto capitalNo Japanese law has designated Tokyo as the Japanese capital. and most populous prefecture of Japan. ...

Tokyo
(the current capital of Japan). Earlier, emperors resided in
Kyoto Kyoto (; Japanese: , ''Kyōto'' ), officially , is the capital city of Kyoto Prefecture in Japan. Located in the Kansai region on the island of Honshu, Kyoto forms a part of the Keihanshin metropolitan area along with Osaka and Kobe. As of 2021, ...

Kyoto
(the ancient capital) for nearly eleven centuries.
The Emperor's Birthday is an annual national holiday in the Japanese calendar celebrating the birthday of the reigning Emperor, which is currently 23 February as Emperor Naruhito was born on that day in 1960, enforced by a specific law, "The Law for Special Exception o ...

The Emperor's Birthday
(currently 23 February) is a national holiday.


Constitutional role

Unlike many constitutional monarchs, the emperor is not the ''nominal'' chief executive. Most constitutional monarchies formally vest executive power in the monarch, but the monarch is bound by
convention
convention
to act on the advice of the cabinet. In contrast,
Article 65
Article 65
of the
Constitution of Japan The Constitution of Japan (Shinjitai: , Kyūjitai: , Hepburn: ) is the constitution of Japan and the supreme law in the state. It is a heavily amended version of the Meiji Constitution and came into effect on 3 May 1947. The constitution prov ...

Constitution of Japan
explicitly vests executive power in the
Cabinet Cabinet or The Cabinet may refer to: Furniture * Cabinetry, a box-shaped piece of furniture with doors and/or drawers * Display cabinet, a piece of furniture with one or more transparent glass sheets or transparent polycarbonate sheets * Filing c ...

Cabinet
, of which the
prime minister#REDIRECT Prime minister#REDIRECT Prime minister {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{R from other capitalisation ...

prime minister is the leader. The emperor is also not the
commander-in-chief#REDIRECT Commander-in-chief#REDIRECT Commander-in-chief {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{R from other capitalisation ...

commander-in-chief of the
Japan Self-Defense Forces The Japan Self-Defense Forces ( ja|自衛隊|Jieitai; abbreviated JSDF), also known as the Self-Defense Forces (SDF) or Japanese Armed Forces, are the unified military forces of Japan that were established by the Self-Defense Forces Law in 1954. ...

Japan Self-Defense Forces
. The Japan Self-Defense Forces Act of 1954 explicitly vests this role with the prime minister. The emperor's powers are limited only to important ceremonial functions.
Article 4
Article 4
of the Constitution stipulates that the emperor "shall perform only such acts in matters of state as are provided for in the Constitution and he shall not have powers related to government." It also stipulates that "the advice and approval of the Cabinet shall be required for all acts of the Emperor in matters of state" (Article 3). Article 4 also states that these duties can be delegated by the Emperor as provided for by law. While the emperor formally
appoints
appoints
the prime minister to office, Article 6 of the Constitution requires him to appoint the candidate "as designated by the
Diet Diet may refer to: Food * Diet (nutrition), the sum of the food consumed by an organism or group * Dieting, the deliberate selection of food to control body weight or nutrient intake ** Diet food, foods that aid in creating a diet for weight loss ...

Diet
", without giving the emperor the right to decline appointment.
Article 6
Article 6
of the Constitution delegates to the emperor the following ceremonial roles: #Appointment of the Prime Minister as designated by the Diet. #Appointment of the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court as designated by the Cabinet. The emperor's other duties are laid down in Article 7 of the Constitution, where it is stated that "the Emperor, with the advice and approval of the Cabinet, shall perform the following acts in matters of state on behalf of the people." In practice, all of these duties are exercised only in accordance with the binding instructions of the Cabinet: # Promulgation of amendments of the constitution, laws, cabinet orders, and treaties. # Convocation of the Diet. # Dissolution of the House of Representatives. # Proclamation of general election of members of the Diet. # Attestation of the appointment and dismissal of Ministers of State and other officials as provided for by law, and of full powers and credentials of Ambassadors and Ministers. # Attestation of general and special amnesty, commutation of punishment, reprieve, and restoration of rights. # Awarding of honors. # Attestation of instruments of ratification and other diplomatic documents as provided for by law. # Receiving foreign ambassadors and ministers. # Performance of ceremonial functions. Regular ceremonies of the emperor with a constitutional basis are the
Imperial Investiture The is an official inauguration ceremony whereby the Emperor of Japan formally appoints the designated Chief Justice or Prime Minister of Japan to office. During the time period of the Empire of Japan, as the Emperor was the source of executive ...

Imperial Investiture
s ''(Shinninshiki)'' in the
Tokyo Imperial Palace The is the main residence of the Emperor of Japan. It is a large park-like area located in the Chiyoda district of the Chiyoda ward of Tokyo and contains several buildings including the , some residences of the Imperial Family, an archive, museu ...

Tokyo Imperial Palace
and the [[Speech from the Throne ceremony in the [[House of Councillors in the [[National Diet Building. The latter ceremony opens ordinary and extra sessions of the Diet. Ordinary sessions are opened each January and also after new elections to the House of Representatives. Extra sessions usually convene in the autumn and are opened then.


History

Although the emperor has been a symbol of continuity with the past, the degree of power exercised by the emperor has varied considerably throughout Japanese history.


Origin (7th - 8th Centuries A.D.)

In the early 7th century, the emperor had begun to be called the . The title of emperor was borrowed from China, being derived from Chinese characters, and was retroactively applied to the legendary Japanese rulers who reigned before the 7th–8th centuries AD. According to the traditional account of the
Nihon Shoki The , sometimes translated as ''The Chronicles of Japan'', is the second-oldest book of classical Japanese history. The book is also called the . It is more elaborate and detailed than the ''Kojiki'', the oldest, and has proven to be an importan ...

Nihon Shoki
, Japan was founded by
Emperor Jimmu was the first legendary emperor of Japan according to the ''Nihon Shoki'' and ''Kojiki''. His accession is traditionally dated as 660 BC.Kelly, Charles F"Kofun Culture"
in 660 BC. Modern historians generally believe that the emperors up to [[Emperor Suinin|Suinin are "largely [[legend|legendary" as there is insufficient material available for verification and study of their lives. [[Emperor Sujin (148-30 BC) is the first emperor with a direct possibility of existence according to historians, but he is referred to as "legendary" due to a lack of information. The emperors from [[Emperor Keiko to [[Emperor Ingyo (376–453 AD) are considered as perhaps factual. [[Emperor Ankō (401–456), traditionally the 20th emperor, is the earliest generally agreed upon historical ruler of all or a part of Japan. The reign of [[Emperor Kinmei (–571 AD), the 29th emperor, is the first for whom contemporary historiography is able to assign verifiable dates;Titsingh
pp. 34–36
Brown
pp. 261–62; Varley, pp. 123–24
however, the conventionally accepted names and dates of the early emperors were not confirmed as "traditional" until the reign of [[Emperor Kanmu (737–806), the 50th sovereign of the [[Yamato dynasty. Archaeological information about the earliest historical rulers of Japan may be contained in the ancient tombs known as ''[[kofun'', constructed between the early 3rd century and the early 7th century AD. However, since the [[Meiji period, the [[Imperial Household Agency has refused to open the ''kofun'' to the public or to archaeologists, citing their desire not to disturb the spirits of the past emperors. ''Kofun'' period artefacts were also increasingly crucial in Japan as the Meiji government used them to legitimise the historical validity of the emperor's reclaimed authority. In December 2006, the Imperial Household Agency reversed its position and decided to allow researchers to enter some of the ''kofun'' with no restrictions.


Disputes and Instability (10th Century)

The growth of the [[samurai class from the 10th century gradually weakened the power of the imperial family over the realm, leading to a time of instability. Emperors are known to have come into conflict with the reigning shogun from time to time. Some instances, such as [[Emperor Go-Toba's [[Jōkyū War|1221 rebellion against the [[Kamakura shogunate and the 1336 [[Kenmu Restoration under [[Emperor Go-Daigo, show the power struggle between the imperial court and the military governments of Japan.


Factional control (530s - 1867) and ''Shōguns'' (1192 - 1867)

There have been six non-imperial [[Japanese clans|families who have controlled Japanese emperors: the [[Soga clan |Soga (530s–645), the [[Fujiwara clan |Fujiwara (850s–1070), the [[Taira clan |Taira (1159–1180s), the [[Minamoto clan |Minamoto and [[Kamakura Bakufu (1192–1333), the [[Ashikaga shogunate|Ashikaga (1336–1565), and the [[Tokugawa shogunate |Tokugawa (1603–1867). However, every shogun from the Minamoto, Ashikaga, and Tokugawa families had to be officially recognized by the emperors, who were still the source of sovereignty, although they could not exercise their powers independently from the shogunate. From 1192 to 1867, sovereignty of the state was exercised by the ''shōguns'', or their ''
shikken The was a titular post held by a member of the Hōjō clan, officially a regent of the shogunate, from 1199 to 1333, during the Kamakura period, and so he was head of the ''bakufu'' (shogunate). It was part of the era referred to as . During roug ...

shikken
'' regents (1203–1333), whose authority was conferred by Imperial warrant. When [[Portuguese discoveries|Portuguese explorers first came into contact with the Japanese (see ''[[Nanban period''), they described Japanese conditions in analogy, likening the emperor with great symbolic authority, but little political power, to the [[pope, and the ''shōgun'' to secular European rulers (e.g., the [[Holy Roman Emperor). In keeping with the analogy, they even used the term "emperor" in reference to the ''shōguns'' and their regents, e.g. in the case of [[Toyotomi Hideyoshi, whom missionaries called "Emperor Taico-sama" (from [[Sesshō and Kampaku|Taikō and the honorific ''[[Japanese titles|sama''). [[Empress Go-Sakuramachi was the last ruling Empress of Japan and reigned from 1762 to 1771.


Meiji Restoration (1868)

After the [[United States Navy [[Commodore (United States)|Commodore [[Matthew C. Perry's [[Black Ships forcibly opened Japan to foreign trade, and the shogunate proved incapable of hindering the "barbarian" interlopers, [[Emperor Kōmei began to assert himself politically. By the early 1860s, the relationship between the imperial court and the shogunate was changing radically. Disaffected [[Han system|domains and ''[[rōnin'' began to rally to the call of ''[[sonnō jōi'' ("revere the emperor, expel the barbarians"). The domains of [[Satsuma Domain|Satsuma and [[Chōshū Domain|Chōshū, historic enemies of the Tokugawa, used this turmoil to unite their forces and won an important military victory outside of
Kyoto Kyoto (; Japanese: , ''Kyōto'' ), officially , is the capital city of Kyoto Prefecture in Japan. Located in the Kansai region on the island of Honshu, Kyoto forms a part of the Keihanshin metropolitan area along with Osaka and Kobe. As of 2021, ...

Kyoto
against Tokugawa forces. In 1868, [[Emperor Meiji was restored to nominal full power and the shogunate was dissolved. A [[Meiji Constitution|new constitution described the emperor as "the head of the Empire, combining in Himself the rights of sovereignty", and he “exercises them, according to the provisions of the present Constitution”. His rights included to sanction and promulgate laws, to execute them and to exercise "supreme command of the Army and the Navy". The liaison conference created in 1893 also made the emperor the leader of the [[Imperial General Headquarters.


World War II (1939 - 1945)

Emperor Showa, also known as [[Hirohito was in power during [[World War II, controlled both the sovereign of the state and the imperial forces. The role of the emperor as head of the [[State Shinto religion was exploited during the war, creating an [[Imperial cult that led to [[kamikaze bombers and other manifestations of [[Hirohito#Civilian deaths and suicides|fanaticism. This in turn led to the requirement in the [[Potsdam Declaration for the elimination "for all time of the authority and influence of those who have deceived and misled the people of Japan into embarking on world conquest". In [[State Shinto, the emperor was believed to be an ''[[arahitogami'' (a living god). Following Japan's surrender, the [[Allies of World War II|Allies issued the [[Shinto Directive separating church and state within Japan. [[Hirohito (Emperor Showa) was excluded from the postwar Tokyo war crimes trial, and his reign, which began in 1926 until his death in 1989. Scholars still debate about the power he had and the role he played during WWII.


Contemporary (1979 - )

By 1979, [[Hirohito|Emperor Shōwa was the only monarch in the world with the [[Imperial, royal and noble ranks|monarchical title "
emperor An emperor (from la|imperator, via fro|empereor) is a monarch, and usually the sovereign ruler of an empire or another type of imperial realm. Empress, the female equivalent, may indicate an emperor's wife (empress consort), mother (empress ...

emperor
." Emperor Shōwa was the longest-reigning historical monarch in Japanese's history and the world's longest reigning monarch until surpassed by King [[Bhumibol Adulyadej of Thailand in July 2008. On April 30, 2019, Emperor Emeritus
Akihito is a member of the Imperial House of Japan who reigned as the 125th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession, from 7 January 1989 until 30 April 2019, Heisei era. He succeeded to the Chrysanthemum Throne upon the deat ...

Akihito
abdicated from his reign due to health issues. The previous time abdication occurred was [[Emperor Kōkaku in 1817.
Naruhito is the emperor of Japan. He acceded to the Chrysanthemum Throne on 1 May 2019, beginning the Reiwa era, following the abdication of his father, Akihito. He is the 126th monarch according to Japan's traditional order of succession. Name Befo ...

Naruhito
ascended on May 1, 2019, referred to as ''[[Reigning Emperor|Kinjō Tennō.''


Current constitution

The constitution provides for a [[parliamentary system of government and guarantees certain fundamental rights. Under its terms, the Emperor of Japan is "the symbol of the State and of the unity of the people" and exercises a purely ceremonial role without the possession of sovereignty. The constitution, also known as the , the or the , was drawn up under the [[Allied occupation of Japan|Allied occupation that followed World War II and was intended to replace Japan's previous militaristic and quasi-absolute monarchy system with a form of liberal democracy. Currently, it is a rigid document and no subsequent amendment has been made to it since its adoption.


Realm & territories

Historically the titles of ''Tennō'' in Japanese have never included territorial designations as is the case with many European monarchs. The position of emperor is territory-independent—the emperor is the emperor, even if he has followers only in one province (as was the case sometimes with the southern and northern courts). During the
Kofun period#REDIRECT Kofun period#REDIRECT Kofun period {{Redirect category shell|1= {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{Redirect category shell|1= {{R from other capitalisation ...

Kofun period the first central government of the unified state was [[Yamato Province|Yamato in the [[Kinai region of central Japan. The territory of Japan has changed throughout history. Its largest extent was the [[Empire of Japan. In 1938 it was . The maximum extent including the home islands and the [[Japanese colonial empire was in 1942. After its defeat in [[World War II the empire was dismantled. The contemporary territories include the [[Japanese archipelago and these [[List of extreme points of Japan|areas. Regardless of territorial changes the Emperor remains the formal
head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona who officially embodies a stateFoakes, pp. 110–11 "he head of statebeing an embodiment of the State itself or representatitve of its international persona." in its unity and legitim ...

head of state
of Japan. During most of history, de facto power was with [[shogun|Shoguns or [[Prime Minister of Japan|Prime Ministers. The Emperor was more like a revered embodiment of divine harmony than the head of an actual governing administration. In Japan, it was more effective for ambitious [[daimyo (feudal lords) to hold actual power, as such positions were not inherently contradictory to the emperor's position. The shoguns and prime ministers derived their legitimacy from the Emperor. The [[Government of Japan|parliamentary government continues a similar coexistence with the Emperor. The first recorded instance of the name ''[[Names of Japan|Nihon'' was between 665 and 703 during the [[Asuka period. This was several centuries after the start of the current imperial line.Nussbaum, Louis Frédéric ''et al.'' (2005). "Nihon" in ; n.b., Louis-Frédéric is pseudonym of Louis-Frédéric Nussbaum, ''see'
Deutsche Nationalbibliothek Authority File
.
The various names of Japan do not affect the status of the Emperor as
head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona who officially embodies a stateFoakes, pp. 110–11 "he head of statebeing an embodiment of the State itself or representatitve of its international persona." in its unity and legitim ...

head of state
.


Education

The emperors traditionally had an education officer. In recent times, [[Emperor Taishō had Count [[Nogi Maresuke, [[Hirohito|Emperor Shōwa had Marshal-Admiral Marquis [[Tōgō Heihachirō, and Emperor
Akihito is a member of the Imperial House of Japan who reigned as the 125th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession, from 7 January 1989 until 30 April 2019, Heisei era. He succeeded to the Chrysanthemum Throne upon the deat ...

Akihito
had [[Elizabeth Gray Vining as well as [[:ja:小泉信三|Shinzō Koizumi as their tutors. Emperors, including his family, had to get an education at [[Gakushuin University by the
Meiji Constitution The Constitution of the Empire of Japan (Kyūjitai: ; Shinjitai: , ), known informally as the Meiji Constitution (, ''Meiji Kenpō''), was the constitution of the Empire of Japan which was proclaimed on February 11, 1889, and remained in for ...

Meiji Constitution
.


Addressing and naming

There are two Japanese words equivalent to the English word "emperor": , which is used exclusively to refer to the Emperor of Japan, and , which is used primarily to describe non-Japanese emperors. ''Sumeramikoto'' ("the Imperial person") was also used in [[Old Japanese language|Old Japanese. The term ''tennō'' was used by the emperors up until the [[Middle Ages; then, following a period of disuse, it was used again from the 19th century. In English, the term ''mikado'' ( or ), literally meaning "the honorable gate" (i.e. the gate of the imperial palace, which indicates the person who lives in and possesses the palace; compare [[Sublime Porte, an old term for the [[State organisation of the Ottoman Empire|Ottoman government), was once used (as in ''[[The Mikado'', a 19th-century [[operetta), but this term is now obsolete.Kanʼichi Asakawa.
The early institutional life of Japan: a study in the reform of 645 A.D.
'. Tokyo: Shueisha (1903), p. 25. "We purposely avoid, in spite of its wide usage in foreign literature, the misleading term ''Mikado''. If it be not for the natural curiosity of the races, which always seeks something novel and loves to call foreign things by foreign names, it is hard to understand why this obsolete and ambiguous word should so sedulously be retained. It originally meant not only the Sovereign, but also his house, the court, and even the State, and its use in historical writings causes many difficulties which it is unnecessary to discuss here in detail. The native Japanese employ the term neither in speech nor in writing. It might as well be dismissed with great advantage from sober literature as it has been for the official documents."
Traditionally, the Japanese considered it disrespectful to call any person by his [[given name, and more so for a person of noble rank. This convention is only slightly relaxed in the modern age and it is still inadvisable among friends to use the given name, use of the family name being the common form of address. In the case of the imperial family, it is considered extremely inappropriate to use the given name. Since Emperor Meiji, it has been customary to have one [[Japanese era name|era per emperor and to rename each emperor after his death using the name of the era over which he presided. Before Emperor Meiji, the names of the eras were changed more frequently, and the posthumous names of the emperors were chosen differently. [[Hirohito, as usually called in English outside Japan, was never referred to by his name in Japan. He was given [[posthumous name ''[[Shōwa Tennō'' after his death, which is the only name that Japanese speakers currently use when referring to him. The current emperor on the throne is typically referred to as ''Tennō Heika'' (, "His (Imperial) Majesty the Emperor"), ''Kinjō Heika'' (, "His Current Majesty") or simply ''Tennō'', when speaking Japanese. Emperor
Akihito is a member of the Imperial House of Japan who reigned as the 125th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession, from 7 January 1989 until 30 April 2019, Heisei era. He succeeded to the Chrysanthemum Throne upon the deat ...

Akihito
received the title ''Daijō Tennō'' (, Emperor Emeritus), often shortened to ''Jōkō'' (), upon his abdication on 30 April 2019, and is expected to be renamed ''Heisei Tennō'' () after his death and will then be referred to exclusively by that name in Japanese.


Origin of the title

Originally, the ruler of Japan was known as either / (''Yamato-ōkimi'', Grand King of [[Yamato Province|Yamato), / (''Wa-ō''/''Wakoku-ō'', [[Five kings of Wa|King of Wa, used externally) or (''Ame-no-shita shiroshimesu ōkimi'' or ''Sumera no mikoto'', Grand King who rules all under heaven, used internally) in Japanese and Chinese sources before the 7th century. The oldest diplomatic reference to the title (''Tenshi'', Emperor or [[Son of Heaven) can be found in a diplomatic document sent from [[Emperor Suiko to the [[Sui Dynasty of China in 607. In this document, Empress Suiko introduced herself to [[Emperor Yang of Sui as 日出處天子 (''Hi izurutokoro no tenshi'') meaning "Emperor of the land where the sun rises". The oldest documented use of the title (''Tennō'', heavenly emperor) is on a wooden slat, or ''[[mokkan'', that was unearthed in [[Asuka, Nara|Asuka-mura, Nara Prefecture in 1998 and dated back to the reign of [[Emperor Tenmu and [[Empress Jitō in the 7th century.


Marriage traditions

Throughout history, Japanese emperors and noblemen appointed a spouse to the position of chief wife, rather than just keeping a [[harem or an assortment of female attendants. The Japanese imperial dynasty consistently practiced official [[polygamy until the [[Taishō period (1912–1926). Besides his empress, the emperor could take, and nearly always took, several secondary consorts ("[[concubines") of various hierarchical degrees. Concubines were allowed also to other dynasts ([[Shinnōke, [[Ōke). After a decree by [[Emperor Ichijō (), some emperors even had two empresses simultaneously (identified by the separate titles [[Empress of Japan| ''kōgō'' and ''chūgū''). With the help of all this polygamy, the imperial clan could produce more offspring. (Sons by secondary consorts were usually recognized as imperial princes, too, and such a son could be recognized as heir to the throne if the empress did not give birth to an heir.) Of the eight reigning empresses of Japan, none married or gave birth after ascending the throne. Some of them, being widows, had produced children before their reigns. In the succession, children of the empress were preferred over sons of secondary consorts. Thus it was significant which [[Quarters of nobility | quarters had preferential opportunities in providing chief wives to imperial princes, i.e. supplying future empresses. Apparently, the oldest tradition of official marriages within the imperial dynasty involved marriages between dynasty members, even between half-siblings or between uncle and niece. Such marriages were deemed to preserve better the imperial blood; or they aimed at producing children symbolic of a reconciliation between two branches of the imperial dynasty. Daughters of other families remained concubines until [[Emperor Shōmu (701–706)in what was specifically reported as the first elevation of its kindelevated his [[Fujiwara clan| Fujiwara consort [[Empress Kōmyō to chief wife. Japanese monarchs have been, as much as others elsewhere, dependent on making alliances with powerful chiefs and with other monarchs. Many such alliances were sealed by marriages. However, in Japan such marriages soon became incorporated as elements of tradition which controlled the marriages of later generations, though the original practical alliance had lost its real meaning. A repeated pattern saw an imperial son-in-law under the influence of his powerful non-imperial father-in-law. Beginning from the 7th and 8th centuries, emperors primarily took women of the [[Fujiwara clan as their highest-ranking wives – the most probable mothers of future monarchs. This was cloaked as a tradition of marriage between heirs of two ''[[kami'' (Shinto deities): descendants of Amaterasu with descendants of the family ''kami'' of the Fujiwara. (Originally, the Fujiwara descended from relatively minor nobility, thus their ''kami'' is an unremarkable one in the Japanese myth world.) To produce imperial children, heirs of the nation, with two-side descent from the two kami, was regarded as desirable – or at least it suited powerful Fujiwara lords, who thus received preference in the imperial marriage-market. The reality behind such marriages was an alliance between an imperial prince and a Fujiwara lord (his father-in-law or grandfather), the latter with his resources supporting the prince to the throne and most often controlling the government. These arrangements established the tradition of regents ([[Sesshō and Kampaku), with these positions held only by a Fujiwara [[sekke lord. Earlier, the emperors had married women from families of the government-holding [[Soga clan| Soga lords, and women of the imperial clan, i.e. various-degree cousins and often even their own half-sisters. Several imperial figures of the 5th and 6th centuries such as [[Prince Shōtoku (574-622) were children of half-sibling couples. Such marriages often served as alliance or succession devices: the Soga lord ensured his domination of a prince who would be put on the throne as a puppet; or a prince ensured the combination of two imperial descents, to strengthen his own and his children's claim to the throne. Marriages were also a means to seal a reconciliation between two imperial branches. After a couple of centuries, emperors could no longer take anyone from outside such families as a primary wife, no matter what the potential expediency of such a marriage and the power or wealth offered by such a match. Only very rarely did a prince ascend the throne whose mother was not descended from the approved families. The earlier necessity and expediency had mutated into a strict tradition that did not allow for current expediency or necessity, but only prescribed the daughters of a restricted circle of families as eligible brides, because they had produced eligible brides for centuries. Tradition had become more forceful than law. Fujiwara women often became empresses, while concubines came from less exalted noble families. In the last thousand years, sons of an imperial male and a Fujiwara woman have been preferred in the succession. The five Fujiwara families, [[Ichijō family| Ichijō, [[Kujō family |Kujō, [[Nijō family | Nijō, [[Konoe family| Konoe, and [[Takatsukasa family| Takatsukasa, functioned as the primary source of imperial brides from the 8th century to the 19th century, even more often than daughters of the imperial clan itself. Fujiwara daughters were thus the usual empresses and mothers of emperors. The Meiji-era [[Imperial Household Law | Imperial House Law of 1889 made this restriction on brides for the Emperor and crown prince explicit. A clause stipulated that daughters of Sekke (the five main branches of the higher Fujiwara) and daughters of the imperial clan itself were primarily acceptable brides. The law was repealed in the aftermath of World War II. In 1959 the future Emperor Akihito became the first crown-prince for over a thousand years to marry a consort from outside the previously eligible circle.


Three Sacred Treasures

In [[Japanese mythology, the sacred treasures were bestowed on [[Ninigi-no-Mikoto, the grandson of the goddess Amaterasu, at the advent of [[Tenson kōrin. Amaterasu sent him to pacify Japan by bringing the three celestial gifts that are used by the emperor. The account of Ninigi being sent to earth appears in the ''
Nihon Shoki The , sometimes translated as ''The Chronicles of Japan'', is the second-oldest book of classical Japanese history. The book is also called the . It is more elaborate and detailed than the ''Kojiki'', the oldest, and has proven to be an importan ...

Nihon Shoki
''. The [[Three Sacred Treasures were inherited by successive Japanese emperors, which are the same as or similar to the sacred treasures in mythology. These three gifts signify that the emperor is the descendant of Amaterasu. The three sacred treasures are: *[[Yata no Kagami (→ at the inner shrine of [[Ise Shrine) *[[Yasakani no Magatama (→ blessed at the
Tokyo Imperial Palace The is the main residence of the Emperor of Japan. It is a large park-like area located in the Chiyoda district of the Chiyoda ward of Tokyo and contains several buildings including the , some residences of the Imperial Family, an archive, museu ...

Tokyo Imperial Palace
) *[[Kusanagi sword(→ worshipped at the [[Atsuta Shrine) During the succession rite (senso, 践祚), possessing the jewel [[Yasakani no Magatama, the sword [[Kusanagi and the mirror [[Yata no Kagami are a testament of the legitimate serving emperor.


Succession

The origins of the Japanese imperial dynasty are obscure, and it bases its position on the claim that it has "reigned since [[time immemorial". There are no records of any emperor who was not said to have been a descendant of other, yet earlier emperor ( ). There is suspicion that [[Emperor Keitai (c. AD 500) may have been an unrelated outsider, though the sources (Kojiki, Nihon-Shoki) state that he was a male-line descendant of [[Emperor Ōjin. However, his descendants, including his successors, were according to records descended from at least one and probably several imperial princesses of the older lineage. Millennia ago, the Japanese imperial family developed its own peculiar system of hereditary succession. It has been non-primogenitural, more or less agnatic, based mostly on rotation. Today, Japan uses strict [[agnatic primogeniture, which was adopted from [[Prussia, by which Japan was greatly influenced in the 1870s. The controlling principles and their interaction were apparently very complex and sophisticated, leading to even idiosyncratic outcomes. Some chief principles apparent in the succession have been: * Women were allowed to succeed (but there existed no known children of theirs whose father did not also happen to be an agnate of the imperial house, thus there is neither a precedent that a child of an imperial woman with a non-imperial man could inherit, nor a precedent forbidding it for children of empresses). However, female accession was clearly much more rare than male. * Adoption was possible and a much used way to increase the number of succession-entitled heirs (however, the adopted child had to be a child of another member agnate of the imperial house). * Abdication was used very often, and in fact occurred more often than death on the throne. In those days, the emperor's chief task was priestly (or godly), containing so many repetitive rituals that it was deemed that after a service of around ten years, the incumbent deserved pampered retirement as an honored former emperor. * Primogeniture was not used – rather, in the early days, the imperial house practiced something resembling a system of rotation. Very often a brother (or sister) followed the elder sibling even in the case of the predecessor leaving children. The "turn" of the next generation came more often after several individuals of the senior generation. Rotation went often between two or more of the branches of the imperial house, thus more or less distant cousins succeeded each other. [[Emperor Go-Saga even decreed an official alternation between heirs of his two sons, which system continued for a couple of centuries (leading finally to shogun-induced (or utilized) strife between these two branches, the "southern" and "northern" emperors). Towards the end, the alternates were very distant cousins counted in degrees of male descent (but all that time, intermarriages occurred within the imperial house, thus they were close cousins if female ties are counted). During the past five hundred years, however, probably because of [[Confucianism|Confucian influence, inheritance by sons – but not always, or even most often, the eldest son has been the norm. Historically, the succession to the
Chrysanthemum Throne The is the throne of the Emperor of Japan. The term also can refer to very specific seating, such as the throne in the Shishin-den at Kyoto Imperial Palace. Various other thrones or seats that are used by the Emperor during official functions, ...

Chrysanthemum Throne
has always passed to descendants in male line from the imperial lineage. Generally, they have been males, though over the reign of one hundred monarchs there have been nine women (one pre-historical and eight historical) as emperor on eleven occasions. Over a thousand years ago, a tradition started that an emperor should ascend relatively young. A dynast who had passed his toddler years was regarded suitable and old enough. Reaching the age of legal majority was not a requirement. Thus, a multitude of Japanese emperors have ascended as children, as young as 6 or 8 years old. The high-priestly duties were deemed possible for a walking child. A reign of around 10 years was regarded a sufficient service. Being a child was apparently a fine property, to better endure tedious duties and to tolerate subjugation to political power-brokers, as well as sometimes to cloak the truly powerful members of the imperial dynasty. Almost all Japanese empresses and dozens of emperors abdicated and lived the rest of their lives in pampered retirement, wielding influence behind the scenes. Several emperors abdicated to their entitled retirement while still in their teens. These traditions show in Japanese folklore, theater, literature, and other forms of culture, where the emperor is usually described or depicted as an adolescent. Before the Meiji Restoration, Japan had eleven reigns of [[Empress of Japan|reigning empresses, all of them daughters of the male line of the Imperial House. None ascended purely as a wife or as a widow of an emperor. Imperial daughters and granddaughters, however, usually ascended the throne as a sort of a "stop gap" measure – if a suitable male was not available or some imperial branches were in rivalry so that a compromise was needed. Over half of Japanese empresses and many emperors abdicated once a suitable male descendant was considered to be old enough to rule (just past toddlerhood, in some cases). Four empresses, [[Empress Suiko, [[Empress Kōgyoku (also [[Empress Saimei), and [[Empress Jitō, as well as the legendary [[Empress Jingū, were widows of deceased emperors and princesses of the blood imperial in their own right. One, [[Empress Genmei, was the widow of a crown prince and a princess of the blood imperial. The other four, [[Empress Genshō, [[Empress Kōken (also Empress Shōtoku), [[Empress Meishō, and [[Empress Go-Sakuramachi, were unwed daughters of previous emperors. None of these empresses married or gave birth after ascending the throne. Article 2 of the
Meiji Constitution The Constitution of the Empire of Japan (Kyūjitai: ; Shinjitai: , ), known informally as the Meiji Constitution (, ''Meiji Kenpō''), was the constitution of the Empire of Japan which was proclaimed on February 11, 1889, and remained in for ...

Meiji Constitution
(the Constitution of the Empire of Japan) stated, "The Imperial Throne shall be succeeded to by imperial male descendants, according to the provisions of the Imperial House Law." The 1889 Imperial Household Law fixed the succession on male descendants of the imperial line, and specifically excluded female descendants from the succession. In the event of a complete failure of the main line, the throne would pass to the nearest collateral branch, again in the male line. If the Empress did not give birth to an heir, the Emperor could take a concubine, and the son he had by that concubine would be recognized as heir to the throne. This law, which was promulgated on the same day as the Meiji Constitution, enjoyed co-equal status with that constitution. Article 2 of the Constitution of Japan, promulgated in 1947 by influence of the U.S. occupation administration, provides that "The Imperial Throne shall be dynastic and succeeded to in accordance with the Imperial Household Law passed by the Diet." The
Imperial Household Law is a statute in Japanese law that governs the line of imperial succession, the membership of the imperial family, and several other matters pertaining to the administration of the Imperial Household. In 2017, the National Diet changed the law to ...

Imperial Household Law
of 1947, enacted by the ninety-second and last session of the Imperial Diet, retained the exclusion on female dynasts found in the 1889 law. The government of Prime Minister [[Yoshida Shigeru hastily cobbled together the legislation to bring the Imperial Household in compliance with the American-written Constitution of Japan that went into effect in May 1947. In an effort to control the size of the imperial family, the law stipulates that only legitimate male descendants in the male line can be dynasts, that imperial princesses lose their status as Imperial Family members if they marry outside the Imperial Family, and that the emperor and other members of the Imperial Family may not adopt children. It also prevented branches, other than the branch descending from Taishō, from being imperial princes any longer.


Current status

Succession is now regulated by laws passed by the [[National Diet. The current law excludes women from the succession. A change to this law had been considered until [[Kiko, Princess Akishino|Princess Kiko gave birth to a [[Prince Hisahito of Akishino|son. Until the birth of [[Prince Hisahito of Akishino|Prince Hisahito, son of [[Fumihito, Prince Akishino|Prince Akishino, on September 6, 2006, there was a potential [[Order of succession|succession problem, since Prince Akishino was the only male child to be born into the imperial family since 1965. Following the birth of [[Aiko, Princess Toshi|Princess Aiko, there was public debate about amending the current Imperial Household Law to allow women to succeed to the throne. In January 2005, [[Prime Minister of Japan|Prime Minister [[Junichiro Koizumi appointed a special panel composed of judges, university professors, and civil servants to study changes to the
Imperial Household Law is a statute in Japanese law that governs the line of imperial succession, the membership of the imperial family, and several other matters pertaining to the administration of the Imperial Household. In 2017, the National Diet changed the law to ...

Imperial Household Law
and to make recommendations to the government. The panel dealing with the succession issue recommended on October 25, 2005, amending the law to allow females of the male line of imperial descent to ascend the Japanese throne. On January 20, 2006, Prime Minister [[Junichiro Koizumi devoted part of his annual keynote speech to the controversy, pledging to submit a bill allowing women to ascend the throne to ensure that the succession continues in the future in a stable manner. Shortly after the announcement that [[Princess Kiko was pregnant with her third child, Koizumi suspended such plans. Her son, Prince Hisahito, is the third in line to the throne under the current law of succession. On January 3, 2007, Prime Minister [[Shinzō Abe announced that he would drop the proposal to alter the Imperial Household Law. Another proposed plan is to allow unmarried men from the abolished collateral branches of the imperial family to rejoin through adoption or marriage. This would be an emergency measure to ensure stable succession. It does not revise the Imperial Household Law. This does not restore the royalty of the [[Ōke|11 collateral branches of the Imperial House that were abolished in October 1947. Crown [[Fumihito, Prince Akishino|Prince Akishino was formally declared first in line to the chrysanthemum throne on November 8, 2020.


Burial traditions

During the
Kofun period#REDIRECT Kofun period#REDIRECT Kofun period {{Redirect category shell|1= {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{Redirect category shell|1= {{R from other capitalisation ...

Kofun period, so-called "archaic funerals" were held for the dead emperors, but only the funerary rites from the end of the period, which the chronicles describe in more detail, are known. They were centered around the rite of the ''mogari'' (), a provisional depository between death and permanent burial. [[Empress Jitō was the first Japanese imperial personage to be cremated (in 703). After that, with a few exceptions, all emperors were cremated up to the [[Edo period. For the next 350 years, in-ground burial became the favoured funeral custom. Until 1912, the emperors were usually buried in Kyoto. From [[Emperor Taishō onward, the emperors have been buried at the [[Musashi Imperial Graveyard in Tokyo. In 2013, the Imperial Household Agency announced that Emperor Akihito and [[Empress Emerita Michiko|Empress Michiko would be cremated after they die.


Wealth

Until the end of World War II, the Japanese monarchy was thought to be among the wealthiest in the world. Before 1911, no distinction was made between the imperial crown estates and the emperor's personal properties, which were considerable. The Imperial Property Law, which came into effect in January 1911, established two categories of imperial properties: the hereditary or crown estates and the personal ("ordinary") properties of the imperial family. The Imperial Household Minister was given the responsibility for observing any judicial proceedings concerning imperial holdings. Under the terms of the law, imperial properties were only taxable in cases where no conflict with the Imperial House Law existed; however, crown estates could only be used for public or imperially-sanctioned undertakings. Personal properties of certain members of the imperial family, in addition to properties held for imperial family members who were minors, were exempted from taxation. Those family members included the Empress Dowager, the Empress, the Crown Prince and Crown Princess, the Imperial Grandson and the consort of the Imperial Grandson. As a result of the poor economic conditions in Japan, 289,259.25 acres of crown lands (about 26% of the total landholdings) were either sold or transferred to government and private-sector interests in 1921. In 1930, the Nagoya Detached Palace ([[Nagoya Castle) was donated to the city of [[Nagoya, with six other imperial villas being either sold or donated at the same time. In 1939, [[Nijō Castle, the former Kyoto residence of the Tokugawa shoguns and an imperial palace since the Meiji Restoration, was likewise donated to the city of Kyoto. At the end of 1935, according to official government figures, the Imperial Court owned roughly 3,111,965 acres of landed estates, the bulk of which (2,599,548 acres) were the emperor's private lands, with the total acreage of the crown estates amounting to some 512,161 acres; those landholdings comprised palace complexes, forest and farm lands and other residential and commercial properties. The total value of the imperial properties was then estimated at ¥650 million, or roughly US$195 million at prevailing exchange rates.Roughly US$19.9 billion in 2017, in terms of economic status value (https://www.measuringworth.com/calculators/uscompare/) This was in addition to the emperor's personal fortune, which amounted to hundreds of millions of yen and included numerous family heirlooms and furnishings, purebred livestock and investments in major Japanese firms, such as the Bank of Japan, other major Japanese banks, the [[Imperial Hotel (company)|Imperial Hotel and [[Nippon Yusen. Following Japan's defeat in the Second World War, all of the collateral branches of the imperial family were abolished under the Allied occupation of the country and the subsequent constitutional reforms, forcing those families to sell their assets to private or government owners. Staff numbers in the imperial households were slashed from a peak of roughly 6,000 to about 1,000. The imperial estates and the emperor's personal fortune (then estimated at US$17.15 million, or roughly US$625 million in 2017 terms) were transferred to either state or private ownership, excepting 6,810 acres of landholdings. Since the 1947 constitutional reforms, the imperial family has been supported by an official civil list sanctioned by the Japanese government. The largest imperial divestments were the former imperial Kiso and Amagi forest lands in [[Gifu prefecture|Gifu and [[Shizuoka prefecture|Shizuoka prefectures, grazing lands for livestock in [[Hokkaido and a stock farm in the Chiba region, all of which were transferred to the [[Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (Japan)|Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. Imperial property holdings have been further reduced since 1947 after several handovers to the government. Today, the primary [[List of Japanese imperial residences|imperial properties include the two imperial palaces at Tokyo and Kyoto, several imperial villas and a number of imperial farms and game preserves. As of 2017, Akihito has an estimated net worth of US$40 million. The wealth and expenditures of the emperor and the imperial family have remained a subject of speculation and were largely withheld from the public until 2003, when Mori Yohei, a former royal correspondent for the ''[[Mainichi Shimbun'', obtained access to 200 documents through a recently passed public information law. Mori's findings, which he published in a book, revealed details of the imperial family's US$240 million civil list (in 2003 values). Among other details, the book revealed the royal family employed a staff of over 1,000 people. The total cost of events related to the enthronement of Emperor Naruhito was approximately 16.6 billion yen ($150 million) in 2019. This is 30% higher than Emperor Emeritus Akihito's accession (1990).


See also

*[[Reigning Emperor *[[Daijō Tennō *[[List of emperors of Japan *[[Japanese imperial family tree *[[Sacred king *[[Chrysanthemum taboo *[[Official state car#Japan|Japanese official state car *[[Japanese Air Force One *[[Japanese honors system *[[State Shinto *[[Divine right of kings


References

Informational notes Citations Bibliography * [[Kan'ichi Asakawa|Asakawa, Kan'ichi (1903)
''The Early Institutional Life of Japan''
Tokyo: [[Shueisha.
''see'' online, multi-formatted, full-text book at openlibrary.org
*Bar-On Cohen, Einat (2012-12). "The Forces of Homology—Hirohito, Emperor of Japan and the 1928 Rites of Succession". ''History and Anthropology''. 23 (4): 425–443. . . * *Edgington-Brown, L. (2016). ''The international origins of japanese archaeology: William gowland and his kofun collection at the british museum'' (Order No. 13832636). Available from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global. (2164566112). *Large, Stephen S. (1992). ''Emperor Hirohito and Shōwa Japan : a political biography''. London: Routledge. . . * *Pye, Lucian W.; Keene, Donald (2002). "Emperor of Japan: Meiji and His World, 1852-1912". ''Foreign Affairs''. 81 (5): 217. . . *[[Timon Screech|Screech, Timon (2006). ''Secret Memoirs of the Shoguns: Isaac Titsingh and Japan, 1779–1822.'' London: [[RoutledgeCurzon. ; .
Slave to the tortoise shell; Japan's monarchy
" ''The Economist'', vol. 433, no. 9165, 19 Oct. 2019, p. 37(US). ''Gale OneFile: Business''. Accessed 12 Dec. 2020. *''The emperors of modern Japan''. Shillony, Ben-Ami. Leiden: Brill. 2008. . . * [[Isaac Titsingh|Titsingh, Isaac (1834). ''[[Nihon Ōdai Ichiran'
''Annales des empereurs du Japon''
pp. 411–412, Paris: Royal Asiatic Society, Oriental Translation Fund of Great Britain and Ireland.


External links


Emperor of Japan - Ancient History Encyclopedia
accompanied with the regents and shoguns during their reign and a genealogical tree of the imperial family

explanation of the title of Emperor in the context of western terminology
Japan opens imperial tombs for researchEmperor of Japan's New Year Address 2017
(YouTube) {{Authority control [[Category:Deified people [[Category:Political history of Japan [[Category:Japanese emperors|Japanese emperors [[Category:Japanese Shintoists [[Category:Ceremonial heads of state [[Category:Articles containing video clips [[Category:7th-century BC establishments [[Category:660 BC