East Asia is the east
, which is defined in both geographical
The modern states
of East Asia include China
, North Korea
, South Korea
, and Taiwan
The East Asian states of China, North Korea, South Korea and Taiwan are all unrecognized by at least one other East Asian state due to severe ongoing political tensions
in the region, specifically the division of Korea
and the political status of Taiwan
. Hong Kong and Macau, two small coastal quasi-dependent territories
located in the south of China, are officially highly autonomous but are under ''de jure'' Chinese sovereignty. Siberia
borders East Asia's north, Southeast Asia
the south, South Asia
the southwest and Central Asia
the west. To the east is the Pacific Ocean
and to the southeast is Micronesia
(a Pacific Ocean island group, classified as part of Oceania
East Asia, especially Chinese civilization
, is regarded as one of the earliest cradles of civilization
. Other ancient civilizations in East Asia that still exist as independent countries in the present day include the Japanese
civilizations. Various other civilizations existed in East Asia in the past but have since been absorbed into neighbouring civilizations in the present day, such as Tibet
, among many others. Taiwan has a relatively young history
in the region after the prehistoric era
; originally, it was a major site of Austronesian
civilization prior to colonization
an colonial powers and China from the 17th century onward. For thousands of years, China was the leading civilization in the region, exerting influence on its neighbors. Historically, societies in East Asia have fallen within the Chinese sphere of influence
, and East Asian vocabulary and scripts are often derived from Classical Chinese
and Chinese script
. The Chinese calendar
serves as the root from which many other East Asian calendars are derived. Major religions in East Asia
, Ancestral worship
, and Chinese folk religion
in Mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan, Shintoism
in Japan, and Christianity
, and Sindoism
and Tibetan Buddhism
are prevalent among Mongols
while other religions such as Shamanism
are widespread among the indigenous populations of northeastern China such as the Manchus
. Major languages in East Asia
include Mandarin Chinese
, and Korean
. Major ethnic groups of East Asia
include the Han
(mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau, Taiwan), Yamato
(Japan) and Koreans
(North Korea, South Korea). Mongols, although not as populous as the previous three ethnic groups, constitute the majority of Mongolia's population. There are 76 officially-recognized minority
ethnic groups in East Asia; 55 native to mainland China
, Manchus, Chinese Mongols
, Tibetans, Uyghurs
in the frontier regions
), 16 native to the island of Taiwan
(collectively known as Taiwanese indigenous peoples
), one native to the major Japanese island
) and four native to Mongolia
). Ryukyuan people
are an unrecognised ethnic group indigenous to the Ryukyu Islands
in southern Japan, which stretch from Kyushu Island
(Japan) to Taiwan. There are also several unrecognised indigenous ethnic groups in mainland China and Taiwan.
comprise around billion people, making up about 38% of the population in Continental Asia and 20.5% of the global population.
The region is home to major world metropolises such as Beijing
, Hong Kong
, and Tokyo
. Although the coastal and riparian areas of the region form one of the world's most populated places, the population in Mongolia
and Western China
, both landlocked areas, is very sparsely distributed, with Mongolia having the lowest population density of a sovereign state
. The overall population density
of the region is , about three times the world average of .
East Asia has some of the world's largest and most prosperous economies: Mainland China
, South Korea
, Hong Kong
, and Macau
China was the first region settled in East Asia and was undoubtedly the core of East Asian civilization from where other parts of East Asia were formed. The various other regions in East Asia were selective in the Chinese influences they adopted into their local customs. Historian Ping-ti Ho
famously labeled Chinese civilization as the "Cradle of Eastern Civilization", in parallel with the "Cradle of Western Civilization
" along the Fertile Crescent
and Ancient Egypt
Chinese civilization existed for about 1500 years before other East Asian civilizations emerged into history, Imperial China would exert much of its cultural, economic, technological, and political muscle onto its neighbors.
Succeeding Chinese dynasties exerted enormous influence across East Asia culturally, economically, politically and militarily for over two millennia.
The Imperial Chinese tributary system
shaped much of East Asia's history for over two millennia due to Imperial China's economic and cultural influence over the region, and thus played a huge role in the history of East Asia in particular.
[Warren I. Cohen. ''East Asia at the Center : Four Thousand Years of Engagement with the World.'' (New York: Columbia University Press, 2000. ]
Imperial China's cultural preeminence not only led the country to become East Asia's first literate nation in the entire region, it also supplied Japan and Korea with Chinese loanwords and linguistic influences rooted in their writing systems.
Under Emperor Wu of Han
, the Han dynasty
made China the regional power in East Asia, projecting much of its imperial power on its neighbors.
Han China hosted the largest unified population in East Asia, the most literate and urbanized as well as being the most economically developed, as well as the most technologically and culturally advanced civilization in the region at the time. Cultural and religious interaction between the Chinese and other regional East Asian dynasties and kingdoms occurred. China's impact and influence on Korea began with the Han dynasty's northeastern expansion
in 108 BC when the Han Chinese conquered the northern part of the Korean peninsula and established a province called Lelang
. Chinese influence would soon take root in Korea through the inclusion of the Chinese writing system, monetary system, rice culture, and Confucian political institutions. Jomon society in ancient Japan incorporated wet-rice cultivation and metallurgy through its contact with Korea. Starting from the fourth century AD, Japan incorporated the Chinese writing system
which evolved into Kanji
by the fifth century AD and has become a significant part of the Japanese writing system
. Utilizing the Chinese writing system allowed the Japanese to conduct their daily activities, maintain historical records and give form to various ideas, thoughts, and philosophies. During the Tang dynasty
, China exerted its greatest influence on East Asia as various aspects of Chinese culture spread to Japan and Korea. As full-fledged medieval East Asian states were established, Korea by the fourth century AD and Japan by the seventh century AD, Japan and Korea actively began to incorporate Chinese influences such as Confucianism
, the use of written Han characters
, Chinese style architecture
, state institutions, political philosophies
, religion, urban planning, and various scientific and technological
methods into their culture and society through direct contacts with Tang China and succeeding Chinese dynasties. Drawing inspiration from the Tang political system, Prince Naka no oe
launched the Taika Reform
in 645 AD where he radically transformed Japan's political bureaucracy into a more centralized bureaucratic empire. The Japanese also adopted Mahayana Buddhism, Chinese style architecture, and the imperial court's rituals and ceremonies, including the orchestral music and state dances had Tang influences. Written Chinese gained prestige and aspects of Tang culture such as poetry
, and landscape painting
became widespread. During the Nara period
, Japan began to aggressively import Chinese culture and styles of government which included Confucian protocol that served as a foundation for Japanese culture as well as political and social philosophy.
The Japanese also created laws adopted from the Chinese legal system that was used to govern in addition to the kimono
, which was inspired from the Chinese robe
(hanfu) during the eighth century AD. For many centuries, most notably from the 7th to the 14th centuries, China stood as East Asia's most advanced civilization and foremost military and economic power exerting its influence as the transmission of advanced Chinese cultural practices and ways of thinking greatly shaped the region up until the nineteenth century.
As East Asia's connections with Europe and the Western world strengthened during the late nineteenth century, China's power began to decline.
By the mid-nineteenth century, the weakening Qing dynasty
became fraught with political corruption, obstacles and stagnation that was incapable of rejuvenating itself as a world power in contrast to the industrializing Imperial European colonial powers and a rapidly modernizing Japan. The U.S. Commodore Matthew C. Perry
would open Japan to Western ways
, and the country would expand in earnest after the 1860s.
Around the same time, Japan with its rush to modernity
transformed itself from an isolated feudal samurai state into East Asia's first industrialized nation in the modern era.
The modern and militarily powerful Japan would galvanize its position in the Orient as East Asia's greatest power with a global mission poised to advance to lead the entire world.
By the early 1900s, the Japanese empire
succeeded in asserting itself as East Asia's most dominant power.
With its newly found international status, Japan would begin to challenge the European colonial powers and inextricably took on a more active geopolitical position in East Asia and world affairs at large. Flexing its nascent political and military might, Japan soundly defeated the stagnant Qing dynasty during the First Sino-Japanese War
as well as vanquishing imperial rival Russia
in 1905; the first major military victory in the modern era of an East Asian power over a European one.
Its hegemony was the heart of an empire that would include Taiwan
During World War II, Japanese expansionism with its imperialist aspirations through the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere
would incorporate Korea, Taiwan, much of eastern China and Manchuria, Hong Kong, and Southeast Asia under its control establishing itself as a maritime colonial power in East Asia. After a century of exploitation by the European and Japanese colonialists, post-colonial East Asia saw the defeat
and occupation of Japan
by the victorious Allies as well as the division of China and Korea
during the Cold War
. The Korean peninsula became independent but then it was divided into two rival states
, while Taiwan became the main territory of de facto state Republic of China
after the latter lost Mainland China to the People's Republic of China
in the Chinese Civil War
. During the latter half of the twentieth century, the region would see the post war economic miracle of Japan
, which ushered in three decades of unprecedented growth, only to experience an economic slowdown during the 1990s
, but nonetheless Japan continues to remain a global economic power. East Asia would also see the economic rise of South Korea
, and the integration of Mainland China into the global economy
through its entry in the World Trade Organization
while enhancing its emerging international status as a potential world power
Although there have been no wars in East Asia for decades, the stability of the region remains fragile because of North Korea's nuclear program
In common usage, the term "East Asia" typically refers to a region including Greater China
, and Korea
, and Korea
represent the three core countries and civilizations of traditional East Asia - as they once shared a common written language, culture, as well as sharing Confucian
philosophical tenets and the Confucian societal value system once instituted by Imperial China
Other usages define Mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau, Japan, North Korea, South Korea and Taiwan as countries that constitute East Asia based on their geographic proximity as well as historical and modern cultural and economic ties, particularly with Japan and Korea having strong cultural influences that originated from China.
Some scholars include Vietnam
as part of East Asia as it has been considered part of the greater Chinese sphere of influence
. Though Confucianism continues to play an important role in Vietnamese culture, Chinese characters are no longer used in its written language and many scholarly organizations classify Vietnam as a Southeast Asian country.
[ "Within the Pacific region, China is potentially a major economic and political force. Its relations with Japan, Korea, and its Southeast Asian neighbors, Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos, Malaysia, Thailand, Indonesia, and the Philippines, will be determined by how they perceive this power will be used."]
Mongolia is geographically north of Mainland China yet Confucianism and the Chinese writing system and culture had limited impact on Mongolian society. Thus, Mongolia is sometimes grouped with Central Asian countries such as Turkmenistan, Kyrgyzstan, and Kazakhstan.
) and Tibet
are sometimes seen as part of Central Asia.
Broader and looser definitions by international organizations such as the World Bank
refer to the "three major Northeast Asian economies, i.e. Mainland China
, and South Korea
", as well as Mongolia
, North Korea
, the Russian Far East
. The Council on Foreign Relations
includes the Russia Far East, Mongolia
, and Nepal
The World Bank also acknowledges the roles of sub-national or ''de facto'' states
, such as Hong Kong
, and Taiwan
. The Economic Research Institute for Northeast Asia defines the region as "China, Japan, the Korea
s, Nepal, Mongolia, and eastern regions of the Russian Federation
definition of East Asia is based on statistical convenience,
but also other common definitions of East Asia contain the Mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau, Mongolia, North Korea, South Korea, Taiwan and Japan.
In business and economics, "East Asia" is sometimes used to refer to a wide geographical area covering ten Southeast Asian countries in ASEAN, Greater China, Japan and Korea. However, in this context, the term "Far East" is used by the Europeans to cover ASEAN countries and the countries in East Asia. However, being a Eurocentric term, Far East describes the region's geographical position in relation to Europe rather than its location within Asia. Alternatively, the term "Asia Pacific Region" is often used in describing East Asia, Southeast Asia as well as Oceania.
Observers preferring a broader definition of "East Asia" often use the term Northeast Asia to refer to China, the Korean Peninsula, and Japan, with Southeast Asia covering the ten ASEAN countries. This usage, which is seen in economic and diplomatic discussions, is at odds with the historical meanings of both "East Asia" and "Northeast Asia". The Council on Foreign Relations of the United States defines Northeast Asia as Japan and Korea.
" ''Council on Foreign Relations''. Retrieved on August 10, 2009.
Territorial and regional data
* Note: The order of states/territories follows the population ranking of each ethnicity, within East Asia only.
East Asian culture
The culture of East Asia has largely been influenced by China, as it was the civilization that had the most dominant influence in the region throughout the ages that ultimately laid the foundation for East Asian civilization. The vast knowledge and ingenuity of Chinese civilization and the classics of Chinese literature and culture were seen as the foundations for a civilized life in East Asia. Imperial China served as a vehicle through which the adoption of Confucian ethical philosophy, Chinese calendar system, political and legal systems, architectural style, diet, terminology, institutions, religious beliefs, imperial examinations that emphasized a knowledge of Chinese classics, political philosophy and cultural value systems, as well as historically sharing a common writing system reflected in the histories of Japan and Korea.
The Imperial Chinese tributary system was the bedrock of network of trade and foreign relations between China and its East Asian tributaries, which helped to shape much of East Asian affairs during the ancient and medieval eras. Through the tributary system, the various dynasties of Imperial China facilitated frequent economic and cultural exchange that influenced the cultures of Japan and Korea and drew them into a Chinese international order. The Imperial Chinese tributary system shaped much of East Asia's foreign policy and trade for over two millennia due to Imperial China's economic and cultural dominance over the region, and thus played a huge role in the history of East Asia in particular. The relationship between China and its cultural influence on East Asia has been compared to the historical influence of Greco-Roman civilization on Europe and the Western World.
*Japan switched the date to the Gregorian calendar after the Meiji Restoration.
*Not always on that Gregorian date, sometimes April 4.
East Asian Youth Games
Formerly the East Asian Games, it is a multi-sport event organised by the East Asian Games Association (EAGA) and held every four years since 2019 among athletes from East Asian countries and territories of the Olympic Council of Asia (OCA), as well as the Pacific island of Guam, which is a member of the Oceania National Olympic Committees.
It is one of five Regional Games of the OCA. The others are the Central Asian Games, the Southeast Asian Games (SEA Games), the South Asian Games and the West Asian Games.
Free trade agreements
File:Beijing skyline from northeast 4th ring road (cropped).jpg|Beijing is the capital of the People's Republic of China and the largest metropolis in northern China.
File:Guangzhou skyline.jpg|Guangzhou is one of the most important cities in southern China. It has a history of over 2,200 years and was a major terminus of the maritime Silk Road and continues to serve as a major port and transportation hub today.
File:Hong Kong Harbour Night 2019-06-11.jpg|Hong Kong is one of the world's leading global financial centres and is known as a cosmopolitan metropolis.
File:Kaohsiung_Tuntex_Sky_Tower_Innen_Bild_2_(2).jpg|Kaohsiung is the harbor capital and largest city in southern Taiwan.
File:150124 At Yasakakamimachi Kyoto Japan01n.jpg|Kyoto was the imperial capital of Japan for eleven centuries.
File:Osaka Umeda Sky Building Panoramablick 05.jpg|Osaka is the second largest metropolitan area in Japan.
File:Mirae Scientists Street - Nordkorea 2015 - Pjöngjang (22971791331).jpg|Pyongyang is the capital of North Korea, and is a significant metropolis on the Korean Peninsula.
File:Lujiazui 2016.jpg|Shanghai is the largest city in China and one of the largest in the world, and is a global financial centre and transport hub with the world's busiest container port.
File:Seoul (South Korea).jpg|Seoul is the capital of South Korea, one of the largest cities in the world and a leading global technology hub.
File:Taipei, Taiwan CBD Skyline.jpg|Taipei is the de facto capital of the Republic of China (Taiwan) and anchors a major high-tech industrial area in Taiwan.
File:Shinjuku skyline, Tokyo - Sony A7R (11831328835).jpg|Tokyo is the capital of Japan and one of the largest cities in the world, both in metropolitan population and economy.
File:Gandan Monastery 24.JPG|Ulaanbaatar is the capital of Mongolia with a population of 1 million as of 2008.
File:XiAn qujiang.jpg|Xi'an or Chang'an is the oldest of the Four Great Ancient Capitals of China, having held the position under several of the most important dynasties. It has a significant cultural influence in East Asia.
File:Pass over Eastern Asia to Philippine Sea and Guam.ogv|Pass of the ISS over Mongolia, looking out west towards the Pacific Ocean, China, and Japan. As the video progresses, you can see major cities along the coast and the Japanese islands on the Philippine Sea. The island of Guam can be seen further down the pass into the Philippine Sea, and the pass ends just to the east of New Zealand. A lightning storm can e seen as light pulses near the end of the video.
* China–Japan–South Korea trilateral summit
* East Asia Summit
* East Asia–United States relations
* East Asian Community
* East Asian languages
* East Asian studies
* East Asian cultural sphere
* Church, Peter. ''A short history of South-East Asia'' (John Wiley & Sons, 2017).
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online 3rd edition 1958
* Crofts, Alfred. ''A history of the Far East'' (1958
online free to borrow
* Dennett, Tyler. ''Americans in Eastern Asia'' (1922
* Ebrey, Patricia Buckley, and Anne Walthall. ''East Asia: A cultural, social, and political history'' (Cengage Learning, 2013).
* Embree, Ainslie T., ed. ''Encyclopedia of Asian history'' (1988)
vol. 1 online
vol 2 online
vol 3 online
vol 4 online
* Fairbank, John K., Edwin Reischauer, and Albert M. Craig. ''East Asia: The great tradition'' and ''East Asia: The modern transformation'' (1960) online_free_to_borrow
[[Category:East_Asia.html" style="text-decoration: none;"class="mw-redirect" title=" vol 1960
online free to borrow
* Flynn, Matthew J. ''China Contested: Western Powers in East Asia'' (2006), for secondary schools
* Gelber, Harry. ''The dragon and the foreign devils: China and the world, 1100 BC to the present'' (2011).
* Green, Michael J. ''By more than providence: grand strategy and American power in the Asia Pacific since 1783'' (2017) a major scholarly surve
* Hall, D.G.E. ''History of South East Asia'' (Macmillan International Higher Education, 1981).
* Holcombe, Charles. ''A History of East Asia'' (2d ed. Cambridge UP, 2017)
* Iriye, Akira. ''After Imperialism; The Search for a New Order in the Far East 1921-1931.'' (1965).
* Jensen, Richard, Jon Davidann, and Yoneyuki Sugita, eds. ''Trans-Pacific Relations: America, Europe, and Asia in the Twentieth Century'' (Praeger, 2003), 304 p
* Keay, John. ''Empire's End: A History of the Far East from High Colonialism to Hong Kong'' (Scribner, 1997)
online free to borrow
* Levinson, David, and Karen Christensen, eds. ''Encyclopedia of Modern Asia''. (6 vol. Charles Scribner's Sons, 2002).
* Mackerras, Colin. ''Eastern Asia: an introductory history'' (Melbourne: Longman Cheshire, 1992).
* Macnair, Harley F. & Donald Lach. ''Modern Far Eastern International Relations.'' (2nd ed 1955
1950 edition online free
780pp; focus on 1900-1950.
* Miller, David Y. ''Modern East Asia: An Introductory History'' (Routledge, 2007)
* Murphey, Rhoads. ''East Asia: A New History'' (1996)
* Norman, Henry. ''The Peoples and Politics of the Far East: Travels and studies in the British, French, Spanish and Portuguese colonies, Siberia, China, Japan, Korea, Siam and Malaya'' (1904
* Paine, S. C. M. ''The Wars for Asia, 1911-1949'' (2014
* Prescott, Anne. ''East Asia in the World: An Introduction'' (Routledge, 2015)
* Ring, George C. ''Religions of the Far East: Their History to the Present Day'' (Kessinger Publishing, 2006).
* Szpilman, Christopher W. A., Sven Saaler. "Japan and Asia" in ''Routledge Handbook of Modern Japanese History'' (2017
* Steiger, G. Nye. ''A history of the Far East'' (1936).
* Vinacke, Harold M. ''A History of the Far East in Modern Times'' (1964
* Vogel, Ezra. ''China and Japan: Facing History'' (2019
* Woodcock, George. ''The British in the Far East'' (1969
High resolution map of East Asian region
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