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Dravidian languages (or sometimes Dravidic languages) are a language family, family of languages spoken by 220 million people, mainly in South India, southern India and north-east Sri Lanka, with pockets elsewhere in South Asia. Since the colonial era, there have been small but significant immigrant communities outside the Indian subcontinent in Mauritius, Hong Kong, Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia, Philippines, United Kingdom, Australia, France, Canada, Germany, South Africa, and the United States. The Dravidian languages are first attested in the 2nd century BCE as Tamil-Brahmi script inscribed on the cave walls in the Madurai and Tirunelveli districts of Tamil Nadu. The Dravidian languages with the most speakers are (in descending order of number of speakers) Telugu language, Telugu, Tamil language, Tamil, Kannada and Malayalam, all of which have long literary traditions. Smaller literary languages are Tulu language, Tulu and Kodava language, Kodava. There are also a number of Dravidian-speaking List of Scheduled Tribes in India, scheduled tribes, such as the Kurukh people, Kurukh in Eastern India and Gondi people, Gondi in Central India. Only two Dravidian languages are spoken exclusively outside the post-1947 state of India: Brahui language, Brahui in the Balochistan region of Pakistan and Afghanistan; and Dhangar, a dialect of Kurukh language, Kurukh, in parts of Nepal and Bhutan. Dravidian place names along the Arabian Sea coasts and Dravidian grammatical influence such as clusivity in the Indo-Aryan languages, namely, Marathi language, Marathi, Gujarati language, Gujarati, Marwari language, Marwari, and Sindhi language, Sindhi, suggest that Dravidian languages were once spoken more widely across the Indian subcontinent. Though some scholars have argued that the Dravidian languages may have been brought to India by migrations from the Iranian plateau in the fourth or third millennium BCE or even earlier, the Dravidian languages cannot easily be connected to any other language family and could well be indigenous to India.


Etymology

The origin of the Sanskrit word ' is the word '. Kamil Zvelebil cites the forms such as ''dramila'' (in 's Sanskrit work ''Avantisundarīkathā'') ' (found in the Sri Lankan (Ceylonese) chronicle ''Mahavamsa'') and then goes on to say, "The forms ''damiḷa''/''damila'' almost certainly provide a connection of ' " with the indigenous name of the Tamil language, the likely derivation being "*' > *' > '- / ''damila''- and further, with the intrusive, 'hypercorrect' (or perhaps analogical) -''r''-, into '. The -''m''-/-''v''- alternation is a common enough phenomenon in Dravidian phonology". Bhadriraju Krishnamurti states in his reference book ''The Dravidian languages'': Based on what Krishnamurti states (referring to a scholarly paper published in the ''International Journal of Dravidian Linguistics''), the Sanskrit word ' itself is later than ' since the dates for the forms with -r- are centuries later than the dates for the forms without -r- (', '-, ''damela''- etc.).


Discovery

The 14th century Sanskrit text ''Lilatilakam'', which is a grammar of Manipravalam, states that the spoken languages of present-day Kerala and Tamil Nadu were similar, terming them as "Dramiḍa". The author doesn't consider the "Karṇṇāṭa" (Kannada) and the "Andhra" (Telugu) languages as "Dramiḍa", because they were very different from the language of the "Tamil Veda" (''Tiruvaymoli''), but states that some people would include them in the "Dramiḍa" category. In 1816, Alexander D. Campbell suggested the existence of a Dravidian language family in his ''Grammar of the Teloogoo Language'', in which he and Francis Whyte Ellis, Francis W. Ellis argued that Tamil language, Tamil, Telugu language, Telugu, Kannada language, Kannada, Malayalam, Tulu language, Tulu and Kodava language, Kodava descended from a common, non-Indo-European languages, Indo-European ancestor. In 1856 Robert Caldwell published his ''Comparative Grammar of the Dravidian or South-Indian Family of Languages'', which considerably expanded the Dravidian umbrella and established Dravidian as one of the major language groups of the world. Caldwell coined the term "Dravidian" for this family of languages, based on the usage of the Sanskrit word द्रविदा (Dravidā) in the work ''Tantravārttika'' by . In his own words, Caldwell says, The 1961 publication of the ''Dravidian Etymological Dictionary'' by T. Burrow and M. B. Emeneau proved a notable event in the study of Dravidian linguistics.


Classification

The Dravidian languages form a close-knit family. Most scholars agree on four groups: South (or South DravidianI), South-Central (or South DravidianII), Central, and North Dravidian, but there are different proposals regarding the relationship between these groups. Earlier classifications grouped Central and South-Central Dravidian in a single branch. On the other hand, Krishnamurti groups South-Central and South Dravidian together. * South Dravidian (or South DravidianI) ** Tamil–Kannada languages, Tamil–Kannada *** **** ***** ****** Tamil languages, including Tamil language, Tamil ****** Malayalam languages, including Malayalam ***** Irula language, Irula **** Toda–Kota ***** Toda language, Toda ***** Kota language (India), Kota **** ***** Kodava language, Kodava ***** Kurumba language, Kurumba *** Kannada dialects, Kannada languages **** Kannada **** Badaga language, Badaga ** *** Koraga language, Koraga *** Tulu language, Tulu *** Kudiya language, Kudiya * South-Central Dravidian (or South DravidianII) ** *** Telugu language, Telugu *** Chenchu language, Chenchu ** Gondi-Kui *** Gondi languages, including Gondi language, Gondi *** **** ***** Konda language (Dravidian), Konda ***** Mukha-Dora language, Mukha-Dora **** ***** ****** Manda language (India), Manda ****** Pengo language, Pengo ***** ****** Kuvi language, Kuvi ****** Kui language (India), Kui * Central Dravidian ** *** Kolami language, Kolami *** Naiki language, Naiki ** *** Gadaba **** Ollari language, Ollari **** Kondekor language, Kondekor *** Duruwa language, Duruwa * North Dravidian ** Kurukh–Malto *** Kurukh language, Kurukh (Oraon, Kisan) *** Malto language, Malto (Kumarbhag Paharia, Sauria Paharia) ** Brahui language, Brahui Some authors deny that North Dravidian forms a valid subgroup, splitting it into Northeast (Kurukh–Malto) and Northwest (Brahui). Their affiliation has been proposed based primarily on a small number of common phonetic developments, including: * In some words, *k is retracted or spirantized, shifting to in Kurukh and Brahui, in Malto. * In some words, *c is retracted to . * Word-initial *v develops to . This development is, however, also found in several other Dravidian languages, including Kannada, Kodagu and Tulu. McAlpin (2003) notes that no exact conditioning can be established for the first two changes, and proposes that distinct Proto-Dravidian *q and *kʲ should be reconstructed behind these correspondences, and that Brahui, Kurukh-Malto, and the rest of Dravidian may be three coordinate branches, possibly with Brahui being the earliest language to split off. A few morphological parallels between Brahui and Kurukh-Malto are also known, but according to McAlpin they are analyzable as shared archaisms rather than shared innovations. In addition, ''Ethnologue'' lists several unclassified Dravidian languages: Allar language, Allar, Bazigar language, Bazigar, Bharia language, Bharia, Malankuravan language, Malankuravan (possibly a dialect of Malayalam), and Vishavan language, Vishavan. ''Ethnologue'' also lists several unclassified Southern Dravidian languages: Mala Malasar language, Mala Malasar, Malasar language, Malasar, Thachanadan language, Thachanadan, Ullatan language, Ullatan, Kalanadi language, Kalanadi, Kumbaran language, Kumbaran, Kunduvadi language, Kunduvadi, Kurichiya language, Kurichiya, Attapady Kurumba language, Attapady Kurumba, Muduga language, Muduga, Pathiya language, Pathiya, and Wayanad Chetti language, Wayanad Chetti. Pattapu language, Pattapu may also be Southern. A computational phylogenetic study of the Dravidian language family was undertaken by Kolipakam, et al. (2018). Kolipakam, et al. (2018) supports the internal coherence of the four Dravidian branches South (or South Dravidian I), South-Central (or South Dravidian II), Central, and North, but is uncertain about the precise relationships of these four branches to each other. The date of Dravidian is estimated to be 4,500 years old.


Distribution

Since 1981, the Census of India has reported only languages with more than 10,000 speakers, including 17 Dravidian languages. In 1981, these accounted for approximately 24% of India's population. In the 2001 Census of India, 2001 census, they included 214 million people, about 21% of India's total population of 1.02 billion. In addition, the largest Dravidian-speaking group outside India, Tamil speakers in Sri Lanka, number around 4.7 million. The total number of speakers of Dravidian languages is around 227 million people, around 13% of the population of the Indian subcontinent. The largest group of the Dravidian languages is South Dravidian, with almost 150 million speakers. Tamil language, Tamil, Kannada language, Kannada and Malayalam make up around 98% of the speakers, with 75 million, 44 million and 37 million native speakers, respectively. The next-largest is the South-Central branch, which has 78 million native speakers, the vast majority of whom speak Telugu language, Telugu. The total number of speakers of Telugu, including those whose first language is not Telugu, is around 84 million people. This branch also includes the tribal language Gondi language, Gondi spoken in central India. The second-smallest branch is the Northern branch, with around 6.3 million speakers. This is the only sub-group to have a language spoken in Pakistan — Brahui language, Brahui. The smallest branch is the Central branch, which has only around 200,000 speakers. These languages are mostly tribal, and spoken in central India. Languages recognized as List of official languages of India, official languages of India appear here in boldface.


Proposed relations with other families

The Dravidian family has defied all of the attempts to show a connection with other languages, including Indo-European languages, Indo-European, Hurrian, Basque language, Basque, Sumerian language, Sumerian, Korean language, Korean and Japanese language, Japanese. Comparisons have been made not just with the other language families of the Indian subcontinent (Indo-European languages, Indo-European, Austroasiatic languages, Austroasiatic, Sino-Tibetan languages, Sino-Tibetan, and Nihali language, Nihali), but with all typologically similar language families of the Old World. Nonetheless, although there are no readily detectable genealogical connections, Dravidian shares strong areal features with the Indo-Aryan languages, which have been attributed to a substratum influence from Dravidian. Dravidian languages display typological similarities with the Uralic languages, Uralic language group, and there have been several attempts to establish a genetic relationship in the past. This idea has been popular amongst Dravidian linguists, including Robert Caldwell, Thomas Burrow, Kamil Zvelebil,Zvelebil, Kamil (2006). Dravidian Languages. In ''Encyclopædia Britannica'' (DVD edition). and Mikhail Andronov, The hypothesis is, however, rejected by most specialists in Uralic languages, and also in recent times by Dravidian linguists such as Bhadriraju Krishnamurti. In the early 1970s, the linguist David McAlpin produced a detailed proposal of a genetic relationship between Dravidian and the extinct Elamite language of ancient Elam (present-day southwestern Iran). The Elamo-Dravidian languages, Elamo-Dravidian hypothesis was supported in the late 1980s by the archaeologist Colin Renfrew and the geneticist Luigi Luca Cavalli-Sforza, who suggested that Proto-Dravidian was brought to India by farmers from the Iranian part of the Fertile Crescent. (In his 2000 book, Cavalli-Sforza suggested western India, northern India and northern Iran as alternative starting points.) However, linguists have found McAlpin's cognates unconvincing and criticized his proposed phonological rules as ''ad hoc''. Elamite is generally believed by scholars to be a language isolate, and the theory has had no effect on studies of the language. In 2012, Southworth suggested a "Zagrosian family" of West Asian origin including Elamite, Brahui and Dravidian as its three branches. Dravidian is one of the primary language families in the Nostratic languages, Nostratic proposal, which would link most languages in North Africa, Europe and Western Asia into a family with its origins in the Fertile Crescent sometime between the Last Glacial Period and the emergence of Proto-Indo-European language, Proto-Indo-European 4,000–6,000 BCE. However, the general consensus is that such deep connections are not, or not yet, demonstrable.


Prehistory

The origins of the Dravidian languages, as well as their subsequent development and the period of their differentiation are unclear, partially due to the lack of comparative linguistics, comparative linguistic research into the Dravidian languages. Though some scholars have argued that the Dravidian languages may have been brought to India by migrations in the fourth or third millennium BCE or even earlier, the Dravidian languages cannot easily be connected to any other language, and they could well be indigenous to India. Proto-Dravidian was spoken in the 4th or 3rd millennium BCE, and it is thought that the Dravidian languages were the most widespread indigenous languages in the Indian subcontinent before the advance of the Indo-Aryan languages.


Proto-Dravidian and onset of diversification

As a proto-language, the Proto-Dravidian language is not itself attested in the historical record. Its modern conception is based solely on reconstruction. It was suggested in the 1980s that the language was spoken in the 4th millennium BCE, and started disintegrating into various branches around the 3rd millennium BCE.History and Archaeology, Volume 1, Issues 1-2
p.234, Department of Ancient History, Culture, and Archaeology, University of Allahabad
According to Bhadriraju Krishnamurti, Krishnamurti, Proto-Dravidian may have been spoken in the Indus civilization, suggesting a "tentative date of Proto-Dravidian around the early part of the third millennium." Krishnamurti further states that South Dravidian I (including pre-Tamil) and South Dravidian II (including Pre-Telugu) split around the eleventh century BCE, with the other major branches splitting off at around the same time. Kolipakam et al. (2018) estimate the Dravidian language family to be approximately 4,500 years old. Several geneticists have noted a strong correlation between Dravidian and the Ancestral South Indian (ASI) component of genetics and archaeogenetics of South Asia, South Asian genetic makeup. Narasimhan et al. (2018) argue that the ASI component itself resulted from a mixture of Iranian-related agriculturalists, moving southeast after the decline of the Indus Valley Civilization (early 2nd millennium BCE), and hunter-gatherers native to southern India. They conclude that one of these two groups may have been the source of proto-Dravidian. Introduction from the northwest would be consistent with the location of Brahui and with attempts to interpret the Indus script as Dravidian. On the other hand, reconstructed Proto-Dravidian terms for flora and fauna provide some support for an Indian origin.


Indus Valley Civilisation

The Indus Valley civilisation (3,300–1,900 BCE), located in Northwestern Indian subcontinent, is sometimes suggested to have been Dravidian. Already in 1924, when announcing the discovery of the IVC, John Marshall (archaeologist), John Marshall stated that (one of) the language(s) may have been Dravidic. Cultural and linguistic similarities have been cited by researchers Henry Heras, Kamil Zvelebil, Asko Parpola and Iravatham Mahadevan as being strong evidence for a proto-Dravidian origin of the ancient Indus Valley civilisation. The discovery in Tamil Nadu of a late Neolithic (early 2nd millennium BCE, i.e. post-dating Harappan decline) stone celt (tool), celt allegedly marked with Indus signs has been considered by some to be significant for the Dravidian identification. Yuri Knorozov surmised that the symbols represent a logosyllabic script and suggested, based on computer analysis, an underlying agglutinative Dravidian language as the most likely candidate for the underlying language. Knorozov's suggestion was preceded by the work of Henry Heras, who suggested several readings of signs based on a proto-Dravidian assumption. Linguist Asko Parpola writes that the Indus script and Harappan language are "most likely to have belonged to the Dravidian family". Parpola led a Finnish team in investigating the inscriptions using computer analysis. Based on a proto-Dravidian assumption, they proposed readings of many signs, some agreeing with the suggested readings of Heras and Knorozov (such as equating the "fish" sign with the Dravidian word for fish, "min") but disagreeing on several other readings. A comprehensive description of Parpola's work until 1994 is given in his book ''Deciphering the Indus Script''.


Northern Dravidian pockets

Although in modern times speakers of the various Dravidian languages have mainly occupied the southern portion of India, in earlier times they probably were spoken in a larger area. After the Indo-Aryan migrations into north-western India, starting ca. 1500 BCE, and the establishment of the Kuru Kingdom, Kuru kingdom ca. 1100 BCE, a process of Sanskritisation of the masses started, which resulted in a language shift in northern India. Southern India has remained majority Dravidian, but pockets of Dravidian can be found in central India, Pakistan and Nepal. The Kurukh people, Kurukh and Malto people, Malto are pockets of Dravidian languages in central India, spoken by people who may have migrated from south India. They do have myths about external origins. The Kurukh have traditionally claimed to be from the Deccan Peninsula, more specifically Karnataka. The same tradition has existed of the Brahui,P. 32 ''Ideology and status of Sanskrit : contributions to the history of the Sanskrit language'' by Jan E M Houben who call themselves immigrants. Holding this same view of the Brahui are many scholars such as L.H. Horace Perera and M.Ratnasabapathy. The Brahui people, Brahui population of Pakistan's Balochistan, Pakistan, Balochistan province has been taken by some as the linguistic equivalent of a relict population, perhaps indicating that Dravidian languages were formerly much more widespread and were supplanted by the incoming Indo-Aryan languages. However, it has been argued that the absence of any Old Iranian (Avestan) loanwords in Brahui suggests that the Brahui migrated to Balochistan from central India less than 1,000 years ago. The main Iranian contributor to Brahui vocabulary, Balochi language, Balochi, is a western Iranian language like Kurdish languages, Kurdish, and arrived in the area from the west only around 1000 CE. Sound changes shared with Kurukh and Malto also suggest that Brahui was originally spoken near them in central India.


Dravidian influence on Sanskrit

Dravidian languages show extensive lexical (vocabulary) borrowing, but only a few traits of structural (either phonology, phonological or grammatical) borrowing from Indo-Aryan, whereas Indo-Aryan shows more structural than lexical borrowings from the Dravidian languages.Dravidian languages.
Encyclopædia Britannica. 2008. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 30 June 2008
Many of these features are already present in the oldest known Indo-Aryan language, the language of the ''Rigveda'' (c.1500 BCE), which also includes over a dozen words borrowed from Dravidian. Vedic Sanskrit has retroflex consonants (/, ) with about 88 words in the ''Rigveda'' having unconditioned retroflexes. Some sample words are ', ', ', ', ' and '. Since other Indo-European languages, including other Indo-Iranian languages, lack retroflex consonants, their presence in Indo-Aryan is often cited as evidence of substrate influence from close contact of the Vedic speakers with speakers of a foreign language family rich in retroflex consonants. The Dravidian family is a serious candidate since it is rich in retroflex phonemes reconstructible back to the Proto-Dravidian language, Proto-Dravidian stage. In addition, a number of grammatical features of Vedic Sanskrit not found in its sister Avestan language appear to have been borrowed from Dravidian languages. These include the gerund, which has the same function as in Dravidian. Some linguists explain this asymmetrical borrowing by arguing that Middle Indo-Aryan languages were built on a Dravidian substratum. These scholars argue that the most plausible explanation for the presence of Dravidian structural features in Indic is language shift, that is, native Dravidian speakers learning and adopting Indic languages due to Minoritarianism, elite dominance. Although each of the innovative traits in Indic could be accounted for by internal explanations, early Dravidian influence is the only explanation that can account for all of the innovations at once; moreover, it accounts for several of the innovative traits in Indic better than any internal explanation that has been proposed.


Grammar

The most characteristic grammatical features of Dravidian languages are: * Dravidian languages are Agglutination, agglutinative. * Word order is subject–object–verb (SOV). * Most Dravidian languages have a clusivity distinction. * The major word classes are nouns (substantives, numerals, pronouns), adjectives, verbs, and indeclinables (particles, clitic, enclitics, adverbs, interjections, onomatopoetic words, echo words). * Proto-Dravidian used only suffixes, never prefixes or infixes, in the construction of inflected forms. Hence, the roots of words always occurred at the beginning. Nouns, verbs, and indeclinable words constituted the original word classes. * There are two numbers and four different gender systems, the ancestral system probably having "male:non-male" in the singular and "person:non-person" in the plural. * In a sentence, however complex, only one finite verb occurs, normally at the end, preceded if necessary by a number of gerunds. * Word order follows certain basic rules but is relatively free. * The main (and probably original) dichotomy in tense is past:non-past. Present tense developed later and independently in each language or subgroup. * Verbs are intransitive, transitive, and causative; there are also active and passive forms. * All of the positive verb forms have their corresponding negative counterparts, negative verbs.


Phonology

Dravidian languages are noted for the lack of distinction between aspirated and unaspirated stops. While some Dravidian languages have accepted large numbers of loanwords from Sanskrit and other Indo-Iranian languages in addition to their already vast vocabulary, in which the orthography shows distinctions in voice and aspiration (phonetics), aspiration, the words are pronounced in Dravidian according to different rules of phonology and phonotactics: aspiration of plosives is generally absent, regardless of the spelling of the word. This is not a universal phenomenon and is generally avoided in formal or careful speech, especially when reciting. For instance, Tamil language, Tamil does not distinguish between voiced and voiceless stops. In fact, the Tamil alphabet lacks symbols for voiced and aspirated stops. Dravidian languages are also characterized by a three-way distinction between Dental consonant, dental, Alveolar consonant, alveolar, and retroflex places of articulation as well as large numbers of Liquid consonant, liquids.


Proto-Dravidian

Proto-Dravidian had five short and long vowels: ''*a'', ''*ā'', ''*i'', ''*ī'', ''*u'', ''*ū'', ''*e'', ''*ē'', ''*o'', ''*ō''. There were no diphthongs; ''ai'' and ''au'' are treated as *''ay'' and *''av'' (or *''aw''). The five-vowel system is largely preserved in the descendent subgroups. The following consonantal phonemes are reconstructed:


Numerals

The numerals from 1 to 10 in various Dravidian and Indo-Aryan languages (here exemplified by Indo-Aryan languages, Indo Aryan language Sanskrit and Iranian language Persian language, Persian). # This is the same as the word for another form of the number one in Tamil language, Tamil and Malayalam, used as the indefinite article ("a") and when the number is an Grammatical modifier, attribute preceding a noun (as in "one person"), as opposed to when it is a noun (as in "How many are there?" "One"). # The stem *īr is still found in compound words, and has taken on a meaning of "double" in Tamil language, Tamil, Telugu language, Telugu, Kannada language, Kannada and Malayalam. For example, ''irupatu'' (20, literally meaning "double-ten"), ''iravai'' (20 in Telugu), "iraṭṭi" ("double") or ''iruvar'' ("two people", in Tamil) and "ippatthu" (ipp-hatthu, double ten", in Kannada). # The Kolami numbers 5 to 10 are borrowed from Telugu. # The word ''tondu'' was also used to refer to the number nine in ancient Sangam literature, Sangam texts but was later completely replaced by the word ''onpadu''. # These forms are derived from "one (less than) ten". Proto-Dravidian *toḷ is still used in Tamil and Malayalam as the basis of numbers such as 90, ''thonnooru'' as well as the Kannada ''tombattu''. * Words indicated (II) are borrowings from Indo-Iranian languages (in Brahui's case, from Balochi language, Balochi).


Literature

Four Dravidian languages, viz. Tamil, Kannada, Telugu and Malayalam, have lengthy literary traditions. Literature in Tulu language, Tulu and Kodava language, Kodava is more recent. Recently old literature in Gondi has been discovered as well. The earliest known Dravidian inscriptions are 76 Tamil language#Old Tamil, Old Tamil inscriptions on cave walls in Madurai district, Madurai and Tirunelveli district, Tirunelveli districts in Tamil Nadu, dating from the 2nd century BCE. These inscriptions are written in a variant of the Brahmi script called Tamil Brahmi. In 2019, the Tamil Nadu Archaeology Department released a report on excavations at Keezhadi, Keeladi, near Madurai, Tamil Nadu, including a description of potsherds dated to the 6th century BCE inscribed with personal names in the Tamil-Brahmi script. However, the report lacks the detail of a full archaeological study, and other archaeologists have disputed whether the oldest dates obtained for the site can be assigned to these potsherds. The earliest long text in Old Tamil is the ''Tolkāppiyam'', a work on Tamil grammar and poetics preserved in a 5th-century CE redaction, whose oldest layers could date from the late 2nd century or 1st century BCE. Kannada is first known from the Halmidi inscription (450 CE). A 9th-century treatise on poetics, the ''Kavirajamarga'', is the first literary work. The earliest Telugu inscription, from Erragudipadu in Kadapa district, is dated 575. The first literary work is an 11th-century translation of part of the ''Mahābhārata''. The earliest Malayalam text is the Vazhappally copper plate (9th century). The first literary work is ''Rāmacaritam'' (12th century).


See also

*Dravidian Linguistics Association * Dravidian peoples * Dravidian studies *Dravidianism * Elamo-Dravidian languages * Tamil loanwords in Biblical Hebrew


Notes


References


Bibliography

* * * ; Reprinted London, K. Paul, Trench, Trubner & co., ltd., 1913; rev. ed. by J.L. Wyatt and T. Ramakrishna Pillai, Madras, University of Madras, 1961, reprint Asian Educational Services, 1998, . * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *


Further reading

* Vishnupriya Kolipakam et al. (2018)
''A Bayesian phylogenetic study of the Dravidian language family''
Royal Society Open Science.


External links



Burrow and Emeneau's ''A Dravidian etymological dictionary'' (2nd ed., 1984) in a searchable online form. {{DEFAULTSORT:Dravidian Languages Dravidian languages, Language families Agglutinative languages Pre-Indo-Europeans