HOME

TheInfoList




Dover () is a town and major ferry port in
Kent Kent is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Chambers (publisher), William and Robert ...

Kent
,
South East England South East England is one of the nine official regions of England at the ITL 1 statistical regions of England, first level of International Territorial Level, ITL for Statistics, statistical purposes. It consists of the counties of england, ...
. It faces
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses ...

France
across the
Strait of Dover The Strait of Dover or Dover Strait, historically known as the Dover Narrows (french: Pas de Calais - ''Strait of Calais''; nl, Nauw van Calais or the lesser used ''Straat van Dover''), is the strait A strait is a naturally formed, nar ...
, the narrowest part of the
English Channel The English Channel,, "The Sleeve"; nrf, la Maunche, "The Sleeve" (Cotentinais Cotentinais is the dialect The term dialect (from Latin , , from the Ancient Greek word , , "discourse", from , , "through" and , , "I speak") is used in two ...

English Channel
at from
Cap Gris Nez Cap Gris-Nez (literally “cape grey nose;” ) is a Cape (geography), cape on the Côte d'Opale in the Pas-de-Calais ''département in France, département'' in northern France. It is between Wissant and Audresselles, in the commune of Audingh ...

Cap Gris Nez
in France. It lies south-east of
Canterbury Canterbury (, ) is a City status in the United Kingdom, cathedral city and UNESCO World Heritage Site, situated in the heart of the City of Canterbury, a local government district of Kent, England. It lies on the River Stour, Kent, River Stour ...

Canterbury
and east of
Maidstone Maidstone is the largest town A town is a human settlement. Towns are generally larger than villages and smaller than city, cities, though the criteria to distinguish between them vary considerably in different parts of the world. Origi ...
. The town is the administrative centre of the
Dover District Dover is a Non-metropolitan district, local government district in Kent, England. The port town of Dover is its administrative centre. It was formed on 1 April 1974 by the merger of the boroughs of Municipal Borough of Deal, Deal, Municipal Borough ...
and home of the
Port of Dover The Port of Dover is a cross-channel ferry, cruise terminal, maritime cargo and marina facility situated in Dover, Kent, south-east England. It is the nearest English port to France, at just away, and is one of the World's busiest port, world' ...
. Archaeological finds have revealed that the area has always been a focus for peoples entering and leaving
Britain Britain usually refers to: * United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United ...

Britain
. The name derives from the
River Dour The River Dour is a chalk stream in the county of Kent Kent is a Counties of England, county in South East England and one of the home counties. It borders Greater London to the north-west, Surrey to the west and East Sussex to the south-w ...
that flows through it. In recent times the town has undergone transformations with a high-speed rail link to London, new retail in town with St James' area opened in 2018, and a revamped promenade and beachfront. This followed in 2019, with a new 500m Pier to the west of the Harbour, and new Marina unveiled as part of a £330m investment in the area. It has also been a point of destination for many illegal migrant crossings during the English channel migrant crisis. The Port of Dover provides much of the town's employment, as does
tourism Tourism is travel Travel is the movement of people between distant geographical location In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of th ...

tourism
including to the landmark
White Cliffs of Dover The White Cliffs of Dover is the region of English coastline The coast, also known as the coastline or seashore, is defined as the area where land meets the sea or ocean, or as a line that forms the boundary between the land and the ocean ...
. There were over 368,000 tourists visiting Dover castle in the year of 2019.


History

Archaeological Archaeology or archeology is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis Analysis is the process of breaking a complex topic or substance Substance may refer to: * Substance (Jainism), a term in Jain ontology to denote ...
finds have shown that there were
Stone Age The Stone Age was a broad prehistoric Prehistory, also known as pre-literary history, is the period of human history Human history, also known as world history, is the description of humanity's past. It is informed by archaeology ...

Stone Age
people in the area, and that some
Iron Age The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age division of the prehistory Prehistory, also known as pre-literary history, is the period of human history Human history, or world history, is the narrative of Human, humanity's pa ...
finds also exist. During the
Roman period The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Basileía tôn Rhōmaíōn) was the post-Republican Republican can refer to: Political ideology * An advocate of a republic, a type of governme ...
, the area became part of the Roman communications network. It was connected by road to
Canterbury Canterbury (, ) is a City status in the United Kingdom, cathedral city and UNESCO World Heritage Site, situated in the heart of the City of Canterbury, a local government district of Kent, England. It lies on the River Stour, Kent, River Stour ...

Canterbury
and
Watling Street Watling Street is a historic route in England England is a that is part of the . It shares land borders with to its west and to its north. The lies northwest of England and the to the southwest. England is separated from by the ...

Watling Street
and it became ''
Portus Dubris Dubris, also known as Portus Dubris and Dubrae, was a port in Roman Britain Roman Britain is the period in classical antiquity when large parts of the island of Great Britain were under Roman conquest of Britain, occupation by the Roman Empi ...
'', a fortified port. Dover has a partly preserved Roman lighthouse (the tallest surviving Roman structure in Britain) and the remains of a villa with preserved Roman wall paintings. Dover later figured in
Domesday Book Domesday Book () – the Middle English Middle English (abbreviated to ME) was a form of the English language spoken after the Norman conquest of England, Norman conquest (1066) until the late 15th century. The English language underwent ...
(1086). Forts were built above the port and lighthouses were constructed to guide passing ships. It is one of the
Cinque Ports The Confederation of Cinque Ports () is a historic group of coastal towns in Kent Kent is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictio ...
. and has served as a bastion against various attackers: notably the French during the
Napoleonic Wars The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major World war, global conflicts pitting the First French Empire, French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon, Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of Coalition forces of the Napoleonic W ...
and Germany during the
Second World War World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
. During the
Cold War The Cold War was a period of geopolitical Geopolitics (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country loc ...
, a
Regional Seat of Government#REDIRECT Regional seat of government Regional seats of government or RSGs were the best known aspect of Britain's civil defence preparations against nuclear war. In fact, however, naming conventions changed over the years as strategies in Whitehal ...
was located within the White Cliffs beneath Dover Castle. Curiously, this is omitted from the strategic objects appearing on the Soviet 1:10,000 city plan of Dover that was produced in 1974. The port would have served as an embarkation point for sending reinforcements to the
British Army of the Rhine There have been two formations named British Army of the Rhine (BAOR). Both were originally occupation forces in Germany Germany (german: Deutschland, ), officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in . It is the in Europe after , a ...
in the event of a Soviet ground invasion of Europe. In 1974 a discovery was made at Langdon Bay off the coast near Dover. It contained bronze axes of French design and is probably the remainder of the cargo of a sunken ship. At the same time, this find also shows that trade routes across the Channel between England and France existed already in the
Bronze Age The Bronze Age is a prehistoric Periodization, period that was characterized by the use of bronze, in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization. The Bronze Age is the second principal period of the Three-age sys ...
, or even earlier. In 1992, the so-called Dover boat from the Bronze Age was discovered in six metres depth underwater. This is one of the oldest finds of a seaworthy boat. Using the radiocarbon method of investigation, the boat's construction was dated to approximately
1550 BC The 1550s BC was a decade lasting from January 1, 1559 BC to December 31, 1550 BC. {{Decadebox BC, 155 Events and trends *The city of Mycenae Mycenae ( ; grc, Μυκῆναι or , ''Mykē̂nai'' or ''Mykḗnē'') is an archaeological site near ...
.


Etymology

First recorded in its Latinised form of ''
Portus Dubris Dubris, also known as Portus Dubris and Dubrae, was a port in Roman Britain Roman Britain is the period in classical antiquity when large parts of the island of Great Britain were under Roman conquest of Britain, occupation by the Roman Empi ...
'', the name derives from the Brythonic word for water (''dwfr'' in
Middle Welsh Middle Welsh ( cy, Cymraeg Canol, wlm, Kymraec) is the label attached to the Welsh language Welsh ( or ) is a Brittonic language of the Celtic language family The Celtic languages ( , ) are a group of related languages descende ...
, ''dŵr'' in
Modern Welsh The history of the Welsh language spans over 1400 years, encompassing the stages of the language known as Primitive Welsh, Old Welsh, Middle Welsh, and Welsh language, Modern Welsh. Origins Welsh evolved from British language (Celtic), British, ...
apart from '' 'dwfrliw' '' (Watercolour) which has retained the old Welsh spelling, ''dour'' in
Breton Breton most often refers to: *anything associated with Brittany Brittany (; french: link=no, Bretagne ; br, Breizh, or ; Gallo language, Gallo: ''Bertaèyn'' ) is a peninsula and cultural region in the west of France, covering the western part ...
). The same element is present in the town's
French French (french: français(e), link=no) may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a transcontinental country This is a list of co ...

French
name ''Douvres'' and the name of the river, ''Dour'', which is also evident in other English towns such as
Wendover Wendover is a market town A market town is a European settlement that obtained by custom or royal charter, in the Middle Ages In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, ...
. However, the modern
Modern Welsh The history of the Welsh language spans over 1400 years, encompassing the stages of the language known as Primitive Welsh, Old Welsh, Middle Welsh, and Welsh language, Modern Welsh. Origins Welsh evolved from British language (Celtic), British, ...
name ''Dofr'' is an adaptation of the English name ''Dover''. The current name was in use at least by the time of Shakespeare's ''
King Lear ''King Lear'' is a tragedy Tragedy (from the grc-gre, τραγῳδία, ''tragōidia'', ''tragōidia'') is a genre of drama Drama is the specific Mode (literature), mode of fiction Mimesis, represented in performance: a Play (t ...

King Lear
'' (between 1603 and 1606), in which the town and its cliffs play a prominent role.


Geography and climate

Dover is in the south-east corner of Britain. From
South Foreland South Foreland is a chalk Chalk is a soft, white, porous, sedimentary carbonate rock, a form of limestone Limestone is a common type of carbonate rock, carbonate sedimentary rock. It is composed mostly of the minerals calcite and arag ...
, the nearest point to
the European mainland
the European mainland
,
Cap Gris Nez Cap Gris-Nez (literally “cape grey nose;” ) is a Cape (geography), cape on the Côte d'Opale in the Pas-de-Calais ''département in France, département'' in northern France. It is between Wissant and Audresselles, in the commune of Audingh ...

Cap Gris Nez
is away across the Strait of Dover. The site of its original settlement lies in the valley of the
River Dour The River Dour is a chalk stream in the county of Kent Kent is a Counties of England, county in South East England and one of the home counties. It borders Greater London to the north-west, Surrey to the west and East Sussex to the south-w ...
, sheltering from the prevailing south-westerly winds. This has led to the silting up of the river mouth by the action of
longshore drift Longshore drift from longshore current is a geological process that consists of the transportation of sediment Sediment is a naturally occurring material that is broken down by processes of weathering Weathering is the deterioration of ...

longshore drift
. The town has been forced into making artificial breakwaters to keep the port in being. These breakwaters have been extended and adapted so that the port lies almost entirely on reclaimed land. The higher land on either side of the valley – the Western Heights and the eastern high point on which
Dover Castle Dover Castle is a medieval castle in Dover Dover () is a town and major ferry port in Kent Kent is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary, L. Brookes ...

Dover Castle
stands – has been adapted to perform the function of protection against invaders. The town has gradually extended up the river valley, encompassing several villages in doing so. Little growth is possible along the coast, since the cliffs are on the sea's edge. The railway, being tunnelled and embanked, skirts the foot of the cliffs. Dover has an
oceanic climate An oceanic climate, also known as a maritime climate or marine climate, is the Köppen classification of climate Climate is the long-term pattern of weather Weather is the state of the atmosphere, describing for example the deg ...
(Koppen classification ''Cfb'') similar to the rest of the United Kingdom with mild temperatures year-round and a light amount of rainfall each month. The warmest recorded temperature was , recorded on 25 July 2019. The temperature is usually between and . There is evidence that the sea is coldest in February; the warmest recorded temperature for February was only , compared with in January.


Demography

In 1800, the year before Britain's first national census,
Edward Hasted Edward Hasted (20 December 1732 OS (31 December 1732 NS) – 14 January 1812) was an English antiquarian and pioneering historian of his ancestral home county of Kent Kent is a county A county is a geographical region of a country us ...
(1732–1812) reported that the town had a population of almost 10,000 people. At the 2001 census, the town of Dover had 28,156 inhabitants, while the population of the whole urban area of Dover, as calculated by the
Office for National Statistics The Office for National Statistics (ONS; cy, Swyddfa Ystadegau Gwladol) is the executive office of the UK Statistics Authority cy, Y Bwrdd Ystadegau , seal = , logo = UK Statistics Authority logo.svg , formed = , jurisdiction = United Ki ...
, was 39,078 inhabitants. With the expansion of Dover, many of the outlying ancient villages have been incorporated into the town. Originally the parishes of Dover St. Mary's and Dover St. James, since 1836 Buckland and Charlton have become part Dover, and Maxton (a hamlet to the west),
River A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river. In some cases, a river flows into the ground and becomes dry at the end of its course without reaching another body of wate ...
, Kearsney,
Temple Ewell Temple Ewell is a Civil parishes in England, civil parish and historic village in the county of Kent, England. The village is part of the Dover (district), Dover district of Kent, and forms part of the Dover urban area. It is situated three mile ...
, and Whitfield, all to the north of the town centre, are within its conurbation.


Economy


Retail

The town's main shopping streets are the High Street, Biggin Street, Market Square, Cannon Street, Pencester Road and Castle Street. The Castleton Retail Park is to the north-west of the town centre. The new St James' Retail and Leisure Park opened in 2018 and is a southern extension of the town centre and consists of shops, restaurants, a Travelodge Hotel and a Cineworld Cinema.


Shipping

The Dover Harbour Board is the responsible authority for the running of the Port of Dover. The English Channel, here at its narrowest point in the Straits of Dover, is the busiest shipping lane in the world. Ferries crossing between here and the Continent have to negotiate their way through the constant stream of shipping crossing their path. The ''Dover Strait Traffic Separation Scheme'' allots ships separate lanes when passing through the Strait. The Scheme is controlled by the Channel Navigation Information Service based at Maritime Rescue Co-ordination Centre Dover. MRCC Dover is also charged with co-ordination of civil maritime search and rescue within these waters. The
Port of Dover The Port of Dover is a cross-channel ferry, cruise terminal, maritime cargo and marina facility situated in Dover, Kent, south-east England. It is the nearest English port to France, at just away, and is one of the World's busiest port, world' ...
is also used by cruise ships. The old
Dover Marine railway station Dover, Kent has had numerous railway stations due to the legacy of competition between the South Eastern Railway (UK), South Eastern Railway (SER) and London, Chatham and Dover Railway (LCDR) and the subsequent rationalisation attempts by their s ...
building houses one passenger terminal, together with a car park. A second, purpose-built, terminal is located further out along the pier. The ferry lines using the port are (number of daily sailings in parentheses): * to Calais:
P&O Ferries P&O Ferries is a British shipping company that operates ferries at Samothrace island, Northern Aegean, Aegean Sea. File:Spirit of America - Staten Island Ferry.jpg, The commuters between Manhattan and Staten Island">commuting">commuter ...
(25),
DFDS Seaways DFDS Seaways is a Danish shipping company that operates passenger and freight services across northern Europe Northern Europe is the northern region of Europe. Narrower definitions may describe Northern Europe as being roughly north o ...

DFDS Seaways
(10). * to Dunkirk:
DFDS Seaways DFDS Seaways is a Danish shipping company that operates passenger and freight services across northern Europe Northern Europe is the northern region of Europe. Narrower definitions may describe Northern Europe as being roughly north o ...

DFDS Seaways
(11). These services have been cut in recent years: *
P&O Ferries P&O Ferries is a British shipping company that operates ferries at Samothrace island, Northern Aegean, Aegean Sea. File:Spirit of America - Staten Island Ferry.jpg, The commuters between Manhattan and Staten Island">commuting">commuter ...
sailings to
Boulogne Boulogne-sur-Mer (; pcd, Boulonne-su-Mér; nl, Bonen; la, Gesoriacum or ''Bononia''), often called just Boulogne (, ), is a coastal city in Hauts-de-France, Northern France. It is a Subprefectures in France, sub-prefecture of the Departments ...

Boulogne
(5 daily) were withdrawn in 1993 and
Zeebrugge Zeebrugge (, from: ''Brugge aan zee'' meaning "Bruges at Sea", french: Zeebruges) is a village on the coast of Belgium Belgium ( nl, België ; french: Belgique ; german: Belgien ), officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Wes ...
(4 daily) in 2002. *
SNCF The Société nationale des chemins de fer français (; abbreviated as SNCF ; French for "French National Railway Company") is France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a List of tr ...

SNCF
withdrew their three
train ferry A train ferry is a ship A ship is a large watercraft Watercraft, also known as water vessels or waterborne vessels, are vehicles A vehicle (from la, vehiculum) is a machine A machine is any physical system with ordered struc ...
sailings on the opening of the
Channel Tunnel The Channel Tunnel (also referred to as the Chunnel) is a railway tunnel A tunnel is an underground passageway, dug through the surrounding soil/earth/rock and enclosed except for entrance and exit, commonly at each end. A pipeline ...
. *
Regie voor Maritiem Transport Regie voor Maritiem Transport (RMT) was the Belgium, Belgian state-owned ferry service and operated ferries on the Ostend-Dover route under the name Oostende Lines. For the last few years until its demise in February 1997, the ferries from Ostend ...
moved their
Ostend Ostend ( nl, Oostende, ; french: link=no, Ostende ; german: link=no, Ostende ; vls, Ostende) is a coastal city and municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitAr ...
service of three sailings daily to
Ramsgate Ramsgate is a seaside resort, seaside town in the district of Thanet District, Thanet in east Kent, England. It was one of the great English seaside towns of the 19th century. In 2001 it had a population of about 40,000. In 2011, according to th ...
in 1994; this route was operated by TransEuropa Ferries until April 2013. *
Stena Line Stena Line is a Sweden, Swedish Shipping line, shipping line company and one of the largest ferry operators in the world. It services Denmark, Germany, Republic of Ireland, Ireland, Latvia, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Sweden and the United ...
merged their 20 Calais sailings into the current P&O operation in 1998. *
Hoverspeed Hoverspeed was a ferry A ferry is a vessel used to carry passengers, and sometimes vehicles and cargo, across a body of water. A passenger ferry with many stops, such as in Venice Venice ( ; it, Venezia ; vec, Venesia or ) ...
ceased operations in 2005 and withdrew their 8 daily sailings. * SpeedFerries ceased operations in 2008 and withdrew their 5 daily sailings. *
LD Lines LD Lines was a French shipping company, with both roro Roll-on/roll-off (RORO or ro-ro) ship A ship is a large watercraft that travels the world's oceans and other sufficiently deep Sea lane, waterways, carrying goods or passengers ...
ceased the Dover-
Dieppe Dieppe (; Norman Norman or Normans may refer to: Ethnic and cultural identity * The Normans The Normans (Norman language, Norman: ''Normaunds''; french: Normands; la, Nortmanni/Normanni) were inhabitants of the early medieval Duchy of Norma ...
service on 29 June 2009 and Dover-Boulogne 5 September 2010. * SeaFrance ceased operations in 2012 of their Dover-
Calais Calais ( , , traditionally , ; pcd, Calés; vls, Kales) is a city A city is a large .Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia ...

Calais
service which was their only service.


Main sights

* Blériot memorial: the outline of
Louis Blériot Louis Charles Joseph Blériot ( , also , ; 1 July 1872 – 1 August 1936) was a French aviator An aircraft pilot or aviator is a person who controls the flight of an aircraft An aircraft is a vehicle that is able to flight, fly ...
's aircraft, marked with granite setts, at the exact spot where Blériot landed after the first cross-Channel flight, 1909 *
Dover Castle Dover Castle is a medieval castle in Dover Dover () is a town and major ferry port in Kent Kent is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary, L. Brookes ...

Dover Castle
*
White Cliffs of Dover The White Cliffs of Dover is the region of English coastline The coast, also known as the coastline or seashore, is defined as the area where land meets the sea or ocean, or as a line that forms the boundary between the land and the ocean ...
*
Dover Western Heights The Western Heights of Dover are one of the most impressive fortifications in Britain. They comprise a series of forts, strong points and ditches, designed to protect the country from invasion. They were created in the 18th and 19th centuries to ...
*
Dover Museum :''For museums in any other town or city named Dover, see Dover (disambiguation).'' Dover Museum is a museum in Dover, Kent, in south-east England. History Founded in February 1836 by the town's mayor Edward Pett Thompson, it was initially house ...
* Dover Marina * Dover Pier * Roman Painted House Museum * Maison Dieu, Dover *
Samphire Hoe Samphire Hoe is a country park situated west of Dover in Kent in southeast England. The park was created by using 4.9 million cubic metres of chalk marl from the Channel Tunnel excavations and is found at the bottom of a section of the White Cliff ...

Samphire Hoe
*
South Foreland Lighthouse South Foreland Lighthouses are a pair of Victorian era, Victorian lighthouses on the South Foreland in St Margaret's at Cliffe, St. Margaret's Bay, Dover, Kent, England, used to warn ships approaching the nearby Goodwin Sands. There has been a pa ...

South Foreland Lighthouse
*
Pines Garden Pines Garden is a house and large garden, located on the winding beach road from St Margaret's at Cliffe village down to the beach at St Margeret's Bay. History Fred Cleary Fred Cleary, Frederick Ernest Cleary (1905-1984) 1952 New Year Honours, C ...
*
St Edmund's Chapel
St Edmund's Chapel
* St Mary's Church * St James' Church: preserved as a "tidy ruin" * St Paul's Church


Transport


Road

Dover's main communications artery, the
A2 road This is a list of roads designated A2. Roads entries are sorted alphabetically by country. * A2 motorway (Albania) The A2 motorway ( sq, Autostrada or Autostradë 2) is a motorway in Albania spanning across the Counties of Albania, counties of ...
replicates two former routes, connecting the town with Canterbury. The Roman road was followed for centuries until, in the late 18th century, it became a
toll road A toll road, also known as a turnpike or tollway, is a public or private road (almost always a controlled-access highway network. A controlled-access highway is a type of highway A highway is any public or private road A road is ...

toll road
.
Stagecoach A stagecoach is a four-wheeled public transport Public transport (also known as public transportation, public transit, mass transit, or simply transit) is a system of transport Transport (commonly used in the U.K.), or transportation ...

Stagecoach
es were operating: one description stated that the journey took all day to reach London, from 4am to being "in time for supper". The other main roads, travelling west and east, are the A20 to
Folkestone Folkestone ( ) is a port town on the English Channel, in Kent, south-east England. The town lies on the southern edge of the North Downs at a valley between two cliffs. It was an important harbour and shipping port for most of the 19th and 20th ...

Folkestone
and thence the M20 to London, and the A258 through Deal to Sandwich. In December 2020, a long line of freight trucks formed due to sudden border closures with
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses ...

France
, because of new strains of
COVID-19 Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a contagious disease A contagious disease is a disease A disease is a particular abnormal condition that negatively affects the structure A structure is an arrangement and organization o ...

COVID-19
within the
United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some prefer to use Britain as shorth ...

United Kingdom
.


Rail

The railway reached Dover from two directions: the South Eastern Railway's main line connected with Folkestone in 1844, and the
London, Chatham & Dover Railway The London, Chatham and Dover Railway (LCDR) was a railway company in south-eastern England created on 1 August 1859, when the East Kent Railway was given Parliamentary approval to change its name. Its lines ran through London and northern and e ...
opened its line from Canterbury in 1861.
Southeastern The points of the compass are the vectors by which planet A planet is an astronomical body orbiting a star or Stellar evolution#Stellar remnants, stellar remnant that is massive enough to be Hydrostatic equilibrium, rounded by its own gravity ...
trains run from
Dover Priory The Priory of St. Mary the Virgin and Martin of Tours, St. Martin of the New Work, or Newark, commonly called Dover Priory, was a priory at Dover in southeast England. It was variously independent in rule, then occupied by canons regular of the ...
to
London Charing Cross Charing Cross railway station (also known as London Charing Cross) is a London station group, central London railway terminus between the Strand, London, Strand and Hungerford Bridge in the City of Westminster. It is the terminus of the South ...

London Charing Cross
,
London Victoria Victoria station, also known as London Victoria, is a central London railway terminus and connected London Underground The London Underground (also known simply as the Underground, or by its nickname the Tube) is a rapid transit system ser ...
or
London St Pancras International St Pancras railway station (), also known as London St Pancras and officially since 2007 as St Pancras International, is a central London railway terminus on Euston Road in the London Borough of Camden The London Borough of Camden () is a ...

London St Pancras International
stations in London, and
Ramsgate Ramsgate is a seaside resort, seaside town in the district of Thanet District, Thanet in east Kent, England. It was one of the great English seaside towns of the 19th century. In 2001 it had a population of about 40,000. In 2011, according to th ...
or
Sandwich A sandwich is a food typically consisting of vegetables, sliced cheese or meat, placed on or between slices of bread, or more generally any dish wherein bread serves as a container or wrapper for another food type. The sandwich began as a po ...
in Kent. London is reached in 55 minutes by train from Dover. The
Chatham Main Line The Chatham Main Line is a railway line in England that links Quail Map 5 – England South ages 2–13Sept 2002 (Retrieved 14 December 2011) and / , travelling via (of which the town of is part, hence the name). Services to follow the ro ...
into Priory was electrified under
British Railways British Railways (BR), which from 1965 traded as British Rail, was the state-owned company that operated the national rail system rail transport in Great Britain The railway system in Great Britain is the oldest railway system in the world. ...
in 1959 as part of Stage 1 of Kent Coast Electrification, under the BR 1955 Modernisation Plan. The line up to Ramsgate, via Deal, was subsequently electrified under stage two of Kent Coast electrification in January 1961. The line from Folkestone into Priory was electrified in June 1961. A
tram system A tram (also known as a streetcar or trolley in North America) is a train that runs on tramway track on public urban streets; some include segments of segregated Right-of-way (transportation), right-of-way. The lines or networks operated b ...
operated in the town from 1897 to 1936.


Walking

Dover has two long distance footpaths: the Saxon Shore Way and the North Downs Way. The National Trust White Cliffs can be reached by foot from the town centre, with pathways to
South Foreland Lighthouse South Foreland Lighthouses are a pair of Victorian era, Victorian lighthouses on the South Foreland in St Margaret's at Cliffe, St. Margaret's Bay, Dover, Kent, England, used to warn ships approaching the nearby Goodwin Sands. There has been a pa ...

South Foreland Lighthouse
, and St Margarets Bay along the cliff top . The walking routes from Dover pass the National Trust visitor centre on the landmark chalk cliffs overlooking the
English Channel The English Channel,, "The Sleeve"; nrf, la Maunche, "The Sleeve" (Cotentinais Cotentinais is the dialect The term dialect (from Latin , , from the Ancient Greek word , , "discourse", from , , "through" and , , "I speak") is used in two ...

English Channel
with views of
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses ...

France
visible on a clear day.


Cycling

Two National Cycle Network routes begin their journey at the town. Route one goes from Dover to Canterbury. This route links with National Cycle Route 2 from Dover to St Austell, Regional route 16, and Regional route 17 in Dover. It passes three castles. Firstly from Dover on the steap incline past Dover Castle. Then
South Foreland Lighthouse South Foreland Lighthouses are a pair of Victorian era, Victorian lighthouses on the South Foreland in St Margaret's at Cliffe, St. Margaret's Bay, Dover, Kent, England, used to warn ships approaching the nearby Goodwin Sands. There has been a pa ...

South Foreland Lighthouse
is visible from the route. Mostly traffic-free along the east coast from Kingsdown to Deal, passing Walmer Castle and Deal Castle. Follows toll road (free to cyclists) through the Royal Cinque Ports Golf Club to the town of Sandwich. In Sandwich the route links with Regional route 15. Dover town centre is cycle friendly: There are dedicated cycle lanes along the seafront, cycle routes through the town's pedestrianised High Street area.


Ferry

The
Port of Dover The Port of Dover is a cross-channel ferry, cruise terminal, maritime cargo and marina facility situated in Dover, Kent, south-east England. It is the nearest English port to France, at just away, and is one of the World's busiest port, world' ...
is a 20-minute walk from Dover Priory railway station. The Dover to Dunkirk ferry route was originally operated by ferry operator Norfolkline. This company was later acquired by the pan European operator
DFDS Seaways DFDS Seaways is a Danish shipping company that operates passenger and freight services across northern Europe Northern Europe is the northern region of Europe. Narrower definitions may describe Northern Europe as being roughly north o ...

DFDS Seaways
in July 2010. The crossing time is approximately two hours. Due to this route not being as well known as Dover to Calais, prices are often cheaper. The location of Dunkirk is also more convenient for those travelling by road transport on to countries in Northern Europe including Belgium, the Netherlands, Germany and further afield.


Bus

Stagecoach in East Kent provide local bus services. Dover is on the Stagecoach Diamond network providing links to
Canterbury Canterbury (, ) is a City status in the United Kingdom, cathedral city and UNESCO World Heritage Site, situated in the heart of the City of Canterbury, a local government district of Kent, England. It lies on the River Stour, Kent, River Stour ...

Canterbury
and Deal, Kent, Deal. The Western Docks at the port of Dover are served from the town centre as well as Canterbury and Deal. Dover is the start of Stagecoach The Wave routes, The Wave network to New Romney via
Folkestone Folkestone ( ) is a port town on the English Channel, in Kent, south-east England. The town lies on the southern edge of the North Downs at a valley between two cliffs. It was an important harbour and shipping port for most of the 19th and 20th ...

Folkestone
, Hythe, Kent, Hythe and Dymchurch. There are services to Lydd via Lydd Airport, with one continuing from Lydd on to Hastings via Camber, East Sussex, Camber and Rye, East Sussex, Rye. There is a link to Sandwich, Kent, Sandwich. Buses run from Dover to Elvington, Kent, Elvington via Eythorne. National Express Coaches, National Express runs coaches from Dover to other towns in
Kent Kent is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Chambers (publisher), William and Robert ...

Kent
including Canterbury, Folkestone, Ashford, Kent,
Maidstone Maidstone is the largest town A town is a human settlement. Towns are generally larger than villages and smaller than city, cities, though the criteria to distinguish between them vary considerably in different parts of the world. Origi ...
, Gillingham, Kent, Gillingham at Hempsted Valley shopping centre and Greenhithe at Bluewater Shopping Centre for Dartford to London including Bexleyheath, Eltham, Walworth, Canary Wharf, Elephant & Castle, The City (The City of London) and to Victoria Coach Station.


RNLI

The Dover lifeboat is a Severn class lifeboat based in the Western Docks. Dover Lifeboat station is based at crosswall quay in Dover Harbour. There is a Severn-class lifeboat, which is the biggest in the fleet. It belongs to the RNLI which covers all of Great Britain. The lifeboat number is 17-09 and has a lot of emergencies in the Channel. The Severn class is designed to lay afloat. Built from fibre reinforced composite (FRC) the boat is lightweight yet very strong and is designed to right itself in the event of a capsize.


Education

There are seven secondary level schools serving Dover. Public schools * Dover College Dover College is a mixed Public school (UK), public school founded in 1871 by a group of local business men. Selective secondary schools There are 2 single-sex grammar schools and a mixed military school. * Dover Grammar School for Boys (DGSB) * Dover Grammar School for Girls (DGGS) Both grammar schools require the Dover Test or the Kent Test for admission to Year 7. * Duke of York's Royal Military School Duke of York's Royal Military School is a selective secondary school with Academy (English school), academy status and England's only military boarding school for children of service personnel (co-education ages 11–18), located next to the former site of Connaught Barracks, Dover, Connaught Barracks. Non-selective secondary schools There are 3 ex-Secondary modern school, secondary modern mixed schools, all with Academy (English school), academy status. * Astor Secondary School Astor Secondary School federated with St Radigunds Primary School (then renamed White Cliffs Primary College for the Arts) to form the Dover Federation for the Arts (DFA). Subsequently, Barton Junior School and Shatterlocks Nursery and Infant School joined the DFA. In 2014 the DFA was warned by the Department for Education about "unacceptably low standards of performance of pupils ". * St Edmund's Catholic School, Dover, St Edmund's Catholic School St Edmund's Catholic School, Dover, St Edmund's Catholic School federated with St Richards Catholic Primary School to form the Dover Federation of Catholic Schools. * Dover Christ Church Academy Dover Christ Church Academy is located in Whitfield, 4 miles north of Dover. Technical College Dover Technical College is part of the East Kent College (EKC) group. In addition, 16 primary schools and 2 special schools add to the educational offering.


Public services

Dover has one hospital, Buckland Hospital. Earlier hospitals included the Royal Victoria Hospital, Dover, Royal Victoria Hospital, the Isolation Hospital and the Eye Hospital.


Local media


Television

Dover was the home to television studios and production offices of Southern Television Ltd, the company which operated the ITV franchise for South and South East England from 1958–1981. The studios were located on Russell Street and were home to programmes like 'Scene South East', 'Scene Midweek', 'Southern News', 'Farm Progress' and the nightly epilogue, 'Guideline'. The studios were operated by TVS in 1982 and home to 'Coast to Coast', however they closed a year later when the company moved their operations to the newly complete Television Centre in
Maidstone Maidstone is the largest town A town is a human settlement. Towns are generally larger than villages and smaller than city, cities, though the criteria to distinguish between them vary considerably in different parts of the world. Origi ...
.


Newspapers

Dover has two paid for newspapers, the ''Dover Express'' (published by Kent Regional News and Media) and the ''East Kent Mercury and Dover Mercury, Dover Mercury'' (published by the KM Group). Free newspapers for the town previously included the ''Dover and Deal Extra'', part of the KM Group; and ''yourdover'', part of KOS Media.


Radio

Dover has one local commercial radio station, KMFM Shepway and White Cliffs Country, broadcasting to Dover on 106.8FM. The station was founded in Dover as Neptune Radio in September 1997 but moved to Folkestone in 2003 and was consequently rebranded after a takeover by the KM Group. Dover is also served by the county-wide stations Heart South, Heart, Gold (radio), Gold and BBC Radio Kent. The Gateway Hospital Broadcasting Service, in Buckland Hospital radio, closed at the end of 2006. It was the oldest hospital radio station in East Kent being founded in 1968. Dover Community Radio (DCR) currently offer internet programming and podcasts (since 2010) on local events and organisations on their website. The online station of the same name launched on 30 July 2011 offering local programmes, music and news for Dover and district. Dover Community Radio is expected to launch on FM soon as it was awarded a community radio licence by OFCOM on 12 May 2020


Culture

There are three museums: the main
Dover Museum :''For museums in any other town or city named Dover, see Dover (disambiguation).'' Dover Museum is a museum in Dover, Kent, in south-east England. History Founded in February 1836 by the town's mayor Edward Pett Thompson, it was initially house ...
, the Dover Transport Museum and the Roman Painted House. The town has two cinemas, the Silver Screen Cinema located at the Dover Museum and the Cineworld Cinema opened in 2018 as part of the St James' Retail and Leisure complex. The Discovery Centre located off the Market Square houses Dover's library, Dover Museum, Silver Screen Cinema, the Roundhouse Community Theatre as well as adult education facilities. The Charlton Shopping Centre off the High Street has retail units, the Dover Local community hub, leisure facilities and the studios of Dover Community Radio. The White Cliffs Theatre opened in 2001 is based at Astor College. There is also a community theatre based at St Edmund's Catholic School


Twin towns

* Calais, France, Calais, France * Huber Heights, Ohio, Huber Heights, Ohio, United States * Split, Croatia, Split, Croatia *Dover, Christ Church, Barbados


Sports

Dover District Leisure Centre operated by Places Leisure located in Whitfield opened in March 2019 replacing the previous facility on Townwall Street, which was operated by Your Leisure, a not for profit charitable trust, which caters for sports and includes a swimming pool. There are sports clubs, amongst them Dover Athletic F.C., who play in the National League (division), National League; rugby; swimming; water polo and netball (Dover and District Netball League). Dover Rowing Club is the oldest coastal rowing club in Britain and has a rich history, at one time becoming the best club on the south coast. More information can be found on the history page of the club's website. One event which gets media attention is that of English Channel#By swimming, swimming the English Channel. Sea fishing, from the beach, pier or out at sea, is carried out here. The so-called Solea solea, Dover sole (''solea solea'') is found all over European waters. Dover is now the host of a variety of watersports; such as paddle-boarding and kayaking.


Notable people


In literature

M.R. James used the Dover landmark, the Lord Warden Hotel, as a location in his short ghost story "Casting the Runes", first published in More Ghost Stories in 1911. Matthew Arnold used the setting of Dover in his famous 19th-century poem, "Dover Beach." Dover appears several times in "A Tale of Two Cities" by Charles Dickens.


See also

*
Strait of Dover The Strait of Dover or Dover Strait, historically known as the Dover Narrows (french: Pas de Calais - ''Strait of Calais''; nl, Nauw van Calais or the lesser used ''Straat van Dover''), is the strait A strait is a naturally formed, nar ...


References


Bibliography

* *


External links


UKHO nautical charts of Dover and approaches

The Dover War Memorial Project
* {{Authority control Dover, Kent, Towns in Kent Cinque ports Populated coastal places in Kent Dover District Market towns in Kent France–United Kingdom border crossings Beaches of Kent Civil parishes in Kent Port cities and towns in South East England