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Crimea; crh, Къырым, translit=Kirim/Qırım; grc, Κιμμερία/Ταυρική, translit=Kimmería/Taurikḗ is a
peninsula A peninsula ( la, paeninsula from 'almost' and 'island') is a landform A landform is a natural or artificial feature of the solid surface of the Earth or other planetary body A planet is an astronomical body Astronomy (from el ...

peninsula
along the northern coast of the
Black Sea , with the skyline of Batumi Batumi (; ka, ბათუმი ) is the second largest city of Georgia Georgia usually refers to: * Georgia (country) Georgia ( ka, საქართველო; ''Sakartvelo''; ) is a country locat ...

Black Sea
in
Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the eastern region of Europe Europe is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven geographical reg ...

Eastern Europe
. It has a population of 2.4 million, made up mostly of ethnic
Russians , native_name_lang = ru , image = , caption = Wedding ceremony in the national Russian tradition. , population = 134 million , popplace = 117,319,000 , region1 = , pop1 = 7,170,00 ...

Russians
with significant
Ukrainian Ukrainian may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to Ukraine * Something relating to Ukrainians an East Slavic people from Eastern Europe * Something relating to Demographics of Ukraine, in terms of demography: population of Ukraine * Somethi ...
and minorities. The peninsula is almost entirely surrounded by both the Black Sea and the smaller
Sea of Azov The Sea of Azov ( la, Palus Maeotis ; gr, Μαιῶτις λίμνη or Propontis or now la, mare Asoviense; russian: Азовское море, Azovskoye more; uk, Азовське море, Озівське море, Azovske more, Ozivske ...

Sea of Azov
; it is located south of
Kherson Oblast Kherson Oblast ( uk, Херсонська область, translit. Khersons’ka oblast; also referred to as Khersonshchyna – uk, links=no, Херсонщина) is an oblast An oblast (; ) is a type of administrative division of Belarus, B ...
in
Ukraine Ukraine ( uk, Україна, Ukraïna, ) is a country in . It is the in Europe after , which it borders to the east and north-east. Ukraine also shares borders with to the north; , , and to the west; and to the south; and has a coastli ...

Ukraine
, to which it is connected by the
Isthmus of Perekop 225px, A map showing the Isthmus of Perekop The Isthmus of Perekop ( uk, Перекопський перешийок; transliteration: ''Perekops'kyy pereshyyok''; russian: Перекопский перешеек; transliteration: ''Perekopskiy ...
, and west of
Krasnodar Krai Krasnodar Krai (russian: Краснода́рский край, r=Krasnodarsky kray, p=krəsnɐˈdarskʲɪj kraj) is a federal subjects of Russia, federal subject of Russia (a krai), located in the North Caucasus region in Southern Russia and a ...
in
Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the eastern region of . There is no consistent definition of the precise area it covers, partly because th ...

Russia
, from which it is separated by the
Strait of Kerch The Kerch Strait,, uk, Керченська протока, crh, Keriç boğazı, ady, Хы ТӀуалэ is a strait A strait is a naturally formed, narrow, typically navigable waterway that connects two larger bodies of water. Most co ...

Strait of Kerch
though linked by the
Crimean Bridge The Crimean Bridge ( rus, Крымский мост, r=Krymskiy most, p=ˈkrɨmskʲij most), also called the Kerch Strait Bridge, or colloquially the Kerch Bridge, is a pair of Russian-constructed parallel bridges, spanning the Kerch Strait, ...
since 2018. The
Arabat Spit The Arabat Spit ( uk, Арабатська коса; russian: Арабатская коса) or Arabat Arrow is a barrier spit which separates a large, shallow and very salty system of lagoons named Syvash The Syvash or Sivash (Russian and Uk ...
is located to its northeast, a narrow strip of land that separates a system of lagoons named
Sivash The Syvash or Sivash (Russian and Ukrainian: ; , Cyrillic , bg, кирилица , mk, кирилица , russian: кириллица , sr, ћирилица, uk, кирилиця , fam1 = Egyptian hieroglyphs Egyptian hieroglyphs () wer ...

Sivash
from the Sea of Azov. Across the Black Sea to the west lies
Romania Romania ( ; ro, România ) is a country at the crossroads of Central Central is an adjective usually referring to being in the center (disambiguation), center of some place or (mathematical) object. Central may also refer to: Directions ...

Romania
and to the south is
Turkey Turkey ( tr, Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country located mainly on Anatolia Anatolia,, tr, Anadolu Yarımadası), and the Anatolian plateau. also known as Asia Minor, is a large peninsula in Western Asia an ...

Turkey
. Crimea (or the Tauric Peninsula, as it was called from
antiquity Antiquity or Antiquities may refer to Historical objects or periods Artifacts * Antiquities, objects or artifacts surviving from ancient cultures Eras Any period before the European Middle Ages In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages ...
until the
early modern period The early modern period of modern history Human history, or world history, is the narrative of Human, humanity's past. It is understood through archaeology, anthropology, genetics, and linguistics, and since the History of writing, adve ...
) has historically been at the boundary between the classical world and the
Pontic–Caspian steppe The Pontic–Caspian steppe, formed by the Caspian steppe and the Pontic steppe, is the steppe File:Steppe of western Kazakhstan in the early spring.jpg, Steppe in Kazakhstan In physical geography, a steppe () is an ecoregion cha ...
. Its southern fringe was colonised by the
Greeks The Greeks or Hellenes (; el, Έλληνες, ''Éllines'' ) are an ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people A people is any plurality of person A person (plural people or persons) is a being that has cer ...
and then ruled by the
Persians The Persians are an Iranian ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people who identify with each other on the basis of shared attributes that distinguish them from other groups such as a common set of traditions, ancestr ...

Persians
followed by the
Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Basileía tôn Rhōmaíōn) was the post-Republican Republican can refer to: Political ideology * An advocate of a republic, a type of governme ...
, the
Byzantine Empire The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire, or Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Basileía tôn ...
, and finally successor states including the
Empire of Trebizond The Empire of Trebizond, or Trapezuntine Empire, was a monarchy A monarchy is a form of government in which a person, the monarch A monarch is a head of stateWebster's II New College DictionarMonarch Houghton Mifflin. Boston. 2001 ...
and
Principality of Theodoro The Principality of Theodoro ( el, Πριγκιπάτο της Θεοδωρούς), also known as Gothia ( el, Γοτθία) or the Principality of Theodoro-Mangup, was a Koine Greek language-speaking principality in the south-west of Crimea ...
. During the entirety of this period the urban areas were Greek-speaking and eventually eastern Christian (
Eastern Orthodox The Eastern Orthodox Church, also called the Orthodox Church, is the second-largest Christian church, with approximately 220 million baptised members. It operates as a communion Communion may refer to: Religion * The Eucharist (also cal ...
). During the collapse of the Byzantine state some cities fell to its creditor, the
Republic of Genoa The Republic of Genoa ( lij, Repúbrica de Zêna ; it, Repubblica di Genova; la, Res Publica Ianuensis) was a medieval and early modern maritime republic The maritime republics ( it, repubbliche marinare), also called merchant republics ( it ...
, until eventually all were absorbed by the rapidly rising
Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire (; ', ; or '; )info page on bookat Martin Luther University) // CITED: p. 36 (PDF p. 38/338). was an empire that controlled much of Southeastern Europe, Western Asia, and North Africa, Northern Africa between the 14th ...
. Throughout this time the interior was occupied by a changing cast of invading
steppe nomads The Eurasian nomads were a large group of nomad A nomad ( frm, nomade "people without fixed habitation") is a member of a community without fixed habitation who regularly moves to and from the same areas. Such groups include hunter-gatherer ...
and empires, such as the
Cimmerians The Cimmerians (also Kimmerians; Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is appro ...
,
Scythians The Scythians (from grc, Σκύθης , ) or Scyths, also known as Saka and Sakae ( ; egy, 𓋴𓎝𓎡𓈉 The ancient Egyptian Hill-country or "Foreign land" hieroglyph (𓈉) is a member of the sky, earth, and water hieroglyphs. A ...
,
Sarmatians The Sarmatians (; Ancient Greek, Greek: ; la, Sarmatae , ) were a large Iranian peoples, Iranian confederation that existed in classical antiquity, flourishing from about the fifth century BC to the fourth century AD. Originating in the centr ...
,
Crimean Goths Crimean Goths were Greuthungi- Gothic tribes who remained in the lands around the Black Sea, especially in Crimea Crimea (; ; uk, Крим, Krym; crh, Къырым, translit=Kirim/Qırım; grc, Κιμμερία/Ταυρική, transli ...
,
Alans The Alans or Alāns (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of th ...

Alans
,
Bulgars The Bulgars (also Bulghars, Bulgari, Bolgars, Bolghars, Bolgari, Proto-Bulgarians) were Turkic Turkic may refer to: * anything related to the country of Turkey * Turkic languages, a language family of at least thirty-five documented languages * ...

Bulgars
,
Huns The Huns were a nomadic people A nomad ( frm, nomade "people without fixed habitation") is a member of a community without fixed habitation which regularly moves to and from the same areas. Such groups include hunter-gatherers, pastoral ...

Huns
,
Khazars The Khazars; he, כוזרים, Kuzarim; la, Gazari, or ; zh, 突厥曷薩 ; 突厥可薩部 ''Tūjué Kěsà bù'' () were a semi-nomad A nomad ( frm, nomade "people without fixed habitation") is a member of a community without fi ...

Khazars
,
Kipchaks The Kipchaks, also known as Kipchak Turks, Qipchaq or Polovtsians, were a Turkic Turkic may refer to: * anything related to the country of Turkey * Turkic languages, a language family of at least thirty-five documented languages ** Turkic alpha ...
,
Mongols The Mongols ( mn, Монголчууд, , ''Mongolchuud'', ; russian: Монголы, ) are an East Asian people, East Asian ethnic group indigenous peoples, native to the Inner Mongolia, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of China, Mongolia an ...
, and the
Golden Horde The Golden Horde, self-designated as Ulug Ulus, 'Great State' in Turkic, was originally a Mongol The Mongols ( mn, Монголчууд, , ''Mongolchuud'', ; russian: Монголы, ) are an ethnic group to the , and the of Russia. ...
. Crimea and adjacent territories were united in the
Crimean Khanate The Crimean Khanate ( crh, , or ), own name — Great Horde and Desht-i Kipchak (), in old European historiography and geography — Little Tartary ( la, Tartaria Minor) was a Crimean Tatars, Crimean Tatar state existing from 1441 to 1783, the ...

Crimean Khanate
, a sometime dependency of the Ottomans, during the 15th to 18th century, and often raided south Russia for slaves. In 1783, Crimea was annexed by the Russian Empire as the result of the
Russo-Turkish War (1768–1774) The Russo-Turkish War of 1768–1774 was a major armed conflict that saw Russian arms largely victorious against the Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire (; ', ; or '; )info page on bookat Martin Luther University) // CITED: p. 36 (PDF p ...
. Following the
Russian Revolution The Russian Revolution was a period of political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with Decision-making, making decisions in Social group, groups, or other forms of Power (social and political), power relatio ...

Russian Revolution
of 1917, Crimea became an
autonomous republic An autonomous republic is a type of administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, are ...
within the
Russian SFSR The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian SFSR or RSFSR; rus, links=no, Российская Советская Федеративная Социалистическая Республика, Rossiyskaya Sovetskaya Federativnaya ...
in the
Soviet Union The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a that spanned during its existence from 1922 to 1991. It was nominally a of multiple national ; in practice and were highly until its final years. The ...
. During
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
, Crimea was downgraded to the
Crimean Oblast The Crimean Oblast ( uk, Кримська область, Krymska oblast; russian: Крымская область, Krymskaya oblast; crh, Qırım vilâyeti / Къырым виляйети) was an oblast An oblast (; ; Cyrillic script, Cyri ...
and the entirety of one of its indigenous populations, the
Crimean Tatars Crimean Tatars ( crh, , ) or Crimeans ( crh, , ), are a Turkic peoples, Turkic ethnic group and nation who are an indigenous people of Crimea. The formation and ethnogenesis of Crimean Tatars occurred during the 13th–17th centuries, from C ...

Crimean Tatars
, , an act recognized as a genocide by Ukraine and three other countries. In 1954, the Soviet Union transferred Crimea to the
Ukrainian SSR The Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic (Ukrainian SSR, UkrSSR or UkSSR; uk, Украї́нська Радя́нська Соціалісти́чна Респу́бліка, translit=Ukrainska Radianska Sotsialistychna Respublika, abbreviated ...
from the Russian SFSR. With the collapse of the Soviet Union, Ukraine was reestablished as an independent state in 1991, and most of the peninsula was reorganized as the
Autonomous Republic of Crimea The Autonomous Republic of Crimea ( uk, Автономна Республіка Крим, ''Avtonomna Respublika Krym''; russian: Автономная Республика Крым, ''Avtonomnaya Respublika Krym''; crh, Qırım Muhtar Cumhu ...
, and the city of
Sevastopol Sevastopol (Russian, Ukrainian: Севастополь); is the largest city in Crimea Crimea (; ; uk, Крим, Krym; crh, Къырым, translit=Kirim/Qırım; grc, Κιμμερία/Ταυρική, translit=Kimmería/Taurikḗ) ...

Sevastopol
retained its special status within Ukraine. The 1997 Partition Treaty on the Status and Conditions of the Black Sea Fleet partitioned the former Soviet Black Sea Fleet and allowed Russia to continue basing its fleet in Crimea: both the Ukrainian Naval Forces and Russia's Black Sea Fleet were to be headquartered in Sevastopol. Ukraine extended Russia's lease of the naval facilities under the 2010 Kharkiv Pact in exchange for further discounted
natural gas Natural gas (also called fossil gas; sometimes just gas) is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon gas mixture consisting of methane and commonly including varying amounts of other higher alkanes, and sometimes a small percentage of carbon dioxid ...

natural gas
. The status of Crimea is disputed. It is claimed by Ukraine and in 2014 was recognized as Ukrainian by the
United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization aiming to maintain international peace and international security, security, develop friendly relations among nations, achieve international cooperation, and be a centre for harm ...

United Nations
and most other countries, but it is governed by Russia. In February 2014, following the 2014 Ukrainian revolution that ousted the
Ukrainian President The President of Ukraine ( uk, Президент України, ''Prezydent Ukrayiny'') is the Ukraine, Ukrainian head of state. The president represents the nation in international relations, administers the foreign political activity of the s ...
,
Viktor Yanukovych Viktor Fedorovych Yanukovych ( uk, Ві́ктор Фе́дорович Януко́вич, ; ; born 9 July 1950) is a Ukrainian politician who served as the fourth President of Ukraine from 2010 until he was removed from office in the 2014 Ukr ...

Viktor Yanukovych
, Russia annexed Crimea after a military intervention by pro-Russian separatists and
Russian Armed Forces The Armed Forces of the Russian Federation, commonly known as the Russian Armed Forces, are the military forces of the Russian Federation Russia (russian: link=no, Россия, , ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning E ...
. A controversial Crimea-wide referendum, illegal under the Ukrainian and Crimean constitutions, was held on the issue of reunification with Russia; its official results showed over 90% support for reunification; however, the vote was boycotted by many loyal to Ukraine and declared illegitimate by Western governments and the United Nations. Russia formally annexed Crimea on 18 March 2014, incorporating the
Republic of Crimea The Republic of Crimea (, , ), translit. Transliteration is a type of conversion of a text from one script to another that involves swapping Letter (alphabet), letters (thus ''wikt:trans-#Prefix, trans-'' + ''wikt:littera#Latin, liter-'') ...
and the
federal city The term federal city is a title for certain cities in Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin , coordinates = , largest_city = capital , languages_type = Official language , languages = Ger ...
of Sevastopol as the 84th and 85th
federal subjects of Russia The federal subjects of Russia, also referred to as the subjects of the Russian Federation (russian: субъекты Российской Федерации, subyekty Rossiyskoy Federatsii) or simply as the subjects of the federation (russian: ...
.


Name

The classical name for Crimea, '' Tauris'' or ''Taurica,'' is from the Greek Ταυρική (Taurikḗ), after the peninsula's Scytho-Cimmerian inhabitants, the
Tauri 300px, Map of the Roman empire under Crimean peninsula), the home of the Tauri The Tauri (; in Ancient Greek), or Taurians, also Scythotauri, Tauri Scythae, Tauroscythae (Pliny the Elder, Pliny, ''H. N.'' 4.85) were a people settled on the sou ...
.
Strabo Strabo''Strabo'' (meaning "squinty", as in strabismus Strabismus is a condition in which the eyes do not properly align with each other when looking at an object. The eye that is focused on an object can alternate. The condition may be pre ...

Strabo
(''Geography'' vii 4.3, xi. 2.5),
Polybius Polybius (; grc-gre, Πολύβιος, ; ) was a Greek historian of the Hellenistic period The Hellenistic period covers the period of Mediterranean history between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the emergence of the ...

Polybius
, (''Histories'' 4.39.4), and
Ptolemy Claudius Ptolemy (; grc-koi, Κλαύδιος Πτολεμαῖος, , ; la, Claudius Ptolemaeus; AD) was a mathematician A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes ...
(''Geographia''. II, v 9.5) refer variously to the
Strait of Kerch The Kerch Strait,, uk, Керченська протока, crh, Keriç boğazı, ady, Хы ТӀуалэ is a strait A strait is a naturally formed, narrow, typically navigable waterway that connects two larger bodies of water. Most co ...

Strait of Kerch
as the Κιμμερικὸς Βόσπορος (''Kimmerikos Bosporos'', romanized spelling, ''Bosporus Cimmerius''), its easternmost part as the Κιμμέριον Ἄκρον (''Kimmerion Akron'', Roman name: Promontorium Cimmerium, as well as to the city of Cimmerium and whence the name of the Kingdom of the Cimmerian Bosporus (Κιμμερικοῦ Βοσπόρου). The Crimean Tatar name of the peninsula is Qırım ( crh, Къырым, links=no, translit=Kirim/Qırım) and so also for the city of ''Krym'', now called ''
Staryi Krym Staryi Krym (russian: Старый Крым, uk, Старий Крим, crh, Eski Qırım) is a small historical town and former bishopric in Kirovske Raion of Crimea, an area currently disputed between Russia and Ukraine. It is located in the ...
'', which served as a capital of the Crimean province of the
Golden Horde The Golden Horde, self-designated as Ulug Ulus, 'Great State' in Turkic, was originally a Mongol The Mongols ( mn, Монголчууд, , ''Mongolchuud'', ; russian: Монголы, ) are an ethnic group to the , and the of Russia. ...
. Between 1315 and 1329 CE, the Arab writer Abū al-Fidā recounted a political fight in 1300–1301 CE which resulted in a rival's decapitation and his head being sent "to the Crimea", apparently in reference to the peninsula, although some sources hold that the name of the capital was extended to the entire peninsula at some point during (1441–1783). The origin of the word ''Qırım'' is uncertain. Suggestions argued in various sources include: # a corruption of ''Cimmerium'' (
Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of ...
, ''
Kimmerikon Kimmerikón (Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as ...
'', Κιμμερικόν). # a derivation from the
Turkic Turkic may refer to: * anything related to the country of Turkey * Turkic languages, a language family of at least thirty-five documented languages ** Turkic alphabets (disambiguation) ** Turkish language, the most widely spoken Turkic language * T ...

Turkic
term ''qirum'' ("fosse, trench"), from ''qori-'' ("to fence, protect"). Other suggestions either unsupported or contradicted by sources, apparently based on similarity in sound, include: # a derivation from the
Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of ...
''Cremnoi'' (Κρημνοί, in post-classical
Koiné Greek Koine Greek (;. Modern , ), also known as Alexandrian dialect, common Attic, Hellenistic or Biblical Greek, was the common supra-regional form of Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Gr ...
pronunciation, ''Crimni'', i.e., "the Cliffs", a port on
Lake Maeotis The Sea of Azov (russian: Азо́вское мо́ре, ''Azóvskoje móre''; uk, Азо́вське мо́ре, ''Azóvśke móre''; ady, Хы МыутӀэ; crh, Azaq deñizi, ''Азакъ денъизи'', ازاق دﻩﯕىزى) is a sea i ...
(Sea of Azov) cited by
Herodotus Herodotus ( ; grc, Ἡρόδοτος, Hēródotos, ; BC) was an Classical Greece, ancient Greek writer, geographer, and historian born in the Greek city of Halicarnassus, part of the Achaemenid Empire, Persian Empire (now Bodrum, Turkey). He ...
in ''The Histories'' 4.20.1 and 4.110.2). However, Herodotus identifies the port not in Crimea, but as being on the west coast of the Sea of Azov. No evidence has been identified that this name was ever in use for the peninsula. # The Turkic term (e.g., in ) is related to the
Mongolian Mongolian may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to Mongolia, a country in Asia * Mongolian people, or Mongols * Mongolia (1911–24), the government of Mongolia, 1911–1919 and 1921–1924 * Mongolian language * Mongolian alphabet * Mongo ...

Mongolian
appellation ''kerm'' "wall", but sources indicate that the Mongolian appellation of the Crimean peninsula of ''Qaram'' is phonetically incompatible with ''kerm/kerem'' and therefore deriving from another original term. The spelling "Crimea" is the Italian form, i.e., ''la Crimea'', since at least the 17th century and the "Crimean peninsula" becomes current during the 18th century, gradually replacing the classical name of ''Tauric Peninsula'' in the course of the 19th century. In English usage since the
early modern period The early modern period of modern history Human history, or world history, is the narrative of Human, humanity's past. It is understood through archaeology, anthropology, genetics, and linguistics, and since the History of writing, adve ...
the Crimean Khanate is referred to as ''Crim Tartary''. The omission of the definite article in English ("Crimea" rather than "the Crimea") became common during the later 20th century. The classical name was used in 1802 in the name of the Russian
Taurida Governorate The Taurida Governorate (russian: Таврическая губернія, modern spelling , ; uk, Таврiйська губернія, ; crh, script=Latn, Tavrida guberniyası, ) or the Government of Taurida, was a historical guberniya, gover ...
. While it was replaced with ''Krym'' ( uk, Крим; russian: Крым) in the Soviet Union and has had no official status since 1921, it is still used by some institutions in Crimea, such as the Taurida National University, the Tavriya Simferopol football club, or the Tavrida federal highway.


History


Ancient history

In the 8th century BCE, the
Cimmerians The Cimmerians (also Kimmerians; Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is appro ...
migrated to the area in retreat from
Scythian The Scythians (from grc, Σκύθης , ) or Scyths, also known as Saka and Sakae ( ; egy, 𓋴𓎝𓎡𓈉 The ancient Egyptian Hill-country or "Foreign land" hieroglyph (𓈉) is a member of the sky, earth, and water hieroglyphs. A ...
advances, of whom the latter also migrated to the region. Contemporaneously, and possibly because of the migration, the region came within the sphere of Greek maritime interest and became the site of
Greek colonies Greek colonization was an organised colonial expansion by the Archaic Greeks into the Mediterranean Sea The Mediterranean Sea is a connected to the , surrounded by the and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by and and , o ...
. The most important Greek city was Chersonesos at the edge of today's Sevastopol. The Persian
Achaemenid Empire The Achaemenid Empire (; peo, 𐎧𐏁𐏂, translit=Xšāça, translation=The Empire), also called the First Persian Empire, was an ancient Iranian Iranian may refer to: * Iran Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia and offi ...

Achaemenid Empire
, under
Darius I Darius I ( peo, 𐎭𐎠𐎼𐎹𐎺𐎢𐏁 ; New Persian New Persian ( fa, فارسی نو), also known as Modern Persian () and Dari (), is the final stage of the Persian language Persian (), also known by its endonym An endonym ( ...
, expanded to Crimea as part of his campaigns against the
Scythians The Scythians (from grc, Σκύθης , ) or Scyths, also known as Saka and Sakae ( ; egy, 𓋴𓎝𓎡𓈉 The ancient Egyptian Hill-country or "Foreign land" hieroglyph (𓈉) is a member of the sky, earth, and water hieroglyphs. A ...
in 513 BCE. The peninsula, then under the control of the
Bosporan Kingdom The Bosporan Kingdom, also known as the Kingdom of the Cimmerian Bosporus (, ''Basileion tou Kimmerikou Bosporou''), was an ancient Greco-Scythian state located in eastern Crimea Crimea; crh, Къырым, translit=Kirim/Qırım; grc, ...
, later became a client kingdom of the
Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Basileía tôn Rhōmaíōn) was the post-Republican Republican can refer to: Political ideology * An advocate of a republic, a type of governme ...

Roman Empire
in 63 BCE.


Medieval history

In the 9th century CE, Byzantium established the Theme of Cherson to defend against incursions by the
Rus' Khaganate The Rus' Khaganate, also Russkiy Khaganate (russian: Русский каганат, Russkiy kaganat), is the name applied by some modern historians to a polity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a col ...
. The Crimean peninsula from this time was contested between Byzantium, Rus' and
Khazaria The Khazars; he, כוזרים, Kuzarim; la, Gazari, or ; zh, 突厥曷薩 ; 突厥可薩部 ''Tūjué Kěsà bù'' () were a semi-nomad A nomad ( frm, nomade "people without fixed habitation") is a member of a community without fix ...

Khazaria
. The area remained the site of overlapping interests and contact between the early medieval Slavic, Turkic and Greek spheres. It became a center of
slave trade Slavery and enslavement are both the state and the condition of being a slave, who is someone forbidden to quit their service for an enslaver, and who is treated by the enslaver as their property Property is a system of rights that give ...
.
Slavs Slavs are an ethno-linguistic group of people who speak the various Slavic languages of the larger Balto-Slavic language, Balto-Slavic linguistic group of the Indo-European languages. They are native to Eurasia, stretching from Central Europe, ...
were sold to Byzantium and other places in Anatolia and the Middle-East during this period. The peninsula was wrested from the Byzantines by the
Kievan Rus' Kievan Rus' ( orv, , Rusĭ, or , , "Rus' land") or Kyivan Rus', was a loose federation A federation (also known as a federal state) is a political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a ...
in the 10th century; the last Byzantine outpost,
Chersonesus Chersonesus ( grc, Χερσόνησος, Khersónēsos; la, Chersonesus; modern Russian and Ukrainian: Херсоне́с, ''Khersones''; also rendered as ''Chersonese'', ''Chersonesos''), in medieval Greek Medieval Greek (also known as Mi ...

Chersonesus
was taken in 988 CE. A year later, Grand Prince Vladimir of Kiev accepted the hand of Emperor
Basil II Basil II Porphyrogenitus ( gr, Βασίλειος πορφυρογέννητος, translit=Basileios porphyrogennētos;) and, most often, the porphyrogennetos, Purple-born ( gr, ὁ πορφυρογέννητος, translit=ho porphyrogennetos ...
's sister
Anna Anna may refer to: * Anna (given name) ** Anne, a derivative of Anna People * Anna (feral child) (1932–1942), pseudonym given to an abused child in Pennsylvania, U.S. * Anna (singer) (born 1987), Japanese-American singer * Anna the Prophetess, ...
in marriage, and was
baptized Baptism (from the Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is ap ...
by the local Byzantine priest at Chersonesus, thus marking the entry of Rus' (later Russia) into the Christian world.


Mongol Conquest (1238–1449)

Trapezuntine Perateia had already been subjected to pressure from the Genoese and Kipchaks by the time
Alexios I of Trebizond Alexios I Megas Komnenos ( el, Αλέξιος Α΄ Μέγας Κομνηνός; c. 1182 – 1 February 1222) or Alexius I Megas Comnenus was, with his brother David David (traditional spelling), , ''Dāwūd''; grc-koi, Δαυίδ, Dauíd; l ...
died in 1222 before the
Mongol invasions The Mongol invasions and conquests took place during the 13th and 14th centuries, creating history's largest contiguous empire - The Mongol Empire The Mongol Empire of the 13th and 14th centuries was the List of largest empires, largest conti ...
began its western sweep through
Volga Bulgaria Volga Bulgaria ( tt, Идел Болгар, chv, Атӑлçи Пӑлхар) or Volga–Kama Bulghar, was a historic Bulgar state that existed between the 7th and 13th centuries around the confluence of the Volga The Volga (; russian: Во ...

Volga Bulgaria
in 1223. With them, control of the peninsula changed in 1238, as all but the Perateia of Crimea was incorporated into the territory of the Golden Horde throughout the 14th century CE. In the course of the 13th century CE, portions were controlled by the
Republic of Venice The Republic of Venice ( it, Repubblica di Venezia; vec, Repùblega de Venèsia) or Venetian Republic ( it, Repubblica Veneta; vec, Repùblega Vèneta), traditionally known as La Serenissima ( en, Most Serene Republic Most Serene Republic ( ...
and by the
Republic of Genoa The Republic of Genoa ( lij, Repúbrica de Zêna ; it, Repubblica di Genova; la, Res Publica Ianuensis) was a medieval and early modern maritime republic The maritime republics ( it, repubbliche marinare), also called merchant republics ( it ...
, the Perateia soon became the
Principality of Theodoro The Principality of Theodoro ( el, Πριγκιπάτο της Θεοδωρούς), also known as Gothia ( el, Γοτθία) or the Principality of Theodoro-Mangup, was a Koine Greek language-speaking principality in the south-west of Crimea ...
and Genoese Gazaria, respectively.


Crimean Khanate (1449–1783)

The Crimean Khanate, a
vassal state of the Ottoman Empire s. The Ottoman Empire had a number of tributary state, tributary and vassal states throughout its history. Its tributary states would regularly send tribute to the Ottoman Empire, which was understood by both states as also being a token of submi ...
, succeeded the Golden Horde and lasted from 1449 to 1783. During the period of the Crimean Khanate the many pre-Catherine peoples, including Crimean Greeks, Italians, Goths, Cumans, and Kipchkaks of Crimea merged into the nation's Tat, Yaliboylu, and Steppe (or Nogay) subgroups. The nobility of the Nogay subgroup gained much of their revenue and political power from the slave trade.


Russian Empire (1783–1917)

In 1774, the Khanate was proclaimed independent under the
Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca The Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca ( tr, Küçük Kaynarca Antlaşması; russian: Кючук-Кайнарджийский мир), formerly often written Kuchuk-Kainarji, was a peace treaty signed on 21 July 1774, in Küçük Kaynarca (today Kaynard ...

Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca
with the Ottomans, but was then conquered by the Russian Empire in 1783. The Taurida Oblast was created by a decree of
Catherine the Great russian: Екатерина Алексеевна Романова, translit=Yekaterina Alekseyevna Romanova en, Catherine Alexeievna Romanova, link=yes , house = , father = Christian August, Prince of Anhalt-Zerbst Christi ...

Catherine the Great
on 2 February 1784. The center of the
oblast An oblast (; ; Cyrillic script, Cyrillic (in most languages, including Russian language, Russian and Ukrainian language, Ukrainian): , Bulgarian language, Bulgarian: ) is a type of administrative division of Belarus, Bulgaria, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzs ...
was first in
Karasubazar Bilohirsk (until 1944 — Karasubazar, uk, Білогірськ, translit=Bilohirsk; russian: Белого́рск, translit=Belogorsk, crh, Qarasuvbazar) is a town and the administrative centre in Bilohirsk Raion, Belohirsk Raion, one of the ra ...

Karasubazar
but was moved to Simferopol later in 1784. The establishment decree divided the oblast into 7 uyezds. However, by a decree of Paul I of Russia, Paul I on 12 December 1796, the oblast was abolished and the territory, divided into 2 uyezds (Akmechetsky ''[Акмечетский]'' and Perekopsky ''[Перекопский]'') was attached to the second incarnation of the Novorossiysk Governorate. From 1853 to 1856, the peninsula was the site of the principal engagements of the Crimean War, a conflict fought between the Russian Empire and an alliance of Second French Empire, France, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Britain, the Ottoman Empire and Kingdom of Sardinia, Sardinia.


Russian Civil War (1917–1921)

Following the Russian Revolution of 1917, the military and political situation in Crimea was chaotic like that in much of Russia. During the ensuing Russian Civil War, Crimea changed hands numerous times and was for a time a stronghold of the anti-Bolshevik White movement, White Army. The White Army controlled Crimea before remnants were finally driven out by the Red Army in November 1920. It was in Crimea that the White Russians led by Pyotr Nikolayevich Wrangel, General Wrangel made their last stand against Nestor Makhno and the Red Army. When resistance was crushed, many of the anti-Communist fighters and civilians escaped by ship to Istanbul. Between 56,000 and 150,000 of the Whites were murdered as part of the Red Terror, organized by Béla Kun.


Soviet Union (1921–1991)

Crimea became part of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic in 1921 as the Crimean Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, which became part of the Soviet Union in 1922, and run as a Tatar enclave within.


Autonomy in Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (1921–1944)

During the World War II, Second World War the peninsula was Crimean Campaign, invaded by Nazi Germany and Romanian troops in summer 1941 across the
Isthmus of Perekop 225px, A map showing the Isthmus of Perekop The Isthmus of Perekop ( uk, Перекопський перешийок; transliteration: ''Perekops'kyy pereshyyok''; russian: Перекопский перешеек; transliteration: ''Perekopskiy ...
. Following the Siege of Sevastopol (1941–42), capture of Sevastopol on 4 July 1942, Crimea was occupied until German and Romanian forces were expelled in an Crimean Offensive, offensive by Soviet forces ending in May 1944. The Nazis The Holocaust in Russia, murdered around 40,000 Crimean Jews.


Region in Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (1945–1954)

On 25 June 1946, it was downgraded to the Crimean Oblast, and the Deportation of the Crimean Tatars, Crimean Tatars were deported for alleged collaboration with the Nazi forces. A total of more than 230,000 people – about a fifth of the total population of the Crimean Peninsula at that time – were deported, mainly to Uzbekistan. 14,300 Greeks, 12,075 Bulgarians, and about 10,000 Armenians were also expelled.


Region in Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic (1954–1991)

On 19 February 1954, the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR issued 1954 transfer of Crimea, a decree on the transfer of the Crimean region of the RSFSR to the Ukrainian SSR. This Supreme Soviet Decree states that this transfer was motivated by "the commonality of the economy, the proximity, and close economic and cultural relations between the Crimean region and the Ukrainian SSR". At that time no vote or referendum took place, and Crimean population had no say in the transfer (also typical of other Soviet border changes). After the annexation of Crimea by the Russian Federation, doubts have been expressed – from the Russian side by all means, but even by Western historians (Richard Sakwa, "Frontline Ukraine. Crisis in the Borderlands", 2015) – about the very legitimacy of the 1954 transition of Crimea to Ukraine; in the critics' view the transition contradicted even the Soviet law. In post-war years, Crimea thrived as a tourist destination, with new attractions and sanatoriums for tourists. Tourists came from all around the Soviet Union and neighbouring countries, particularly from the German Democratic Republic. In time the peninsula also became a major tourist destination for cruises originating in Greece and Turkey. Crimea's infrastructure and manufacturing also developed, particularly around the sea ports at Kerch and
Sevastopol Sevastopol (Russian, Ukrainian: Севастополь); is the largest city in Crimea Crimea (; ; uk, Крим, Krym; crh, Къырым, translit=Kirim/Qırım; grc, Κιμμερία/Ταυρική, translit=Kimmería/Taurikḗ) ...

Sevastopol
and in the oblast's landlocked capital, Simferopol. Populations of Ukrainians and
Russians , native_name_lang = ru , image = , caption = Wedding ceremony in the national Russian tradition. , population = 134 million , popplace = 117,319,000 , region1 = , pop1 = 7,170,00 ...

Russians
alike doubled, with more than 1.6 million Russians and 626,000 Ukrainians living on the peninsula by 1989.


Ukraine (de jure since 1991, de facto 1991–2014)

With dissolution of the Soviet Union underway, the Ukrainian SSR Declaration of State Sovereignty of Ukraine, declared its sovereignty. Half year later in January 1991, the Crimean Oblast 1991 Crimean sovereignty referendum, held a referendum, and voters approved on restoring autonomy to the region the Crimean Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic. The Autonomous Republic of Crimea, Crimean ASSR was restored for less than a year as part of Soviet Ukraine before Ukrainian independence. Newly independent Ukraine maintained Crimea's autonomous status, while the Supreme Council of Crimea affirmed the peninsula's "sovereignty" as a part of Ukraine.''National Identity and Ethnicity in Russia and the New States of Eurasia'' edited by Roman Szporluk (page 174) with a slight majority of Crimean voters approving Ukrainian independence in a December referendum.''Secession as an International Phenomenon: From America's Civil War to Contemporary Separatist Movements'' edited by Don Harrison Doyle (page 284)
— 67.5% of the total Crimean electorate voted, and 54.2% said yes.
On 5 May 1992, the Crimean legislature declared conditional independence, but a referendum to confirm the decision was never held amid opposition from government of Ukraine, Kyiv: elected president of Crimea Yuriy Meshkov, was replaced by Kyiv-appointed Anatoliy Franchuk, which was done with the intent to rein in Crimean aspirations of autonomy. The Verkhovna Rada of Crimea, Verkhovna Rada, the parliament of Crimea, voted to grant Crimea "extensive home rule" during the dispute. Budapest Memorandum on Security Assurances acknowledged Ukrainian integrity. The 2010 Crimean parliamentary election, last election of the Verkhovna Rada of Crimea took place on 31 October 2010 and was won by the Party of Regions. On 15 March 2014, the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine officially dissolved the Verkhovna Rada of Crimea, and, on 17 March 2014, one day before the Russian annexation of Crimea, the State Council of Crimea was established in place of the Verkhovna Rada of Crimea.


Russian Federation (de facto since 2014)

After the 2014 Ukrainian revolution and the flight of Ukrainian President
Viktor Yanukovych Viktor Fedorovych Yanukovych ( uk, Ві́ктор Фе́дорович Януко́вич, ; ; born 9 July 1950) is a Ukrainian politician who served as the fourth President of Ukraine from 2010 until he was removed from office in the 2014 Ukr ...

Viktor Yanukovych
from Kyiv on 21 February 2014, Russian President Vladimir Putin stated to colleagues that "we must start working on returning Crimea to Russia." Within days, unmarked forces with local militias took over the
Autonomous Republic of Crimea The Autonomous Republic of Crimea ( uk, Автономна Республіка Крим, ''Avtonomna Respublika Krym''; russian: Автономная Республика Крым, ''Avtonomnaya Respublika Krym''; crh, Qırım Muhtar Cumhu ...
and
Sevastopol Sevastopol (Russian, Ukrainian: Севастополь); is the largest city in Crimea Crimea (; ; uk, Крим, Krym; crh, Къырым, translit=Kirim/Qırım; grc, Κιμμερία/Ταυρική, translit=Kimmería/Taurikḗ) ...

Sevastopol
, as well as occupying several localities in
Kherson Oblast Kherson Oblast ( uk, Херсонська область, translit. Khersons’ka oblast; also referred to as Khersonshchyna – uk, links=no, Херсонщина) is an oblast An oblast (; ) is a type of administrative division of Belarus, B ...
on the
Arabat Spit The Arabat Spit ( uk, Арабатська коса; russian: Арабатская коса) or Arabat Arrow is a barrier spit which separates a large, shallow and very salty system of lagoons named Syvash The Syvash or Sivash (Russian and Uk ...
, which is geographically a part of Crimea. A 2014 referendum on joining Crimea with Russia was supported by a 96.7% of voters with 83.1% turnout according to official counts, though it was boycotted by many loyal to Ukraine and denounced as illegitimate by Western governments. The United Nations General Assembly approved a United Nations General Assembly resolution, resolution declaring the vote illegal and invalid. Putin signed a treaty of accession with the self-declared Republic of Crimea (country), Republic of Crimea, annexing it into the Russian Federation as two federal subjects: the
Republic of Crimea The Republic of Crimea (, , ), translit. Transliteration is a type of conversion of a text from one script to another that involves swapping Letter (alphabet), letters (thus ''wikt:trans-#Prefix, trans-'' + ''wikt:littera#Latin, liter-'') ...
and the federal city of Sevastopol. Though Russia had control over the peninsula, sovereignty was disputed as Ukraine and the majority of the international community consider the annexation illegal, as was shown by the United Nations General Assembly adopting United Nations General Assembly Resolution 68/262, a non-binding resolution calling upon states not to recognise changes to the integrity of Ukraine. A range of International sanctions during the Ukrainian crisis, international sanctions were imposed against Russia and a number of named individuals as a result of the events of 2014. Russia withdrew its forces from southern Kherson in December 2014 Since Russian control over Crimea was established in 2014, the peninsula has been administered as part of the Russian Federation except for the northern areas of the
Arabat Spit The Arabat Spit ( uk, Арабатська коса; russian: Арабатская коса) or Arabat Arrow is a barrier spit which separates a large, shallow and very salty system of lagoons named Syvash The Syvash or Sivash (Russian and Uk ...
and the Syvash which are still controlled by Ukraine. Within days of the signing of the accession treaty, the process of integrating Crimea into the Russian federation began: in March the Russian ruble went into official circulation and clocks were moved forward to Moscow time, in April a new revision of the Constitution of Russia, Russian Constitution was officially released with the Republic of Crimea and the federal city of Sevastopol included in the list of federal subjects of the Russian Federation, and in June the Russian ruble became the only form of legal tender. In July 2015, Russian Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev stated that Crimea had been fully integrated into Russia. Once Kiev lost control of the territory in 2014, it shut off the water supply of the North Crimean Canal which supplies 85% of the peninsula's fresh water needs from the Dnieper river, the nation's main waterway. After 2014 the Russian government invested heavily in the peninsula's infrastructure—repairing roads, modernizing hospitals and building the
Crimean Bridge The Crimean Bridge ( rus, Крымский мост, r=Krymskiy most, p=ˈkrɨmskʲij most), also called the Kerch Strait Bridge, or colloquially the Kerch Bridge, is a pair of Russian-constructed parallel bridges, spanning the Kerch Strait, ...
that links the peninsula to the Russian mainland. Development of new sources of water was undertaken, with huge difficulties, to replace closed Ukrainian sources. In 2017 the Russian government also began modernising the Simferopol International Airport, which opened its new terminal in April 2018. Russia provides electricity to Crimea via a cable beneath the Kerch Strait. In June 2018 there was a full electrical outage for all of Crimea, but the power grid company Rosseti reported to have fixed the outage in approximately one hour. On 28 December 2018, Russia completed a high-tech security fence marking the de facto border between Crimea and Ukraine.


Languages

Article 10 of the Constitution of the Republic of Crimea recognizes three official languages: Russian language, Russian, Ukrainian language, Ukrainian and Crimean Tatar. In practice, Russian is the dominant language.


Geography

Covering an area of , Crimea is located on the northern coast of the Black Sea and on the western coast of the
Sea of Azov The Sea of Azov ( la, Palus Maeotis ; gr, Μαιῶτις λίμνη or Propontis or now la, mare Asoviense; russian: Азовское море, Azovskoye more; uk, Азовське море, Озівське море, Azovske more, Ozivske ...

Sea of Azov
; the only land border is shared with Ukraine's
Kherson Oblast Kherson Oblast ( uk, Херсонська область, translit. Khersons’ka oblast; also referred to as Khersonshchyna – uk, links=no, Херсонщина) is an oblast An oblast (; ) is a type of administrative division of Belarus, B ...
on the north. Crimea is almost an island and only connected to the continent by the
Isthmus of Perekop 225px, A map showing the Isthmus of Perekop The Isthmus of Perekop ( uk, Перекопський перешийок; transliteration: ''Perekops'kyy pereshyyok''; russian: Перекопский перешеек; transliteration: ''Perekopskiy ...
, a strip of land about wide. Much of the natural border between the Crimean Peninsula and the Ukrainian mainland comprises the
Sivash The Syvash or Sivash (Russian and Ukrainian: ; , Cyrillic , bg, кирилица , mk, кирилица , russian: кириллица , sr, ћирилица, uk, кирилиця , fam1 = Egyptian hieroglyphs Egyptian hieroglyphs () wer ...

Sivash
or "Rotten Sea", a large system of shallow lagoons stretching along the western shore of the Sea of Azov. Besides the isthmus of Perekop, the peninsula is connected to the Kherson Oblast's Henichesk Raion by bridges over the narrow Chonhar and Henichesk Strait, Henichesk straits and over Kerch Strait to the
Krasnodar Krai Krasnodar Krai (russian: Краснода́рский край, r=Krasnodarsky kray, p=krəsnɐˈdarskʲɪj kraj) is a federal subjects of Russia, federal subject of Russia (a krai), located in the North Caucasus region in Southern Russia and a ...
. The northern part of
Arabat Spit The Arabat Spit ( uk, Арабатська коса; russian: Арабатская коса) or Arabat Arrow is a barrier spit which separates a large, shallow and very salty system of lagoons named Syvash The Syvash or Sivash (Russian and Uk ...
is administratively part of Henichesk Raion in Kherson Oblast, including its two rural communities of Shchaslyvtseve and Strilkove. The eastern tip of the Crimean peninsula comprises the Kerch Peninsula, separated from Taman Peninsula on the Russian mainland by the Kerch Strait, which connects the Black Sea with the Sea of Azov, at a width of between . Geographers generally divide the peninsula into three zones: Pontic steppe, steppe, Crimean Mountains, mountains and Crimean coast, southern coast.


Places

Given its long history and many conquerors, most towns in Crimea have several names. West: The
Isthmus of Perekop 225px, A map showing the Isthmus of Perekop The Isthmus of Perekop ( uk, Перекопський перешийок; transliteration: ''Perekops'kyy pereshyyok''; russian: Перекопский перешеек; transliteration: ''Perekopskiy ...
/Perekop/Or Qapi, about wide, connects Crimea to the mainland. It was often fortified and sometimes garrisoned by the Turks. The North Crimean Canal now crosses it to bring water from the Dnieper. To the west Karkinit Bay separates the Tarkhankut Peninsula from the mainland. On the north side of the peninsula is Chernomorskoe/Kalos Liman (landform), Limen. On the south side is the large Donuzlav Bay and the port and ancient Greek settlement of Eupatoria/Yevpatoria/Kerkinitis/Gozleve. The coast then runs south to
Sevastopol Sevastopol (Russian, Ukrainian: Севастополь); is the largest city in Crimea Crimea (; ; uk, Крим, Krym; crh, Къырым, translit=Kirim/Qırım; grc, Κιμμερία/Ταυρική, translit=Kimmería/Taurikḗ) ...

Sevastopol
/
Chersonesus Chersonesus ( grc, Χερσόνησος, Khersónēsos; la, Chersonesus; modern Russian and Ukrainian: Херсоне́с, ''Khersones''; also rendered as ''Chersonese'', ''Chersonesos''), in medieval Greek Medieval Greek (also known as Mi ...

Chersonesus
, a good natural harbor, great naval base and the largest city on the peninsula. At the head of Sevastopol Bay stands Inkermann/Kalamita. South of Sevastopol is the small Heracles Peninsula. South: In the south, between the Crimean Mountains and the sea runs a narrow coastal strip which was Gazaria (Genoese colonies), held by the Genoese and (after 1475) by the Turks. Under Russian rule it became a kind of riviera. In Soviet times the many palaces were replaced with dachas and health resorts. From west to east are: Heracles Peninsula; Balaklava/Symbalon/Cembalo, a smaller natural harbor south of Sevastopol; Foros, Crimea, Foros, the southernmost point; Alupka with the Vorontsov Palace (Alupka); Gaspra; Yalta; Gurzuf; Alushta. Further east is Sudak/Sougdia/Soldaia with its Genoese fort. Further east still is Theodosia/Kaffa/Feodosia, once a great slave market, slave-mart and a kind of capital for the Genoese and Turks. Unlike the other southern ports, Feodosia has no mountains to its north. At the east end of the Kerch Peninsula is Kerch/Panticapaeum, once the capital of the Bosporian Kingdom. Just south of Kerch the new Crimean Bridge (opened in 2018) connects Crimea to the Taman Peninsula. Sea of Azov: There is little on the south shore. The west shore is marked by the
Arabat Spit The Arabat Spit ( uk, Арабатська коса; russian: Арабатская коса) or Arabat Arrow is a barrier spit which separates a large, shallow and very salty system of lagoons named Syvash The Syvash or Sivash (Russian and Uk ...
. Behind it is the Syvash or "Putrid Sea", a system of lakes and marshes which in the far north extend west to the Perekop Isthmus. Road- and rail-bridges cross the northern part of Syvash. Interior: Most of the former capitals of Crimea stood on the north side of the mountains. Mangup/Doros (Gothic, Theodoro). Bakhchisarai (1532–1783). Southeast of Bakhchisarai is the cliff-fort of Chufut-Kale/Qirq Or which was used in more warlike times. Simferopol/Ak-Mechet, the modern capital. Karasu-Bazar/Bilohorsk was a commercial center. Solkhat/
Staryi Krym Staryi Krym (russian: Старый Крым, uk, Старий Крим, crh, Eski Qırım) is a small historical town and former bishopric in Kirovske Raion of Crimea, an area currently disputed between Russia and Ukraine. It is located in the ...
was the old Tatar capital. Towns on the northern steppe area are all modern, notably Dzhankoi, a major road- and rail-junction. Rivers: The longest is the Salhir River which rises southeast of Simferopol and flows north and northeast to the Sea of Azov. The Alma River (Crimea), Alma River flows west to reach the Black Sea between Eupatoria and Sevastopol. The shorter Chornaya River (Crimea) flows west to Sevastopol Bay. Nearby: East of the Kerch Strait the Ancient Greeks founded colonies at Phanagoria (at the head of Taman Bay), Hermonassa (later Tmutarakan and Taman, Russia, Taman), Gorgippia (later a Turkish port and now Anapa). At the northeast point of the Sea of Azov at the mouth of the Don River were Tanais, Azak/Azov and now Rostov-on-Don. North of the peninsula the Dnieper turns westward and enters the Black Sea through the east–west Dnieper-Bug Estuary which also receives the Bug River. At the mouth of the Bug stood Olvia. At the mouth of the estuary is Ochakiv. Odessa stands where the coast turns southwest. Further southwest is Tyras/Akkerman/Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi.


Crimean Mountains

The southeast coast is flanked at a distance of from the sea by a parallel range of mountains: the Crimean Mountains. These mountains are backed by Cuesta, secondary parallel ranges. The main range of these mountains rises with extraordinary abruptness from the deep floor of the Black Sea to an altitude of , beginning at the southwest point of the peninsula, called . It was believed that this cape was supposedly crowned with the temple of Artemis where Iphigeneia is said to have officiated as priestess. Uchan-su (waterfall), Uchan-su, on the south slope of the mountains, is the highest waterfall in Crimea.


Hydrography

There are 257 rivers and major streams on the Crimean peninsula; they are primarily fed by rainwater, with snowmelt playing a very minor role. This makes for significant annual fluctuation in water flow, with many streams drying up completely during the summer. The largest rivers are the Salhyr (Salğır, Салгир), the Kacha (Кача), the Alma (Crimea), Alma (Альма), and the Belbek (Бельбек). Also important are the Kokozka (Kökköz or Коккозка), the Indole (Indol or Индо́л), the Chyornaya (Crimea), Chorna (Çorğun, Chernaya or Чёрная), the Derekoika (Dereköy or Дерекойка), the Karasu-Bashi (Biyuk-Karasu or Биюк-Карасу) (tributary of Salhir river), the Burulcha (Бурульча) (tributary of Salhir river), the Uchan-su (river), Uchan-su, and the Ulu-Uzen'. The longest river of Crimea is the Salhir at . The Belbek has the greatest average discharge at . The Alma and the Kacha are the second- and third-longest rivers. There are more than fifty salt lakes and Salt pan (geology), salt pans on the peninsula, the largest of them is Lake Sasyk (Сасык) on the southwest coast; others include Aqtas Lake, Aqtas, Koyashskoye, Kiyatskoe, Kirleutskoe, Kizil-Yar, Bakalskoe, and Donuzlav. The general trend is for the former lakes to become salt pans. Lake Syvash (Sıvaş or Сива́ш) is a system of interconnected shallow lagoons on the north-eastern coast, covering an area of around . A number of dams have created reservoirs, among the largest are the Simferopolskoye, Alminskoye, the Taygansky and the Belogorsky just south of Bilohirsk in Bilohirsk Raion. The North Crimean Canal, North Crimea Canal, which transports water from the Dnieper, is the largest of the man-made irrigation channels on the peninsula.Tymchenko, Z.
North Crimean Canal. History of construction
'. (Russian) Ukrayinska Pravda. 13 May 2014 (Krymskiye izvestiya. November 2012)
Crimea is facing an unprecedented water shortage crisis.


Steppe

Seventy-five percent of the remaining area of Crimea consists of semiarid prairie lands, a southward continuation of the Pontic–Caspian steppe, which slope gently to the northwest from the foothills of the Crimean Mountains. Numerous kurgans, or burial mounds, of the ancient Scythians are scattered across the Crimean steppes.


Crimean Riviera

The terrain that lies south of the sheltering Crimean Mountain range is of an altogether different character. Here, the narrow strip of coast and the slopes of the mountains are smothered with greenery. This "riviera" stretches along the southeast coast from capes Cape Fiolente, Fiolente and Cape Aya, Aya, in the south, to Feodosia. It is studded with summer sea-bathing resorts such as Alupka, Yalta, Gurzuf, Alushta, Sudak, and Feodosia. During the years of Soviet rule, the resorts and dachas of this coast served as prime perquisites of the politically loyal. In addition, vineyards and fruit orchards are located in the region. Fishing, mining, and the production of essential oils are also important. Numerous Crimean Tatar villages, mosques, monastery, monasteries, and palaces of the Russian imperial family and nobles are found here, as well as picturesque ancient Greek and medieval castles. The Crimean Mountains and the southern coast are part of the Crimean Submediterranean forest complex ecoregion. The natural vegetation consists of scrublands, woodlands, and forests, with a climate and vegetation similar to the Mediterranean Basin.


Climate

Crimea is located between the temperate and subtropical climate belts and is characterized by warm and sunny weather. It is characterized by diversity and the presence of microclimates. The northern parts of Crimea have a moderate continental climate with short, mild winters and moderately hot dry summers. In the central and mountainous areas the climate is transitional between the continental climate to the north and the Mediterranean climate to the south. Winters are mild at lower altitudes (in the foothills) and colder at higher altitudes. Summers are hot at lower altitudes and warm in the mountains. A subtropical, Mediterranean climate dominates the southern coastal regions, is characterized by mild winters and moderately hot, dry summers. The climate of Crimea is influenced by its geographic location, relief, and influences from the Black sea. The Crimean coast is shielded from cold air masses coming from the north and, as a result, has milder winters. Maritime influences from the Black Sea are restricted to coastal areas; in the interior of the peninsula the maritime influence is weak and does not play an important role. Because a high-pressure system is located north of Crimea in both summer and winter, winds predominantly come from the north and northeast year-round. In winter these winds bring in cold, dry continental air, while in summer they bring in dry and hot weather. Winds from the northwest bring warm and wet air from the Atlantic Ocean, causing precipitation during spring and summer. As well, winds from the southwest bring very warm and wet air from the subtropical latitudes of the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean sea and cause precipitation during fall and winter. Mean annual temperatures range from in the far north (Armiansk) to in the far south (Yalta). In the mountains, the mean annual temperature is around . For every increase in altitude, temperatures decrease by while precipitation increases. In January mean temperatures range from in Armiansk to in Myskhor. Cool-season temperatures average around and it is rare for the weather to drop below freezing except in the mountains, where there is usually snow. In July mean temperatures range from in Ai-Petri to in the central parts of Crimea to in Myskhor. The frost-free period ranges from 160 to 200 days in the steppe and mountain regions to 240–260 days on the south coast. Precipitation in Crimea varies significantly based on location; it ranges from in Chornomorske to at the highest altitudes in the Crimean mountains. The Crimean mountains greatly influence the amount of precipitation present in the peninsula. However, most of Crimea (88.5%) receives of precipitation per year. The plains usually receive of precipitation per year, increasing to in the southern coast at sea level. The western parts of the Crimean mountains receive more than of precipitation per year. Snowfall is common in the mountains during winter. Most of the peninsula receives more than 2,000 sunshine hours per year; it reaches up to 2,505 sunshine hours in Karabi–Yayla in the Crimean mountains. As a result, the climate favors recreation and tourism. Because of its climate and subsidized travel-packages from Russian state-run companies, the southern Crimean coast has remained a popular resort for Russian tourists.


Strategic value

The Black Sea ports of Crimea provide quick access to the Eastern Mediterranean, Balkans and Middle East. History of Crimea, Historically, possession of the southern coast of Crimea was sought after by most empires of the greater region since antiquity (Roman Crimea, Roman, Cherson (theme), Byzantine, Gedik Ahmed Pasha, Ottoman, Taurida Governorate, Russian, Crimean War, British and French, Siege of Sevastopol (1941–1942), Nazi German, Black Sea Fleet#Soviet Navy, Soviet). The nearby Dnieper River is a major waterway and transportation route that crosses the European continent from north to south and ultimately links the Black Sea with the Baltic Sea, of strategic importance since the historical trade route from the Varangians to the Greeks. The Black Sea serves as an economic thoroughfare connecting the Caucasus region and the Caspian Sea to central and Eastern Europe. According to the International Transport Workers' Federation, there were at least 12 operating merchant seaports in Crimea.


Economy

In 2016 Crimea had Nominal GDP of US$7 billion and US$3,000 per capita. The main branches of the modern Crimean economy are agriculture and fishing oysters pearls, industry and manufacturing, tourism, and ports. Industrial plants are situated for the most part in the southern coast (Eupatoria, Sevastopol, Feodosia, Kerch) regions of the republic, few northern (Armiansk, Krasnoperekopsk, Dzhankoi), aside from the central area, mainly Simferopol okrug and eastern region in Nizhnegorsk (few plants, same for Dzhankoj) city. Important industrial cities include Dzhankoi, housing a major railway connection, Krasnoperekopsk and Armiansk, among others. After the Russian annexation of Crimea in early 2014 and subsequent sanctions targeting Crimea, the tourist industry suffered major losses for two years. The flow of holidaymakers dropped 35 percent in the first half of 2014 over the same period of 2013. The number of tourist arrivals reached a record in 2012 at 6.1 million. According to the Russian administration of Crimea, they dropped to 3.8 million in 2014, and rebounded to 5.6 million by 2016. The most important industries in Crimea include food production, chemical fields, mechanical engineering, and metalworking, and fuel production industries. Sixty percent of the industry market belongs to food production. There are a total of 291 large industrial enterprises and 1002 small business enterprises. In 2014, the republic's annual GDP was $4.3 billion (500 times smaller than the size of Russia's economy). The average salary was $290 per month. The Government budget balance, budget deficit was $1.5 billion.


Agriculture

Agriculture in the region includes cereals, vegetable-growing, gardening, and Winemaking in Crimea, wine-making, particularly in the Yalta and Massandra regions. Livestock production includes cattle breeding, poultry keeping, and sheep breeding. Other products produced on the Crimean Peninsula include salt, Porphyry (geology), porphyry, limestone, and ironstone (found around Kerch) since ancient times.


Pests

The vine mealybug (''Planococcus (bug), Planococcus Planococcus ficus, ficus'') was first discovered here in 1868. First discovered on grape, it has also been found as a pest (organism), pest of some other crops and has since spread worldwide. Sunn pests—especially ''Eurygaster integriceps'' and ''Eurygaster maura, E. maura''—are significant grain pests. Scelioninae and Tachinidae are important parasitoids of sunnpest. Bark beetles are pests of Tree fruit, tree crops, and are themselves hosts for ''Elattoma'' mites and various entomopathogenic fungus, entomopathogenic fungi transmitted by those ''Elattomae''.


Energy

Crimea also possesses several natural gas fields both Onshore (hydrocarbons), onshore and Offshore (hydrocarbons), offshore, which were starting to be drilled by western oil and gas companies before annexation. The inland fields are located in Chornomorske Raion, Chornomorske and Dzhankoi Raion, Dzhankoi, while offshore fields are located in the western coast in the Black Sea and in the northeastern coast in the Azov Sea: The republic also possesses two oil fields: one onshore, the Serebryankse oil field in Rozdolne Raion, Rozdolne, and one offshore, the Subbotina oil field in the Black Sea. ; Electricity Crimea has 540 MW of its own electricity generation capacity including Simferopol Thermal Power Plant (100 MW), Sevastopol Thermal Power Plant (22 MW) and Kamish-Burunskaya Thermal Power Plant (19 MW). This is insufficient for local consumption and since annexation by Russia, Crimea is reliant on an underwater power cable to mainland Russia. Building and near start up are two combined cycle gas steam turbo thermal plants PGU, both 470 MW (116 167 MW GT, 235 MW block), build (plant) by TPE along others and turbines by Power Machines (UTZ KalugaTZ ?), NPO Saturn with Perm PMZ, either GTD-110M modified or GTE-160 or 180 units or UTZ KTZ or a V94.2 bought by MAPNA, modified in Russian plants for PGU Thermal plants specifics. Also many solar photovoltaic SES plants lie along the peninsula (north of Sevastopol too, a smaller facility). Also gas thermal Saki plant close to Jodobrom chemical plant and SaKhZ(SaChP) boosted production with Perm GTE GTU25P (PS90GP25 25 MW aeroderivative GP) PGU turbogenerators. Older plants are Sevastopol TEC (close to Inkerman) which use AEG and Ganz Elektro turbines and turbogenerators about 25 MW each, Sinferopol TEC (north, in Agrarne locale) Eupatoria, Kamysh Burun TEC (Kerch south – Zaliv) and few others.


Infrastructure

;Crimean Bridge In May 2015, work began on a multibillion-dollar road-rail link (a pair of parallel bridges) across the Kerch Strait. The road bridge opened in May 2018, and the rail bridge opened in December 2019. With a length of 19 km, it is the longest bridge in Europe, as it overcame Vasco da Gama Bridge in Lisbon. ;Public transportation Almost every settlement in Crimea is connected with another settlement by bus lines. Crimea contains the longest (96 km or 59 mi) Crimean Trolleybus, trolleybus route in the world, founded in 1959, stretching from Simferopol to Yalta. The trolleybus line starts near Simferopol's Railway Station (in Soviet times it started near Simferopol International Airport) through the mountains to Alushta and on to Yalta. The length of line is about 90 km and passengers are assigned a seat. Simferopol, Yalta and Alushta also have an urban and suburban trolleybus network. Trolleybuses are also operated in
Sevastopol Sevastopol (Russian, Ukrainian: Севастополь); is the largest city in Crimea Crimea (; ; uk, Крим, Krym; crh, Къырым, translit=Kirim/Qırım; grc, Κιμμερία/Ταυρική, translit=Kimmería/Taurikḗ) ...

Sevastopol
and Kerch In the city of Yevpatoria a tram system is also operated. In the nearby urban-type settlement, townlet village of Molochnoye an only 1,6 km long tram line provides connection between the sea shore and a holiday resort, but its operation is halted since 2015. ;Railway traffic There are two railroad lines running through Crimea: the non-electrified Armyansk, Armiansk—Kerch (with a link to Feodosia), and the electrified Melitopol—Simferopol-Sevastopol (with a link to Yevpatoria), connecting Crimea to the Ukrainian mainland. Until 2014 the network was part of the Cisdneper Railways, Cisdneper Directorate of the Ukrainian Railways. Long-distance trains provided connection to every major Ukrainian cities, but also to many towns of Russia, Belarus and until the end of the 2000es even to Vilnius, Riga, Warsaw and Berlin. Since 2014 the railways are operated by the Crimea Railway. Local trains belong to the ''Yuzhnaya Prigorodnaya Passazhirskaya Kompaniya'' (Southern Suburban Passenger Company), serving the entire network of the peninsula and via the Crimean Bridge three trains daily to Anapa. Long-distance trains under the name ''Tavriya'' - operated by the company ''Grand Servis Ekspress'' - connect Sevastopol and Simferopol daily with Moscow and Saint Petersburg, in the summer season Yevpatoria and Feodosia are also directly connected by them. Several times a week Simferopol is also linked with Volgograd, Sochi, Yekaterinburg, Omsk and even Murmansk by train. Further development plans consist a bypass line between Simferopol and Kerch, and a complete electrification of the network with changing the voltage of the already electrified lines from 3 kV DC to 25 kV 50 Hz AC. ;International airport *Simferopol International Airport's new terminal opened in from April 2018 with the ability to handle 6.5 million passengers a year. It was built in 22 months and covers an area of 78,000 square meters. ;Highways * (under construction) Tavrida highway (route Eupatoria-) Sevastopol – Simferopol (SW to W N to East ring) – Bilohirsk
– north Feodosia – Kerch south (strait bridge) * European route E105, E105/M18 – Syvash (bridge, starts), Dzhankoi, North Crimean Canal (bridge), Simferopol, Alushta, Yalta (ends) * European route E97, E97/M17 – Perekop (starts), Armiansk, Dzhankoi, Feodosia, Kerch (Kerch Strait ferry line, ferry, ends) * A290 highway (Russia), A290 – Novorossiysk to Kerch via the Crimean Bridge (formerly known as Highway M25) * H05 – Krasnoperekopsk, Simferopol (access to the Simferopol International Airport) * H06 – Simferopol, Bakhchysarai,
Sevastopol Sevastopol (Russian, Ukrainian: Севастополь); is the largest city in Crimea Crimea (; ; uk, Крим, Krym; crh, Къырым, translit=Kirim/Qırım; grc, Κιμμερία/Ταυρική, translit=Kimmería/Taurikḗ) ...

Sevastopol
* H19 – Yalta,
Sevastopol Sevastopol (Russian, Ukrainian: Севастополь); is the largest city in Crimea Crimea (; ; uk, Крим, Krym; crh, Къырым, translit=Kirim/Qırım; grc, Κιμμερία/Ταυρική, translit=Kimmería/Taurikḗ) ...

Sevastopol
* P16 * P23 – Simferopol, Feodosiya, Feodosia * P25 – Simferopol, Yevpatoria * P27 –
Sevastopol Sevastopol (Russian, Ukrainian: Севастополь); is the largest city in Crimea Crimea (; ; uk, Крим, Krym; crh, Къырым, translit=Kirim/Qırım; grc, Κιμμερία/Ταυρική, translit=Kimmería/Taurikḗ) ...

Sevastopol
, Inkerman (completely within the city of Sevastopol) * P29 – Alushta, Sudak, Feodosiya, Feodosia * P34 – Alushta, Yalta * P35 – Hrushivka, Sudak * P58 –
Sevastopol Sevastopol (Russian, Ukrainian: Севастополь); is the largest city in Crimea Crimea (; ; uk, Крим, Krym; crh, Къырым, translit=Kirim/Qırım; grc, Κιμμερία/Ταυρική, translit=Kimmería/Taurikḗ) ...

Sevastopol
, Port "Komysheva Bukhta" (completely within the city of Sevastopol) * P59 (completely within the city of Sevastopol) ;Sea transport The cities of Yalta, Feodosiya, Feodosia, Kerch, Sevastopol, Chornomorske and Yevpatoria are connected to one another by sea routes.


Tourism

The development of Crimea as a holiday destination began in the second half of the 19th century. The development of the transport networks brought masses of tourists from central parts of the Russian Empire. At the beginning of the 20th century, a major development of palaces, villas, and dachas began—most of which remain. These are some of the main attractions of Crimea as a tourist destination. There are many Crimean legends about famous touristic places, which attract the attention of tourists. A new phase of tourist development began when the Soviet government realised the potential of the healing quality of the local air, lakes and therapeutic muds. It became a "health" destination for Soviet workers, and hundreds of thousands of Soviet tourists visited Crimea. Artek (camp), Artek is a former Young Pioneer camp on the
Black Sea , with the skyline of Batumi Batumi (; ka, ბათუმი ) is the second largest city of Georgia Georgia usually refers to: * Georgia (country) Georgia ( ka, საქართველო; ''Sakartvelo''; ) is a country locat ...

Black Sea
in the town of Hurzuf, near Ayu-Dag, established in 1925. By 1969 it had an area of , and consisted of 150 buildings. Unlike most of the young pioneer camps, Artek was an all-year camp, due to the warm climate. Artek was considered to be a privilege for Soviet children during its existence, as well as for children from other communist countries. During its heyday, 27,000 children a year vacationed at Artek. Between 1925 and 1969 the camp hosted 300,000 children. After the breaking up of the Young Pioneer organization of the Soviet Union, Young Pioneers in 1991 its prestige declined, though it remained a popular vacation destination. In the 1990s, Crimea became more of a get-away destination than a "health-improvement" destination. The most visited areas are the south shore of Crimea with cities of Yalta and Alushta, the western shore – Eupatoria and Saki, and the south-eastern shore – Feodosia and Sudak. According to National Geographic Society, National Geographic, Crimea was among the top 20 travel destinations in 2013. Places of interest include


Sanctions

Following Russia's largely unrecognized annexation of Crimea, the European Union, the United States, Canada, Australia, Japan, and several other countries (including Ukraine) imposed economic sanctions against Russia, including some specifically targeting Crimea. Many of these sanctions were directed at individuals—both Russian and Crimean. In general they prohibit the sale, supply, transfer, or export of Good (economics), goods and technology in several sectors, including services directly related to tourism and infrastructure. They list seven ports where cruise ships cannot dock. Sanctions against individuals include travel bans and asset freezes. Visa Inc., Visa and MasterCard temporarily stopped service in Crimea in December 2014. The Russian national payment card system now allows Visa and MasterCard cards issued by Russian banks to work in Crimea. The Mir (payment system), Mir payment system operated by the Central Bank of Russia operates in Crimea as well as Master Card and Visa. However, there are no major international banks in the Crimea.


Politics

The politics of Crimea is that of the Republic of Crimea on one hand, and that of the Federal cities of Russia, federal city of Sevastopol on the other. Since becoming the 84th and 85th Federal Subjects of the Russian Federation in 2014, both have strongly supported United Russia in both local and Elections in Russia, national elections. At the most recent 2014 Crimean parliamentary election, Crimean parliamentary election on 14 September 2014, United Russia won 70 of the 75 seats in the State Council of Crimea based on just over 70% of the vote. Despite calls from local
Crimean Tatars Crimean Tatars ( crh, , ) or Crimeans ( crh, , ), are a Turkic peoples, Turkic ethnic group and nation who are an indigenous people of Crimea. The formation and ethnogenesis of Crimean Tatars occurred during the 13th–17th centuries, from C ...

Crimean Tatars
for a boycott of the elections, turnout was over 53% which compared well with elections in other regions of Russia. Following the election, Sergey Aksyonov became Head of the Republic of Crimea: he had previously been Acting Head from 14 April 2014. United Russia is also the leading party in the Legislative Assembly of Sevastopol having won 22 of the 24 seats at the last election. The Governor of Sevastopol (Russia), governor of Sevastopol is Dmitry Ovsyannikov who was first appointed on 28 July 2016 following the resignation of Sergey Menyaylo, and 2017 Sevastopol gubernatorial election, secured re-election on 71% of the vote on 10 September 2017. United Russia maintained its position as the most supported political party across Crimea at the 2016 Russian legislative election, Russian legislative election on 18 September 2016, achieving 72.8% of the vote. At 49.1%, turnout was slightly ahead of that for Russia as a whole which was only 47.8%. In the 2018 Russian presidential election, Vladimir Putin secured 92% of the vote in Crimea compared to 77% across Russia as a whole.


Demographics

, the total population of the Republic of Crimea and Sevastopol was 2,248,400 people (Republic of Crimea: 1,889,485, Sevastopol: 395,000). This is down from the Ukrainian Census (2001), 2001 Ukrainian Census figure, which was 2,376,000 (Autonomous Republic of Crimea: 2,033,700, Sevastopol: 342,451). According to the 2014 Russian census, 84% of Crimean inhabitants named Russian as their native language; 7.9% – Crimean Tatar; 3.7% – Tatar language, Tatar; and 3.3% – Ukrainian. It was the first official census in Crimea since a Ukrainian-held census in 2001. According to the 2001 census, 77% of Crimean inhabitants named Russian language in Ukraine, Russian as their native language; 11.4% – Crimean Tatar; and 10.1% – Ukrainian. In 2013, however, the Crimean Tatar language was estimated to be on the brink of extinction, being taught in Crimea only in around 15 schools at that point. Turkey provided the greatest support to Tatars in Ukraine, which had been unable to resolve the problem of education in their mother tongue in Crimea, by bringing the schools to a modern state. Ethnic composition of Crimea's population has changed dramatically since the early 20th century. The 1897 Russian Empire Census for the
Taurida Governorate The Taurida Governorate (russian: Таврическая губернія, modern spelling , ; uk, Таврiйська губернія, ; crh, script=Latn, Tavrida guberniyası, ) or the Government of Taurida, was a historical guberniya, gover ...
reported: 196,854 (13.06%) Crimean Tatars, 404,463 (27.94%) Russians and 611,121 (42.21%) Ukrainians. But these numbers included Berdyansky, Dneprovsky and Melitopolsky uyezds which were on mainland, not in Crimea. The population number excluding these uyezds is given in the table below. Crimean Tatars, a predominantly Muslim ethnic minority who in 2001 made up 12.1% of the population, formed in Crimea in the early modern era, after the Crimean Khanate had come into existence. The Crimean Tatars were Deportation of the Crimean Tatars, forcibly expelled to Central Asia by Joseph Stalin's government as a form of collective punishment, on the grounds that some had joined the invading Waffen-SS, forming Tatar Legions, during World War II. After the fall of the Soviet Union, Crimean Tatars began to return to the region. According to the Ukrainian Census (2001), 2001 Ukrainian population census, 58% of the population of Crimea are ethnic Russians and 24% are ethnic Ukrainians. History of the Jews in Russia, Jews in Crimea were historically Krymchaks and Crimean Karaites, Karaites (the latter a small group centered at Yevpatoria). The 1879 census for the Taurida Governorate reported a Jewish population of 4.20%, not including a Karaite population of 0.43%. The Krymchaks (but not the Karaites) were The Holocaust in Russia, targeted for annihilation during Reichskommissariat Ukraine, Nazi occupation. The number of Crimea Germans was 60,000 in 1939. During WWII, they were forcibly deported on the orders of Stalin, as they were regarded as a potential "fifth column". This was part of the 800,000 History of Germans in Russia, Ukraine and the Soviet Union, Germans in Russia who were relocated within the Soviet Union during Stalinist times. The 2001 Ukrainian census reports just 2,500 ethnic Germans (0.1% of population) in Crimea. Besides the Crimean Germans, Stalin in 1944 also deported 70,000 Greeks, 14,000 Bulgarians and 3,000 Italians of Crimea, Italians.


Religion

In 2013, Orthodox Christians made up 58% of the Crimean population, followed by Muslims (15%) and believers in God without religion (10%). Following the 2014 Russian annexation of Crimea, 38 out of the 46 Ukrainian Orthodox Church – Kyiv Patriarchate parishes in Crimea ceased to exist; in three cases, churches were seized by the Russian authorities. Notwithstanding the annexation, the Ukrainian Orthodox Church (Moscow Patriarchate) kept control of its eparchies in Crimea.


Culture

Alexander Pushkin visited Bakhchysarai in 1820 and later wrote the poem The Fountain of Bakhchisaray. Crimea was the background for Adam Mickiewicz's seminal work, The Crimean Sonnets inspired by his 1825 travel. A series of 18 sonnets constitute an artistic telling of a journey to and through the Crimea, they feature romantic descriptions of the oriental nature and culture of the East which show the despair of an exile longing for the homeland, driven from his home by a violent enemy. Ivan Aivazovsky, the 19th-century marine painter of Armenian origin, who is considered one of the major artists of his era was born in Feodosia and lived there for the most part of his life. Many of his paintings depict the Black Sea. He also created battle paintings during the Crimean War. Crimean Tatar singer Jamala won the Eurovision Song Contest 2016 representing Ukraine with her song "1944 (song), 1944", about the historic deportation of Crimean Tatars in that year by Soviet authorities. According to the, broken in practice by Russian companies, Ukrainian "law on concert activities" only Ukrainian companies can organise concerts in Crimea. File:Ivan Constantinovich Aivazovsky - The Russian Squadron on the Sebastopol Roads.jpg, Painting of the Russian squadron in Sevastopol by Ivan Aivazovsky (1846) File:Могила поета і художника М. О. Волошина.JPG, The grave of Russian poet and artist Maximilian Voloshin People at KaZantip.jpg, People at the Kazantip music festival in 2007


Sport

Following 2014 Crimean status referendum, Crimea's vote to join Russia and subsequent Annexation of Crimea by the Russian Federation, annexation in March 2014, the top football clubs withdrew from the Ukrainian football league system, Ukrainian leagues. Some clubs registered to join the Russian leagues but the Football Federation of Ukraine objected. UEFA ruled that Crimean clubs could not join the Russian leagues but should instead be part of a Crimean league system. The Crimean Premier League is now the top professional football league in Crimea. A number of Crimean-born athletes have been given permission to compete for Russia instead of Ukraine at future competitions, including Vera Rebrik, the European javelin champion. Due to Doping in Russia, Russia currently being suspended from all international athletic competitions Rebrik participates in tournaments as a "neutral" athlete.14 Russians bid to take part in IAAF World Championships
TASS news agency (5 July 2017)


Gallery

File:Hansaray1.jpg, Bakhchisaray Palace File:Dulber Palace.JPG, Dulber Palace in Koreiz File:Комплекс споруд Воронцовського палацу.jpg, Vorontsov's Palace (Alupka), Vorontsov Palace File:Livadia_Palace_Crimea.jpg, Livadia Palace File:Yalta-catholic church.jpg, Catholic church in Yalta File:St. Volodymyr's Cathedral, Chersones.jpg, St. Vladimir's Cathedral, Sevastopol, St. Vladimir's Cathedral, dedicated to the Heroes of Sevastopol (Crimean War).


See also

* 2014 Russian military intervention in Ukraine * Crimean Gothic * List of cities in Crimea * Politics of Crimea * Russian–Ukrainian Friendship Treaty of 1997


Notes


Explanatory notes


Citations


External links

*
Lists of Crimean Tartar villages emptied in the May 1944 deportations, and most of them renamed in Russian
{{Authority control Crimea, Crimean Tatars Geographic regions of Ukraine Peninsulas of Europe Regions of Russia Russian-speaking countries and territories Territorial disputes of Russia Territorial disputes of Ukraine