HOME

TheInfoList



OR:

Craven is a
local government district The districts of England (also known as local authority districts or local government districts to distinguish from unofficial city districts) are a level of subnational division of England used for the purposes of local government. As the s ...
of
North Yorkshire North Yorkshire is the largest ceremonial county (lieutenancy area) in England, covering an area of . Around 40% of the county is covered by national parks, including most of the Yorkshire Dales and the North York Moors. It is one of four co ...
, England centred on the market town of
Skipton Skipton (also known as Skipton-in-Craven) is a market town and civil parish in the Craven district of North Yorkshire, England. Historically in the East Division of Staincliffe Wapentake in the West Riding of Yorkshire, it is on the Riv ...
. In
1974 Major events in 1974 include the aftermath of the 1973 oil crisis and the resignation of President of the United States, United States President Richard Nixon following the Watergate scandal. In the Middle East, the aftermath of the 1973 Yom K ...
, Craven
District A district is a type of administrative division that, in some countries, is managed by the local government. Across the world, areas known as "districts" vary greatly in size, spanning regions or counties, several municipalities, subdivision ...
was formed as the merger of
Skipton Skipton (also known as Skipton-in-Craven) is a market town and civil parish in the Craven district of North Yorkshire, England. Historically in the East Division of Staincliffe Wapentake in the West Riding of Yorkshire, it is on the Riv ...
urban district, Settle Rural District and most of Skipton Rural District, all in the
West Riding of Yorkshire The West Riding of Yorkshire is one of three historic subdivisions of Yorkshire, England. From 1889 to 1974 the administrative county County of York, West Riding (the area under the control of West Riding County Council), abbreviated County ...
. The population of the Local Authority area at the 2011 Census was 55,409. It comprises the upper reaches of Airedale,
Wharfedale Wharfedale ( ) is the valley of the upper parts of the River Wharfe and one of the Yorkshire Dales. It is situated within the districts of Craven and Harrogate in North Yorkshire, and the cities of Leeds and Bradford in West Yorkshire. ...
, Ribblesdale, and includes most of the Aire Gap and Craven Basin. The name Craven is much older than the modern district, and encompassed a larger area. This history is also reflected in the way the term is still commonly used, for example by the
Church of England The Church of England (C of E) is the State religion, established List of Christian denominations, Christian church in England and the mother church of the international Anglican Communion. It traces its history to the Christian church record ...
.


History

''Craven'' has been the name of this district throughout recorded history. Note: Select the Thorton in Craven entry. Its extent in the 11th century can be deduced from The Domesday Book but its boundaries now differ according to whether considering administration, taxation or religion.


Toponymy

The derivation of the name Craven is uncertain, yet a Celtic origin related to the word for garlic (''craf'' in Welsh) has been suggested as has the
proto-Celtic Proto-Celtic, or Common Celtic, is the ancestral proto-language of all known Celtic languages, and a descendant of Proto-Indo-European. It is not attested in writing but has been partly reconstructed through the comparative method. Proto-Cel ...
''*krab-'' suggesting scratched or scraped in some sense and even an alleged pre-Celtic word ''cravona'', supposed to mean a stony region. In civic use the name Craven or Cravenshire had, by 1166, given way to
Staincliffe Staincliffe is a cross-over district of both Batley and Dewsbury, in West Yorkshire, England. Historically part of the West Riding of Yorkshire, the name is believed to derive from ''staine'', meaning stone and ''cliffe'', cliff. The area ...
. However, the church archdeaconry retained the name of Craven.


Prehistory

The first datable evidence of human life in Craven is ca 9000 BC: a hunter's harpoon point carved out of an antler found in Victoria Cave. Most traces of the
Mesolithic The Mesolithic (Greek: μέσος, ''mesos'' 'middle' + λίθος, ''lithos'' 'stone') or Middle Stone Age is the Old World archaeological period between the Upper Paleolithic and the Neolithic. The term Epipaleolithic is often used synonymousl ...
nomadic hunters are the
flint Flint, occasionally flintstone, is a sedimentary cryptocrystalline form of the mineral quartz, categorized as the variety of chert that occurs in chalk or marly limestone. Flint was widely used historically to make stone tools and start fir ...
barbs they set into shafts. Extensive finds of these
microliths A microlith is a small stone tool usually made of flint or chert and typically a centimetre or so in length and half a centimetre wide. They were made by humans from around 35,000 to 3,000 years ago, across Europe, Africa, Asia and Australia. Th ...
lie around Malham Tarn and Semerwater. Flint does not occur in the Dales, the nearest outcrop is in East Yorkshire. On higher ground microliths are found near springs at the
tree line The tree line is the edge of the habitat at which trees are capable of growing. It is found at high elevations and high latitudes. Beyond the tree line, trees cannot tolerate the environmental conditions (usually cold temperatures, extreme snowp ...
at indicating campsites close to the open hunting grounds. The valley woodlands were inhabited by deer, boar and
aurochs The aurochs (''Bos primigenius'') ( or ) is an extinct cattle species, considered to be the wild ancestor of modern domestic cattle. With a shoulder height of up to in bulls and in cows, it was one of the largest herbivores in the Holocene ...
, the higher ground was open grassland that fed herds of reindeer, elk and horse. No permanent settlements have been found of that age, hunting here was seasonal, returning to the plains in winter. After 5000 BC long-distance trade is indicated by the distribution of stone axes. Lithic analysis can identify their quarry source as Langdale in central Cumbria and most finds are in Ribblesdale and Airedale indicating that Craven was their trade route through the Pennines.
Neolithic The Neolithic period, or New Stone Age, is an Old World archaeological period and the final division of the Stone Age. It saw the Neolithic Revolution, a wide-ranging set of developments that appear to have arisen independently in several par ...
farmers permanently settled in Craven, bringing
domesticated Domestication is a sustained multi-generational relationship in which humans assume a significant degree of control over the reproduction and care of another group of organisms to secure a more predictable supply of resources from that group. A ...
livestock and used those stone axes to clear woodlands, probably by
slash-and-burn Slash-and-burn agriculture is a farming method that involves the cutting and burning of plants in a forest or woodland to create a field called a swidden. The method begins by cutting down the trees and woody plants in an area. The downed vege ...
, to increase areas for grazing and crops.


Roman occupation

In the first century the Romans, having trouble controlling the
Brigantes The Brigantes were Ancient Britons who in pre-Roman times controlled the largest section of what would become Northern England. Their territory, often referred to as Brigantia, was centred in what was later known as Yorkshire. The Greek geog ...
in the
Yorkshire Dales The Yorkshire Dales is an upland area of the Pennines in the historic county of Yorkshire, England, most of it in the Yorkshire Dales National Park created in 1954. The Dales comprise river valleys and the hills rising from the Vale of York ...
, built forts at strategic points. In Craven one fort, possibly named Olenacum, is at Elslack . Through this fort passes a Roman road linking two other forts: Bremetennacum at Ribchester Lancashire and another at
Ilkley Ilkley is a spa town and civil parish in the City of Bradford in West Yorkshire, in Northern England. Historically part of the West Riding of Yorkshire, Ilkley civil parish includes the adjacent village of Ben Rhydding and is a ward withi ...
Yorkshire. Archaeologists describe the road as running north-east up Ribblesdale about east of Clitheroe, then bending eastwards near , then about north of Barnoldswick to pass into Airedale through the low pass near
Thornton-in-Craven Thornton-in-Craven is a village and civil parish in the Craven district of North Yorkshire, England. It is approx from the border with Lancashire and north of Earby. Barnoldswick is nearby. The Pennine Way passes through the village, as d ...
.Google Earth


Anglo-Saxon

To collect the
Danegeld Danegeld (; "Danish tax", literally "Dane yield" or tribute) was a tax raised to pay tribute or protection money to the Viking raiders to save a land from being ravaged. It was called the ''geld'' or ''gafol'' in eleventh-century sources. I ...
in 991–1016 the Anglo-Saxons divided their territory into tax districts. The
Wapentake A hundred is an administrative division that is geographically part of a larger region. It was formerly used in England, Wales, some parts of the United States, Denmark, Southern Schleswig, Sweden, Finland, Norway, the Bishopric of Ösel–Wiek, C ...
s of
Staincliffe Staincliffe is a cross-over district of both Batley and Dewsbury, in West Yorkshire, England. Historically part of the West Riding of Yorkshire, the name is believed to derive from ''staine'', meaning stone and ''cliffe'', cliff. The area ...
and Ewcross covered the region we call Craven but also areas beyond it such as the Forest of Bowland in Lancashire; and
Sedbergh Sedbergh ( or ) is a town and civil parish in Cumbria, England. The 2001 census gave the parish a population of 2,705, increasing at the 2011 census to 2,765. Historically in the West Riding of Yorkshire, it lies about east of Kendal, ...
in Cumbria to the North.The genealogical region of Craven
see map on p.2
The Church was still using these areas in the 16th century.


Norman Conquest

The farmlands were progressively taken from the Anglo-Scandinavian farmers and given by the King to selected Normans. The previous and subsequent landowners were recorded in the ''Domesday Book'' along with the area of the ploughland.


The Domesday Book

The Great ''
Domesday Book Domesday Book () – the Middle English spelling of "Doomsday Book" – is a manuscript record of the "Great Survey" of much of England and parts of Wales completed in 1086 by order of King William I, known as William the Conqueror. The manus ...
'' of 1086 did not use the later Wapentake district names in this part of England, as it usually did, but instead used the name Craven. The Book included lands further west than any later description: Melling, Wennington and HornbyThe Domesday Book Online, Lancashire
Retrieved November 2010
on the River Lune in Lonsdale and even Holker near Grange over Sands in
Cumbria Cumbria ( ) is a ceremonial and non-metropolitan county in North West England, bordering Scotland. The county and Cumbria County Council, its local government, came into existence in 1974 after the passage of the Local Government Act 1972. ...
. The historic northwestern boundary of Craven is much disputed. One faction declares that before the Norman Conquest the North of England from coast to coast was administered from
York York is a cathedral city with Roman origins, sited at the confluence of the rivers Ouse and Foss in North Yorkshire, England. It is the historic county town of Yorkshire. The city has many historic buildings and other structures, such as ...
and named The Kingdom of York. By 1086 the Normans had designated only one
county A county is a geographic region of a country used for administrative or other purposes Chambers Dictionary, L. Brookes (ed.), 2005, Chambers Harrap Publishers Ltd, Edinburgh in certain modern nations. The term is derived from the Old French ...
in the North of England and that was Yorkshire. One may assume thereby that the Norman Yorkshire of 1086 was much the same as the Kingdom of York of 1065; and the Domesday Book supports this. However the opposing faction proposes that the first Yorkshire was smaller, much as it was up till 1974, and that Amounderness, Cartmel, Furness, Kendale, Copeland and Lonsdale were attached to it in the Domesday Book merely for administrative convenience. Also the ''Domesday Book'' does not describe the width of Craven at all, for only
arable land Arable land (from the la, arabilis, "able to be ploughed") is any land capable of being ploughed and used to grow crops.''Oxford English Dictionary'', "arable, ''adj''. and ''n.''" Oxford University Press (Oxford), 2013. Alternatively, for th ...
was noted. Ploughing is a minor part of Craven agriculture, and cultivators then had been reduced by the
Harrying of the North The Harrying of the North was a series of campaigns waged by William the Conqueror in the winter of 1069–1070 to subjugate northern England, where the presence of the last Wessex claimant, Edgar Ætheling, had encouraged Anglo- Danish r ...
. Most of Craven is uncultivable moorland and the valley bottoms are usually boggy, shady frost-hollows, with soils of glacial boulder clay very heavy to plough. So ploughing was limited to well-drained moderate slopes. The higher slopes are so full of rock debris that grazing cattle still is the primary living in Craven, with some sheep marginal.R Hindley, the History of Oxenhope, pub 1996
Retrieved November 2010.
Because grazing land was not tallied in the ''Domesday Book'' the full areas of the estates of the manors can only be induced The areas of ploughland were counted in
carucate The carucate or carrucate ( lat-med, carrūcāta or ) was a medieval unit of land area approximating the land a plough team of eight oxen could till in a single annual season. It was known by different regional names and fell under different forms ...
s and oxgangs: one carrucate being eight oxgangs and one oxgang varying from fifteen to twenty acres. This vagueness comes from an oxgang signifying the land one ox could plough and that varied with the heaviness of the local soil. A carucate was the area that could be managed with team of eight oxen. In 1086 Roger of Poitou was
Tenant-in-chief In medieval and early modern Europe, the term ''tenant-in-chief'' (or ''vassal-in-chief'') denoted a person who held his lands under various forms of feudal land tenure directly from the king or territorial prince to whom he did homage, as opp ...
of the western side of Craven: Ribblesdale and the Pendle valley. In 1092 he was granted also Lonsdale to defend Morecambe Bay against Scottish raiding parties. Soon after
Henry I of England Henry I (c. 1068 – 1 December 1135), also known as Henry Beauclerc, was King of England from 1100 to his death in 1135. He was the fourth son of William the Conqueror and was educated in Latin and the liberal arts. On William's death ...
's succession to the crown in 1100 arose a rebellion of men with a variety of grievances. Several
Yorkshire Yorkshire ( ; abbreviated Yorks), formally known as the County of York, is a historic county in northern England and by far the largest in the United Kingdom. Because of its large area in comparison with other English counties, functions hav ...
lords were involved and suffered confiscation of their estates. In Craven these were
Roger the Poitevin Roger the Poitevin (Roger de Poitou) was born in Normandy in the mid-1060s and died before 1140. He was an Anglo-Norman aristocrat, possessing large holdings in both England and through his marriage in France. He was the third son of Roger of M ...
, Erneis of Burun and Gilbert Tison. The King conducted a reorganization of Yorkshire by establishing men more skilled in government. Shortly after 1102 the castleries in Cravenshire were divided between the House of Romille and the
House of Percy A house is a single-unit residential building. It may range in complexity from a rudimentary hut to a complex structure of wood, masonry, concrete or other material, outfitted with plumbing, electrical, and heating, ventilation, and air cond ...
. The King was clearly intent that Cravenshire should retain a compact structure for he added-in estates from his own
demesne A demesne ( ) or domain was all the land retained and managed by a lord of the manor under the feudal system for his own use, occupation, or support. This distinguished it from land sub-enfeoffed by him to others as sub-tenants. The concept or ...
. The result was two partially interwoven castleries incorporating nearly all the land in Craven. The Percy estates were mainly concentrated in Ribblesdale with their castle at Gisburn while the Romilles dominated upper
Wharfedale Wharfedale ( ) is the valley of the upper parts of the River Wharfe and one of the Yorkshire Dales. It is situated within the districts of Craven and Harrogate in North Yorkshire, and the cities of Leeds and Bradford in West Yorkshire. ...
and upper Airedale with their fortress at Skipton Castle.


14th century

Craven was still suffering from Scottish raiders; for example in 1318 they severely damaged churches as far south as Kildwick. In 1377, in the form of
Poll Tax A poll tax, also known as head tax or capitation, is a tax levied as a fixed sum on every liable individual (typically every adult), without reference to income or resources. Head taxes were important sources of revenue for many governments f ...
records, the earliest surviving detailed statistics of Craven were collected. From them we can compare the income brackets of various occupations, and the relative worth of villages. The records list every hamlet and village using the wapentake system.’’Domesday Book: Yorkshire’’ Ian Morris, ed. Morris, Faull, Stinson – Phillimore, 1992 The
Wapentake A hundred is an administrative division that is geographically part of a larger region. It was formerly used in England, Wales, some parts of the United States, Denmark, Southern Schleswig, Sweden, Finland, Norway, the Bishopric of Ösel–Wiek, C ...
s of
Staincliffe Staincliffe is a cross-over district of both Batley and Dewsbury, in West Yorkshire, England. Historically part of the West Riding of Yorkshire, the name is believed to derive from ''staine'', meaning stone and ''cliffe'', cliff. The area ...
and Ewcross cover Craven but also areas beyond such as Sedbergh to the North. Young King Richard II had commanded that poll tax to pay off the debts he had inherited from the
Hundred Years' War The Hundred Years' War (; 1337–1453) was a series of armed conflicts between the kingdoms of England and France during the Late Middle Ages. It originated from disputed claims to the French throne between the English House of Plantage ...
. Its first application in 1377 was a flat rate and the second of 1379 was a sliding scale from 1 groat (4p pence) to 4 marks. However, the third tax of 1381 of 4 groats (1 shilling) and up was applied corruptly and led to the Great Rising of 1381.


16th century

The
Deanery A deanery (or decanate) is an ecclesiastical entity in the Roman Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church, the Anglican Communion, the Evangelical Church in Germany, and the Church of Norway. A deanery is either the jurisdiction or residen ...
of Craven had similar boundaries to the Wapentake of Staincliffe and so included the following areas which are not in the modern secular district of Craven: *A large part of what is now the City of Bradford, namely the parishes
Keighley Keighley ( ) is a market town and a civil parish in the City of Bradford Borough of West Yorkshire, England. It is the second largest settlement in the borough, after Bradford. Keighley is north-west of Bradford city centre, north-west of ...
, Addingham, and the Silsden and Steeton with Eastburn parts of the parish of Kildwick. However all of
Bingley Bingley is a market town and civil parish in the metropolitan borough of the City of Bradford, West Yorkshire, England, on the River Aire and the Leeds and Liverpool Canal, which had a population of 18,294 at the 2011 Census. Bingley railway ...
and part of
Ilkley Ilkley is a spa town and civil parish in the City of Bradford in West Yorkshire, in Northern England. Historically part of the West Riding of Yorkshire, Ilkley civil parish includes the adjacent village of Ben Rhydding and is a ward withi ...
, though never part of Staincliffe Wapentake, were within Craven and are also now within Bradford. (They were in the upper division of the Wapentake of Skyrack.) *The northern section of the modern
Lancashire Lancashire ( , ; abbreviated Lancs) is the name of a historic county, ceremonial county, and non-metropolitan county in North West England. The boundaries of these three areas differ significantly. The non-metropolitan county of Lancashi ...
District of Ribble Valley, including Gisburn in Craven, and the Bowland Forest parishes of Bolton by Bowland, Slaidburn and Great Mitton, the latter including Waddington, West Bradford, and Grindleton. ( Sawley, while not technically in the old Deanery, is also in this geographical area.) *The north-eastern section of the modern
Lancashire Lancashire ( , ; abbreviated Lancs) is the name of a historic county, ceremonial county, and non-metropolitan county in North West England. The boundaries of these three areas differ significantly. The non-metropolitan county of Lancashi ...
district of Pendle, including Barnoldswick, Bracewell, and the part of the old
parish A parish is a territorial entity in many Christian denominations, constituting a division within a diocese. A parish is under the pastoral care and clerical jurisdiction of a priest, often termed a parish priest, who might be assisted by one o ...
of Thornton in Craven which includes Earby and Kelbrook


17th century hearth tax

These valuable records also define the area by wapentakes. This tax was introduced by the government of Charles II at a time of serious fiscal emergency, and collection continued until repealed by William and Mary in 1689. Under its terms each liable householder was to pay one shilling for each hearth within their property, due twice annually at the
equinox A solar equinox is a moment in time when the Sun crosses the Earth's equator, which is to say, appears directly above the equator, rather than north or south of the equator. On the day of the equinox, the Sun appears to rise "due east" and se ...
es, Michaelmas (29 September) and Lady Day (25 March). The Yorkshire records of all three ridings are now completely transcribed, analyzed and available free onlineHearth Tax Online, Roehampton University, 2010
Retrieved 24 June 2011


History of agriculture


Sheep

The
hill A hill is a landform that extends above the surrounding terrain. It often has a distinct summit. Terminology The distinction between a hill and a mountain is unclear and largely subjective, but a hill is universally considered to be not a ...
s and slopes of Craven are greatly involved in the history of sheep particularly in the history of wool. After 5000 BC the Neolithic farming movement introduced domesticated sheep, but the
Roman occupation of Britain Roman Britain was the period in classical antiquity when large parts of the island of Great Britain were under occupation by the Roman Empire. The occupation lasted from AD 43 to AD 410. During that time, the territory conquered ...
introduced advanced sheep husbandry to Britain and made wool into a national industry. Craven was made accessible by major roads from Ribchester up Ribblesdale and from
York York is a cathedral city with Roman origins, sited at the confluence of the rivers Ouse and Foss in North Yorkshire, England. It is the historic county town of Yorkshire. The city has many historic buildings and other structures, such as ...
through
Ilkley Ilkley is a spa town and civil parish in the City of Bradford in West Yorkshire, in Northern England. Historically part of the West Riding of Yorkshire, Ilkley civil parish includes the adjacent village of Ben Rhydding and is a ward withi ...
. The extent of a
Roman villa A Roman villa was typically a farmhouse or country house built in the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire, sometimes reaching extravagant proportions. Typology and distribution Pliny the Elder (23–79 AD) distinguished two kinds of villa ...
farm excavated at Gargrave implies it practiced grazing on nearby moorland. By 1000 AD England and Spain were recognized as the pinnacles of European sheep wool production. About 1200 AD scientific treatises on agricultural estate management began to circulate amongst the Cistercian monasteries in the Yorkshire dales. These indicated the way to greatest profit was to produce wool for export.
Fountains Abbey Fountains Abbey is one of the largest and best preserved ruined Cistercian monasteries in England. It is located approximately south-west of Ripon in North Yorkshire, near to the village of Aldfield. Founded in 1132, the abbey operated for 4 ...
strongly affected Craven in upper Wharfedale, Airedale and Littondale. In 1200 the Abbey owned 15,000 sheep in various locations and traded directly with Italian merchants. On the limestone fells it held extensive sheep runs managed by granges located at valley heads to access both the moors and the rough pasture of valley sides. Many granges developed into hamlets. The Fountains' sheep administrative centre was at Outgang Hill, Kilnsey. By 1320 Bolton Priory's flock at Malham was about 2,750 and it built extensive sheep farm buildings there. Accounts show that a quarter of its cheese was sheep's cheese, and that most of the Priory's came from wool sales. It also developed
fulling Fulling, also known as felting, tucking or walking ( Scots: ''waukin'', hence often spelled waulking in Scottish English), is a step in woollen clothmaking which involves the cleansing of woven or knitted cloth (particularly wool) to elimin ...
, sorting and grading into industries. Feudal Lords began to imitate monastic management methods for their own estates and in 1350 when the
Black Death The Black Death (also known as the Pestilence, the Great Mortality or the Plague) was a bubonic plague pandemic occurring in Western Eurasia and North Africa from 1346 to 1353. It is the most fatal pandemic recorded in human history, cau ...
killed off half the rent-paying farmers they had the bailiffs substitute sheep-pasture for tillage. The export of wool to the Flanders looms, and the concurrent growth of cloth manufacture in England, aided by
Edward III Edward III (13 November 1312 – 21 June 1377), also known as Edward of Windsor before his accession, was King of England and Lord of Ireland from January 1327 until his death in 1377. He is noted for his military success and for restoring ro ...
's importation of Flemish weavers to teach his people the higher skill of the craft, made demand for all the wool that English flocks could supply. As the profitability of wool further increased some landowners converted all arable land into sheep pasture by evicting whole villages. Over 370 deserted medieval villages have been unearthed in Yorkshire.
Henry VIII Henry VIII (28 June 149128 January 1547) was King of England from 22 April 1509 until his death in 1547. Henry is best known for his six marriages, and for his efforts to have his first marriage (to Catherine of Aragon) annulled. His disagr ...
in 1539 suppressed the Monasteries and sold Littondale and the Bolton Priory's estates in lower Wharefedale and Airedale to Henry Clifford, 1st Earl of Cumberland and Lord of Skipton. By 1600 the wool trade was the primary source of tax revenue for
Queen Elizabeth I Elizabeth I (7 September 153324 March 1603) was Queen of England and Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death in 1603. Elizabeth was the last of the five House of Tudor monarchs and is sometimes referred to as the "Virgin Queen". Eli ...
. Britain's success made it a major influence in the development and spread of sheep husbandry worldwide. In more modern times the
Industrial Revolution The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in Great Britain, continental Europe, and the United States, that occurred during the period from around 1760 to about 1820–1840. This transition included going f ...
brought factory production of wool cloth to towns further down Airedale and many Craven families, made redundant by agricultural machinery, moved south to work in the
worsted Worsted ( or ) is a high-quality type of wool yarn, the fabric made from this yarn, and a yarn weight category. The name derives from Worstead, a village in the English county of Norfolk. That village, together with North Walsham and Aylsham, ...
mills. However, in 1966 the price of wool fell by 40% due to the increased popularity of synthetic fibres. Farmers complain it now costs more to shear a sheep than you can get for its wool and the result is reduced flocks. Although the tough wool of hill sheep is still used for carpet weaving, sheep breeding is now mostly for lambs to sell on for fattening for meat in low pastures.


Forestry

Woodlands are an important component of the landscape and are crucial to scenic beauty. The small surviving areas of ancient woodland have high
biodiversity Biodiversity or biological diversity is the variety and variability of life on Earth. Biodiversity is a measure of variation at the genetic ('' genetic variability''), species ('' species diversity''), and ecosystem (''ecosystem diversity'') ...
value. However the
Pennines The Pennines (), also known as the Pennine Chain or Pennine Hills, are a range of uplands running between three regions of Northern England: North West England on the west, North East England and Yorkshire and the Humber on the east. Commo ...
are now notably lacking in trees despite archaeological evidence showing 90% was woodlands before human settlement. Palynology indicates the decline in trees coincided with the increase in grasses in
Neolithic The Neolithic period, or New Stone Age, is an Old World archaeological period and the final division of the Stone Age. It saw the Neolithic Revolution, a wide-ranging set of developments that appear to have arisen independently in several par ...
times caused by direct clearance for pasture and by
overgrazing Overgrazing occurs when plants are exposed to intensive grazing for extended periods of time, or without sufficient recovery periods. It can be caused by either livestock in poorly managed agricultural applications, game reserves, or nature re ...
. Since sheep are grazers, not browsers, they do not affect mature trees, but they devour all their seedlings. With a much narrower face than cattle, they crop plants very close to the ground and with continuous grazing can overgraze land rapidly. Ancient
Common Common may refer to: Places * Common, a townland in County Tyrone, Northern Ireland * Boston Common, a central public park in Boston, Massachusetts * Cambridge Common, common land area in Cambridge, Massachusetts * Clapham Common, originally ...
Grazing rights Grazing rights is the right of a user to allow their livestock to feed (graze) in a given area. United States Grazing rights have never been codified in United States law, because such common-law rights derive from the English concept of t ...
made it impossible to grow trees, even for fuel, because
coppicing Coppicing is a traditional method of woodland management which exploits the capacity of many species of trees to put out new shoots from their stump or roots if cut down. In a coppiced wood, which is called a copse, young tree stems are repeat ...
requires enclosure to protect regrowth from sheep, and the rights deny enclosure. From 2002 to 2008, a Yorkshire Dales National Park programme encouraged sheep farmers to switch uplands livestock from sheep to cattle since they do not graze so intensively. Traditional breeds such as Blue Greys and Belted Galloways can survive the harsh winters and live off the rough grasses just as well a sheep.Limestone Country Project
Yorkshire Dales National Park Authority. Retrieved 18 June 2013
Until December 2013, The National Park Farming and Forestry Improvement Scheme is offering grants to help farming, forestry and horticultural businesses become more efficient, more profitable and resilient whilst reducing the impact of farming on the environment.Farming and Forestry Improvement Scheme
Yorkshire Dales National Park Authority. Retrieved 18 June 2013
Since 1968, some moorland has been reforested by the Forestry Commission. Since 2005, the collection of indigenous seeds and propagation produced saplings for planting schemes that began in 2010. Between 2007 and 2013 The Dales Woodland Restoration Programme funded the creation of 450 hectares of new native woodland, almost all on privately owned land.Trees and Woodlands
Yorkshire Dales National Park Authority. Retrieved 18 June 2013


Cattle

In the 16th and 17th centuries Longhorn cattle prevailed in Craven. Good quality bulls were bought communally to improve the livestock on the
common land Common land is land owned by a person or collectively by a number of persons, over which other persons have certain common rights, such as to allow their livestock to graze upon it, to collect wood, or to cut turf for fuel. A person who ha ...
beside each village. In the 18th century they
crossbred A crossbreed is an organism with purebred parents of two different breeds, varieties, or populations. ''Crossbreeding'', sometimes called "designer crossbreeding", is the process of breeding such an organism, While crossbreeding is used to main ...
with Shorthorns; fully grown crossbreeds weighed to . Some graziers of the Craven highlands also visited
Scotland Scotland (, ) is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. Covering the northern third of the island of Great Britain, mainland Scotland has a Anglo-Scottish border, border with England to the southeast ...
, for example
Oban Oban ( ; ' in Scottish Gaelic meaning ''The Little Bay'') is a resort town within the Argyll and Bute council area of Scotland. Despite its small size, it is the largest town between Helensburgh and Fort William. During the tourist season, th ...
,
Lanark Lanark (; gd, Lannraig ; sco, Lanrik) is a town in South Lanarkshire, Scotland, located 20 kilometres to the south-east of Hamilton. The town lies on the River Clyde, at its confluence with Mouse Water. In 2016, the town had a population of 9 ...
and
Stirling Stirling (; sco, Stirlin; gd, Sruighlea ) is a city in central Scotland, northeast of Glasgow and north-west of Edinburgh. The market town, surrounded by rich farmland, grew up connecting the royal citadel, the medieval old town with ...
, to purchase stock to be brought down the drove roads to the cattle-rearing district. In the summer of 1745 the celebrated Mr Birtwhistle had 20,000 head driven from the northernmost parts of Scotland to Great Close near Malham, a distance of ca . In 1818 the Craven Heifer, bred for meat on the
Bolton Abbey Bolton Abbey in Wharfedale, North Yorkshire, England, takes its name from the ruins of the 12th-century Augustinian monastery now known as Bolton Priory. The priory, closed in the 1539 Dissolution of the Monasteries ordered by King Hen ...
estate remains to this day the largest and fattest cow of her age ever shown in England, weighing . In modern times dairy farming has predominated and after the 1970s Holstein Friesians became the most popular breed weighing ca 1600 pounds (725 kg).


Crops

Pollen analysis shows that the peak of arable agriculture in Craven was 320–410 AD, but outbreaks of pestilence in the 6th century and in the 7–8th century resulted in a shift away from ploughing to grazing. However, the ''
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle The ''Anglo-Saxon Chronicle'' is a collection of annals in Old English, chronicling the history of the Anglo-Saxons. The original manuscript of the ''Chronicle'' was created late in the 9th century, probably in Wessex, during the reign of Alfr ...
'' records the Danish Viking settlers "were engaged in ploughing and making a living for themselves." Cultivation lynchet terraces and ridge-and-furrow fields of the Middle Ages are visible alongside many villages particularly in Wharfedale and Malhamdale and tithe records show they grew crops of oats, barley and wheat Life and Tradition in the Yorkshire Dales and in rotation, beans and peas. However, the wool boom of the 16th century caused most arable land to be turned into pasture. In the 18th century miller's records show they had to import wheat to grind and sell as flour but the farmers still grew oats for it formed the principle article of their subsistence, some made into bread and puddingsWhitaker’s History of Craven
pdf. Skipton Castle Co UK. Retrieved 12 June 2013
but mostly cooked as oatcakes.


Administration

In the 18th century the national Board of Agriculture commissioned a survey of agriculture in the region, with a view of improving it. It was published in 1793 as ''General view of the Agriculture of the West Riding of Yorkshire'', a 140-page book detailing every factor. The wide variety of soil composition resulted in
tithes A tithe (; from Old English: ''teogoþa'' "tenth") is a one-tenth part of something, paid as a contribution to a religious organization or compulsory tax to government. Today, tithes are normally voluntary and paid in cash or cheques or more r ...
ranging from 6 shillings up to 3 pounds per acre and farms leasing from 50 to 500 pounds per year. It details by parish quantities of cattle and crop produced, their
rotation Rotation, or spin, is the circular movement of an object around a '' central axis''. A two-dimensional rotating object has only one possible central axis and can rotate in either a clockwise or counterclockwise direction. A three-dimensional ...
and market value. The report recommended more wheat and turnips; more sheep and of better breed; criticized poor drainage and design of farm buildings and taught principles of farm management. Average wages then paid to employees were 12 pounds per annum with victuals and drink; and to temporary labourers 2 shillings and sixpence per day with beer. Hours of work in winter were "dawn till dark" and in harvest time "six till six, with one hour for dinner and another for drinking". The author shows concern for their virtue and welfare.


Government


Parliamentary constituency

Since 1983 Craven has been in the
Parliamentary A parliamentary system, or parliamentarian democracy, is a system of democratic governance of a state (or subordinate entity) where the executive derives its democratic legitimacy from its ability to command the support ("confidence") of th ...
constituency An electoral district, also known as an election district, legislative district, voting district, constituency, riding, ward, division, or (election) precinct is a subdivision of a larger state (a country, administrative region, or other poli ...
of Skipton & Ripon. This constituency is considered one of the safest seats in England with a long history of Conservative representation. The
Member of Parliament A member of parliament (MP) is the representative in parliament of the people who live in their electoral district. In many countries with bicameral parliaments, this term refers only to members of the lower house since upper house members of ...
(MP) was: John Watson 1983 to 1987; David Curry 1987 to 2010; Julian Smith since 2010.


County Council

North Yorkshire County Council North Yorkshire County Council (NYCC) is the county council governing the non-metropolitan county of North Yorkshire; an area composing most of North Yorkshire in England. The council currently consists of 90 councillors. The council is curren ...
administers an area of , the largest
county A county is a geographic region of a country used for administrative or other purposes Chambers Dictionary, L. Brookes (ed.), 2005, Chambers Harrap Publishers Ltd, Edinburgh in certain modern nations. The term is derived from the Old French ...
in England. It is a non-metropolitan county that operates a
cabinet-style council In England, local authorities are required to adopt one of three types of executive arrangements, having either an "elected mayor and cabinet", a "leader and cabinet", or a "committee system". The type of arrangement used determines how decisions ...
in
Northallerton Northallerton ( ) is a market town and civil parish in the Hambleton District of North Yorkshire, England. It lies in the Vale of Mowbray and at the northern end of the Vale of York. It had a population of 16,832 in the 2011 census, an in ...
. The 72 councillors therein elect a council leader who appoints up to 9 councillors to form the executive cabinet. NYCC Elections – 2017 results


District divisions

Craven, for representation on North Yorkshire County Council, is divided into seven divisions and each returns one
councillor A councillor is an elected representative for a local government council in some countries. Canada Due to the control that the provinces have over their municipal governments, terms that councillors serve vary from province to province. Unl ...
. # Airedale # Mid-Craven # North Craven # Ribblesdale # Skipton East # Skipton West # South Craven


District Council

Elections to Craven District Council are held in three out of every four years, with one third of the 30 seats on the council being elected at each election. Since the first election to the council in 1973 the council has alternated between periods when no party had overall control and times when the Conservatives had a majority, apart from a 2-year period between 1996 and the 1998 election when the Liberal Democrats had a majority. After no party had a majority since 2001, the Conservatives regained overall control at the 2010 election and have held it since. After the Craven District Council 2016 election the council is composed of the following
councillor A councillor is an elected representative for a local government council in some countries. Canada Due to the control that the provinces have over their municipal governments, terms that councillors serve vary from province to province. Unl ...
s:-


District council wards

There are 76 Civil Parishes in Craven They are grouped into 19 wards. The Wards are represented by 30 councillors; eight wards by one councillor and eleven by two councillor
These are the current councillors
These are the wards: # Aire Valley with Lothersdale Ward : Parishes of Bradleys Both, Cononley, Farnhill, Kildwick, Lothersdale (two councillors) # Barden Fell Ward : Parishes of Appletreewick, Barden, Beamsley, Bolton Abbey, Bordley, Burnsall, Cracoe, Draughton, Hazlewood-with-Storiths, Halton East, Hetton, Rylstone, Thorpe. # Bentham Ward : Parishes of Bentham and Burton-in-Lonsdale (two councillors) # Cowling Ward : Parish of Cowling. # Embsay with Eastby Ward : Parish of Embsay with Eastby. # Gargrave and Malhamdale Ward : Parishes of Airton, Bank Newton, Calton, Coniston Cold, Eshton, Flasby-with-Winterburn, Gargrave, Hanlith, Kirkby Malham, Malham, Malham Moor, Otterburn, Scosthrop, Stirton-with-Thorlby (two councillors) # Glusburn Ward : Parish of Glusburn and Cross Hills (two councillors) # Grassington Ward : Parishes of Grassington, Hebden, Hartlington, Linton. # Hellifield and Long Preston Ward : Parishes of Hellifield, Long Preston, Nappa, Swinden. # Ingleton and Clapham Ward : Parishes of Austwick, Clapham-cum-Newby, Ingleton, Lawkland, Thornton-in-Lonsdale. (two councillors) # Penyghent Ward : Parishes of Giggleswick, Horton-in-Ribblesdale, Stainforth. # Settle and Ribble Banks Ward : Parishes of Halton West, Langcliffe, Rathmell, Settle, Wigglesworth (two councillors) # Skipton East Ward : Parish of Skipton (two councillors) # Skipton North Ward : Parish of Skipton (two councillors) # Skipton South Ward : Parish of Skipton (two councillors) # Skipton West Ward : Parish of Skipton (two councillors) # Sutton-in-Craven Ward : Parish of Sutton-in-Craven (two councillors) # Upper Wharfedale Ward : Parishes of Arncliffe, Buckden, Conistone-with-Kilnsey, Halton Gill, Hawkswick, Kettlewell-with-Starbotton, Linton, Threshfield. # West Craven Ward : Parishes of Broughton, Carleton, Elslack, Martons Both, Thornton-in-Craven.


Abolition

In July 2021 the Ministry of Housing, Communities and Local Government announced that in April 2023, the non-metropolitan county will be reorganised into a
unitary authority A unitary authority is a local authority responsible for all local government functions within its area or performing additional functions that elsewhere are usually performed by a higher level of sub-national government or the national governme ...
. Craven District Council will be abolished and its functions transferred to a new single authority for the non-metropolitan county of North Yorkshire.


Allied organisations

Craven District Council allies with other organizations: * ''North Yorkshire County'' is a two tier local authority area, with NYCC being the top and Craven District Council the bottom tier. Whilst CDC is responsible for providing some services NYCC is responsible for others. * ''The Leeds City Region'' is the economic area comprising Craven, Harrogate, York, Bradford, Leeds, Selby, Calderdale, Kirklees, Wakefield and Barnsley. LCR members work together in fields such as transport, housing and spatial planning. * ''North Yorkshire Strategic Partnership'' is a partnership of public sector, private sector and voluntary organizations in Craven working together to meet the needs of the communities. * ''North Yorkshire Children's Trust'', part of the NYSP, represents all those agencies that working with children and young people across the county. NYCT promotes the five national Every Child Matters outcomes for children. * ''York and North Yorkshire Cultural Partnership'' brings together a number of Yorkshire agencies that bring the benefits of culture to quality of life and economic regeneration. This partnership is working together to deliver the York and North Yorkshire Cultural Strategy 2009–2014. * ''Welcome to Yorkshire'' works to improves what the region has to offer tourists.


Other Cravens


West Craven

In the 1974 government reorganization of the shire districts, some towns were lost to Lancashire, but because of cultural history some of them, all now part of the
borough of Pendle Pendle is a local government district and borough of Lancashire, England. It adjoins the Lancashire boroughs of Burnley and Ribble Valley, the North Yorkshire district of Craven and the West Yorkshire boroughs of Calderdale and Bradford. It ha ...
, came to be known as West Craven: Barnoldswick, Earby, Sough, Kelbrook, Salterforth and Bracewell and Brogden. (Other more westerly parts of Craven that became parts of Ribble Valley in modern Lancashire, such as Gisburn, are not normally referred to as part of West Craven.)


Archdeaconery of Craven

The Anglican Church Archdeanery number 542 is named Craven and has four Deaneries: Ewecross, Bowland, Skipton and South Craven. Ecclesiastic Craven is much larger than the civic District of Craven; in particular northern Ewecross is in
Cumbria Cumbria ( ) is a ceremonial and non-metropolitan county in North West England, bordering Scotland. The county and Cumbria County Council, its local government, came into existence in 1974 after the passage of the Local Government Act 1972. ...
county, lower South Craven is in
West Yorkshire West Yorkshire is a metropolitan and ceremonial county in the Yorkshire and Humber Region of England. It is an inland and upland county having eastward-draining valleys while taking in the moors of the Pennines. West Yorkshire came into exis ...
, and south-west Bowland is in
Lancashire Lancashire ( , ; abbreviated Lancs) is the name of a historic county, ceremonial county, and non-metropolitan county in North West England. The boundaries of these three areas differ significantly. The non-metropolitan county of Lancashi ...
county. The Church of England has considered changing their boundary of Bowland to match that of civic Lancashire


Deanery of South Craven

The
Deanery A deanery (or decanate) is an ecclesiastical entity in the Roman Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church, the Anglican Communion, the Evangelical Church in Germany, and the Church of Norway. A deanery is either the jurisdiction or residen ...
of South Craven is much bigger than the council election division of South Craven, as the Deanery of South Craven comprises the following parishes: Cononley, Cowling, Cross Roads cum Lees, Cullingworth, Denholme, East Morton, Harden, Haworth, Ingrow, Keighley (St Andrews), Kildwick, Newsholme, Oakworth, Oxenhope, Riddlesden, Silsden, Steeton with Eastburn, Sutton-in-Craven, Thwaites Brow, Utley and Wilsden. The Civic boundaries also contrast in that only Bradley, Cowling, Kildwick and Sutton-in-Craven are in North Yorkshire; the other 16 are in West Yorkshire.


South Craven and Wharfedale

South Craven is in the Archdeaconery of Bradford, and on 1 January 2017
The Church of England The Church of England (C of E) is the established Christian church in England and the mother church of the international Anglican Communion. It traces its history to the Christian church recorded as existing in the Roman province of Britain ...
put into effect a redrawing of the
map A map is a symbolic depiction emphasizing relationships between elements of some space, such as objects, regions, or themes. Many maps are static, fixed to paper or some other durable medium, while others are dynamic or interactive. Althou ...
of its subdivisions of the Bradford Episcopal Area by geographic re-grouping This geographic
departmentalization Departmentalization (or departmentalisation) refers to the process of grouping activities into departments. Division of labour creates specialists who need coordination. This coordination is facilitated by grouping specialists together in departm ...
into four new deaneries is an effective
mind map A mind map is a diagram used to visually organize information into a hierarchy, showing relationships among pieces of the whole. It is often created around a single concept, drawn as an image in the center of a blank page, to which associated r ...
, whereby South Craven is now grouped by
regional geography Regional geography is a major branch of geography. It focuses on the interaction of different cultural and natural geofactors in a specific land or landscape, while its counterpart, systematic geography, concentrates on a specific geofactor at the ...
with similar parishes so they can work together more effectively.
West Yorkshire Dales Anglican News Retrieved 6 May 2017
Whereas South Craven was previously grouped with "Ilkley and Keighley" it is now adjoined to
Wharfedale Wharfedale ( ) is the valley of the upper parts of the River Wharfe and one of the Yorkshire Dales. It is situated within the districts of Craven and Harrogate in North Yorkshire, and the cities of Leeds and Bradford in West Yorkshire. ...
as South Craven and Wharfedale. The Deanery of South Craven and Wharfedale now includes: Addingham; St John
Ben Rhydding Ben Rhydding is a village in the City of Bradford, West Yorkshire, England. It is part of the Ilkley urban area and civil parish. The village is situated on a north-facing valley side beneath the Cow and Calf rocks and above and to the sout ...
; Burley Woodhead; St John the Evangelist,
Cononley Cononley ( or ) is a village and civil parish in the Craven district of North Yorkshire, England. Historically part of the West Riding of Yorkshire, Cononley is in the Aire Valley south of Skipton and with an estimated population of 1,080 (2 ...
with Bradley; Cowling;
Ilkley Ilkley is a spa town and civil parish in the City of Bradford in West Yorkshire, in Northern England. Historically part of the West Riding of Yorkshire, Ilkley civil parish includes the adjacent village of Ben Rhydding and is a ward withi ...
All Saints; St Margaret Ilkley; Kildwick; Christ Church Lothersdale; St John the Divine,
Menston Menston is a village and civil parish in the City of Bradford in the county of West Yorkshire, England. Along with Burley in Wharfedale, most of Menston is within Wharfedale Ward in the metropolitan borough of Bradford. The remainder of Men ...
; St James Silsden; and St Thomas Sutton-in-Craven.


Towns

The largest town in Craven is
Skipton Skipton (also known as Skipton-in-Craven) is a market town and civil parish in the Craven district of North Yorkshire, England. Historically in the East Division of Staincliffe Wapentake in the West Riding of Yorkshire, it is on the Riv ...
. Other major population centres in the region include High Bentham, Settle, Grassington. The expanded villages of Sutton-in-Craven, Cross Hills and Glusburn are now considered one urban conglomerate.


Geography

Craven comprises the upper reaches of Airedale,
Wharfedale Wharfedale ( ) is the valley of the upper parts of the River Wharfe and one of the Yorkshire Dales. It is situated within the districts of Craven and Harrogate in North Yorkshire, and the cities of Leeds and Bradford in West Yorkshire. ...
, Ribblesdale and the river Wenning of Lonsdale.


Topography

Craven is a group of valleys. Through Craven the
River Aire The River Aire is a major river in Yorkshire, England, in length. The ''Handbook for Leeds and Airedale'' (1890) notes that the distance from Malham to Howden is direct, but the river's meanderings extend that to . Between Malham Tarn and A ...
and River Wharfe flow east to the
North Sea The North Sea lies between Great Britain, Norway, Denmark, Germany, the Netherlands and Belgium. An epeiric sea on the European continental shelf, it connects to the Atlantic Ocean through the English Channel in the south and the Norwegian ...
; and the
River Ribble The River Ribble runs through North Yorkshire and Lancashire in Northern England. It starts close to the Ribblehead Viaduct in North Yorkshire, and is one of the few that start in the Yorkshire Dales and flow westwards towards the Irish Sea ...
and River Wenning flow west to the
Irish Sea The Irish Sea or , gv, Y Keayn Yernagh, sco, Erse Sie, gd, Muir Èireann , Ulster-Scots: ''Airish Sea'', cy, Môr Iwerddon . is an extensive body of water that separates the islands of Ireland and Great Britain. It is linked to the C ...
. To Craven's north stand
limestone Limestone ( calcium carbonate ) is a type of carbonate sedimentary rock which is the main source of the material lime. It is composed mostly of the minerals calcite and aragonite, which are different crystal forms of . Limestone forms wh ...
mountains of up to
above mean sea level Height above mean sea level is a measure of the vertical distance (height, elevation or altitude) of a location in reference to a historic mean sea level taken as a vertical datum. In geodesy, it is formalized as '' orthometric heights''. The co ...
and to its south lie bleak
sandstone Sandstone is a clastic sedimentary rock composed mainly of sand-sized (0.0625 to 2 mm) silicate grains. Sandstones comprise about 20–25% of all sedimentary rocks. Most sandstone is composed of quartz or feldspar (both silicates) ...
moors, that above grow little but bracken.page 4
an
page 5
Marginal Upland Grazing Sutton Moor, Domesday Reloaded, BBC 1986
Transport Transport (in British English), or transportation (in American English), is the intentional movement of humans, animals, and goods from one location to another. Modes of transport include air, land ( rail and road), water, cable, pipel ...
can find the
Pennines The Pennines (), also known as the Pennine Chain or Pennine Hills, are a range of uplands running between three regions of Northern England: North West England on the west, North East England and Yorkshire and the Humber on the east. Commo ...
a formidable barrier for roads can be blocked by snow for several days. However, Craven makes a sheltered passageway with low passes.


Natural vegetation

At the end of the last
ice age An ice age is a long period of reduction in the temperature of Earth's surface and atmosphere, resulting in the presence or expansion of continental and polar ice sheets and alpine glaciers. Earth's climate alternates between ice ages and gree ...
, ca 11,500 years ago, plants returned to the bare earth and archaeological palynology can identify their species. The first trees to colonize were willow, birch and juniper, followed later by alder and pine. By 6500 BC temperatures were warmer and woodlands covered 90% of the dales with mostly pine, elm, lime and oak. On the limestone soils the oak was slower to colonize and pine and birch predominated. Around 3000 BC a noticeable decline in tree pollen indicates that Neolithic farmers were clearing woodland to increase grazing for domestic livestock, and studies at Linton Mires and Eshton Tarn find an increase in grassland species in Craven. On poorly drained impermeable areas of millstone grit, shale or clays the topsoil gets waterlogged in Winter and Spring. Here tree suppression combined with the heavier rainfall results in
blanket bog Blanket bog or blanket mire, also known as featherbed bog, is an area of peatland, forming where there is a climate of high rainfall and a low level of evapotranspiration, allowing peat to develop not only in wet hollows but over large expanse ...
up to thick. The erosion of peat ca 2010 still exposes stumps of ancient trees. Vegetation in the Pennines is adapted to subarctic climates, but altitude and acidity are also factors. For example, on
Sutton Sutton (''south settlement'' or ''south town'' in Old English) may refer to: Places United Kingdom England In alphabetical order by county: * Sutton, Bedfordshire * Sutton, Berkshire, a location * Sutton-in-the-Isle, Ely, Cambridgeshire * Su ...
Moor the millstone grit's topsoil below has a
soil ph Soil pH is a measure of the acidity or basicity (alkalinity) of a soil. Soil pH is a key characteristic that can be used to make informative analysis both qualitative and quantitatively regarding soil characteristics. pH is defined as the ne ...
that is almost neutral, ph 6 to 7, and so grows good grazing. However, above it is acidic, ph 2 to 4, and so can grow only bracken, heather,
sphagnum ''Sphagnum'' is a genus of approximately 380 accepted species of mosses, commonly known as sphagnum moss, peat moss, also bog moss and quacker moss (although that term is also sometimes used for peat). Accumulations of ''Sphagnum'' can store w ...
, and coarse grasses such as
cottongrass ''Eriophorum'' (cottongrass, cotton-grass or cottonsedge) is a genus of flowering plants in the family Cyperaceae, the sedge family. They are found throughout the arctic, subarctic, and temperate portions of the Northern Hemisphere in acid bog ...
,
purple moor grass ''Molinia caerulea'', known by the common name purple moor-grass, is a species of grass that is native to Europe, west Asia, and north Africa. It grows in locations from the lowlands up to in the Alps. Like most grasses, it grows best in acid s ...
and heath rush. However dressing it with lime produces better quality grass for sheep grazing. Such is named marginal upland grazing. This suggests that early
pastoral farming Pastoral farming (also known in some regions as ranching, livestock farming or grazing) is aimed at producing livestock, rather than growing crops. Examples include dairy farming, raising beef cattle, and raising sheep for wool. In contrast, ...
on millstone grit soil flourished in areas where lime was most easily available.


Demography

* The population is increasing and growing older. By 2020 Craven's population is projected at 63,400, an increase of 14.2% (2006 based sub-national population projections ONS) * 95.6% of the Districts population is white British, with ethnic minority (BME) groups making up 4.4% (Mid Year 2006 Population Estimates, Experimental Statistics ONS). * Young people aged 19 and under make up 22% of the population, those aged 20 to 64 make up 56%, and those aged 65 and over 22% (Mid Year 2008 Population Estimates, ONS) * 17.23% of the population consider themselves to have a long-term limiting illness or disability (2001 Census Statistics ONS).


Economy

Economic forecasts for 2010 show that the Craven District's diverse economy, measured in Gross Value Added (GVA), is worth £1.14 billion ($1.87 billion) Since 1998 the value of the District's economy has grown by 45%. Craven hosts a variety of small businesses – 72% employ less than four people. Businesses that employ above 50 employees (2.2%) are mostly in the south of the District. * The visitor economy sector has the largest number of businesses. * The banking, finance and insurance sector has experienced significant growth since 2003 mainly through the Skipton Building Society group. * Agriculture and land-based industries form a significant part of the District's economy, particularly within the remoter areas. * Manufacturing has declined since 2003 but is still a key sector: Major manufacturers are Systagenix Wound Management.


Traditional mainstays


Agriculture

The business of agriculture revolves around the market towns of Craven: AHDB, the national Agriculture and Horticulture Development Board, The Agriculture and Horticulture Development Board issues regional reports with constant updates on agricultural output: * CATTLE: For example, at Skipton Auction Mart on one day 108 cattle were sold including 55 prime steers, 53 heifers, 2 young bulls and 21 older heifers (July 2011).EBLEX, the organization for the English beef and Sheep Industry
/ref> In June 2013 the top price by weight was 185.5p/kg for two Aberdeen Angus-cross heifers at £1,075 ($1,681) per head.Selling prices at Skipton Cattle Market
Meat Trade News. Retrieved 19 June 2013
* SHEEP: For example, at Skipton Auction Mart in one day 985 lambs and 278 ewes/rams were sold (July 2011). In June 2013 the top price by weight for lambs was 240.8p/kg at £94 ($147) per head); rams fetched a top price of £79.50 ($124) per head and sheep averaged £47.10 ($73) per head. * SHEEP DOGS auctions for working dogs are held seasonally at Skipton and Bentham. The world record price was broken in 2011 with £6,300 ($10,270) for ''Dewi Fan'' and again in May 2016, when ''Cap'' was sold at Skipton for £16,000. * DAIRY: Traditionally Craven milk is mostly sold as cheese. North Yorkshire in 2008 had 649 holdings with 71,518 dairy cows aged over 2 years. Average annual milk yield is 7,406 litres/cow. Wholesale production of milk for all of North Yorkshire 2009/10 was 488,894,588 litres. Two thirds of Craven lie within the
Yorkshire Dales The Yorkshire Dales is an upland area of the Pennines in the historic county of Yorkshire, England, most of it in the Yorkshire Dales National Park created in 1954. The Dales comprise river valleys and the hills rising from the Vale of York ...
National Park where traditional landscape preservation is required.Craven District Council Adopted Local Plan
Craven District Council. Retrieved 19 June 2013


Quarrying

Silurian The Silurian ( ) is a geologic period and system spanning 24.6 million years from the end of the Ordovician Period, at million years ago ( Mya), to the beginning of the Devonian Period, Mya. The Silurian is the shortest period of the Paleozo ...
gritstone Gritstone or grit is a hard, coarse-grained, siliceous sandstone. This term is especially applied to such sandstones that are quarried for building material. British gritstone was used for millstones to mill flour, to grind wood into pulp for p ...
is quarried along the North Craven Fault above Ingleton and in Ribblesdale. Lower
Carboniferous The Carboniferous ( ) is a geologic period and system of the Paleozoic that spans 60 million years from the end of the Devonian Period million years ago ( Mya), to the beginning of the Permian Period, million years ago. The name ''Carbonif ...
Great Scar
Limestone Limestone ( calcium carbonate ) is a type of carbonate sedimentary rock which is the main source of the material lime. It is composed mostly of the minerals calcite and aragonite, which are different crystal forms of . Limestone forms wh ...
is quarried in those areas and also near Grassington. Carboniferous
reef A reef is a ridge or shoal of rock, coral or similar relatively stable material, lying beneath the surface of a natural body of water. Many reefs result from natural, abiotic processes— deposition of sand, wave erosion planing down rock o ...
limestone is quarried around
Skipton Skipton (also known as Skipton-in-Craven) is a market town and civil parish in the Craven district of North Yorkshire, England. Historically in the East Division of Staincliffe Wapentake in the West Riding of Yorkshire, it is on the Riv ...
.


Employment

In 2008 there were 26,591 employed; 22% were self-employed. In 2010 each Full Time Equivalent (FTE) employee contributed £40,311 to the District's economy, representing an increase in productivity of 21.9% since 1998; an annual increase of 1.8%. The value of output per capita (estimated to be £19,703) has increased by 32% since 1998.


Transport

There are no motorways in the area. It was shown by a national detailed Land Use Survey by the
Office for National Statistics The Office for National Statistics (ONS; cy, Swyddfa Ystadegau Gwladol) is the executive office of the UK Statistics Authority, a non-ministerial department which reports directly to the Parliament of the United Kingdom, UK Parliament. Overv ...
in 2005, that Craven has the least proportion of land taken up by roads of any district in England: 0.7%. This compared with a maximum of over 20% in four London boroughs and the
City of London The City of London is a city, ceremonial county and local government district that contains the historic centre and constitutes, alongside Canary Wharf, the primary central business district (CBD) of London. It constituted most of London fr ...
.


Passes

Transport Transport (in British English), or transportation (in American English), is the intentional movement of humans, animals, and goods from one location to another. Modes of transport include air, land ( rail and road), water, cable, pipel ...
can find the
Pennines The Pennines (), also known as the Pennine Chain or Pennine Hills, are a range of uplands running between three regions of Northern England: North West England on the west, North East England and Yorkshire and the Humber on the east. Commo ...
a barrier on occasion when some roads are blocked by snow for several days. Craven is of great significance to the North of England for by its topography it provides low-altitude passes through "the backbone of England". They were especially significant for the railway and canal builders. The lowest passes through the Pennines are: * The Airedale to Ribblesdale pass near Barnoldswick is at
Thornton-in-Craven Thornton-in-Craven is a village and civil parish in the Craven district of North Yorkshire, England. It is approx from the border with Lancashire and north of Earby. Barnoldswick is nearby. The Pennine Way passes through the village, as d ...
* The Airedale to Ribblesdale pass near Settle is just East of Hellifield a point labelled Aire Gap on some maps.Bing Maps
Enter "Aire Gap, United Kingdom"
* The Airedale to Pendle Water pass near
Colne Colne () is a market town and civil parish in the Borough of Pendle in Lancashire, England. Located northeast of Nelson, north-east of Burnley, east of Preston and west of Leeds. The town should not be confused with the unrelated Colne V ...
is at Foulridge also sometimes called Aire Gap. * The Ribblesdale to Lonsdale pass near Settle is at Giggleswick Scar The nearest alternative pass through the Pennines is Stainmore Gap (Eden-Tees)Ordnance Survey Explorer Map, OL41, Forest of Bowland and Ribblesdale
to the North, but that is not in Craven's league for it climbs to and its climate is classed as sub-arctic in places. The nearest low-level routes across the country are over away: the Tyne Gap to the north, or the A619 road in
Derbyshire Derbyshire ( ) is a ceremonial county in the East Midlands, England. It includes much of the Peak District National Park, the southern end of the Pennine range of hills and part of the National Forest. It borders Greater Manchester to the nort ...
to the south.


Main routes

*
A59 road The A59 is a major road in England which is around long and runs from Wallasey, Merseyside to York, North Yorkshire. The alignment formed part of the Trunk Roads Act 1936, being then designated as the A59. It is a key route connecting Mersey ...
:
York York is a cathedral city with Roman origins, sited at the confluence of the rivers Ouse and Foss in North Yorkshire, England. It is the historic county town of Yorkshire. The city has many historic buildings and other structures, such as ...
,
Harrogate Harrogate ( ) is a spa town and the administrative centre of the Borough of Harrogate in North Yorkshire, England. Historically in the West Riding of Yorkshire, the town is a tourist destination and its visitor attractions include its spa ...
, Skipton, Barnoldswick, Clitheroe, Preston,
Liverpool Liverpool is a city and metropolitan borough in Merseyside, England. With a population of in 2019, it is the 10th largest English district by population and its metropolitan area is the fifth largest in the United Kingdom, with a populat ...
*
A65 road A65 or A-65 may refer to: * A65 road (England), a major road in England * A65 motorway (France), a major road in France * A65 motorway (Germany), a road connecting Kandel and Wörth am Rhein * A65 motorway (Netherlands) * A65 motorway (Spain) ...
:
Ilkley Ilkley is a spa town and civil parish in the City of Bradford in West Yorkshire, in Northern England. Historically part of the West Riding of Yorkshire, Ilkley civil parish includes the adjacent village of Ben Rhydding and is a ward withi ...
, Skipton, Settle, Ingleton,
Kendal Kendal, once Kirkby in Kendal or Kirkby Kendal, is a market town and civil parish in the South Lakeland district of Cumbria, England, south-east of Windermere and north of Lancaster. Historically in Westmorland, it lies within the dale of th ...
* A629 road: Skipton, Keighley, Halifax,
Huddersfield Huddersfield is a market town in the Kirklees district in West Yorkshire, England. It is the administrative centre and largest settlement in the Kirklees district. The town is in the foothills of the Pennines. The River Holme's confluence into t ...
, Rotherham *
A56 road The A56 is a road in England which extends between the city of Chester in Cheshire and the village of Broughton in North Yorkshire. The road contains a mixture of single and dual carriageway sections, and traverses environments as diverse as ...
: Earby, Colne, M65 motorway,
Burnley Burnley () is a town and the administrative centre of the wider Borough of Burnley in Lancashire, England, with a 2001 population of 73,021. It is north of Manchester and east of Preston, at the confluence of the River Calder and River ...
,
Manchester Manchester () is a city in Greater Manchester, England. It had a population of 552,000 in 2021. It is bordered by the Cheshire Plain to the south, the Pennines to the north and east, and the neighbouring city of Salford to the west. The tw ...
,
Chester Chester is a cathedral city and the county town of Cheshire, England. It is located on the River Dee, close to the English–Welsh border. With a population of 79,645 in 2011,"2011 Census results: People and Population Profile: Chester Loca ...
* Train: Skipton railway station to
Leeds Leeds () is a city and the administrative centre of the City of Leeds district in West Yorkshire, England. It is built around the River Aire and is in the eastern foothills of the Pennines. It is also the third-largest settlement (by popula ...
on the Airedale Line * Train: Skipton railway station to
Morecambe Morecambe ( ) is a seaside town and civil parish in the City of Lancaster district in Lancashire, England. It is in Morecambe Bay on the Irish Sea. Name The first use of the name was by John Whitaker in his ''History of Manchester'' (1771), ...
on the Leeds–Morecambe line * Train: Settle railway station to Carlisle or Leeds on Settle–Carlisle line


A59 York–Liverpool

The
A59 road The A59 is a major road in England which is around long and runs from Wallasey, Merseyside to York, North Yorkshire. The alignment formed part of the Trunk Roads Act 1936, being then designated as the A59. It is a key route connecting Mersey ...
runs along the southern edge of Airedale to Ribblesdale. It runs about north of a disused Roman road through Craven that took the lowest pass through Thornton-in-Craven.


A56 Skipton–Chester

The route now known as the A56—-M65 first developed c.1773–1816 as the
Leeds and Liverpool Canal The Leeds and Liverpool Canal is a canal in Northern England, linking the cities of Leeds and Liverpool. Over a distance of , crossing the Pennines, and including 91 locks on the main line. The Leeds and Liverpool Canal has several small branc ...
to carry heavy industrial goods like
masonry Masonry is the building of structures from individual units, which are often laid in and bound together by mortar; the term ''masonry'' can also refer to the units themselves. The common materials of masonry construction are bricks, building ...
stone, limestone, and coal. The planned route into Ribblesdale was via a lower level pass but the
industrial revolution The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in Great Britain, continental Europe, and the United States, that occurred during the period from around 1760 to about 1820–1840. This transition included going f ...
in Nelson and
Colne Colne () is a market town and civil parish in the Borough of Pendle in Lancashire, England. Located northeast of Nelson, north-east of Burnley, east of Preston and west of Leeds. The town should not be confused with the unrelated Colne V ...
made it seem more profitable to change their route to Foulridge near Colne despite it being the highest pass.


A629 and A65 Keighley–Kendal

The route of the
A65 road A65 or A-65 may refer to: * A65 road (England), a major road in England * A65 motorway (France), a major road in France * A65 motorway (Germany), a road connecting Kandel and Wörth am Rhein * A65 motorway (Netherlands) * A65 motorway (Spain) ...
is perhaps the oldest for it follows a
Neolithic The Neolithic period, or New Stone Age, is an Old World archaeological period and the final division of the Stone Age. It saw the Neolithic Revolution, a wide-ranging set of developments that appear to have arisen independently in several par ...
trade route for stone axes from central Cumbria. By the 18th century the principal exports were cattle and most imports came on ninety pack horses from
Kendal Kendal, once Kirkby in Kendal or Kirkby Kendal, is a market town and civil parish in the South Lakeland district of Cumbria, England, south-east of Windermere and north of Lancaster. Historically in Westmorland, it lies within the dale of th ...
.OCR copy by North Craven Historical Research
Retrieved 30 September 2012
The cost of that for heavy goods was prohibitiveIntroduction To The Main Roads of Kendale
British Historyac.uk. Retrieved 30 September 2012
so the textile industrialist of Settle campaigned that the road from Keighley to Kendal be made passable to wheeled vehicles and in 1753 the Keighley and Kendal Turnpike Trust was founded. By 1840 passenger
stagecoach A stagecoach is a four-wheeled public transport coach used to carry paying passengers and light packages on journeys long enough to need a change of horses. It is strongly sprung and generally drawn by four horses although some versions are dr ...
es ran daily but in 1878 Parliament abolished all Turnpikes and set up
County Council A county council is the elected administrative body governing an area known as a county. This term has slightly different meanings in different countries. Ireland The county councils created under British rule in 1899 continue to exist in Irel ...
s; and the management of the main roads was transferred to them. By 1968 traffic had so increased in volume that it necessitated the rebuilding of the A629 and A65. The
Skipton Skipton (also known as Skipton-in-Craven) is a market town and civil parish in the Craven district of North Yorkshire, England. Historically in the East Division of Staincliffe Wapentake in the West Riding of Yorkshire, it is on the Riv ...
northern bypass of 1981 cost £16.4 million. The Kildwick bypass was completed in 1988.


Education


Educational attainment

The proportion of the working age population with high levels of educational attainment is above the national average, and 40% of the District's residents have managerial and professional occupations. Also Lantra's Landskills offers workshops in efficiency and profitability in agriculture, horticulture and forestry with up to 70% funding. Craven is covered in ''Farm Business Support and Development'' and ''Yorkshire Rural Training Network''. Yet from 2004 to 2009 there was generally a decline in attainment of about 12% and the number of people in the District with no qualifications increased by 1.8%. Such people have reduced employment options, however Craven College in Skipton is one of the largest Further Education Colleges in North Yorkshire and provides an outreach service to rural areas.


Museums

Craven Museum & Gallery in Skipton is one of three museums in the district. It has obtained funding to deliver various projects: * The Phoenix Project; delivered in partnership with the three other museums in Craven increased accessibility of collections. * The Archaeology in the Landscape project, targeting young people, families and the disadvantaged, delivers events, workshops, demonstrations and education programmes to 3,460 young people and over 17,000 adults. *The Young Archaeologists Club programme delivered museum education to approx 3,000 students 2009–2010. As part of the projects above Craven Museum & Gallery staff worked with both the Museum of North Craven Life, The Folly in Settle and the Grassington Folk Museum.


Arts

Craven District supports arts through music, theatre, dance, literature, visual arts and festivals. Funding from the Arts Council England (Yorkshire) alone totalled £435,811 between 2006 and 2009. Grants from other sources including the Gulbenkian Fund and Esme Fairburn Trust totalling well over an additional £160,000. A new exhibition gallery was opened in 2005 at Craven Museum & Gallery, Skipton, which now hosts a programme of exhibitions each year.


Sport

Craven Council opened the ''Craven Pool and Fitness Centre'' in 2003 and extended it in 2007. The Centre reached the semi-finals in the Best Semi Best Sports Project category of The National Lottery Awards. The ''Craven Active Sports Network'' develops opportunities for participation in sport and active recreation, sourcing funding for a variety of projects throughout the District, totalling over £14.5 million in 2001–2011. The ''National Sport Unlimited Scheme'', delivering a programme of sporting activity to 1,205 young people and teenagers, brought in £45,000 of external funding.


Notable people

In 1665 Lady Anne Clifford, 14th Baroness de Clifford, owned and restored Skipton Castle. In 1548 William Craven of Appletreewick was born to a modest family in Appletreewick near Skipton. At age 14 he was sent to London to apprentice to a Watling Street tailor. He qualified in 1569 and made such a fine impression that in 1600 he was made Alderman of Bishopgate; in 1603 he was knighted by James I and in 1610 he was chosen Lord Mayor of London. He is sometimes referred to as "Aptrick's Dick Whittington" suggesting that the story of
Dick Whittington Richard Whittington (c. 1354–1423) of the parish of St Michael Paternoster Royal, City of London, was an English merchant and a politician of the late medieval period. He is also the real-life inspiration for the English folk tale '' Di ...
is based on his life. William made benefactions to Craven, founding the school in Burnsall. One of William's sons, John Craven, founded the famous Craven Scholarships at Oxford and Cambridge Universities and in 1647 left many large charitable bequests to Craven towns including Burnsall and Skipton. In 1660 William's first son William Craven was made the first Earl of Craven by Charles II. However, that title was
eponym An eponym is a person, a place, or a thing after whom or which someone or something is, or is believed to be, named. The adjectives which are derived from the word eponym include ''eponymous'' and ''eponymic''. Usage of the word The term ''epon ...
ous for the estate was in Uffington, Berkshire so he was in no sense a
lord Lord is an appellation for a person or deity who has authority, control, or power over others, acting as a master, chief, or ruler. The appellation can also denote certain persons who hold a title of the peerage in the United Kingdom, or ar ...
of Craven Yorkshire. The botanist George Caley (1770–1829) was born in Craven.


Gallery

File:River Wenning - geograph.org.uk - 116841.jpg, River Wenning passing The Punch Bowl in Low Bentham File:View of High Bentham from path.jpg, View of High Bentham from the Heritage Trail File:View of Settle from Castlebergh.jpg, View of Settle from Castlebergh, a 300 feet (91 m) limestone crag File: Hillside above Settle and the Langcliffe mills - geograph.org.uk - 782271.jpg, View back across the Ribble to Giggleswick Scar File:River Aire south of Malham.jpg, Airedale South of Malham File:Gargrave Milepost - geograph.org.uk - 1331010.jpg, Gargrave's milestone on the Keighley and Kendal Turnpike, 1753–1878 File:River Aire Gargrave.jpg, The
River Aire The River Aire is a major river in Yorkshire, England, in length. The ''Handbook for Leeds and Airedale'' (1890) notes that the distance from Malham to Howden is direct, but the river's meanderings extend that to . Between Malham Tarn and A ...
at Gargrave File:View from Skipton moor.jpg, View of
Skipton Skipton (also known as Skipton-in-Craven) is a market town and civil parish in the Craven district of North Yorkshire, England. Historically in the East Division of Staincliffe Wapentake in the West Riding of Yorkshire, it is on the Riv ...
from Skipton Moor File:Kildwick Bridge 14th century side.jpg, Kildwick Bridge west side built 1305–1313 with ribbed vaulting


See also

* List of places of worship in Craven


References


Further reading

* * *. Viewable online a
Whitaker's History of Craven
pdf Skipton Castle Co UK. Retrieved 12 June 2013


External links

*
Craven District Council

North Yorkshire County Council

Craven Museum & Gallery, Skipton

North Craven Historical Research Group, Settle

The Craven Herald & Pioneer
{{DEFAULTSORT:Craven 1974 establishments in England Leeds City Region Non-metropolitan districts of North Yorkshire