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The City of London is a
city A city is a large .Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routledge. It can be defined as a permanent and s ...
,
ceremonial county The counties and areas for the purposes of the lieutenancies, also referred to as the lieutenancy areas of England and informally known as ceremonial counties, are areas of England to which lord-lieutenant, lord-lieutenants are appointed. Legal ...

ceremonial county
and
local government district The districts of England (also known as local authority districts or local government districts to distinguish from unofficial city districts) are a level of subnational division of England used for the purposes of local government. As the str ...
that contains the historic centre and the primary
central business district A central business district (CBD) is the commercial and business center of a city. It contains commercial space and offices. In larger cities, it is often synonymous with the city's "financial district". Geographically, it often coincides with t ...
(CBD) of
London London is the and of and the . It stands on the in south-east England at the head of a down to the , and has been a major settlement for two millennia. The , its ancient core and financial centre, was founded by the as ' and retains b ...

London
. It constituted most of London from its settlement by the
Romans Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Lazio, ...

Romans
in the 1st century AD to the
Middle Ages In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and the interpretation of past events and affairs of the people of Europe since the beginning of w ...
, but the modern city named London has since grown far beyond the City of London boundary. The city is now only a tiny part of the
metropolis of London
metropolis of London
, though it remains a notable part of
central London Central London is the innermost part of London London is the capital city, capital and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, largest city of England and the United Kingdom. The city stands on the River Thames in the south-east of Engla ...
. Administratively, it forms one of the 33
local authority districts
local authority districts
of London; however, the City of London is not a
London borough The London boroughs are the 32 districts of England, local authority districts that make up the Ceremonial counties of England, ceremonial county of Greater London; each is governed by a London borough council. The present London boroughs were ...
, a status reserved for the other 32 districts (including London's only other city, the
City of Westminster The City of Westminster is a City status in the United Kingdom, city and London boroughs, borough in Inner London which forms a core part of Central London. It is the site of the United Kingdom's Houses of Parliament and much of the British gov ...

City of Westminster
). It is also a separate
ceremonial county The counties and areas for the purposes of the lieutenancies, also referred to as the lieutenancy areas of England and informally known as ceremonial counties, are areas of England to which lord-lieutenant, lord-lieutenants are appointed. Legal ...

ceremonial county
, being an
enclave An enclave is a territory (or a part of one) that is entirely surrounded by the territory of one other state. Enclaves may also exist within territorial waters. ''Enclave'' is sometimes used improperly to denote a territory that is only partly s ...

enclave
surrounded by
Greater London Greater London is an Metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties of England, administrative area governed by the Greater London Authority, and a Ceremonial counties of England, ceremonial county of England that covers the bulk of the same area ...

Greater London
, and is the smallest ceremonial county in the United Kingdom. The City of London is widely referred to simply as the City (differentiated from the phrase "the city of London" by capitalising ''City'') and is also colloquially known as the Square Mile, as it is in area. Both of these terms are also often used as metonyms for the United Kingdom's trading and
financial services Financial services are the economic services provided by the finance Finance is the study of financial institutions, financial markets and how they operate within the financial system. It is concerned with the creation and management of mone ...
industries, which continue a notable history of being largely based in the city. The name ''London'' is now ordinarily used for a far wider area than just the city. ''London'' most often denotes the sprawling London metropolis, or the 32 London boroughs, in addition to the City of London itself. This wider usage of ''London'' is documented as far back as 1888, when the
County of London The County of London was a county of England from 1889 to 1965, corresponding to the area known today as Inner London. It was created as part of the general introduction of elected county government in England, by way of the Local Government Ac ...
was created. The
local authority Local government is a generic term for the lowest tiers of public administration Public administration is the implementation of public policy, government policy and also an academic discipline that studies this implementation and prepares civ ...
for the city, namely the
City of London Corporation The City of London Corporation, officially and legally the Mayor and Commonalty and Citizens of the City of London, is the municipal governing body of the City of London, the historic centre of London and the location of much of the United Kingd ...
, is unique in the UK and has some unusual responsibilities for a local council, such as being the police authority. It is also unusual in having responsibilities and ownerships beyond its boundaries. The corporation is headed by the
Lord Mayor of the City of London Lord is an appellation for a person or deity A deity or god is a supernatural being considered divinity, divine or sacred. The ''Oxford Dictionary of English'' defines deity as "a God (male deity), god or goddess (in a polytheistic religion) ...
(an office separate from, and much older than, the
Mayor of London The mayor of London is the chief executive of the Greater London Authority The Greater London Authority (GLA), colloquially known by the metonym "City Hall", is the Devolution in the United Kingdom, devolved Regions of England, regional ...
). The Lord Mayor, as of November 2019, is Vincent Keaveny. The city is made up of 25 wards, with administration at the historic
Guildhall A guildhall is either a town hall, or a building historically used by guilds for meetings and other purposes, in which sense it can also be spelled as "guild hall" and may also be called a "guild house". It is also the official or colloquial nam ...
. Other historic sites include
St Paul's Cathedral St Paul's Cathedral is an Anglicanism, Anglican cathedral in London. As the seat of the Bishop of London, the cathedral serves as the mother church of the Diocese of London. It sits on Ludgate Hill at the highest point of the City of London a ...

St Paul's Cathedral
,
Royal ExchangeRoyal Exchange may refer to: *North East Quarter, Belfast, a planned city centre development formerly known as Royal Exchange. *Royal Exchange, Dublin, now City Hall, Dublin *Royal Exchange, Edinburgh, now the Edinburgh City Chambers *Royal Exchange ...

Royal Exchange
, Mansion House,
Old Bailey The Central Criminal Court of England and Wales, commonly referred to as the Old Bailey after the street on which it stands, is a criminal court building in central London, one of several that houses the Crown Court of England and Wales. The s ...
, and
Smithfield Market Smithfield is a district located in Central London Central London (also known less commonly as London city centre) is the innermost part of London, in England, spanning several London borough, boroughs. Over time, a number of definitions ha ...

Smithfield Market
. Although not within the city, the adjacent
Tower of London The Tower of London, officially Her Majesty's Royal Palace and Fortress of the Tower of London, is a historic castle in East Sussex East Sussex is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative ...

Tower of London
is part of its old defensive perimeter. Bridges under the jurisdiction of the City include
London Bridge Several bridges named London Bridge have spanned the River Thames The River Thames ( ), known alternatively in parts as the The Isis, River Isis, is a river that flows through southern England including London. At , it is the longest riv ...

London Bridge
and
Blackfriars Bridge Blackfriars Bridge is a road and foot traffic bridge over the River Thames in London, between Waterloo Bridge and Blackfriars Railway Bridge, carrying the A201 road. The north end is near the Inns of Court and Temple Church, along with Blackfr ...

Blackfriars Bridge
. The city is a major business and
financial centre A financial centre, financial center, or financial hub is a location with a concentration of participants Participation or Participant may refer to: Politics *Participation (decision making), mechanisms for people to participate in social de ...
, and the
Bank of England The Bank of England is the central bank of the United Kingdom and the model on which most modern central banks have been based. Established in 1694 to act as the Kingdom of England, English Government's banker, and still one of the bankers for t ...

Bank of England
is headquartered in the city. Throughout the 19th century, the city was the world's primary business centre, and it continues to be a major meeting point for businesses. London came top in the Worldwide Centres of Commerce Index, published in 2008. The insurance industry is located in the eastern side of the city, around
Lloyd's building The Lloyd's building (sometimes known as the Inside-Out Building) is the home of the insurance institution Lloyd's of London. It is located on the former site of East India House in Lime Street, London, Lime Street, in London's main financial dis ...

Lloyd's building
. A secondary financial district exists outside the city, at
Canary Wharf Canary Wharf is an area of London, England, located on the Isle of Dogs in the London Borough of Tower Hamlets. Canary Wharf is defined by the Greater London Authority as being part of London's central business district, alongside Central London ...

Canary Wharf
, to the east. The city has a resident population of 9,401 ( ONS estimate, mid-2016) but over 500,000 are employed there, and some estimates put the number of workers in the city to be over 1 million. About three-quarters of the jobs in the City of London are in the financial, professional, and associated business services sectors. The legal profession forms a major component of the northern and western sides of the city, especially in the
Temple A temple (from the Latin ) is a building reserved for spiritual rituals and activities such as prayer and sacrifice. Religions which erect temples include Christianity (whose temples are typically called church (building), churches), Hinduism (w ...
and
Chancery Lane Chancery Lane is a one-way street situated in the Wards of the City of London, ward of Farringdon Without in the City of London. It has formed the western boundary of the City since 1994, having previously been divided between the City of West ...
areas where the
Inns of Court The Inns of Court in London are the professional associations for barristers in England and Wales. There are four Inns of Court – Gray's Inn, Lincoln's Inn, Inner Temple and Middle Temple. All barristers must belong to one of them. They have ...
are located, of which two—
Inner Temple The Honourable Society of the Inner Temple, commonly known as the Inner Temple, is one of the four (professional associations for s and judges) in London. To be and practise as a barrister in , a person must belong to one of these Inns. It is ...

Inner Temple
and
Middle Temple The Honourable Society of the Middle Temple, commonly known simply as Middle Temple, is one of the four Inns of Court 300px, Combined arms of the four Inns of Court. Clockwise from top left: Lincoln's Inn, Middle Temple, Gray's Inn, Inner Te ...

Middle Temple
—fall within the City of London boundary.


History


Origins

The Roman legions established a settlement known as "Londinium" on the current site of the City of London around AD 43. Its bridge over the
River Thames The River Thames ( ), known alternatively in parts as the River Isis, is a river that flows through southern England Southern England, or the South of England, also known as the South, is an area of England consisting of the southernmos ...
turned the city into a road nexus and major
port A port is a maritime law, maritime facility comprising one or more Wharf, wharves or loading areas, where ships load and discharge Affreightment, cargo and passengers. Although usually situated on a sea coast or estuary, ports can a ...
, serving as a major commercial centre in
Roman Britain Roman Britain is the period in classical antiquity when large parts of the island of Great Britain were under Roman conquest of Britain, occupation by the Roman Empire. The occupation lasted from AD 43 to AD 410. During that time, the ...

Roman Britain
until its abandonment during the 5th century. Archaeologist Leslie Wallace notes that, because extensive archaeological excavation has not revealed any signs of a significant pre-Roman presence, "arguments for a purely Roman foundation of London are now common and uncontroversial." At its height, the Roman city had a population of approximately 45,000–60,000 inhabitants. Londinium was an ethnically diverse city, with inhabitants from across the Roman Empire, including natives of Britannia,
continental Europe Continental Europe or mainland Europe is the contiguous continent A continent is any of several large landmass A landmass, or land mass, is a large region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', lite ...

continental Europe
, the Middle East, and North Africa. The Romans built the
London Wall The London Wall was a defensive wall first built by the Ancient Rome, Romans around the strategically important port town of Londinium in AD 200. It has origins as an initial mound wall and ditch from AD 100 and an initial fort, now called C ...

London Wall
some time between AD 190 and 225. The boundaries of the Roman city were similar to those of the City of London today, though the City extends further west than Londonium's
Ludgate Ludgate was the westernmost gate in London Wall. The name survives in Ludgate Hill, an eastward continuation of Fleet Street, Ludgate Circus and Ludgate Square. Etymology According to legend Ludgate is named after King Lud. The claim by the No ...
, and the Thames was undredged and thus wider than it is today, with Londonium's shoreline slightly north of the city's present shoreline. The Romans built a bridge across the river, as early as AD 50, near to today's
London Bridge Several bridges named London Bridge have spanned the River Thames The River Thames ( ), known alternatively in parts as the The Isis, River Isis, is a river that flows through southern England including London. At , it is the longest riv ...

London Bridge
.


Decline

By the time the
London Wall The London Wall was a defensive wall first built by the Ancient Rome, Romans around the strategically important port town of Londinium in AD 200. It has origins as an initial mound wall and ditch from AD 100 and an initial fort, now called C ...

London Wall
was constructed, the city's fortunes were in decline, and it faced problems of plague and fire. The Roman Empire entered a long period of instability and decline, including the Carausian Revolt in Britain. In the 3rd and 4th centuries, the city was under attack from
Picts The Picts were a group of peoples who lived in what is now northern and eastern Scotland Scotland ( sco, Scotland, gd, Alba Alba (Scottish Gaelic Scottish Gaelic ( gd, Gàidhlig or Scots Gaelic, sometimes referred to simply ...
, Scots, and
Saxon The Saxons ( la, Saxones, german: Sachsen, ang, Seaxan, osx, Sahson, nds, Sassen, nl, Saksen) were a group of early Germanic Germanic may refer to: * Germanic peoples, an ethno-linguistic group identified by their use of the Germanic langua ...

Saxon
raiders. The decline continued, both for Londinium and the Empire, and in AD 410 the Romans withdrew entirely from Britain. Many of the Roman public buildings in Londinium by this time had fallen into decay and disuse, and gradually after the formal withdrawal the city became almost (if not, at times, entirely) uninhabited. The centre of trade and population moved away from the walled Londinium to
Lundenwic The history of Anglo-Saxon London relates to the history of the city Towns and cities A city is a large human settlement In geography, statistics and archaeology, a settlement, locality or populated place is a community in which people ...
("London market"), a settlement to the west, roughly in the modern-day
Strand Strand may refer to: Topography *The flat area of land bordering a body of water, a: ** Beach ** Shoreline *Strand swamp, a type of swamp habitat in Florida Places Africa *Strand, Western Cape, a seaside town in South Africa *Strand Street, ...
/
Aldwych Aldwych (pronounced ) is a one-way street and the name of the area immediately surrounding it in central London, England, within the City of Westminster. The street starts Points of the compass, east-northeast of Charing Cross, the convention ...
/
Covent Garden Covent Garden is a district in London, on the eastern fringes of the West End West End most commonly refers to: * West End of London, an area of central London, England * West End theatre, a popular term for mainstream professional theatre st ...

Covent Garden
area.


Anglo-Saxon restoration

During the Anglo-Saxon
Heptarchy The Heptarchy is a collective name applied to the seven king King is the title given to a male in a variety of contexts. The female equivalent is , which title is also given to the of a king. *In the context of prehistory, antiqui ...

Heptarchy
, the London area came in turn under the Kingdoms of
Essex Essex () is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Chambers (publisher), William and Ro ...
,
Mercia Mercia (, ang, Miercna rīċe; la, Merciorum regnum) was one of the kingdoms of the . The name is a of the or (West Saxon dialect; in the Mercian dialect itself), meaning "border people" (see ). Mercia dominated what would later become ...

Mercia
, and later
Wessex Wessex (; ang, Westseaxna rīċe , 'the Kingdom of the West Saxons') was an Anglo-Saxons, Anglo-Saxon Heptarchy, kingdom in the south of Great Britain, from 519 until England was Kingdom of England, unified by Æthelstan in 927. The Anglo-Sa ...

Wessex
, though from the mid 8th century it was frequently under the control of or threat from the
Vikings Vikings—"pirate", non, víkingr is the modern name given to seafaring people primarily from Scandinavia Scandinavia; : ''Skadesi-suolu''/''Skađsuâl''. ( ) is a in , with strong historical, cultural, and linguistic ties. In ...

Vikings
.
Bede Bede ( ; ang, Bǣda , ; 672/326 May 735), also known as Saint Bede, The Venerable Bede, and Bede the Venerable ( la, Beda Venerabilis), was an English Benedictine The Benedictines, officially the Order of Saint Benedict ( la, Ordo Sa ...

Bede
records that in AD 604 consecrated
Mellitus Mellitus (died 24 April 624) was the first bishop of London in the Saxon period, the third Archbishop of Canterbury The Archbishop of Canterbury is the senior bishop and principal leader of the Church of England, the symbolic head of th ...
as the first bishop to the
Anglo-Saxon The Anglo-Saxons were a cultural group Cultural identity is a part of a person's identity Identity may refer to: Social sciences * Identity (social science), personhood or group affiliation in psychology and sociology Group expression ...
kingdom of the East Saxons and their king, Sæberht. Sæberht's uncle and overlord, Æthelberht, king of
Kent Kent is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Chambers (publisher), William and Robert ...

Kent
, built a church dedicated to St Paul in London, as the seat of the new bishop. It is assumed, although unproven, that this first Anglo-Saxon cathedral stood on the same site as the later medieval and the present cathedrals.
Alfred the Great Alfred the Great (848/49 – 26 October 899) was king of the West Saxons This is a list of monarchs of Wessex until 886 AD. For later monarchs, see the List of English monarchs. While the details of the later monarchs are confirmed by a numbe ...

Alfred the Great
,
King of Wessex This is a list of monarchs of Wessex Wessex (; ang, Westseaxna rīċe , 'the Kingdom of the West Saxons') was an Anglo-Saxon The Anglo-Saxons were a cultural group Culture () is an umbrella term which encompasses the social behavio ...
occupied and began the resettlement of the old
Roman Roman or Romans most often refers to: *, the capital city of Italy *, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *, the people of ancient Rome *', shortened to ''Romans'', a letter in the New Testament of the Christian Bible Roman ...

Roman
walled area, in 886, and appointed his son-in-law Earl Æthelred of Mercia over it as part of their reconquest of the Viking occupied parts of England. The refortified Anglo-Saxon settlement was known as Lundenburh ("London Fort", a
borough A borough is an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, are generic names for ...
). The historian Asser said that "Alfred, king of the Anglo-Saxons, restored the city of London splendidly ... and made it habitable once more." Alfred's "restoration" entailed reoccupying and refurbishing the nearly deserted Roman walled city, building quays along the Thames, and laying a new city street plan. Alfred's taking of London and the rebuilding of the old Roman city was a turning point in history, not only as the permanent establishment of the City of London, but also as part of a unifying moment in early England, with Wessex becoming the dominant English kingdom and the repelling (to some degree) of the Viking occupation and raids. While London, and indeed England, were afterwards subjected to further periods of Viking and Danish raids and occupation, the establishment of the City of London and the
Kingdom of England The Kingdom of England (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or ...

Kingdom of England
prevailed. In the 10th century, permitted eight mints to be established, compared with six in his capital,
Winchester Winchester is a cathedral city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London ...
, indicating the wealth of the city.
London Bridge Several bridges named London Bridge have spanned the River Thames The River Thames ( ), known alternatively in parts as the The Isis, River Isis, is a river that flows through southern England including London. At , it is the longest riv ...

London Bridge
, which had fallen into ruin following the Roman evacuation and abandonment of Londinium, was rebuilt by the Saxons, but was periodically destroyed by Viking raids and storms. As the focus of trade and population was moved back to within the old Roman walls, the older Saxon settlement of Lundenwic was largely abandoned and gained the name of ''Ealdwic'' (the "old settlement"). The name survives today as
Aldwych Aldwych (pronounced ) is a one-way street and the name of the area immediately surrounding it in central London, England, within the City of Westminster. The street starts Points of the compass, east-northeast of Charing Cross, the convention ...
(the "old market-place"), a name of a street and an area of the
City of Westminster The City of Westminster is a City status in the United Kingdom, city and London boroughs, borough in Inner London which forms a core part of Central London. It is the site of the United Kingdom's Houses of Parliament and much of the British gov ...

City of Westminster
between
Westminster Westminster is a district in Central London Central London is the innermost part of London London is the capital city, capital and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, largest city of England and the United Kingdom. The city sta ...

Westminster
and the City of London.


Medieval era

Following the
Battle of Hastings The Battle of Hastings or nrf, Batâle dé Hastings was fought on 14 October 1066 between the Norman-French army of William, the Duke of Normandy, and an English army under the Anglo-Saxon The Anglo-Saxons were a cultural group Cu ...

Battle of Hastings
,
William the Conqueror William I (c. 1028Bates ''William the Conqueror'' p. 33 – 9 September 1087), usually known as William the Conqueror and sometimes William the Bastard, was the first House of Normandy, Norman List of English monarchs, monarch of Engl ...

William the Conqueror
marched on London, reaching as far as
Southwark Southwark ( ) is a district of Central London situated on the south bank of the River Thames, forming the north-western part of the wider modern London Borough of Southwark. The district, which is the oldest part of South London, developed ...

Southwark
, but failed to get across London Bridge or to defeat the Londoners. He eventually crossed the River Thames at
WallingfordWallingford may refer to: Places * Wallingford, Oxfordshire, England, United Kingdom **Wallingford Castle the castle * Wallingford, Connecticut, United States * Wallingford, Iowa, United States * Wallingford, Kentucky, United States * Wallingford, ...
, pillaging the land as he went. Rather than continuing the war,
Edgar the Ætheling Edgar is a commonly used English given name English names are names used in, or originating in, England England is a that is part of the . It shares land borders with to its west and to its north. The lies northwest of England an ...

Edgar the Ætheling
,
Edwin of Mercia Edwin (Old English Old English (, ), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest recorded form of the English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval Englan ...
and
Morcar Morcar (or Morkere) ( ang, Mōrcǣr) (died after 1087) was the son of Ælfgar, Earl of Mercia, Ælfgār (earl of Mercia) and brother of Edwin, Earl of Mercia, Ēadwine. He was the earl of Northumbria from 1065 to 1066, when he was replaced by Wil ...
of Northumbria surrendered at
Berkhamsted Berkhamsted ( ) is a historic market town in Hertfordshire Hertfordshire (; often abbreviated Herts) is one of the home counties in southern England. It is bordered by Bedfordshire and Cambridgeshire to the north, Essex to the east, Greater ...
. William granted the citizens of London a charter in 1075; the city was one of a few examples of the English retaining some authority. The city was not covered by the
Domesday Book Domesday Book () – the Middle English Middle English (abbreviated to ME) was a form of the English language spoken after the Norman conquest of England, Norman conquest (1066) until the late 15th century. The English language underwent ...
. William built three castles around the city, to keep Londoners subdued: *
Tower of London The Tower of London, officially Her Majesty's Royal Palace and Fortress of the Tower of London, is a historic castle in East Sussex East Sussex is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative ...

Tower of London
, which is still a major establishment. *
Baynard's Castle Baynard's Castle refers to buildings on two neighbouring sites in the City of London The City of London is a City status in the United Kingdom, city, Ceremonial counties of England, ceremonial county and local government district that co ...
, which no longer exists but gave its name to a city ward. * Montfichet's Tower or Castle on
Ludgate Hill Ludgate Hill is a hill in the City of London The City of London is a City status in the United Kingdom, city, Ceremonial counties of England, ceremonial county and local government district that contains the historic centre and the pr ...

Ludgate Hill
, which was dismantled and sold off in the 13th century. About 1130,
Henry IHenry I may refer to: 876–1366 * Henry I the Fowler, King of Germany (876–936) * Henry I, Duke of Bavaria (died 955) * Henry I of Austria, Margrave of Austria (died 1018) * Henry I of France (1008–1060) * Henry I the Long, Margrave of the Nord ...

Henry I
granted a
sheriff A sheriff is a government official, with varying duties, existing in some countries with historical ties to England where the office originated. There is an analogous although independently developed office in Iceland that is commonly translated ...
to the people of London, along with control of the county of
Middlesex Middlesex (; abbreviation: Middx) is a Historic counties of England, historic county in South East England, southeast England. Its area is almost entirely within the wider urbanised area of London and mostly within the Ceremonial counties of En ...

Middlesex
: this meant that the two entities were regarded as one administratively (not that the county was a dependency of the city) until the
Local Government Act 1888 The Local Government Act 1888 (51 & 52 Vict. c.41) was an Act of Parliament Acts of parliament, sometimes referred to as primary legislation, are texts of law passed by the Legislature, legislative body of a jurisdiction (often a parliament or ...
.
Victoria County History The Victoria History of the Counties of England, commonly known as the Victoria County History or the VCH, is an English history project which began in 1899 with the aim of creating an encyclopaedic history of each of the historic counties of Engl ...
: A history of the County of Middlesex: Vol 2 pp 15–60 paragraph 12

. Retrieved 2 April 2012
By 1141 the whole body of the citizenry was considered to constitute a single community. This 'commune' was the origin of the
City of London Corporation The City of London Corporation, officially and legally the Mayor and Commonalty and Citizens of the City of London, is the municipal governing body of the City of London, the historic centre of London and the location of much of the United Kingd ...
and the citizens gained the right to appoint, with the king's consent, a mayor in 1189—and to directly elect the mayor from 1215. From medieval times, the city has been composed of Wards of the City of London, 25 ancient wards, each headed by an
alderman An alderman is a member of a municipal A municipality is usually a single administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level sub ...
, who chairs Wardmotes, which still take place at least annually. A Folkmoot, for the whole of the City held at the outdoor cross of
St Paul's Cathedral St Paul's Cathedral is an Anglicanism, Anglican cathedral in London. As the seat of the Bishop of London, the cathedral serves as the mother church of the Diocese of London. It sits on Ludgate Hill at the highest point of the City of London a ...

St Paul's Cathedral
, was formerly also held. Many of the medieval offices and traditions continue to the present day, demonstrating the unique nature of the City and its Corporation of London, Corporation. In 1381, the Peasants' Revolt affected London. The rebels took the City and the Tower of London, but the rebellion ended after its leader, Wat Tyler, was killed during a confrontation that included Lord Mayor William Walworth. The city was burnt severely on a number of occasions, the worst being in 1123 and in the Great Fire of London in 1666. Both of these fires were referred to as ''the'' Great Fire. After the fire of 1666, a number of plans were drawn up to remodel the city and its street pattern into a renaissance-style city with planned urban blocks, squares and boulevards. These plans were almost entirely not taken up, and the medieval street pattern re-emerged almost intact.


Early modern period

In the 1630s the Crown sought to have the Corporation of the City of London extend its jurisdiction to surrounding areas. In what is sometimes called the "great refusal", the Corporation said no to the King, which in part accounts for its unique government structure to the present. By the late 16th century, London increasingly became a major centre for banking, international trade and commerce. The
Royal ExchangeRoyal Exchange may refer to: *North East Quarter, Belfast, a planned city centre development formerly known as Royal Exchange. *Royal Exchange, Dublin, now City Hall, Dublin *Royal Exchange, Edinburgh, now the Edinburgh City Chambers *Royal Exchange ...

Royal Exchange
was founded in 1565 by Sir Thomas Gresham as a centre of commerce for London's merchants, and gained Royal patronage in 1571. Although no longer used for its original purpose, its location at the corner of Cornhill, London, Cornhill and Threadneedle Street continues to be the geographical centre of the city's core of banking and financial services, with the
Bank of England The Bank of England is the central bank of the United Kingdom and the model on which most modern central banks have been based. Established in 1694 to act as the Kingdom of England, English Government's banker, and still one of the bankers for t ...

Bank of England
moving to its present site in 1734, opposite the Royal Exchange on Threadneedle Street. Immediately to the south of Cornhill, Lombard Street, London, Lombard Street was the location from 1691 of Lloyd's Coffee House, which became the world-leading insurance market. London's insurance sector continues to be based in the area, particularly in Lime Street (ward), Lime Street. In 1708, Christopher Wren's masterpiece,
St Paul's Cathedral St Paul's Cathedral is an Anglicanism, Anglican cathedral in London. As the seat of the Bishop of London, the cathedral serves as the mother church of the Diocese of London. It sits on Ludgate Hill at the highest point of the City of London a ...

St Paul's Cathedral
, was completed on his birthday. The first service had been held on 2 December 1697, more than 10 years earlier. It replaced the original St Paul's, which had been completely destroyed in the Great Fire of London, and is considered to be one of the finest cathedrals in Britain and a fine example of Baroque architecture.


Growth of London

The 18th century was a period of rapid growth for
London London is the and of and the . It stands on the in south-east England at the head of a down to the , and has been a major settlement for two millennia. The , its ancient core and financial centre, was founded by the as ' and retains b ...

London
, reflecting an increasing national population, the early stirrings of the Industrial Revolution, and London's role at the centre of the evolving British Empire. The urban area expanded beyond the borders of the City of London, most notably during this period towards the West End of London, West End and
Westminster Westminster is a district in Central London Central London is the innermost part of London London is the capital city, capital and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, largest city of England and the United Kingdom. The city sta ...

Westminster
. Expansion continued and became more rapid by the beginning of the 19th century, with London growing in all directions. To the East End of London, East the Port of London grew rapidly during the century, with the construction of many docks, needed as the Thames at the city could not cope with the volume of trade. The arrival of the railways and the London Underground, Tube meant that London could expand over a much greater area. By the mid-19th century, with London still rapidly expanding in population and area, the city had already become only a small part of the wider metropolis.


19th and 20th centuries

An attempt was made in 1894 with the Royal Commission on the Amalgamation of the City and County of London to end the distinction between the city and the surrounding County of London, but a change of government at Westminster meant the option was not taken up. The city as a distinct polity survived despite its position within the London conurbation and History of local government in London, numerous local government reforms. Supporting this status, the city was a special parliamentary borough that elected four members to the unreformed House of Commons, who were retained after the Reform Act 1832; reduced to two under the Redistribution of Seats Act 1885; and ceased to be a separate constituency under the Representation of the People Act 1948. Since then the city is a minority (in terms of population and area) of the Cities of London and Westminster. The city's population fell rapidly in the 19th century and through most of the 20th century, as people moved outwards in all directions to London's vast Metro-land, suburbs, and many residential buildings were demolished to make way for office blocks. Like many areas of London and other British cities, the City fell victim to large scale and highly destructive aerial bombing during World War II, especially in the Blitz. Whilst St Paul's Cathedral survived the onslaught, large swathes of the area did not and the particularly heavy raids of late December 1940 led to a firestorm called the Second Great Fire of London. There was a major rebuilding programme in the decades following the war, in some parts (such as at the Barbican) dramatically altering the urban landscape. But the destruction of the older historic fabric allowed the construction of modern and larger-scale developments, whereas in those parts not so badly affected by bomb damage the City retains its older character of smaller buildings. The street pattern, which is still largely medieval, was altered slightly in places, although there is a more recent trend of reversing some of the post-war modernist changes made, such as at Paternoster Square. The City suffered terrorist attacks including the 1993 Bishopsgate bombing (Provisional Irish Republican Army, IRA) and the 7 July 2005 London bombings (Islamic terrorism, Islamist). In response to the 1993 bombing, a system of road barriers, checkpoints and surveillance cameras referred to as the "ring of steel (London), ring of steel" has been maintained to control entry points to the city. The 1970s saw the construction of tall office buildings including the 600-foot (183 m), 47-storey NatWest Tower, the first skyscraper in the UK. Office space development has intensified especially in the central, northern and eastern parts, with skyscrapers including 30 St Mary Axe, 30 St. Mary Axe ("the Gherkin"'), 122 Leadenhall Street, Leadenhall Building ("the Cheesegrater"), 20 Fenchurch Street ("the Walkie-Talkie"), the Broadgate Tower, the Heron Tower and 22 Bishopsgate, which is the tallest building in the city. The main residential section of the City today is the Barbican Estate, constructed between 1965 and 1976. The Museum of London is based there, as are a number of other services provided by the corporation.


Governance

The city has a unique political status, a legacy of its uninterrupted integrity as a corporate city since the Heptarchy, Anglo-Saxon period and its singular relationship with the British monarchy, Crown. Historically its system of government was not unusual, but it was not reformed by the Municipal Reform Act 1835 and little changed by later reforms, so that it is the only local government in the UK where elections are not run on the basis of one vote for every adult citizen. It is administered by the
City of London Corporation The City of London Corporation, officially and legally the Mayor and Commonalty and Citizens of the City of London, is the municipal governing body of the City of London, the historic centre of London and the location of much of the United Kingd ...
, headed by the Lord Mayor of London (not to be confused with the separate
Mayor of London The mayor of London is the chief executive of the Greater London Authority The Greater London Authority (GLA), colloquially known by the metonym "City Hall", is the Devolution in the United Kingdom, devolved Regions of England, regional ...
, an office created only in the year 2000), which is responsible for a number of functions and has interests in land beyond the city's boundaries. Unlike other English local authorities, the corporation has two council bodies: the (now largely ceremonial) Court of Aldermen and the Court of Common Council. The Court of Aldermen represents the wards, with each ward (irrespective of size) returning one alderman. The chief executive of the Corporation holds the ancient office of Town Clerk of London. The city is a
ceremonial county The counties and areas for the purposes of the lieutenancies, also referred to as the lieutenancy areas of England and informally known as ceremonial counties, are areas of England to which lord-lieutenant, lord-lieutenants are appointed. Legal ...

ceremonial county
which has a Commission of Lieutenancy headed by the Lord Mayor instead of a Lord-Lieutenant and has Sheriffs of the City of London, two Sheriffs instead of a High Sheriff (see list of Sheriffs of London), quasi-judicial offices appointed by the livery company, livery companies, an ancient political system based on the representation and protection of trades (guilds). Senior members of the livery companies are known as Liveryman, liverymen and form the Common Hall, which chooses the lord mayor, the sheriffs and certain other officers.


Wards

The city is made up of 25 wards. They are survivors of the medieval government system that allowed a very local area to exist as a self-governing unit within the wider city. They can be described as electoral/political divisions; ceremonial, geographic and administrative entities; sub-divisions of the city. Each ward has an Alderman, who until the mid-1960s held office for life but since put themselves up for re-election at least every 6 years. Wards continue to have a Beadle, an ancient position which is now largely ceremonial whose main remaining function is the running of an annual Wardmote of electors, representatives and officials. At the Wardmote the ward's Alderman appoints at least one Deputy for the year ahead. Each ward also has a Ward Club, which is similar to a residents' association. The wards are ancient and their number has changed three times since time immemorial *in 1394 Farringdon, London, Farringdon was divided into Farringdon Within and Farringdon Without *in 1550 the ward of Bridge Without, Southwark, south of the river, was created, the ward of Bridge becoming Bridge Within; *in 1978 these Bridge wards were merged as Bridge (ward), Bridge ward. Following boundary changes in 1994, and later reform of the business vote in the city, there was a major boundary and electoral representation revision of the wards in 2003, and they were reviewed again in 2010 for change in 2013, though not to such a dramatic extent. The review was conducted by senior officers of the corporation and senior judges of the
Old Bailey The Central Criminal Court of England and Wales, commonly referred to as the Old Bailey after the street on which it stands, is a criminal court building in central London, one of several that houses the Crown Court of England and Wales. The s ...
; the wards are reviewed by this process to avoid malapportionment. The procedure of review is unique in the United Kingdom as it is not conducted by the Electoral Commission (United Kingdom), Electoral Commission or a local government boundary commission every 8 to 12 years, which is the case for all other Wards and electoral divisions of the United Kingdom, wards in Great Britain. Particular churches, livery company halls and other historic buildings and structures are associated with a ward, such as St Paul's Cathedral with Castle Baynard, and London Bridge with Bridge; boundary changes in 2003 removed some of these historic connections. Each ward elects an
alderman An alderman is a member of a municipal A municipality is usually a single administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level sub ...
to the Court of Aldermen, and commoners (the City equivalent of a councillor) to the Court of Common Council of the corporation. Only electors who are Freeman of the City of London, Freemen of the City of London are eligible to stand. The number of commoners a ward sends to the Common Council varies from two to ten, depending on the number of electors in each ward. Since the 2003 review it has been agreed that the four more residential wards: Portsoken, Queenhithe, Aldersgate and Cripplegate together elect 20 of the 100 commoners, whereas the business-dominated remainder elect the remaining 80 commoners. 2003 and 2013 boundary changes have increased the residential emphasis of the mentioned four wards. Census data provides eight nominal rather than 25 real wards, all of varying size and population. Being subject to renaming and definition at any time, these census 'wards' are notable in that four of the eight wards accounted for 67% of the 'square mile' and held 86% of the population, and these were in fact similar to and named after four City of London wards:


Elections

The city has a unique electoral system. Most of its voters are representatives of businesses and other bodies that occupy premises in the city. Its ancient wards have very unequal numbers of voters. In elections, both the businesses based in the city and the residents of the City vote. The City of London Corporation was not reformed by the Municipal Corporations Act 1835, because it had a more extensive electoral franchise than any other borough or city; in fact, it widened this further with its own equivalent legislation allowing one to become a Freedom of the City, freeman without being a liveryman. In 1801, the city had a population of about 130,000, but increasing development of the city as a central business district led to this falling to below 5,000 after the Second World War. It has risen slightly to around 9,000 since, largely due to the development of the Barbican Estate. In 2009, the business vote was about 24,000, greatly exceeding residential voters. As the City of London Corporation has not been affected by other municipal legislation over the period of time since then, its electoral practice has become increasingly anomalous. Uniquely for city or borough elections, its elections remain independent-dominated. The business or "non-residential vote" was abolished in other UK local council elections by the Representation of the People Act 1969, but was preserved in the City of London. The principal reason given by successive UK governments for retaining this mechanism for giving businesses representation, is that the city is "primarily a place for doing business". About 330,000 non-residents constitute the day-time population and use most of its services, far outnumbering residents, who number around 7,000 (2011). By contrast, opponents of the retention of the business vote argue that it is a cause of institutional inertia. The City of London (Ward Elections) Act 2002, a private Act of Parliament, reformed the voting system and greatly increased the business franchise, allowing many more businesses to be represented. Under the new system, the number of non-resident voters has doubled from 16,000 to 32,000. Previously disenfranchised firms (and other organisations) are entitled to nominate voters, in addition to those already represented, and all such bodies are now required to choose their voters in a representative fashion. Bodies employing fewer than 10 people may appoint 1 voter; those employing 10 to 50 people 1 voter for every 5 employees; those employing more than 50 people 10 voters and 1 additional voter for each 50 employees beyond the first 50. The Act also removed other anomalies which had been unchanged since the 1850s.


The Temple

Inner Temple The Honourable Society of the Inner Temple, commonly known as the Inner Temple, is one of the four (professional associations for s and judges) in London. To be and practise as a barrister in , a person must belong to one of these Inns. It is ...

Inner Temple
and
Middle Temple The Honourable Society of the Middle Temple, commonly known simply as Middle Temple, is one of the four Inns of Court 300px, Combined arms of the four Inns of Court. Clockwise from top left: Lincoln's Inn, Middle Temple, Gray's Inn, Inner Te ...

Middle Temple
(which neighbour each other) are two of the few remaining Liberty (division), liberties, an old name for a geographic division. They are independent extra-parochial areas, historically not governed by the
City of London Corporation The City of London Corporation, officially and legally the Mayor and Commonalty and Citizens of the City of London, is the municipal governing body of the City of London, the historic centre of London and the location of much of the United Kingd ...
(and are today regarded as local authorities for most purposes) and equally outside the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the Bishop of London. They are within the boundaries and liberties of the city, but can be thought of as independent
enclave An enclave is a territory (or a part of one) that is entirely surrounded by the territory of one other state. Enclaves may also exist within territorial waters. ''Enclave'' is sometimes used improperly to denote a territory that is only partly s ...

enclave
s. They are both part of Farringdon Without.


Other functions

Within the city, the Corporation owns and runs both
Smithfield Market Smithfield is a district located in Central London Central London (also known less commonly as London city centre) is the innermost part of London, in England, spanning several London borough, boroughs. Over time, a number of definitions ha ...

Smithfield Market
and Leadenhall Market. It owns land beyond its boundaries, including Corporation of London open spaces, open spaces (parks, forests and commons) in and around Greater London, including most of Epping Forest and Hampstead Heath. The Corporation owns Old Spitalfields Market and Billingsgate Fish Market, in the neighbouring London Borough of Tower Hamlets. It owns and helps fund the
Old Bailey The Central Criminal Court of England and Wales, commonly referred to as the Old Bailey after the street on which it stands, is a criminal court building in central London, one of several that houses the Crown Court of England and Wales. The s ...
, the Central Criminal Court for England and Wales, as a gift to the nation, having begun as the City and Middlesex Sessions. The Honourable The Irish Society, a body closely linked with the corporation, also owns many public spaces in Northern Ireland. The city has its own independent police force, the City of London Police—the Common Council (the main body of the corporation) is the police authority. The corporation also run the Hampstead Heath Constabulary, Epping Forest Keepers and the City of London market constabularies (whose members are no longer attested as constables but retain the historic title). The majority of Greater London is policed by the Metropolitan Police Service, based at Scotland Yard, New Scotland Yard. The city has one hospital, St Bartholomew's Hospital, also known as 'Barts'. Founded in 1123, it is located at Smithfield, London, Smithfield, and is undergoing a long-awaited regeneration after doubts as to its continuing use during the 1990s. The city is the third largest UK patron of the arts. It oversees the Barbican Centre and subsidises several important performing arts companies. The London Port Health Authority, which is the responsibility of the corporation, is responsible for all port health functions on the Port of London, tidal part of the Thames, including various seaports and London City Airport. The Corporation oversees the running of the Bridge House Trust, which maintains
London Bridge Several bridges named London Bridge have spanned the River Thames The River Thames ( ), known alternatively in parts as the The Isis, River Isis, is a river that flows through southern England including London. At , it is the longest riv ...

London Bridge
,
Blackfriars Bridge Blackfriars Bridge is a road and foot traffic bridge over the River Thames in London, between Waterloo Bridge and Blackfriars Railway Bridge, carrying the A201 road. The north end is near the Inns of Court and Temple Church, along with Blackfr ...

Blackfriars Bridge
, Southwark Bridge, Tower Bridge and the Millennium Bridge (London), Millennium Bridge. The Flag of the City of London, City's flag flies over Tower Bridge, although neither footing is in the city.


The boundary of the City

The size of the city was constrained by a defensive perimeter wall, known as
London Wall The London Wall was a defensive wall first built by the Ancient Rome, Romans around the strategically important port town of Londinium in AD 200. It has origins as an initial mound wall and ditch from AD 100 and an initial fort, now called C ...

London Wall
, which was built by the
Romans Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Lazio, ...

Romans
in the late 2nd century to protect their strategic port city. However the boundaries of the City of London no longer coincide with the old city wall, as the City expanded its jurisdiction slightly over time. During the medieval era, the city's jurisdiction expanded westwards, crossing the historic western border of the original settlement—the River Fleet—along Fleet Street to Temple Bar, London, Temple Bar. The city also took in the other "City bars" which were situated just beyond the old walled area, such as at Holborn, Aldersgate, Smithfield, London#Smithfield Bars, West Smithfield, Bishopsgate and Aldgate. These were the important entrances to the city and their control was vital in maintaining the city's special privileges over certain trades. Most of the wall has disappeared, but several sections remain visible. A section near the Museum of London was revealed after the devastation of an air raid on 29 December 1940 at the height of the The Blitz, Blitz. Other visible sections are at St Alphage London Wall, St Alphage, and there are two sections near the
Tower of London The Tower of London, officially Her Majesty's Royal Palace and Fortress of the Tower of London, is a historic castle in East Sussex East Sussex is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative ...

Tower of London
. The River Fleet was canalised after the Great Fire of 1666 and then in stages was bricked up and has been since the 18th century one of London's "Subterranean rivers of London, lost rivers or streams", today underground as a storm drain. The boundary of the city was unchanged until minor boundary changes on 1 April 1994, when it expanded slightly to the west, north and east, taking small parcels of land from the London Boroughs of City of Westminster, Westminster, London Borough of Camden, Camden, London Borough of Islington, Islington, London Borough of Hackney, Hackney and London Borough of Tower Hamlets, Tower Hamlets. The main purpose of these changes was to tidy up the boundary where it had been rendered obsolete by changes in the urban landscape. In this process the city also lost small parcels of land, though there was an overall net gain (the City grew from 1.05 to 1.12 square miles). Most notably, the changes placed the (then recently developed) Broadgate estate entirely in the city.
Southwark Southwark ( ) is a district of Central London situated on the south bank of the River Thames, forming the north-western part of the wider modern London Borough of Southwark. The district, which is the oldest part of South London, developed ...

Southwark
, to the south of the city on the other side of the River Thames, Thames, was within the City between 1550 and 1899 as the Ward of Bridge Without, a situation connected with the Guildable Manor. The city's administrative responsibility there had in practice disappeared by the mid-Victorian era, Victorian period as various aspects of metropolitan government were extended into the neighbouring areas. Today it is part of the London Borough of Southwark. The
Tower of London The Tower of London, officially Her Majesty's Royal Palace and Fortress of the Tower of London, is a historic castle in East Sussex East Sussex is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative ...

Tower of London
has always been outside the city and comes under the London Borough of Tower Hamlets.


Arms, motto and flag

The Corporation of the City of London has a full achievement (heraldry), achievement of armorial bearings consisting of a shield on which the arms are displayed, a crest (heraldry), crest displayed on a helm above the shield, supporters on either side and a motto displayed on a scroll beneath the arms. The coat of arms is "time immemorial, anciently recorded" at the College of Arms. The arms consist of a silver shield bearing a red cross with a red upright sword in the first quarter. They combine the emblems of the patron saints of England and London: the St George's Cross, Cross of St George with the symbol of the martyrdom of Paul the Apostle, Saint Paul. The sword is often erroneously supposed to commemorate the killing of Peasants' Revolt leader Wat Tyler by Lord Mayor of London William Walworth. However the arms were in use some months before Tyler's death, and the tradition that Walworth's dagger is depicted may date from the late 17th century. The Latin motto of the city is "''Domine dirige nos''", which translates as "Lord, direct us". It is thought to have been adopted in the 17th century, as the earliest record of it is in 1633. A banner of arms, banner of the arms (the design on the shield) is flown as a flag of the City of London, flag.


Geography

The City of London is the List of ceremonial counties of England, smallest ceremonial county of England by area and population, and the fourth most densely populated. Of the Districts of England, 326 English districts, it is the second smallest List of English districts by population, by population, after the Isles of Scilly, and the smallest List of English districts by area, by area. It is also List of cities in the United Kingdom#England, the smallest English city by population (and in Britain, only two cities in Wales are smaller), and the List of smallest cities in the United Kingdom, smallest in the UK by area. The elevation of the City ranges from sea level at the Thames to at the junction of High Holborn and Chancery Lane. Two small but notable hills are within the historic core,
Ludgate Hill Ludgate Hill is a hill in the City of London The City of London is a City status in the United Kingdom, city, Ceremonial counties of England, ceremonial county and local government district that contains the historic centre and the pr ...

Ludgate Hill
to the west and Cornhill, London, Cornhill to the east. Between them ran the Walbrook, one of the many Subterranean rivers of London, "lost" rivers or streams of London (another is the River Fleet, Fleet).


Boundary

:
Official boundary map
' Beginning in the west, where the City borders Westminster, the boundary crosses the Victoria Embankment from the Thames, passes to the west of
Middle Temple The Honourable Society of the Middle Temple, commonly known simply as Middle Temple, is one of the four Inns of Court 300px, Combined arms of the four Inns of Court. Clockwise from top left: Lincoln's Inn, Middle Temple, Gray's Inn, Inner Te ...

Middle Temple
, then turns for a short distance along
Strand Strand may refer to: Topography *The flat area of land bordering a body of water, a: ** Beach ** Shoreline *Strand swamp, a type of swamp habitat in Florida Places Africa *Strand, Western Cape, a seaside town in South Africa *Strand Street, ...
and then north up
Chancery Lane Chancery Lane is a one-way street situated in the Wards of the City of London, ward of Farringdon Without in the City of London. It has formed the western boundary of the City since 1994, having previously been divided between the City of West ...
, where it borders Camden. It turns east along Holborn to Holborn Circus and then goes northeast to Charterhouse Street. As it crosses Farringdon Road it becomes the boundary with Islington. It continues to Aldersgate, goes north, and turns east into some back streets soon after Aldersgate becomes Goswell Road, since 1994 embracing all of the corporation's Golden Lane Estate. Here, at Baltic Street West, is the most northerly extent. The boundary includes all of the Barbican Estate and continues east along Ropemaker Street and its continuation on the other side of Moorgate, becomes South Place. It goes north, reaching the border with Hackney, then east, north, east on back streets, with Worship Street forming a northern boundary, so as to include the Broadgate estate. The boundary then turns south at Norton Folgate and becomes the border with London Borough of Tower Hamlets, Tower Hamlets. It continues south into Bishopsgate, and takes some backstreets to Middlesex Street (Petticoat Lane) where it continues south-east then south. It then turns south-west, crossing the Minories so as to exclude the
Tower of London The Tower of London, officially Her Majesty's Royal Palace and Fortress of the Tower of London, is a historic castle in East Sussex East Sussex is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative ...

Tower of London
, and then reaches the river. It then runs up the centre of the Thames, with the exception that
Blackfriars Bridge Blackfriars Bridge is a road and foot traffic bridge over the River Thames in London, between Waterloo Bridge and Blackfriars Railway Bridge, carrying the A201 road. The north end is near the Inns of Court and Temple Church, along with Blackfr ...

Blackfriars Bridge
falls within the city; the City controls
London Bridge Several bridges named London Bridge have spanned the River Thames The River Thames ( ), known alternatively in parts as the The Isis, River Isis, is a river that flows through southern England including London. At , it is the longest riv ...

London Bridge
(as part of Bridge (ward), Bridge ward) but only half of the river underneath it. The boundaries are marked by black bollards bearing the city's emblem, and by dragon boundary marks at major entrances, such as Holborn. A more substantial monument marks the boundary at Temple Bar, London, Temple Bar on Fleet Street. In some places, the financial district extends slightly beyond the boundaries, notably to the north and east, into the London boroughs of Tower Hamlets, Hackney and Islington, and informally these locations are seen as part of the "Square Mile". Since the 1990s the eastern fringe, extending into Hackney and Tower Hamlets, has increasingly been a focus for large office developments due to the availability of large sites compared to within the city.


Gardens and public art

The city has no sizeable parks within its boundary, but does have a network of a large number of gardens and small open spaces, many of them maintained by the corporation. These range from formal gardens such as the one in Finsbury Circus, containing a bowling green and bandstand, to churchyards such as St Olave Hart Street, to water features and artwork in courtyards and pedestrianised lanes. Gardens include: * Barber-Surgeon's Hall Garden,
London Wall The London Wall was a defensive wall first built by the Ancient Rome, Romans around the strategically important port town of Londinium in AD 200. It has origins as an initial mound wall and ditch from AD 100 and an initial fort, now called C ...

London Wall
* Cleary Garden, Queen Victoria Street, London, Queen Victoria Street * Finsbury Circus, Blomfield Street/London Wall/Moorgate * Jubilee Garden, Houndsditch * Portsoken Street Garden, Portsoken Street/Goodman's Yard * Postman's Park, Little Britain, London, Little Britain * Seething Lane Garden, Seething Lane * St Dunstan-in-the-East, St Dunstan's Hill * St Mary Aldermanbury, Aldermanbury * St Olave Hart Street churchyard, Seething Lane * St Paul's churchyard,
St Paul's Cathedral St Paul's Cathedral is an Anglicanism, Anglican cathedral in London. As the seat of the Bishop of London, the cathedral serves as the mother church of the Diocese of London. It sits on Ludgate Hill at the highest point of the City of London a ...

St Paul's Cathedral
* West Smithfield Garden, West Smithfield * Whittington Gardens, College Street There are a number of private gardens and open spaces, often within courtyards of the larger commercial developments. Two of the largest are those of the
Inner Temple The Honourable Society of the Inner Temple, commonly known as the Inner Temple, is one of the four (professional associations for s and judges) in London. To be and practise as a barrister in , a person must belong to one of these Inns. It is ...

Inner Temple
and
Middle Temple The Honourable Society of the Middle Temple, commonly known simply as Middle Temple, is one of the four Inns of Court 300px, Combined arms of the four Inns of Court. Clockwise from top left: Lincoln's Inn, Middle Temple, Gray's Inn, Inner Te ...

Middle Temple
Inns of Court, in the far southwest. The Thames and its riverside walks are increasingly being valued as open space and in recent years efforts have been made to increase the ability for pedestrians to access and walk along the river.


Climate

The nearest weather station has historically been the London Weather Centre at Kingsway, London, Kingsway/ Holborn, although observations ceased in 2010. Now St. James Park provides the nearest official readings. The city has an Maritime Climate, oceanic climate (Köppen climate classification, Köppen "Cfb") modified by the Urban Heat Island in the centre of London. This generally causes higher night-time minima than outlying areas. For example, the August mean minimum of compares to a figure of for Greenwich and Heathrow whereas is at Wisley in the middle of several square miles of Metropolitan Green Belt. All figures refer to the observation period 1971–2000. Accordingly, the weather station holds the record for the UK's warmest overnight minimum temperature, , recorded on 4 August 1990. The maximum is , set on 10 August 2003. The absolute minimum for the weather station is a mere , compared to readings around towards the edges of London. Unusually, this temperature was during a windy and snowy cold spell (mid-January 1987), rather than a cold clear night—cold air drainage is arrested due to the vast urban area surrounding the city. The station holds the record for the highest British mean monthly temperature, (mean maximum , mean minimum during July 2006). However, in terms of daytime maximum temperatures, Cambridge NIAB and Botanical Gardens with a mean maximum of , and Heathrow with all exceeded this.


Public services


Police and security

The city is a police area and has its own territorial police force, police force, the City of London Police, separate from the Metropolitan Police Service covering the majority of Greater London. The City Police have three police stations, at Snow Hill, Wood Street, London, Wood Street and Bishopsgate, and an administrative headquarters at Guildhall Yard East. The force comprises 735 police officers including 273 detectives. It is the smallest territorial police force in England and Wales, in both geographic area and the number of police officers. Where the majority of British police forces have silver-coloured Cap badge, badges, those of the City of London Police are black and gold featuring the City crest. The force has rare Sillitoe tartan#United Kingdom, red and white chequered cap bands and unique red and white striped duty arm bands on the sleeves of the tunics of constables and sergeants (red and white being the colours of the city), which in most other British police forces are black and white. City police sergeants and constables wear crested custodian helmets whilst on foot patrol. These helmets do not feature either St Edward's Crown or the Brunswick Star, which are used on most other police helmets in England and Wales. The city's position as the United Kingdom's financial centre and a critical part of the country's economy, contributing about 2.5% of the UK's gross national product, has resulted in it becoming a target for political violence. The Provisional IRA exploded several bombs in the early 1990s, including the 1993 Bishopsgate bombing. The area is also spoken of as a possible target for al-Qaeda. For instance, when in May 2004 the BBC's ''Panorama (TV series), Panorama'' programme examined the preparedness of Britain's emergency services for a terrorist attack on the scale of the September 11 attacks, 11 September 2001 attacks, they simulated a chemical explosion on Bishopsgate in the east of the city. The Ring of steel (London), "Ring of Steel" was established in the wake of the IRA bombings to guard against terrorist threats.


Fire brigade

The city has fire risks in many historic buildings, including
St Paul's Cathedral St Paul's Cathedral is an Anglicanism, Anglican cathedral in London. As the seat of the Bishop of London, the cathedral serves as the mother church of the Diocese of London. It sits on Ludgate Hill at the highest point of the City of London a ...

St Paul's Cathedral
,
Old Bailey The Central Criminal Court of England and Wales, commonly referred to as the Old Bailey after the street on which it stands, is a criminal court building in central London, one of several that houses the Crown Court of England and Wales. The s ...
, Mansion House,
Smithfield Market Smithfield is a district located in Central London Central London (also known less commonly as London city centre) is the innermost part of London, in England, spanning several London borough, boroughs. Over time, a number of definitions ha ...

Smithfield Market
, the
Guildhall A guildhall is either a town hall, or a building historically used by guilds for meetings and other purposes, in which sense it can also be spelled as "guild hall" and may also be called a "guild house". It is also the official or colloquial nam ...
, and also in numerous high-rise buildings. There is one London Fire Brigade station in the city, at Dowgate, with one Fire appliances in the United Kingdom, pumping appliance. The City relies upon stations in the surrounding London boroughs to support it at some incidents. The first fire engine is in attendance in roughly five minutes on average, the second when required in a little over five and a half minutes. There were 1,814 incidents attended in the City in 2006/2007—the lowest in Greater London. No-one died in an event arising from a fire in the four years prior to 2007.


Power

There is power station located in Charterhouse Street that also provides heat to some of the surrounding buildings


Demography

The Office for National Statistics recorded the population in 2011 as 7,375; slightly higher than in the United Kingdom Census 2001, last census, 2001, and estimates the population as at mid-2016 to be 9,401. At the 2001 census the ethnic composition was 84.6% White people, White, 6.8% British Asian, South Asian, 2.6% Black British, Black, 2.3% British Mixed-Race, Mixed, 2.0% British Chinese, Chinese and 1.7% were listed as "Ethnic groups in the United Kingdom, other". To the right is a table showing the change in population since 1801, based on Census in the United Kingdom, decadal censuses. The first half of the 19th century shows a population of between 120,000 and 140,000, decreasing dramatically from 1851 to 1991, with a small increase between 1991 and 2001. The only notable boundary change since the first census in 1801 occurred in 1994. The city's full-time working residents have much higher gross weekly pay than in London and Great Britain (England, Wales and Scotland): £773.30 compared to £598.60 and £491.00 respectively. There is a large inequality of income between genders (£1,085.90 in men compared to £653.50 in women), though this can be explained by job type and length of employment respectively. The 2001 Census showed the city as a unique district amongst 376 districts surveyed in List of English districts, England and Districts of Wales, Wales. The city had the highest proportional population increase, one-person households, people with qualifications at degree level or higher and the highest indications of overcrowding. It recorded the lowest proportion of households with cars or vans, people who travel to work by car, married couple households and the lowest average household size: just 1.58 people. It also ranked highest within the Greater London area for the percentage of people with no religion and people who are employed.


Ethnicity


Economy

The City of London vies with New York City's Midtown Manhattan, Downtown Manhattan as the financial centre, financial capital of the world. Whilst New York is the most significant stock-trading centre, London's foreign exchange market is the biggest in the world, by the amount traded. The London Stock Exchange (Stock, shares and Bond (finance), bonds), Lloyd's of London (insurance) and the
Bank of England The Bank of England is the central bank of the United Kingdom and the model on which most modern central banks have been based. Established in 1694 to act as the Kingdom of England, English Government's banker, and still one of the bankers for t ...

Bank of England
are all based in the city. Over 500 banks have offices in the city. The Alternative Investment Market, a market for trades in Stock, equities of smaller firms, is a recent development. In 2009, the City of London accounted for 2.4% of UK GDP. London is the world's greatest foreign exchange market, with much of the trade conducted in the City of London. London's foreign exchange market has been described by Reuters as 'the crown jewel of London's financial sector'. Of the $3.98 trillion daily global turnover, as measured in 2009, trading in London accounted for around $1.85 trillion, or 46.7% of the total. The pound sterling, the currency of the United Kingdom, is globally the fourth most traded currency and the third most held reserve currency. Since 1991
Canary Wharf Canary Wharf is an area of London, England, located on the Isle of Dogs in the London Borough of Tower Hamlets. Canary Wharf is defined by the Greater London Authority as being part of London's central business district, alongside Central London ...

Canary Wharf
, a few miles east of the City in Tower Hamlets, has become another centre for London's financial services industry which houses many banks and other institutions formerly located in the Square Mile. Although growth has continued in both locations, and there have been relocations in both directions, the corporation has come to realise that its planning policies may have been causing financial firms to choose Canary Wharf as a location.


Headquarters

Many major global companies have their headquarters in the city, including Aviva, BT Group, Lloyds Banking Group, Quilter plc, Quilter, Prudential plc, Prudential, Schroders plc, Schroders, Standard Chartered Bank, Standard Chartered, and Unilever PLC, Unilever. A number of the world's largest law firms are headquartered in the city, including four of the "Magic Circle (law firms), Magic Circle" law firms (Allen & Overy, Freshfields Bruckhaus Deringer, Linklaters and Slaughter & May), as well as other firms such as Ashurst LLP, DLA Piper, Eversheds Sutherland, Herbert Smith Freehills and Hogan Lovells.


Other sectors

Whilst the financial sector, and related businesses and institutions, continue to dominate, the economy is not limited to that sector. The legal profession has a strong presence, especially in the west and north (i.e., towards the
Inns of Court The Inns of Court in London are the professional associations for barristers in England and Wales. There are four Inns of Court – Gray's Inn, Lincoln's Inn, Inner Temple and Middle Temple. All barristers must belong to one of them. They have ...
). Retail businesses were once important, but have gradually moved to the West End of London, though it is now Corporation policy to encourage retailing in some locations, for example at Cheapside near St Paul's. The city has a number of visitor attractions, mainly based on its historic heritage as well as the Barbican Centre and adjacent Museum of London, though tourism is not at present a major contributor to the city's economy or character. The city has many pubs, bars and restaurants, and the "night-time" economy does feature in the Bishopsgate area, towards Shoreditch. The meat market Smithfield Market, at Smithfield, wholly within the city, continues to be one of London's main markets (the only one remaining in central London) and the country's largest butcher, meat market. In the east is Leadenhall Market, a fresh food market that is also a visitor attraction.


Retail and residential

The trend for purely office development is beginning to reverse as the Corporation encourages residential use, albeit with development occurring when it arises on windfall sites. The city has a target of 90 additional dwellings per year. Some of the extra accommodation is in small pre-World War II listed buildings, which are not suitable for occupation by the large companies which now provide much of the city's employment. Recent residential developments include "the Heron", a high-rise residential building on the Milton Court site adjacent to the Barbican, and the Heron Tower#Heron Plaza, Heron Plaza development on Bishopsgate is also expected to include residential parts. Since the 1990s, the city has diversified away from near exclusive office use in other ways. For example, several hotels and the first department store opened in the 2000s. A shopping centre was more recently opened at One New Change, Cheapside (near St Paul's Cathedral) in October 2010, which is open seven days a week. However, large sections remain quiet at weekends, especially in the eastern section, and it is quite common to find shops, Public house, pubs and cafes closed on these days.


Landmarks


Historic buildings

Fire bombing and post-World War II redevelopment have meant that the city, despite its history, has fewer intact historic structures than one might expect. Nonetheless, there remain many dozens of (mostly Victorian and Edwardian) fine buildings, typically in historicist an
neoclassical style
They include the Monument to the Great Fire of London ("the Monument"),
St Paul's Cathedral St Paul's Cathedral is an Anglicanism, Anglican cathedral in London. As the seat of the Bishop of London, the cathedral serves as the mother church of the Diocese of London. It sits on Ludgate Hill at the highest point of the City of London a ...

St Paul's Cathedral
, Guildhall, London, the Guildhall, the
Royal ExchangeRoyal Exchange may refer to: *North East Quarter, Belfast, a planned city centre development formerly known as Royal Exchange. *Royal Exchange, Dublin, now City Hall, Dublin *Royal Exchange, Edinburgh, now the Edinburgh City Chambers *Royal Exchange ...

Royal Exchange
, Dr. Johnson's House, Mansion House and a :Churches in the City of London, great many churches, many designed by Sir Christopher Wren, who also designed St Paul's. 2 King's Bench Walk and Prince Henry's Room are notable historic survivors of heavy bombing of Temple, London, the Temple area, which has largely been rebuilt to its historic form. Another example of a bomb-damaged place having been restored is Staple Inn on Holborn. A few small sections of the Roman
London Wall The London Wall was a defensive wall first built by the Ancient Rome, Romans around the strategically important port town of Londinium in AD 200. It has origins as an initial mound wall and ditch from AD 100 and an initial fort, now called C ...

London Wall
exist, for example near the Tower of London and in the Barbican area. Among the twentieth-century listed buildings are Bracken House, London, Bracken House, the first post World War II buildings in the country to be given statutory protection, and the whole of the Barbican Estate, Barbican and Golden Lane Estate. The
Tower of London The Tower of London, officially Her Majesty's Royal Palace and Fortress of the Tower of London, is a historic castle in East Sussex East Sussex is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative ...

Tower of London
is not in the city, but is a notable visitor attraction which brings tourists to the southeast of the city. Other landmark buildings with historical significance include the
Bank of England The Bank of England is the central bank of the United Kingdom and the model on which most modern central banks have been based. Established in 1694 to act as the Kingdom of England, English Government's banker, and still one of the bankers for t ...

Bank of England
, the
Old Bailey The Central Criminal Court of England and Wales, commonly referred to as the Old Bailey after the street on which it stands, is a criminal court building in central London, one of several that houses the Crown Court of England and Wales. The s ...
, the Custom House, City of London, Custom House, Smithfield, London, Smithfield Market, Leadenhall Market and St Bartholomew's Hospital. Noteworthy contemporary buildings include a number of modern high-rise buildings (see section below) as well as the
Lloyd's building The Lloyd's building (sometimes known as the Inside-Out Building) is the home of the insurance institution Lloyd's of London. It is located on the former site of East India House in Lime Street, London, Lime Street, in London's main financial dis ...

Lloyd's building
.


Skyscrapers and tall buildings

;Completed A growing number of tall buildings and skyscrapers are principally used by the financial sector. Almost all are situated in the eastern side around Bishopsgate, Leadenhall Street and Fenchurch Street, in the financial core of the city. In the north there is a smaller cluster comprising the Barbican Estate's three tall residential towers and the commercial CityPoint tower. In 2007, the tall Drapers' Gardens building was demolished and replaced by a shorter tower. The city's buildings of at least in height are: ;Timeline The timeline of the tallest building in the city is as follows:


Transport


Rail and Tube

The city is well served by the London Underground ("tube") and National Rail networks. Seven London Underground lines serve the city: * Aldgate tube station, Aldgate * Bank and Monument stations, Bank and Monument * Blackfriars station, Blackfriars * Cannon Street station, Cannon Street * Liverpool Street station, Liverpool Street * Mansion House tube station, Mansion House * Moorgate station, Moorgate * St. Paul's tube station, St. Paul's Aldgate East tube station, Aldgate East ( ), Barbican tube station, Barbican ( ), Chancery Lane tube station, Chancery Lane (), and Tower Hill tube station, Tower Hill ( ) tube stations are all situated within metres of the City of London boundary. The Docklands Light Railway (DLR ) has two terminii in the city: Bank and Tower Gateway DLR station, Tower Gateway. The DLR links the City directly to the East End of London, East End. Destinations include
Canary Wharf Canary Wharf is an area of London, England, located on the Isle of Dogs in the London Borough of Tower Hamlets. Canary Wharf is defined by the Greater London Authority as being part of London's central business district, alongside Central London ...

Canary Wharf
business district and London City Airport (). The Crossrail, Elizabeth line (Crossrail) will run east–west underneath the City of London once it opens. The line will serve two stations in the City - Farringdon station, Farringdon and Liverpool Street - which will additionally serve the Barbican and Moorgate areas. Elizabeth line services will link the City directly to destinations such as Canary Wharf, Heathrow Airport (), and the M4 corridor, M4 Corridor high-technology hub (serving Slough and Reading, Berkshire, Reading). The city is served by a frequent Thameslink rail service which runs north–south through London. Thameslink services call at Farringdon, City Thameslink railway station, City Thameslink, and London Blackfriars. This provides the city with a direct link to key destinations across London, including Elephant & Castle railway station, Elephant & Castle, London Bridge station, London Bridge, and St Pancras railway station, St Pancras International (for the Eurostar to mainland Europe). There are also regular, direct trains from these stations to major destinations across East Anglia and South East England, the South East, including Bedford, Brighton, Cambridge, Gatwick Airport (), Luton Airport (), and Peterborough. There are several "London Terminals" in the city: * Blackfriars station, London Blackfriars - Thameslink services and some Southeastern (train operating company), Southeastern services to South East London and Kent. * Cannon Street station, London Cannon Street - Southeastern services to South East London and Kent. * Fenchurch Street railway station, London Fenchurch Street - C2c services along the Thames Estuary towards East London, south Essex, and Southend-on-Sea, Southend. * Liverpool Street station, London Liverpool Street - Greater Anglia (train operating company), Greater Anglia and some C2c services towards destinations in East London and East Anglia, including Stratford, London, Stratford, Cambridge, Chelmsford, Ipswich, Norwich, Southend, and London Southend Airport, Southend Airport (). Stansted Express to London Stansted Airport, Stansted Airport (). London Overground () to destinations in north-east London including Hackney Downs railway station, Hackney Downs, Seven Sisters station, Seven Sisters, Walthamstow Central station, Walthamstow, Chingford, Enfield Town, Enfield, and Cheshunt railway station, Cheshunt. * Moorgate station, Moorgate - Thameslink, Southern and Great Northern franchise, Great Northern towards Finsbury Park station, Finsbury Park, Enfield, and other destinations in North London and Hertfordshire, including Hertford and Welwyn Garden City. All stations in the city are in London fare zone 1.


Road

The national A1 road (Great Britain), A1, A10 road (England), A10 A3 road, A3, A4 road (England), A4, and A40 road routes begin in the city. The city is in the London congestion charge zone, with the small exception on the eastern boundary of the sections of the A1210/A1211 that are part of the Inner Ring Road, London, Inner Ring Road. The following bridges, listed west to east (downstream), cross the
River Thames The River Thames ( ), known alternatively in parts as the River Isis, is a river that flows through southern England Southern England, or the South of England, also known as the South, is an area of England consisting of the southernmos ...
:
Blackfriars Bridge Blackfriars Bridge is a road and foot traffic bridge over the River Thames in London, between Waterloo Bridge and Blackfriars Railway Bridge, carrying the A201 road. The north end is near the Inns of Court and Temple Church, along with Blackfr ...

Blackfriars Bridge
, Blackfriars Railway Bridge, Millennium Bridge (London), Millennium Bridge (footbridge), Southwark Bridge, Cannon Street Railway Bridge and
London Bridge Several bridges named London Bridge have spanned the River Thames The River Thames ( ), known alternatively in parts as the The Isis, River Isis, is a river that flows through southern England including London. At , it is the longest riv ...

London Bridge
; Tower Bridge is not in the city. The city, like most of central London, is well Buses in London, served by buses, including night buses. Two bus stations are in the city, at Aldgate bus station, Aldgate on the eastern boundary with Tower Hamlets, and at Liverpool Street bus station, Liverpool Street by the railway station. However although the London Road Traffic Act 1924 removed from existing local authorities the powers to prevent the development of road passengers transport services within the London Metropolitan Area, the City of London retained most such powers. As a consequence, neither Trolleybus nor Green Line Coach services were permitted to enter the City to pick up or set down passengers. Hence the building of Aldgate (Minories) Trolleybus and Coach station as well as the complex terminal arrangements at Parliament Hill Fields. This restriction was removed by the Transport Act 1985


Cycling

Cycling infrastructure in the city is maintained by the City of London Corporation and Transport for London (TfL). * List of cycle routes in London, Cycle Superhighway 1 runs from Tottenham to the city. It is a signposted cycle route, passing through Stoke Newington and Hackney, London, Hackney before entering the City south of Old Street. * List of cycle routes in London, Cycle Superhighway 2 runs from Stratford, London, Stratford to the city, via Bow, London, Bow, Mile End, and Whitechapel. The route enters the city near Aldgate. The route runs primarily on segregated cycle track. * Cycle Superhighway 3, Cycleway 3 is an east–west bike freeway through the city. The route runs along the southern rim of the city, following the route of the Thames. Eastbound, Cycleway 3 provides cyclists with a direct, signposted cycle link to Shadwell, Poplar, London, Poplar and
Canary Wharf Canary Wharf is an area of London, England, located on the Isle of Dogs in the London Borough of Tower Hamlets. Canary Wharf is defined by the Greater London Authority as being part of London's central business district, alongside Central London ...

Canary Wharf
, and Barking, London, Barking. The route runs Westbound on traffic-free track to Lancaster Gate via Parliament Square, Buckingham Palace, and Hyde Park, London, Hyde Park. * List of cycle routes in London, Cycleway 6 runs north–south through the city on traffic-free cycle track. The track passes Farringdon station, Farringdon Station, the Holborn Viaduct, Ludgate Circus, Blackfriars station, and
Blackfriars Bridge Blackfriars Bridge is a road and foot traffic bridge over the River Thames in London, between Waterloo Bridge and Blackfriars Railway Bridge, carrying the A201 road. The north end is near the Inns of Court and Temple Church, along with Blackfr ...

Blackfriars Bridge
. Northbound, the route passes through Clerkenwell, Bloomsbury, Kings Cross, London, King's Cross, and Kentish Town. The route southbound carries cyclists to Elephant and Castle. * List of cycle routes in London, Cycle Superhighway 7 begins in the City at an interchange with Cycleway 3. It leaves the City over Southwark Bridge and provides cyclists with an unbroken, signposted route to Colliers Wood via Elephant and Castle, Clapham, and Tooting, amongst other destinations. * List of cycle routes in London, Quietway 11 is a northbound continuation of Cycleway 7. It is a signposted cycle route which runs from Southwark Bridge to Hoxton, via the Barbican and Moorgate. The Santander Cycles, Sandander Cycles and Beryl bike sharing systems operate in the City of London.


River

One London River Services pier is on the Thames in the city, Blackfriars Millennium Pier, though the Tower Millennium Pier lies adjacent to the boundary near the Tower of London. One of the Port of London's 25 safeguarded wharf, safeguarded wharves, Walbrook Wharf, is adjacent to Cannon Street station, and is used by the corporation to transfer waste via the river. Swan Lane Pier, just upstream of London Bridge, is proposed to be replaced and upgraded for regular passenger services, planned to take place in 2012–2015. Before then, Tower Pier is to be extended. There is a public riverside walk along the river bank, opened in stages over recent years. The only section not running along the river is a short stretch at Queenhithe. The walk along Walbrook Wharf is closed to pedestrians when waste is being transferred onto barges.


Travel to work (by residents)

According to a survey conducted in March 2011, the methods by which employed residents 16–74 get to work varied widely: 48.4% go on foot; 19.5% via light rail, (i.e. London Underground, the Underground, Docklands Light Railway, DLR, etc.); 9.2% work mainly from home; 5.8% take the train; 5.6% travel by bus, minibus, or coach; and 5.3% go by bicycle; with just 3.4% commuting by car or van, as driver or passenger.


Education

The city is home to a number of higher education institutions including: the Guildhall School of Music and Drama, the Cass Business School, The London Institute of Banking & Finance and parts of three of the universities in London: the Maughan Library of King's College London on
Chancery Lane Chancery Lane is a one-way street situated in the Wards of the City of London, ward of Farringdon Without in the City of London. It has formed the western boundary of the City since 1994, having previously been divided between the City of West ...
, the business school of London Metropolitan University, and a campus of the University of Chicago Booth School of Business. University of Law, The College of Law has its London campus in Moorgate. Part of Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry is on the Barts hospital site at West Smithfield. The city has only one directly maintained primary school, Sir John Cass's Foundation Primary School at Aldgate (ages 4 to 11). It is a Voluntary-Aided (VA) Church of England school, maintained by the Education Service of the City of London. City residents send their children to schools in neighbouring Local Education Authority, Local Education Authorities, such as London Borough of Islington, Islington, London Borough of Tower Hamlets, Tower Hamlets, City of Westminster, Westminster and London Borough of Southwark, Southwark. The City controls three independent schools, City of London School (a boys' school) and City of London School for Girls in the city, and the City of London Freemen's School (co-educational day and boarding) in Ashtead, Surrey. The City of London School for Girls and City of London Freemen's School have their own preparatory departments for entrance at age seven. It is the principal sponsor of The City Academy, Hackney, City of London Academy Islington, and City of London Academy, Southwark.


Public libraries

Libraries operated by the Corporation include three lending libraries; Barbican Library, Shoe Lane Library and Artizan Street Library and Community Centre. Membership is open to all – with one official proof of address required to join. Guildhall Library, and City Business Library are also public reference libraries, specialising in the history of London and business reference resources.


See also

*
City of London Corporation The City of London Corporation, officially and legally the Mayor and Commonalty and Citizens of the City of London, is the municipal governing body of the City of London, the historic centre of London and the location of much of the United Kingd ...
* City of London School * City of London Freemen's School * List of churches in the City of London * List of areas of London * Londinium * Street names of the City of London * Dublin, Cua


References


Notes


External links


City of London Corporation

Classical Architecture in the City of London
{{subject bar, London, auto=1 City of London, 886 establishments 9th-century establishments in England Counties of England established in antiquity Central business districts in the United Kingdom, London, City of Cities in London, London, City of Economy of London Financial districts in the United Kingdom, London, City of Greater London Local authorities adjoining the River Thames, London, City of Local government in London Financial districts Offshore finance