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Cambridge ( ) is a university city and the
county town In the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some prefer ...
of
Cambridgeshire Cambridgeshire (abbreviated Cambs.) is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Chamber ...

Cambridgeshire
,
England England is a that is part of the . It shares land borders with to its west and to its north. The lies northwest of England and the to the southwest. England is separated from by the to the east and the to the south. The country cover ...

England
, on the
River Cam The River Cam () is the main river flowing through Cambridge Cambridge ( ) is a College town, university city and the county town of Cambridgeshire, England, on the River Cam approximately north of London. At the United Kingdom Census 201 ...
approximately north of
London London is the Capital city, capital and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, largest city of England and the United Kingdom. It stands on the River Thames in south-east England at the head of a estuary down to the North Sea, and has b ...

London
. At the
United Kingdom Census 2011 A Census in the United Kingdom, census of the population of the United Kingdom is taken every ten years. The 2011 census was held in all countries of the UK on 27 March 2011. It was the first UK census which could be completed online via the Inter ...
, the population of the Cambridge
built-up area An urban area, or built-up area, is a human settlement with a high population density and infrastructure Infrastructure is the set of fundamental facilities and systems that support the sustainable functionality of households and firms. Serving ...
(which is larger than the remit of Cambridge City Council) was 158,434 including 29,327 students. Cambridge became an important trading centre during the Roman and Viking ages, and there is archaeological evidence of settlement in the area as early as the
Bronze Age The Bronze Age is a prehistoric that was characterized by the use of , in some areas , and other early features of urban . The Bronze Age is the second principal period of the , as proposed in modern times by , for classifying and studying a ...
. The first town charters were granted in the 12th century, although modern city status was not officially conferred until 1951. The
University of Cambridge , mottoeng = Literal: From here, light and sacred draughts. Non literal: From this place, we gain enlightenment and precious knowledge. , established = , other_name = The Chancellor, Masters and Scholars of ...
was founded in 1209. The buildings of the university include
King's College Chapel King's College Chapel is the chapel of King's College, Cambridge, King's College in the University of Cambridge. It is considered one of the finest examples of late Perpendicular Gothic English architecture. The Chapel was built in phases by a s ...

King's College Chapel
,
Cavendish Laboratory
Cavendish Laboratory
, and the
Cambridge University Library Cambridge University Library is the main research library of the University of Cambridge , mottoeng = Literal: From here, light and sacred draughts. Non literal: From this place, we gain enlightenment and precious knowledge. , ...
, one of the largest legal deposit libraries in the world. The city's skyline is dominated by several
college buildings A college (Latin: ''collegium'') is an educational institution or a University system, constituent part of one. A college may be a academic degree, degree-awarding Tertiary education, tertiary educational institution, a part of a collegiate un ...
, along with the spire of the
Our Lady and the English Martyrs Church The Church of Our Lady of the Assumption and the English Martyrs, also known as the Church of Our Lady and the English Martyrs (OLEM), is an English Roman Catholic Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome, the capital city of Italy *Ancient Rome, ...
, and the chimney of
Addenbrooke's Hospital Addenbrooke's Hospital is an internationally renowned teaching hospital and research centre in Cambridge Cambridge ( ) is a College town, university city and the county town of Cambridgeshire, England, on the River Cam approximately north ...

Addenbrooke's Hospital
.
Anglia Ruskin University Anglia Ruskin University (ARU) is a university in East Anglia, United Kingdom. Its origins are in the Cambridge School of Art, founded by William John Beamont in 1858. It became a university in 1992 and was renamed after John Ruskin in 2005. It i ...

Anglia Ruskin University
, which evolved from the Cambridge School of Art and the Cambridgeshire College of Arts and Technology, also has its main campus in the city. Cambridge is at the heart of the high-technology
Silicon Fen Silicon Fen (also known as the Cambridge Cluster) is the name given to the region around Cambridge Cambridge ( ) is a College town, university city and the county town of Cambridgeshire, England, on the River Cam approximately north ...
with industries such as
software Software is a collection of Instruction (computer science), instructions that tell a computer how to work. This is in contrast to Computer hardware, hardware, from which the system is built and actually performs the work. At the low level lang ...
and
bioscience This list of life sciences comprises the branches of science The branches of science, also referred to as sciences, "scientific fields", or "scientific disciplines," are commonly divided into three major groups: *Formal sciences: the stu ...
and many start-up companies born out of the university. Over 40 per cent of the workforce have a higher education qualification, more than twice the national average. The
Cambridge Biomedical Campus The Cambridge Biomedical Campus is the largest centre of medical research Medical research (or biomedical research), also known as experimental medicine, encompasses a wide array of research, extending from " basic research" (also called ''be ...
, one of the largest biomedical research clusters in the world includes the headquarters of
AstraZeneca AstraZeneca plc () is a British-Swedish multinational pharmaceutical A medication (also called medicament, medicine, pharmaceutical drug, medicinal drug or simply drug) is a drug File:Aspirine macro shot.jpg, Uncoated aspirin Tabl ...
, a hotel, and the relocated
Royal Papworth Hospital Royal Papworth Hospital is a specialist heart and lung hospital, located on the Cambridge Biomedical Campus in Cambridgeshire, England. It is a world-leading cardiothoracic transplant centre and the biggest in the UK, having carried out more heart ...
. The first game of
association football Association football, more commonly known as simply football or soccer, is a team sport A team sport includes any sport Sport pertains to any form of Competition, competitive physical activity or game that aims to use, maintain ...
took place at
Parker's Piece Parker's Piece is a flat and roughly square green common located near the centre of Cambridge Cambridge ( ) is a College town, university city and the county town of Cambridgeshire, England, on the River Cam approximately north of London. At ...
. The
Strawberry Fair Strawberry Fair is a local festival of music, entertainments, arts and crafts which has been held in Cambridge Cambridge ( ) is a College town, university city and the county town of Cambridgeshire, England, on the River Cam approximately nor ...
music and arts festival and Midsummer Fair are held on
Midsummer Common Midsummer Common is an area of common land in Cambridge Cambridge ( ) is a College town, university city and the county town of Cambridgeshire, England, on the River Cam approximately north of London. At the United Kingdom Census 2011, ...
, and the annual
Cambridge Beer Festival The summer Cambridge Beer Festival is the longest-running CAMRA The Campaign for Real Ale (CAMRA) is an independent voluntary consumer organisation headquartered in St Albans, England, which promotes what they designate as "real" ale, real ...
takes place on
Jesus Green . Image:JesusGreenLock-Cambridge.jpg"> Jesus Lock on the River Cam at Jesus Green. Jesus Green is a park in the north of central Cambridge, Cambridgeshire, England., north of Jesus College, Cambridge, Jesus College. Jesus Ditch runs along the sout ...
. The city is adjacent to the M11 and A14 roads. Cambridge station is less than an hour from
London King's Cross railway station King's Cross railway station, also known as London King's Cross, is a passenger railway terminus in the London Borough of Camden The London Borough of Camden () is a borough in Inner London London is the capital city, capital and Lis ...
.


History


Prehistory

Settlements have existed around the Cambridge area since
prehistoric times Prehistory, also known as pre-literary history, is the period of human history Human history, or world history, is the narrative of Human, humanity's past. It is understood through archaeology, anthropology, genetics, and linguistics, ...
. The earliest clear evidence of occupation is the remains of a year-old farmstead discovered at the site of
Fitzwilliam College Fitzwilliam College (legally ''The Master, Fellows and Scholars of Fitzwilliam College in the University of Cambridge'') is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge, England. The college traces its origins back to 1869 and the foun ...
. Archaeological evidence of occupation through the
Iron Age The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age division of the prehistory Prehistory, also known as pre-literary history, is the period of human history Human history, or world history, is the narrative of Human, humanity's pa ...
is a settlement on Castle Hill from the 1st century BC, perhaps relating to wider cultural changes occurring in southeastern Britain linked to the arrival of the
Belgae The Belgae () were a large confederation of tribes living in northern Gaul, between the English Channel, the west bank of the Rhine, and northern bank of the river Seine, from at least the third century BC. They were discussed in depth by Julius ...
.


Roman

The principal
Roman Roman or Romans most often refers to: *Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Laz ...

Roman
site is a small fort (')
Duroliponte Duroliponte or Durolipons was a small town in the Roman province of Roman Britain, Britannia on the site of what is now the city of Cambridge. The site of Roman Britain, Roman Cambridge is located on Castle Hill, Cambridge, Castle Hill, just north ...
on Castle Hill, just northwest of the city centre around the location of the earlier
British British may refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * British people, nationals or natives of the United Kingdom, British Overseas Territories, and Crown Dependencies. ** Britishness, the British identity and common culture * British English, ...
village. The fort was bounded on two sides by the lines formed by the present Mount Pleasant, continuing across
Huntingdon Road Huntingdon Road is a major arterial road linking central Cambridge Cambridge ( ) is a College town, university city and the county town of Cambridgeshire, England, on the River Cam approximately north of London. At the United Kingdom Census ...
into Clare Street. The eastern side followed Magrath Avenue, with the southern side running near to Chesterton Lane and
Kettle's Yard Kettle's Yard is an art gallery An art gallery is a room or a building in which visual art is displayed. Among the reasons art may be displayed are aesthetic enjoyment, cultural enrichment, or for marketing purposes. While "gallery" continue ...

Kettle's Yard
before turning northwest at Honey Hill. It was constructed around AD 70 and converted to civilian use around 50 years later. Evidence of more widespread Roman settlement has been discovered including numerous farmsteads and a village in the Cambridge district of Newnham.


Medieval

Following the
Roman withdrawal from Britain The end of Roman rule in Britain was the transition from Roman Britain to Sub-Roman Britain, post-Roman Britain. Roman rule ended in different parts of Britain at different times, and under different circumstances. In 383, the usurper Magnus M ...
around 410, the location may have been abandoned by the
Britons The British people, or Britons, are the citizens of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mix ...
, although the site is usually identified as
Nennius Nennius – or Nemnius or Nemnivus – was a Welsh monk of the 9th century. He has traditionally been attributed with the authorship of the ''Historia Brittonum ''The History of the Britons'' ( la, Historia Brittonum) is a purported history of ...
().
Theodor Mommsen Christian Matthias Theodor Mommsen (; 30 November 1817 – 1 November 1903) was a German classical scholar Classics or classical studies is the study of classical antiquity, and in the Western world The Western world, also known a ...

Theodor Mommsen
(). ''Historia Brittonum'', VI. Composed after AD 830. Hosted at Latin Wikisource.
listed among the 28
cities A city is a large human settlement In geography, statistics and archaeology, a settlement, locality or populated place is a community in which people live. The complexity of a settlement can range from a small number of dwellings grouped to ...
of
Britain Britain usually refers to: * United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United ...
by the ''
History of the Britons ''The History of the Britons'' ( la, Historia Brittonum) is a purported history of the indigenous British (Britons (historical), Brittonic) people that was written around 828 and survives in numerous recensions that date from after the 11th century ...
''.Ford, David Nash.
The 28 Cities of Britain
" at Britannia. 2000.
Evidence exists that the invading Anglo-Saxons had begun occupying the area by the end of the century. Their settlement – also on and around Castle Hill – became known as Grantebrycge. ("
Granta ''Granta'' is a literary magazine and publisher in the United Kingdom whose mission centres on its "belief in the power and urgency of the story, both in fiction and non-fiction, and the story’s supreme ability to describe, illuminate and make ...
-bridge"). (By
Middle English Middle English (abbreviated to ME) was a form of the English language English is a West Germanic language of the Indo-European language family The Indo-European languages are a language family A language is a structured sys ...
, the settlement's name had changed to "Cambridge", and the lower stretches of the
Granta ''Granta'' is a literary magazine and publisher in the United Kingdom whose mission centres on its "belief in the power and urgency of the story, both in fiction and non-fiction, and the story’s supreme ability to describe, illuminate and make ...
changed their name to match.)
Anglo-Saxon The Anglo-Saxons were a cultural group Cultural identity is a part of a person's identity Identity may refer to: Social sciences * Identity (social science), personhood or group affiliation in psychology and sociology Group expression ...
grave goods have been found in the area. During this period, Cambridge benefited from good trade links across the hard-to-travel fenlands. By the 7th century, the town was less significant and described by
Bede Bede ( ; ang, Bǣda , ; 672/326 May 735), also known as Saint Bede, The Venerable Bede, and Bede the Venerable ( la, Beda Venerabilis), was an English Benedictine The Benedictines, officially the Order of Saint Benedict ( la, Ordo Sa ...

Bede
as a "little ruined city" containing the burial site of Etheldreda. Cambridge was on the border between the East and Middle Anglian kingdoms and the settlement slowly expanded on both sides of the river. The arrival of the
Vikings Vikings—"pirate", non, víkingr is the modern name given to seafaring people primarily from Scandinavia Scandinavia; : ''Skadesi-suolu''/''Skađsuâl''. ( ) is a in , with strong historical, cultural, and linguistic ties. In ...

Vikings
was recorded in the ''
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle The ''Anglo-Saxon Chronicle'' is a collection of annals Annals ( la, annāles, from , "year") are a concise historical History (from Ancient Greek, Greek , ''historia'', meaning "inquiry; knowledge acquired by investigation") is the stud ...
'' in 875. Viking rule, the
Danelaw The Danelaw (, also known as the Danelagh; ang, Dena lagu; da, Danelagen) was the part of England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to its west a ...
, had been imposed by 878 Their vigorous trading habits caused the town to grow rapidly. During this period the centre of the town shifted from Castle Hill on the left bank of the river to the area now known as the Quayside on the right bank. After the Viking period, the Saxons enjoyed a return to power, building churches such as
St Bene't's Church St Bene't's is a Church of England parish church in central Cambridge Cambridge ( ) is a College town, university city and the county town of Cambridgeshire, England, on the River Cam approximately north of London. At the United Kingdom Ce ...
, wharves, merchant houses and a
mint MiNT is Now TOS (MiNT) is a free software Free software (or libre software) is computer software distributed under terms that allow users to run the software for any purpose as well as to study, change, and distribute it and any adapted ver ...
, which produced coins with the town's name abbreviated to "Grant". In 1068, two years after his conquest of England,
William of Normandy William I (c. 1028Bates ''William the Conqueror'' p. 33 – 9 September 1087), usually known as William the Conqueror and sometimes William the Bastard, was the first House of Normandy, Norman List of English monarchs, monarch of Engl ...

William of Normandy
built a
castle A castle is a type of fortification, fortified structure built during the Middle Ages predominantly by the nobility or royalty and by Military order (monastic society), military orders. Scholars debate the scope of the word ''castle'', but u ...

castle
on Castle Hill. Like the rest of the newly conquered kingdom, Cambridge fell under the control of the King and his deputies. The first town charter was granted by
Henry IHenry I may refer to: 876–1366 * Henry I the Fowler, King of Germany (876–936) * Henry I, Duke of Bavaria (died 955) * Henry I of Austria, Margrave of Austria (died 1018) * Henry I of France (1008–1060) * Henry I the Long, Margrave of the Nord ...

Henry I
between 1120 and 1131. It gave Cambridge monopoly of waterborne traffic and hithe tolls and recognised the
borough A borough is an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, are generic names for ...
court. The distinctive
Round Church Østerlars Round Church, Bornholm, Denmark ">Denmark.html" ;"title="Bornholm, Denmark">Bornholm, Denmark A round church is a church construction with a completely circular plan. There are many Nordic round churches in Sweden and Denmark (notabl ...
dates from this period. In 1209, Cambridge University was founded by Oxford students fleeing from hostility. The oldest existing college,
Peterhouse Peterhouse is the oldest Colleges of the University of Cambridge, constituent college of the University of Cambridge in England, founded in 1284 by Hugh de Balsham, Bishop of Ely. Today, Peterhouse has 254 undergraduates, 116 full-time graduate ...
, was founded in 1284. In 1349 Cambridge was affected by the
Black Death The Black Death (also known as the Pestilence, the Great Mortality or the Plague) was a bubonic plague Bubonic plague is one of three types of plague caused by the plague bacterium Bacteria (; common noun bacteria, singular bact ...

Black Death
. Few records survive but 16 of 40 scholars at King's Hall died. The town north of the river was severely affected being almost wiped out. Following further depopulation after a second national epidemic in 1361, a letter from the Bishop of Ely suggested that two parishes in Cambridge be merged as there were not enough people to fill even one church. With more than a third of English clergy dying in the Black Death, four new colleges were established at the university over the following years to train new clergymen, namely
Gonville HallGonville may refer to: * Gonville, New Zealand, suburb of Whanganui * Gonville Bromhead (1845–1891), British Army officer awarded the Victoria Cross * Gonville ffrench-Beytagh (1912–1991), Anglican priest and anti-apartheid activist * Edmund Gon ...
, Trinity Hall, and
ClareClare may refer to: Places Antarctica * Clare Range, a mountain range in Victoria Land Australia * Clare, South Australia, a town in the Clare Valley * Clare Valley, South Australia Canada * Clare (electoral district), an electoral district * Cla ...
. In 1382 a revised town charter effects a "diminution of the liberties that the community had enjoyed", due to Cambridge's participation in the
Peasants' Revolt The Peasants' Revolt, also named Wat Tyler's Rebellion or the Great Rising, was a major uprising across large parts of England in 1381. The revolt had various causes, including the socio-economic and political tensions generated by the Black ...
. The charter transfers supervision of baking and brewing, weights and measures, and forestalling and regrating, from the town to the university.
King's College Chapel King's College Chapel is the chapel of King's College, Cambridge, King's College in the University of Cambridge. It is considered one of the finest examples of late Perpendicular Gothic English architecture. The Chapel was built in phases by a s ...

King's College Chapel
, was begun in 1446 by
King Henry VI Henry VI (6 December 1421 – 21 May 1471) was King of England from 1422 to 1461 and again from 1470 to 1471, and English claims to the French throne#Kings of France (1422), disputed King of France from 1422 to 1453. The only child of Henry ...

King Henry VI
. The chapel was built in phases by a succession of kings of England from 1446 to 1515, its history intertwined with the
Wars of the Roses The Wars of the Roses were a series of fifteenth-century English civil wars for control of the throne of England, fought between supporters of two rival cadet branches of the royal House of Plantagenet: the House of Lancaster, represented by a ...
, and completed during the reign of
King Henry VIII Henry VIII (28 June 149128 January 1547) was King of England This list of kings and queens of the Kingdom of England The Kingdom of England (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Ital ...
. The building would become synonymous with Cambridge, and currently is used in the logo for the City Council.


Early modern

Following repeated outbreaks of pestilence throughout the 16th Century, sanitation and fresh water were brought to Cambridge by the construction of
Hobson's Conduit Hobson's Conduit, also called Hobson's Brook, is a watercourse that was built from 1610 to 1614 by Thomas Hobson and others to bring fresh water into the city of Cambridge, England from springs at Nine Wells, a Local Nature Reserve (), near the v ...

Hobson's Conduit
in the early 1600s. Water was brought from Nine Wells, at the foot of the
Gog Magog Hills 220px, The view towards Cambridge from Magog Down The Gog Magog Hills are a range of low chalk hills, extending for several miles to the southeast of Cambridge in England. The highest points are situated either side of the A1307 Babraham Road, and ...
, into the centre of the town. Cambridge played a significant role in the early part of the
English Civil War The English Civil War (1642–1651) was a series of civil wars A civil war, also known as an intrastate war in polemology, is a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, ...
as it was the headquarters of the Eastern Counties Association, an organisation administering a regional
East Anglian East Anglia is a geographical area in the East of England The East of England is one of the nine official regions of England. This region was created in 1994 and was adopted for statistics purposes from 1999. It includes the ceremonial c ...
army, which became the mainstay of the Parliamentarian military effort before the formation of the
New Model Army The New Model Army was a standing army formed in 1645 by the Roundhead, Parliamentarians during the First English Civil War, then disbanded after the Stuart Restoration in 1660. It differed from other armies employed in the 1638 to 1651 Wars ...
. In 1643 control of the town was given by Parliament to
Oliver Cromwell Oliver Cromwell (25 April 15993 September 1658) was an English general and statesman who, first as a subordinate and later as Commander-in-Chief, led armies An army (from Latin ''arma'' "arms, weapons" via Old French ''armée'', "armed" e ...

Oliver Cromwell
, who had been educated at
Sidney Sussex College Sidney Sussex College (referred to informally as "Sidney") is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge in England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land border ...
. The town's castle was fortified and garrisoned with troops and some bridges were destroyed to aid its defence. Although
Royalist A royalist supports a particular monarch A monarch is a head of stateWebster's II New College DictionarMonarch Houghton Mifflin. Boston. 2001. p. 707. Life tenure, for life or until abdication, and therefore the head of state of a monarchy. ...
forces came within of the town in 1644, the defences were never used and the garrison was stood down the following year.


Early-industrial era

In the 19th century, in common with many other English towns, Cambridge expanded rapidly, due in part to increased life expectancy and improved agricultural production leading to increased trade in town markets. The
Inclosure Acts The Inclosure Acts, which use an archaic spelling of the word now usually spelt "enclosure", cover enclosure Enclosure or Inclosure is a term, used in English landownership, that refers to the appropriation of "waste" or "common land" enclosi ...
of 1801 and 1807 enabled the town to expand over surrounding open fields and in 1912 and again in 1935 its boundaries were extended to include Chesterton, Cherry Hinton, and Trumpington. The railway came to Cambridge in 1845 after initial resistance, with the opening of the
Great Eastern Railway The Great Eastern Railway (GER) was a pre-grouping British railway company, whose main line linked London Liverpool Street Liverpool Street station, also known as London Liverpool Street, is a London station group, central London railway te ...
's London to Norwich line. The station was outside the town centre following pressure from the university to restrict travel by undergraduates. With the arrival of the railway and associated employment came development of areas around the station, such as Romsey Town. The rail link to London stimulated heavier industries, such as the production of brick, cement and
malt Malt is germinated cereal grain that has been dried in a process known as "malting Malting is a process of steeping Steeping is the soaking of an organic solid, such as leaves, in a liquid (usually water) to extract flavours or to soft ...
.


20th and 21st centuries

From the 1930s to the 1980s, the size of the city was increased by several large
council estate Public housing (known as ''council housing'' or ''social housing'' in the UK) provided the majority of rented accommodation in the United Kingdom until 2011 when the number of households in private rental housing surpassed the number in social h ...
s. The biggest impact has been on the area north of the river, which are now the estates of East Chesterton,
King's Hedges King's Hedges is an electoral ward A ward is a local authority area, typically used for electoral purposes. Wards are usually named after neighbourhoods, thoroughfares, parishes, landmarks, geographical features and in some cases historical figu ...
, and Arbury where
Archbishop In many Christian Denominations Christians () are people who follow or adhere to Christianity, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus in Christianity, Jesus Christ. The words ''Christ (title), Christ'' an ...
Rowan Williams Rowan Douglas Williams, Baron Williams of Oystermouth, (born 14 June 1950) is a Welsh People, Welsh Anglican bishop, theologian and poet. He was the 104th Archbishop of Canterbury, a position he held from December 2002 to December 2012. Previ ...

Rowan Williams
lived and worked as an assistant priest in the early 1980s. During the Second World War, Cambridge was an important centre for defence of the east coast. The town became a military centre, with an
R.A.F. The Royal Air Force (RAF) is the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for th ...
training centre and the regional headquarters for Norfolk, Suffolk, Essex, Cambridgeshire,
Huntingdonshire Huntingdonshire (; abbreviated Hunts) is a non-metropolitan district of Cambridgeshire and a historic counties of England, historic county of England. The district council is based in Huntingdon. Other towns include St Ives, Cambridgeshire, St Iv ...
, Hertfordshire, and
Bedfordshire Bedfordshire (; abbreviated Beds) is a Counties of England, county in the East of England. It is a Ceremonial counties of England, ceremonial county and a Historic counties of England, historic county, covered by three Unitary authorities of Engl ...

Bedfordshire
established during the conflict. The town itself escaped relatively lightly from German bombing raids, which were mainly targeted at the railway. 29 people were killed and no historic buildings were damaged. In 1944, a secret meeting of military leaders held in Trinity College laid the foundation for the allied invasion of Europe. During the war Cambridge served as an evacuation centre for over 7,000 people from London, as well as for parts of the
University of London The University of London (UoL; abbreviated as Lond or more rarely Londin in post-nominals Post-nominal letters, also called post-nominal initials, post-nominal titles, designatory letters or simply post-nominals, are letters placed after a p ...
. Cambridge was granted its
city charterA city charter or town charter (generically, municipal charter) is a legal document (''charter A charter is the grant of authority or rights Rights are law, legal, social, or ethics, ethical principles of Liberty, freedom or entitlement; that ...
in 1951 in recognition of its history, administrative importance and economic success. Cambridge does not have a cathedral, traditionally a prerequisite for city status, instead falling within the Church of England
Diocese of Ely The Diocese of Ely is a Church of England diocese in the Province of Canterbury. It is headed by the Bishop of Ely The Bishop of Ely is the Ordinary (officer), ordinary of the Church of England Diocese of Ely in the Province of Canterbury. Th ...
. In 1962 Cambridge's first shopping arcade, Bradwell's Court, opened on Drummer Street, though this was demolished in 2006. Other shopping arcades followed at Lion Yard, which housed a relocated Central Library for the city, and the
Grafton Centre The Grafton Centre is a covered shopping centre in Cambridge, England. It is one of the three main shopping centres in Cambridge – the others are the Lion Yard and the Grand Arcade (Cambridge), Grand Arcade. The Grafton Centre is on the eastern ...
which replaced Victorian housing stock which had fallen into disrepair in the Kite area of the city. This latter project was controversial at the time. The city gained its second University in 1992 when Anglia Polytechnic became Anglia Polytechnic University. Renamed
Anglia Ruskin University Anglia Ruskin University (ARU) is a university in East Anglia, United Kingdom. Its origins are in the Cambridge School of Art, founded by William John Beamont in 1858. It became a university in 1992 and was renamed after John Ruskin in 2005. It i ...

Anglia Ruskin University
in 2005, the institution has its origins in the Cambridge School of Art opened in 1858 by
John Ruskin John Ruskin (8 February 1819 20 January 1900) was an English writer, philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about reason, ...

John Ruskin
.
The Open University The Open University (OU) is a public research university and the largest university in the UK for undergraduate education. The majority of the OU's undergraduate students are based in the United Kingdom and principally study off-campus File:Uni ...
also has a presence in the city, with an office operating on Hills Road.


Governance


Local government

Cambridge is a
non-metropolitan district Non-metropolitan districts, or colloquially "shire districts", are a type of local government district The districts of England (also known as local authority districts or local government districts to distinguish from unofficial city distri ...
served by
Cambridge City Council Cambridge City Council is a district council in the county of Cambridgeshire, which governs the City of Cambridge. History Cambridge was granted a Royal Charter by King John in 1207, which permitted the appointment of a mayor. The first recorded ...
. Cambridge Local Authority District covers most of the city's urban area but some extends outside this into South Cambridgeshire District. Cambridge is one of five districts within the county of Cambridgeshire, and is bordered on all sides by the mainly rural
South Cambridgeshire South Cambridgeshire is a mostly rural Non-metropolitan district, local government district of Cambridgeshire, England, with a population of 148,755 at the 2011 census. It was formed on 1 April 1974 by the merger of Chesterton Rural District and ...
district. The city council's headquarters are in the
Guildhall A guildhall is either a town hall, or a building historically used by guilds for meetings and other purposes, in which sense it can also be spelled as "guild hall" and may also be called a "guild house". It is also the official or colloquial nam ...

Guildhall
, a large building in the market square. Cambridge was granted a Royal Charter by King John in 1207, which permitted the appointment of a Mayor, although the first recorded Mayor, Harvey FitzEustace, served in 1213. City councillors now elect a mayor annually. For electoral purposes the city is divided into 14 wards: Abbey, Arbury, Castle,
Cherry Hinton Cherry Hinton is a suburban area of the city of Cambridge, in Cambridgeshire, England. It is around southeast of Cambridge city centre. History The rectangular parish of Cherry Hinton occupies the western corner of Flendish hundred on the sou ...

Cherry Hinton
, Coleridge, East Chesterton,
King's Hedges King's Hedges is an electoral ward A ward is a local authority area, typically used for electoral purposes. Wards are usually named after neighbourhoods, thoroughfares, parishes, landmarks, geographical features and in some cases historical figu ...
, Market, Newnham,
Petersfield Petersfield is a market town A market town is a European Human settlement, settlement that obtained by custom or royal charter, in the Middle Ages, the right to host market (place), markets (market right), which distinguished it from a vi ...
, Queen Edith's,
Romsey Romsey ( ) is a historic market town A market town is a European settlement that obtained by custom or royal charter, in the Middle Ages In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery an ...
, Trumpington, and West Chesterton. The political composition of the city council is currently: 25
Labour Labour or labor may refer to: * Childbirth Childbirth, also known as labour or delivery, is the ending of pregnancy where one or more babies leaves the uterus by passing through the vagina or by Caesarean section. In 2015, there were about 13 ...
councillors, 14 Liberal Democrat, 2 independent and one
Conservative Conservatism is an aesthetic Aesthetics, or esthetics (), is a branch of philosophy that deals with the nature of beauty and taste (sociology), taste, as well as the philosophy of art (its own area of philosophy that comes out of aest ...

Conservative
. Each of the 14 wards also elects councillors to
Cambridgeshire County Council Cambridgeshire County Council is the county council A county council is the elected administrative body governing an area known as a county. This term has slightly different meanings in different countries. Members are elected in County Cou ...

Cambridgeshire County Council
. Responsible for services including school education, social care and highways, since 2017 the County Council has been controlled by the
Conservative Party Conservative Party may refer to: Europe Current *Croatian Conservative Party, *Conservative Party (Czech Republic) *Conservative People's Party (Denmark) *Conservative Party of Georgia *Conservative Party (Norway) *Conservative Party (UK) Histor ...

Conservative Party
.


Westminster

The
parliamentary A parliamentary system or parliamentary democracy is a system of democratic Democrat, Democrats, or Democratic may refer to: *A proponent of democracy Democracy ( gr, δημοκρατία, ''dēmokratiā'', from ''dēmos'' 'people' an ...
constituency of Cambridge covers most of the city;
Daniel Zeichner Daniel Stephen Zeichner (born 9 November 1956) is a British politician serving as Member of Parliament A member of parliament (MP) is the representative of the people who live in their constituency An electoral district, also known as an e ...
(
Labour Labour or labor may refer to: * Childbirth Childbirth, also known as labour or delivery, is the ending of pregnancy where one or more babies leaves the uterus by passing through the vagina or by Caesarean section. In 2015, there were about 13 ...
) has represented the seat since the
2015 general election This national electoral calendar for 2015 lists the national/Federation, federal direct elections that were held in 2015 in all List of sovereign states, sovereign states and their Dependent territory, dependent territories. By-elections are e ...
. The seat was generally held by the
Conservatives Conservatism is a political and social philosophy promoting traditional social institutions. The central tenets of conservatism may vary in relation to the traditional values or practices of the culture Culture () is an umbrella term w ...

Conservatives
until it was won by Labour in 1992, then taken by the Liberal Democrats in 2005 and 2010, before returning to Labour in 2015. A southern area of the city, Queen Edith's ward, falls within in the
South Cambridgeshire South Cambridgeshire is a mostly rural Non-metropolitan district, local government district of Cambridgeshire, England, with a population of 148,755 at the 2011 census. It was formed on 1 April 1974 by the merger of Chesterton Rural District and ...
constituency, whose MP is Anthony Browne (Conservative), first elected in 2019. The University of Cambridge formerly had two seats in the House of Commons;
Sir Isaac Newton Sir Isaac Newton (25 December 1642 – 20 March 1726/27) was an English mathematician A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics a ...

Sir Isaac Newton
was one of the most notable MPs. The Cambridge University constituency was abolished under 1948 legislation, and ceased at the dissolution of Parliament for the 1950 general election, along with the other
university constituencies A university constituency is a constituency, used in elections to a legislature, that represents the members of one or more universities rather than residents of a geographical area. These may or may not involve plural voting, in which voters ...
.


Geography and environment

Cambridge is situated about north-by-east of London and 95 miles (152 kilometres) east of Birmingham. The city is located in an area of level and relatively low-lying terrain just south of
the Fens The Fens, also known as the , is a coastal plain A coastal plain is flat, low-lying land adjacent to a sea coast. A fall line A fall line (or fall zone) is the area where an upland region and a coastal plain meet and is typically prominent ...

the Fens
, which varies between
above sea level Above may refer to: *Above (artist) Tavar Zawacki formerly known as 'ABOVE' (born 1981) is an American abstract art Abstract art uses visual language of shape, form, color and line to create a composition which may exist with a degree of ind ...
. The town was thus historically surrounded by low lying wetlands that have been drained as the town has expanded. The underlying geology of Cambridge consists of
gault The Gault Formation is a geological formation A geological formation, or formation, is a body of rock having a consistent set of physical characteristics (lithology) that distinguish it from adjacent bodies of rock, and which occupies a particula ...
clay and Chalk Marl, known locally as Cambridge Greensand, partly overlaid by . A layer of phosphatic nodules (
coprolites A coprolite (also known as a coprolith) is fossilized feces Feces (American and British English spelling differences#ae and oe, or faeces) is the solid or semisolid remains of food that was not digested in the small intestine, and has b ...

coprolites
) under the marl were mined in the 19th century for fertiliser. It became a major industry in the county, and its profits yielded buildings such as the
Corn Exchange The Exchange in Bristol A corn exchange is a building where merchants trade grains. The word "corn" in British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect of the English language English is a West Germanic languages, ...

Corn Exchange
, Fulbourn Hospital and St. John's Chapel until the Quarries Act 1894 and competition from America ended production. The
River Cam The River Cam () is the main river flowing through Cambridge Cambridge ( ) is a College town, university city and the county town of Cambridgeshire, England, on the River Cam approximately north of London. At the United Kingdom Census 201 ...
flows through the city from the village of
Grantchester Grantchester is a village and civil parish on the River Cam or Granta (river), Granta in South Cambridgeshire, England. It lies about south of Cambridge. Name The village of Grantchester is listed in the 1086 Domesday Book as ''Grantesete'' ...
, to the southwest. It is bordered by
water meadows A water-meadow (also water meadow or watermeadow) is an area of grassland subject to controlled irrigation to increase agricultural productivity. Water-meadows were mainly used in Europe from the 16th to the early 20th centuries. Working water-mea ...
within the city such as Sheep's Green as well as residential development. Like most cities, modern-day Cambridge has many suburbs and areas of high-density housing. The city centre of Cambridge is mostly commercial, historic buildings, and large green areas such as Jesus Green,
Parker's Piece Parker's Piece is a flat and roughly square green common located near the centre of Cambridge Cambridge ( ) is a College town, university city and the county town of Cambridgeshire, England, on the River Cam approximately north of London. At ...
and
Midsummer Common Midsummer Common is an area of common land in Cambridge Cambridge ( ) is a College town, university city and the county town of Cambridgeshire, England, on the River Cam approximately north of London. At the United Kingdom Census 2011, ...
. Many of the roads in the centre are pedestrianised. Population growth has seen new housing developments in the 21st century, with estates such as the CB1 and
Accordia Accordia is a housing development in Cambridge, England. The site includes 378 dwellings by Feilden Clegg Bradley Studios, Feilden Clegg Bradley Architects, Maccreanor Lavington and Alison Brooks Architects and has been constructed in three phase ...
schemes near the station, and developments such as Great Kneighton, formally known as Clay Farm, and Trumpington Meadows currently under construction in the south of the city. Other major developments currently being constructed in the city are Darwin Green (formerly NIAB), and University-led developments at
West Cambridge West Cambridge is a university site to the west of Cambridge city centre in England. As part of the ''West Cambridge Master Plan'', several of the University of Cambridge's departments have relocated to the West Cambridge site from the centre o ...
and North West Cambridge, ( Eddington). The entire city centre, as well as parts of Chesterton, Petersfield, West Cambridge, Newnham, and Abbey, are covered by an
Air Quality Management Area File:Atmosphere gas proportions.svg, Composition of Earth's atmosphere by volume, excluding water vapor. Lower pie represents trace gases that together compose about 0.043391% of the atmosphere (0.04402961% at April 2019 concentration ). Number ...
, implemented to counter high levels of
nitrogen dioxide Nitrogen dioxide is a chemical compound A chemical compound is a chemical substance A chemical substance is a form of matter In classical physics and general chemistry, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by hav ...

nitrogen dioxide
in the atmosphere.


Climate

The city has an
oceanic climate An oceanic climate, also known as a maritime climate or marine climate, is the Köppen classification of climate Climate is the long-term pattern of weather Weather is the state of the atmosphere, describing for example the deg ...
. ( Köppen: ''Cfb''). Cambridge currently has two official weather observing stations, the National Institute of Agricultural Botany (NIAB), about north of the city boundary near Histon, and the
Cambridge University Botanic Garden The Cambridge University Botanic Garden is a botanical garden A botanical garden or botanic gardenThe terms ''botanic'' and ''botanical'' and ''garden'' or ''gardens'' are used more-or-less interchangeably, although the word ''botanic'' i ...
, about 1 mile south of the city centre. In addition, the Digital Technology Group of the University's Department of Computer Science and Technology maintains a weather station on the West Cambridge site, displaying current weather conditions online via web browsers or an
app App or apps may refer to: Computing * Application software Application software (app for short) is computing software designed to carry out a specific task other than one relating to the operation of the computer itself, typically to be used b ...
, and also an archive dating back to 1995. The city, like most of the UK, has a
maritime climate Maritime may refer to: Geography * Maritime Alps it, Alpi Marittime , photo=Maritime Alps.jpg , photo_caption=Maritime Alps , country_type= Countries , country= , subdivision1_type= Regions, Régions , subdivision1= , parent= Alps , bor ...
highly influenced by the
Gulf Stream The Gulf Stream, together with its northern extension the North Atlantic Drift The North Atlantic Current (NAC), also known as North Atlantic Drift and North Atlantic Sea Movement, is a powerful warm western boundary current Boundary curren ...
. Located in the driest region of Britain, Cambridge's rainfall averages around per year, around half the national average, The driest recent year was in 2011 with of rain at the Botanic Garden and at the NIAB site. This is just below the
semi-arid A semi-arid climate, semi-desert climate, or steppe climate is the climate Climate is the long-term pattern of weather Weather is the state of the atmosphere An atmosphere (from the greek words ἀτμός ''(atmos)'', meaning ' ...
precipitation threshold for the area, which is 350mm of annual precipitation. Conversely, 2012 was the wettest year on record, with reported. Snowfall accumulations are usually small, in part because of Cambridge's low elevation, and low precipitation tendency during transitional snow events. Owing to its low lying, inland, and easterly position within the British Isles, summer temperatures tend to be somewhat higher than areas further west, and often rival or even exceed those recorded in the London area. Cambridge also often records the annual highest national temperature in any given year – in July 2008 at NIAB and in August 2007 at the Botanic Garden are two recent examples. Other years include 1876, 1887, 1888, 1892, 1897, 1899 and 1900. The absolute maximum stands at recorded on 25 July 2019 at Cambridge University Botanic Garden, which is also the national all time temperature record. Typically the temperature will reach or higher on over 25 days of the year over the 1981–2010 period, with the annual warmest day averaging over the same period. The absolute minimum temperature recorded at the Botanic Garden site was , recorded in February 1947, although a minimum of was recorded at the now defunct observatory site in December 1879. More recently the temperature fell to on 11 February 2012, on 22 January 2013 and on 20 December 2010. The average frequency of air frosts ranges from 42.8 days at the NIAB site, to 48.3 days at the Botanic Garden per year over the 1981–2010 period. Typically the coldest night of the year at the Botanic Garden will fall to . Such minimum temperatures and frost averages are typical for inland areas across much of southern and central England. Sunshine averages around 1,500 hours a year or around 35% of possible, a level typical of most locations in inland central England.


Ecology

The city contains three Sites of Special Scientific Interest (SSSIs), at Cherry Hinton East Pit, Cherry Hinton West Pit, and Travellers Pit, and ten Local Nature Reserves (LNRs): Sheep's Green and Coe Fen, Coldham's Common, Stourbridge Common, Nine Wells, Byron's Pool, West Pit, Paradise, Barnwell West, Barnwell East, and Logan's Meadow.


Green belt

Cambridge is completely enclosed by
green belt A green belt is a policy and land-use zone designation used in land-use planning Land use planning is the process of regulating the use of land by a central authority. Usually, this is done to promote more desirable social and environmental ...
as a part of a wider environmental and planning policy first defined in 1965 and formalised in 1992. While some small tracts of green belt exist on the fringes of the city's boundary, much of the protection is in the surrounding South Cambridgeshire and nearby
East Cambridgeshire East Cambridgeshire (locally known as East Cambs) is a Non-metropolitan district, local government district in Cambridgeshire, England. Its council is based in Ely, Cambridgeshire, Ely. The population of the District Council at the 2011 Census wa ...
districts, helping to maintain local green space, prevent further
urban sprawl Urban sprawl (also known as suburban sprawl or urban encroachment) is the unrestricted growth in many urban area An urban area, or built-up area, is a human settlement with a high population density and infrastructure of built environment. ...
and unplanned expansion of the city, as well as protecting smaller outlying villages from further convergence with each other as well as the city.


Demography

At the 2011 Census, the population of the Cambridge contiguous built-up area (urban area) was 158,434, while that of the City Council area was 123,867. In the 2001 Census held during University term, 89.44% of Cambridge residents identified themselves as white, compared with a national average of 92.12%. Within the University, 84% of undergraduates and 80% of post-graduates identified as white (including overseas students). Cambridge has a much higher than average proportion of people in the highest paid professional, managerial or administrative jobs (32.6% vs. 23.5%)ONS 2001 Census (Approximated Social Grade – Workplace Population, Cambridge local authority) and a much lower than average proportion of manual workers (27.6% vs. 40.2%). In addition, 41.2% have a higher-level qualification (e.g. degree,
Higher National Diploma Higher National Diploma (HND), part of the Higher Nationals suite of qualifications, is an academic higher education Higher education is tertiary education leading to award of an academic degree. Higher education, also called post-secondary ed ...
, Master's or PhD), much higher than the national average proportion (19.7%).
Centre for Cities The Centre for Cities is an independent, non-partisan urban policy research Research is "creativity, creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge". It involves the collection, organization, and analysis of in ...
identified Cambridge as the UK's most unequal city in 2017 and 2018. Residents' income was the least evenly distributed of 57 British cities measured, with its top 6% earners accounting for 19% of its total income and the bottom 20% for only 2%, and a
Gini coefficient In economics Economics () is a social science Social science is the branch A branch ( or , ) or tree branch (sometimes referred to in botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science ...

Gini coefficient
of 0.460 in 2018.


Historical population

Local census 1749 Census: Regional District 1801–1901 Civil Parish 1911–1961 District 1971–2011


Economy

The town's river link to the surrounding agricultural land, and good road connections to London in the south meant Cambridge has historically served as an important regional trading post. King Henry I granted Cambridge a monopoly on river trade, privileging this area of the economy of Cambridge The town
market Market may refer to: *Market (economics) *Market economy *Marketplace, a physical marketplace or public market Geography *Märket, an island shared by Finland and Sweden Art, entertainment, and media Films *Market (1965 film), ''Market'' (1965 ...
provided for trade in a wide variety of goods and annual trading fairs such as Stourbridge Fair and Midsummer Fair were visited by merchants from across the country. The river was described in an account of 1748 as being "often so full of erchant boatsthat the navigation thereof is stopped for some time". For example, 2000 firkins of butter were brought up the river every Monday from the agricultural lands to the North East, particularity Norfolk, to be unloaded in the town for road transportation to London. Changing patterns of retail distribution and the advent of the railways led to a decline in Cambridge's importance as a market town. Today Cambridge has a diverse economy with strength in sectors such as research & development, software consultancy, high value engineering, creative industries, pharmaceuticals and tourism. Described as one of the "most beautiful cities in the world" by
Forbes ''Forbes'' () is an American business magazine owned by Integrated Whale Media Investments and the Forbes family The Forbes family is one of the Boston Brahmins—a wealthy extended American family long prominent in Boston, Massachusett ...

Forbes
in 2010, with the view from
The Backs The Backs is a picturesque area to the east of Queen's Road, Cambridge, Queen's Road in the city of Cambridge, England, where several colleges of the University of Cambridge back on to the River Cam, their grounds covering both banks of the river. ...

The Backs
being selected as one of the 10 greatest in England by
National Trust The National Trust for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty, commonly known as the National Trust, is a charity and membership organisation for heritage conservation in England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, cou ...
chair
Simon Jenkins Sir Simon David Jenkins (born 10 June 1943) is a British author and a newspaper columnist and editor. He was editor of the ''Evening Standard'' from 1976 to 1978 and of ''The Times'' from 1990 to 1992. Jenkins chaired the National Trust from ...
, tourism generates over £750 million for the city's economy. Cambridge and its surrounds are sometimes referred to as
Silicon Fen Silicon Fen (also known as the Cambridge Cluster) is the name given to the region around Cambridge Cambridge ( ) is a College town, university city and the county town of Cambridgeshire, England, on the River Cam approximately north ...
, an allusion to
Silicon Valley Silicon Valley is a region in Northern California Northern California (colloquially known as NorCal) is a geographic and cultural region that generally comprises the northern portion of the U.S. state of California California is a U.S ...

Silicon Valley
, because of the density of high-tech businesses and technology incubators that have developed on
science park A science park (also called a "university research park", "technology park”, "technopark", “technopole", or a "science and technology park" (STP)) is defined as being a property-based development that accommodates and fosters the growth ...

science park
s around the city. Many of these parks and buildings are owned or leased by university colleges, and the companies often have been spun out of the university.
Cambridge Science Park The Cambridge Science Park, founded by Trinity College, Cambridge, Trinity College in 1970, is the oldest science park in the United Kingdom. It is a concentration of science and technology related businesses, and has strong links with the ne ...
, which is the largest commercial R&D centre in Europe, is owned by
Trinity CollegeTrinity College may refer to: Australia * Trinity Anglican College, an Anglican Church of Australia, Anglican coeducational primary and secondary school in , New South Wales * Trinity Catholic College, Auburn, a coeducational school in the inner-we ...
;
St John's Saint John's or St. John's may refer to: Places Canada * St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador * St. Johns (provincial electoral district), in North Winnipeg * St. John's (electoral district), a defunct federal riding in Quebec from 1867 to 1892 ...

St John's
is the landlord of St John's Innovation Centre. Technology companies include
Abcam Abcam is a producer, distributor and seller of protein research tools. History The company was founded in 1998 by Jonathan Milner with co-founders professor Tony Kouzarides and David Cleevely, with the idea of making it easier for research scient ...
, CSR,
ARM Limited Arm Ltd. (stylized as arm) is a Great Britain, British semiconductor and Computer software, software design company based in Cambridge, England. Its primary business is in the design of ARM architecture, ARM Central processing unit, processors ( ...
, CamSemi,
Jagex Jagex Limited is a British video game developer A video game developer is a software developer specializing in video game development – the process and related disciplines of creating video games. A game developer can range from one person ...
and
Sinclair Sinclair may refer to: Places * Lake Sinclair Lake Sinclair is a reservoir, man-made lake in central Georgia (U.S. state), Georgia near Milledgeville, Georgia, Milledgeville. It is operated by Georgia Power. The lake was named after Benjamin ...
.
Microsoft Microsoft Corporation is an American multinational corporation, multinational technology company, technology corporation which produces Software, computer software, consumer electronics, personal computers, and related services. Its best-know ...

Microsoft
has located its
Microsoft Research Microsoft Research (MSR) is the research subsidiary of Microsoft. It was created in 1991 by Richard Rashid, Bill Gates and Nathan Myhrvold with the intent to advance state-of-the-art computing and solve difficult world problems through technologic ...
UK offices in
West Cambridge West Cambridge is a university site to the west of Cambridge city centre in England. As part of the ''West Cambridge Master Plan'', several of the University of Cambridge's departments have relocated to the West Cambridge site from the centre o ...
, separate from the main Microsoft UK campus in
Reading Reading is the process of taking in the sense or meaning of letters, symbols, ''etc.'', especially by sight or touch. For educators and researchers, reading is a multifaceted process involving such areas as word recognition, orthography An ...
, and also has an office on Station Road. Cambridge was also the home of
Pye Ltd Pye Ltd was an electronics company founded in 1896 in Cambridge Cambridge ( ) is a College town, university city and the county town of Cambridgeshire, England, on the River Cam approximately north of London. At the United Kingdom Census ...
, founded in 1898 by W. G. Pye, who worked in the ; it began by supplying the University and later specialised in wireless telegraphy equipment, radios, televisions and also defence equipment. Pye Ltd evolved into several other companies including
TETRA Tetra is the common name of many small freshwater Fresh water or freshwater is any naturally occurring liquid or frozen water Water (chemical formula H2O) is an , transparent, tasteless, odorless, and , which is the main co ...

TETRA
radio equipment manufacturer
Sepura Sepura Limited designs, manufactures and supplies digital mobile radio products, systems and applications for business and critical communications. The company specialises in TETRA (Terrestrial Trunked Radio) technology. Headquartered in Cambridg ...
. Another major business is
Marshall Aerospace Marshall Aerospace and Defence Group is an aircraft maintenance, modification and design company located at Cambridge Airport, which it also owns and operates. Formerly known as Marshall's of Cambridge, it was originally founded by David Gregor ...
located on the eastern edge of the city. The
Cambridge NetworkThe Cambridge Network is a commercial business networking organisation for business people and academics working in technology fields in the Cambridge area of the UK. The businesses and organisations that make up its membership are typical of those f ...
keeps businesses in touch with each other. The software company
Autonomy Corporation HP Autonomy, previously Autonomy Corporation PLC, was an enterprise softwareEnterprise software, also known as enterprise application software (EAS), is computer software Software is a collection of Instruction (computer science), instru ...
is located at the Business Park on Cowley Road.


Transport

Because of its rapid growth in the 20th century, Cambridge has a congested road network. The
M11 motorway The M11 is a motorway A controlled-access highway is a type of highway that has been designed for high-speed vehicular traffic, with all traffic flow—ingress and egress—regulated. Common English terms are freeway, motorway and expr ...
from east London terminates to the north-west of the city where it joins the A14, a major freight route which connects the port of
Felixstowe Felixstowe ( ) is a seaside town A seaside resort is a resort town ski resort, Slovakia Image:Nusa dua beach.jpg, Nusa Dua in Bali, Indonesia A resort town, often called a resort city or resort destination, is an urban area where tourism ...

Felixstowe
on the east coast with the
Midlands The Midlands is the central part of England and a cultural area that broadly corresponds to the early medieval Mercia, Kingdom of Mercia. The Midlands region is bordered by Northern England and Southern England. The Midlands were important in th ...
. The A428 connects the city with the A1 at
St Neots St Neots is a town and civil parish In England, a civil parish is a type of administrative parish used for local government. It is a territorial designation which is the lowest tier of local government below districts and counties, o ...
: the route continues westwards towards
Oxford Oxford () is a city in England. It is the county town In the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' u ...

Oxford
(as the
A421 The A421 is an important road for east/west journeys across south central England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to its west and Scotland to its n ...
) via
Bedford Bedford is a historic market Market may refer to: *Market (economics) *Market economy *Marketplace, a physical marketplace or public market Geography *Märket, an island shared by Finland and Sweden Art, entertainment, and media Films *M ...
and
Milton Keynes Milton Keynes ( ) is the largest settlement in Buckinghamshire, England, north-west of London. At the 2011 Census, the population of Milton Keynes urban area, its urban area was almost . The River Great Ouse forms its northern boundary; a t ...
. The
A10 A10, A.10 or A-10 may refer to: Aviation * Fairchild Republic A-10 Thunderbolt II The Fairchild Republic A-10 Thunderbolt II is a single-seat, twin turbofan engine, straight wing jet aircraft developed by Fairchild-Republic for the Unite ...
connects the city to
King's Lynn King's Lynn, known until 1537 as Bishop's Lynn and colloquially as Lynn, is a port and market town in Norfolk, England, north of London, north-east of Peterborough, north-north-east of Cambridge and west of Norwich. The population is 42,800. ...
to the north via Ely, and is the historic route south to the
City of London The City of London is a city A city is a large .Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routledge. It ...

City of London
. As a university town lying on fairly flat ground and with traffic congestion, Cambridge has the highest level of cycle use in the UK. According to the 2001 census, 25% of residents travelled to work by bicycle. Furthermore, a survey in 2013 found that 47% of residents travel by bike at least once a week. Cambridge has five
Park and Ride Park and ride (or incentive parking) facilities are parking lots with public transport Shanghai Metro is the second largest rapid transit system in the world by route length, after the Beijing Subway. Public transport (also known as pu ...

Park and Ride
sites, all of which operate seven days a week and are aimed at encouraging motorists to park near the city's edge. Since 2011, the
Cambridgeshire Guided Busway The Cambridgeshire Guided Busway, known locally as The Busway, connects Cambridge, Huntingdon and St Ives, Cambridgeshire, St Ives in the English county of Cambridgeshire. It is the longest guided busway in the world, overtaking the O-Bahn Busway ...

Cambridgeshire Guided Busway
has carried bus services into the centre of Cambridge from St Ives,
Huntingdon Huntingdon is a market town A market town is a European Human settlement, settlement that obtained by custom or royal charter, in the Middle Ages, the right to host market (place), markets (market right), which distinguished it from a vil ...
, and other towns and villages along the routes, operated by
Stagecoach in the Fens Stagecoach East is the divisional name for the bus operations of the Stagecoach Group in eastern England. History Under the control of the National Bus Company (UK), National Bus Company, ''Cambus Ltd.'' was set up when the First Norfolk & Suffo ...
and
Whippet The Whippet (also English Whippet or Snaphound) is a dog breed of medium size. They are a sighthound breed that originated in England, where they descended from Greyhounds. Whippets today still strongly resemble a smaller Greyhound. Part of t ...
. The A service continues on to the railway station and
Addenbrookes Addenbrooke's Hospital is an internationally renowned teaching hospital and research centre in Cambridge, England, with strong affiliations to the University of Cambridge. Addenbrooke's Hospital is based on the Cambridge Biomedical Campus. The ...

Addenbrookes
, before terminating at a new Park and Ride in Trumpington. Since 2017 it has also linked to Cambridge North railway station. Although Cambridge has its own airport,
Cambridge City Airport Cambridge City Airport , previously Marshall Airport Cambridge UK, is a regional airport in Cambridgeshire, England. It is located on the eastern outskirts of Cambridge, south of Newmarket Road, Cambridge, Newmarket Road and west of the village ...
, it has no scheduled services and is used mainly by charter and training flights as well FBO services.
London Stansted Airport London Stansted Airport is an international airport located in Stansted Mountfitchet, Essex, England, northeast of Central London. London Stansted serves over 160 destinations across Europe, Asia and Africa. Stansted is a base for a number ...

London Stansted Airport
, about south via the M11 or direct rail, offers a broad range of international destinations. In February 2020, consultations opened for a transport system known as the Cambridgeshire Autonomous Metro. It will connect the historic city centre and the existing busway route with the mainline railway stations,
Cambridge Science Park The Cambridge Science Park, founded by Trinity College, Cambridge, Trinity College in 1970, is the oldest science park in the United Kingdom. It is a concentration of science and technology related businesses, and has strong links with the ne ...
, and Haverhill.


Rail

Cambridge railway station Cambridge railway station is the principal station serving the city of Cambridge Cambridge ( ) is a university city and the county town In the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly k ...
was opened in 1845, initially linking to Bishopsgate station in London, via Bishops Stortford. Further lines opened throughout the 19th century, including the Cambridge and St Ives branch line, the
Stour Valley Railway The Stour Valley Railway is a partially closed railway line that ran between , near Cambridge Cambridge ( ) is a College town, university city and the county town of Cambridgeshire, England, on the River Cam approximately north of London. At ...
, the Cambridge to Mildenhall railway, and the
Varsity Line The Varsity Line (or the Oxford to Cambridge railway line) was the main railway route that once linked the English university cities of Oxford and Cambridge Cambridge ( ) is a College town, university city and the county town of Cambridgesh ...
to Oxford. Another station was opened in Cherry Hinton though, at the time, this was a separate village to Cambridge. Several of these lines were closed during the 1960s. Today, Cambridge station has direct rail links to London with termini at (via the
Cambridge Line The Cambridge line runs from Cambridge junction on the East Coast Main Line The East Coast Main Line (ECML) is a electrified railway between London London is the capital city, capital and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, la ...

Cambridge Line
and the
East Coast Main Line The East Coast Main Line (ECML) is a electrified Electrification is the process of powering by electricity Electricity is the set of physical phenomena associated with the presence and motion Image:Leaving Yongsan Station.jpg, 3 ...

East Coast Main Line
), (on the
West Anglia Main Line The West Anglia Main Line is one of the two main lines that operate out of , the other being the Great Eastern Main Line, which operates services to Ipswich and Norwich via Colchester. It runs generally north through Cheshunt, Broxbourne, Harlow ...

West Anglia Main Line
), and (on the
Thameslink Thameslink is a 24-hour, 115-station (32 managed) main-line route in the Rail transport in the United Kingdom, British railway system, running from , , , and via central London to Sutton railway station (London), Sutton, , , Rainham railway s ...

Thameslink
line). Commuter trains to King's Cross run every half-hour during peak hours, with a journey time of 53 minutes. Trains also run to and (via the ), (via the ), ,
Birmingham Birmingham ( ) is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Ro ...
, , , ,
Stansted Airport London Stansted Airport is an international airport An international airport is an airport An airport is an aerodrome An aerodrome (Commonwealth English The use of the English language English is a West Germanic ...
,
Brighton Brighton () is a constituent part of the city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd ...

Brighton
and
Gatwick Airport Gatwick Airport (), also known as London Gatwick , is a major international airport near Crawley, West Sussex, England, south of Central London Central London (also known less commonly as London city centre) is the innermost part of Londo ...
railway stations. A second railway station, Cambridge North, opened on 21 May 2017, having originally planned to open in March 2015. A third railway station, , near Addenbrooke's Hospital has been proposed. It is expected to open in 2025.


Education

Cambridge's two universities, the collegiate
University of Cambridge , mottoeng = Literal: From here, light and sacred draughts. Non literal: From this place, we gain enlightenment and precious knowledge. , established = , other_name = The Chancellor, Masters and Scholars of ...
and the local campus of
Anglia Ruskin University Anglia Ruskin University (ARU) is a university in East Anglia, United Kingdom. Its origins are in the Cambridge School of Art, founded by William John Beamont in 1858. It became a university in 1992 and was renamed after John Ruskin in 2005. It i ...

Anglia Ruskin University
, serve around 30,000 students, by some estimates. Cambridge University estimated its 2007/08 student population at 17,662, and Anglia Ruskin reports 24,000 students across its two campuses (one of which is outside Cambridge, in
Chelmsford Chelmsford () is a City status in the United Kingdom, City, and the county town of Essex, in the East of England. It is located in the London commuter belt, approximately northeast of London and from Colchester. The population is approximate ...
) for the same period. ARU now (2019) has additional campuses in London and Peterborough. State provision in the
further education Further education (often abbreviated FE) in the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a s ...
sector includes
Hills Road Sixth Form College Hills Road Sixth Form College (commonly referred to as HRSFC, Hills Road or just Hills) is a public sector The public sector (also called the state sector) is the part of the economy composed of both public services and public enterprises. Publi ...
,
Long Road Sixth Form College Long Road Sixth Form College (LRSFC) is a State school, public sector co-educational sixth form college in Cambridge, England. It is situated on Long Road, from which it draws its name, and is located next to the Cambridge Bio-Medical Campus whic ...
, and
Cambridge Regional College Cambridge Regional College is a mixed further education Further education (often abbreviated FE) in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, Ireland is education in addition to that received at secondary school, that is distinct from the h ...
. Both state and
independent schools An independent school is independent in its finances and governance. Also known as private schools, non-governmental, privately funded, or non-state schools, they are not administered by local, state or national governments. In British Engli ...
serve Cambridge pupils from nursery to secondary school age. State schools are administered by Cambridgeshire County Council, which maintains 251 schools in total, 35 of them in Cambridge city. Netherhall School, Chesterton Community College, the Parkside Federation (comprising
Parkside Community College Parkside Community College is a secondary Academy (English school), academy school with 600 places for children aged 11–16, situated in Cambridge, Cambridgeshire. It is part of thCambridge Academic Partnership along with Parkside Sixth, Colerid ...
and Coleridge Community College), North Cambridge Academy and the Christian inter-denominational
St Bede's School Saint Bede's School is a Mixed-sex education, coeducational secondary school and sixth form in the England, English town of Redhill, Surrey. In the most recent Ofsted inspection, the school was graded as "outstanding" in all areas. It now has ov ...
provide
comprehensive Comprehensive may refer to: *Comprehensive layout, the page layout of a proposed design as initially presented by the designer to a client. *Comprehensive school, a state school that does not select its intake on the basis of academic achievement or ...
secondary education. Many other pupils from the Cambridge area attend village colleges, an educational institution unique to Cambridgeshire, which serve as secondary schools during the day and adult education centres outside of school hours. Independent schools in the city include
The Perse School The Perse School is a Public school (United Kingdom), public school (English Independent school (United Kingdom), independent Day school, day and, in the case of the Perse, a former boarding school) in Cambridge, England. Founded in 1615 by Stephe ...
,
Stephen Perse Foundation The Stephen Perse Foundation is a family of independent Independent or Independents may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Artist groups * Independents (artist group), a group of modernist painters based in the New Hope, Pennsylvania, ar ...
, , St Mary's School, and
The Leys School The Leys School is a co-educational independent school File:Share enrolled in private institutions at the tertiary education level, OWID.svg, Share enrolled in private institutions at the tertiary education level (2015) An independent school ...
. The city has one
university technical college#REDIRECT University technical college {{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from move {{R from other capitalisation ...
, Cambridge Academy for Science and Technology, which opened in September 2014.


Sport


Football

Cambridge played a unique role in the invention of modern
football Football is a family of s that involve, to varying degrees, a to score a . Unqualified, normally means the form of football that is the most popular where the word is used. Sports commonly called ''football'' include (known as ''soccer'' ...
: the game's first set of rules were drawn up by members of the University in 1848. The
Cambridge Rules The Cambridge Rules were several formulations of the rules of football made at the University of Cambridge during the nineteenth century. One of these codes, dating from 1863, had a significant influence on the creation of the original Laws of t ...
were first played on
Parker's Piece Parker's Piece is a flat and roughly square green common located near the centre of Cambridge Cambridge ( ) is a College town, university city and the county town of Cambridgeshire, England, on the River Cam approximately north of London. At ...
and had a 'defining influence on the 1863
Football Association The Football Association (also known as The FA) is the governing body A governing body is a group of people that has the authority to exercise governance Governance is all the processes of interactions be they through the laws Law ...
rules' which again were first played on Parker's Piece. The city is home to Cambridge United FC, who play at the
Abbey Stadium Abbey Stadium is a association football, football stadium in Cambridge, England. It has been the home ground of Cambridge United F.C. since 1932, and currently has a maximum Seating capacity, capacity of 8,127 spectators. Cambridge Regional Colleg ...
. Formed in 1912, as Abbey United, they were elected to the
Football League The English Football League (EFL) (legal name: The Football League Limited) is a league competition featuring professional association football Association football, more commonly known as simply football or soccer, is a team sport playe ...
in 1970 and reached the
Football League Second Division The Football League Second Division was the second level division in the English football league system between 1892–93 Football League, 1892 and 1992–93 Football League, 1992. Following the foundation of the FA Premier League, the Football ...
in 1978, although a serious decline in them in the mid 1980s saw them drop back down to the
Football League Fourth Division The Football League Fourth Division was the fourth-highest division in the English football league system from the 1958-59 in English football, 1958–59 season until the creation of the Premier League prior to the 1992-93 in English football, 199 ...
and almost go out of business. Success returned to the club in the early 1990s when they won two successive promotions and reached the
FA Cup The Football Association Challenge Cup, more commonly known as the FA Cup, is an annual knockout A knockout (abbreviated to KO or K.O.) is a fight-ending, winning criterion in several full-contact Contact sports are sports that emphasize ...

FA Cup
quarter finals in both of those seasons, and in 1992 they came close to becoming the first English team to win three successive Football League promotions which would have taken them into the newly created
FA Premier League The Premier League, often referred to outside the UK as the English Premier League, or sometimes the EPL, (legal name: The Football Association Premier League Limited) is the top level of the English football league system. Contested by 20 ...
. But they were beaten in the playoffs and another decline set in, which was completed in 2005 when they were relegated from the Football League and for the second time in 20 years narrowly avoided going out of business. After nine years of non-league football they returned to the Football League in 2014 by winning the
Conference National The National League, known as the Vanarama National League for sponsorship reasons, is the highest level of the National League System The National League System comprises the six levels of the English football league system The English foot ...
playoffs. Cambridge City FC of the
Southern Football League Premier Division The Southern League is a men's Association football, football competition featuring semi-professional clubs from the Southern England, South and The Midlands, Midlands of England. Together with the Isthmian League and the Northern Premier League ...
now play in the adjoining village of Histon. Formed in Cambridge in 1908 as Cambridge Town, the club were
Southern Premier League The Southern League is a men's football Football is a family of team sport A team is a South South is one of the cardinal directions or compass points. South is the opposite of north and is perpendicular to the east and west. Etymol ...
champions in 1962–63, the highest they have finished in the
English football pyramid The English football league system, also known as the football pyramid, is a series of League system, interconnected leagues for men's association football clubs in England, with five teams from Wales, one from Guernsey, one from Jersey and one f ...
. After a legal dispute with their landlords, the club left their home ground in Cambridge in order to
groundshare Groundshare is the principle of sharing a stadium between two local sport teams. This is usually done for the purpose of reducing the costs of either construction of two separate facilities and related maintenance.
with fellow Southern League Premier club Histon FC in 2013-14 and intend to construct a new ground outside the city, in Sawston.


Cricket

As well as being the home of the
Cambridge Rules The Cambridge Rules were several formulations of the rules of football made at the University of Cambridge during the nineteenth century. One of these codes, dating from 1863, had a significant influence on the creation of the original Laws of t ...
in football, Parker's Piece was used for first-class cricket matches from 1817 to 1864. The University of Cambridge's cricket ground, Fenner's, is located in the city and is one of the home grounds for minor counties team Cambridgeshire CCC. There are seven amateur cricket clubs within the city: Cambridge Granta, Camden, Cambridge St Giles, New Chesterton Institute, Fen Ditton, Romsey Town and Cherry Hinton.


Rugby

The city is represented in both codes of Rugby football. Rugby Union club Cambridge R.U.F.C. were founded in 1923, and play in National League 1 at their home ground, Grantchester Road, in the southwest corner of the city. Cambridge Lions represent the city in rugby league, and are members of East Men's League, East Rugby League.


Watersports

The River Cam running through the city centre is used for boating. The University and its colleges are well known for Rowing (sport), rowing and the Cambridgeshire Rowing Association, formed in 1868, organises competitive rowing on the river outside of the University. Rowing clubs based in the city include City of Cambridge Rowing Club, City of Cambridge RC, Cambridge '99 Rowing Club, Cambridge '99 RC, Cantabrigian Rowing Club, Cantabrigian RC and Rob Roy Boat Club, Rob Roy BC. Shallower parts of the Cam are used for recreational punt (boat), punting, a type of boating in which the craft is propelled by pushing against the river bed with a quant pole. Cambridge Swimming Club, Cambridge Dive team, and City of Cambridge Water Polo Club are all based at Parkside Swimming Pool.


Greyhound racing

There are three known former venues for Greyhound racing in the United Kingdom, greyhound racing in Cambridge. The most significant venue was the racing held around the City Ground (Cambridge), City Ground which was licensed by the sports governing body the National Greyhound Racing Club (NGRC) and took place from 1968 to 1984. The other two venues were independent tracks and known as a flapping tracks, the nickname given to non-NGRC tracks. They were at Coldham Road, which was opened by the Cambridge and District Greyhound Racing Club on 10 April 1931, and Cowper Lane which also opened in 1931.


Other sports

Cambridge is home to two Real Tennis courts (out of just 42 in the world) at Cambridge University Real Tennis Club. British American Football League club Cambridgeshire Cats play at Coldham's Common. Cambridge Royals are members of the British Baseball Federation's Triple-A South Division. Cambridge has two cycling clubs: Team Cambridge and Cambridge Cycling Club. Cambridge & Coleridge Athletic Club is the city's track and field club, based at the University of Cambridge's Wilberforce Road track. Cambridge Handball Club compete in the men's England Handball National Super 8 League, and the women's England Handball National Super 7 League. There are three field hockey clubs; Cambridge City Hockey Club, Cambridge South Hockey Club and Cambridge Nomads. The city is also represented in polo by Cambridge Polo Club, based in Barton, Cambridgeshire, Barton, just outside the city. The Romsey Town Rollerbillies play roller derby in Cambridge. Speedway in the United Kingdom, Speedway racing was formerly staged at a greyhound stadium in Coldhams Lane.


Varsity sports

Cambridge is also known for the sporting events between the
University of Cambridge , mottoeng = Literal: From here, light and sacred draughts. Non literal: From this place, we gain enlightenment and precious knowledge. , established = , other_name = The Chancellor, Masters and Scholars of ...
and the University of Oxford, especially the rugby union The Varsity Match, Varsity Match and the Oxford and Cambridge Boat Race, Boat Race, though many of these do not take place within Cambridge.


Culture


Theatre

Cambridge's main traditional theatre is the Cambridge Arts Theatre, Arts Theatre, a venue with 666 seats in the town centre. The theatre often has touring shows, as well as those by local companies. The largest venue in the city to regular hold theatrical performances is the Cambridge Corn Exchange with a capacity of 1,800 standing or 1,200 seated. Housed within the city's 19th century former corn exchange building the venue was used for a variety of additional functions throughout the 20th century including Tea party (social gathering), tea parties, motor shows, sports matches and a music venue with temporary stage. The City Council renovated the building in the 1980s, turning it into a full-time arts venue, hosting theatre, dance and music performances. The newest theatre venue in Cambridge is the 220-seat J2, part of Cambridge Junction in Cambridge Leisure Park. The venue was opened in 2005 and hosts theatre, dance, live music and comedy The ADC Theatre is managed by the University of Cambridge, and typically has 3 shows a week during term time. It hosts the Cambridge University Footlights Dramatic Club which has produced many notable figures in British comedy. The Mumford Theatre is part of
Anglia Ruskin University Anglia Ruskin University (ARU) is a university in East Anglia, United Kingdom. Its origins are in the Cambridge School of Art, founded by William John Beamont in 1858. It became a university in 1992 and was renamed after John Ruskin in 2005. It i ...

Anglia Ruskin University
, and hosts shows by both student and non-student groups. There are also a number of venues within the colleges.


Museums

Within the city there are several notable museums, some run by the University of Cambridge Museums consortium and others independent of it. The Fitzwilliam Museum is the city's largest, and is the lead museum of the University of Cambridge Museums. Founded in 1816 from the bequeathment and collections of Richard FitzWilliam, 7th Viscount FitzWilliam, Richard, Viscount FitzWilliam, the museum was originally located in the building of the Perse Grammar School in Free School Lane. After a brief housing in the University of Cambridge library, it moved to its current, purpose-built building on Trumpington Street in 1848. The museum has five departments: Antiquities; Applied Arts; Coins and Medals; Manuscripts and Printed Books; and Paintings, Drawings and Prints. Other members of the University of Cambridge Museums are the Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, University of Cambridge, Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, Scott Polar Research Institute, The Polar Museum, Sedgwick Museum of Earth Sciences, The Sedgwick Museum of Earth Sciences, Museum of Classical Archaeology, Cambridge, Museum of Classical Archaeology, Whipple Museum of the History of Science, The Whipple Museum of the History of Science, and the Cambridge University Museum of Zoology, University Museum of Zoology. The Museum of Cambridge, formerly known as the Cambridge & County Folk Museum, is a social history museum located in a former pub on Castle Street. The Centre for Computing History, a museum dedicated to the story of the Information age, moved to Cambridge from Haverhill in 2013. Housed in a former sewage pumping station, the Cambridge Museum of Technology has a collection of large exhibits related to the city's industrial heritage.


Music


Popular music

Pink Floyd are the most notable band with roots in Cambridge. The band's former songwriter, guitarist and vocalist Syd Barrett was born and lived in the city, and he and another founding member, Roger Waters, went to school together at Cambridgeshire High School for Boys. David Gilmour, the guitarist who replaced Barrett, was also a Cambridge resident and attended the nearby Perse School. Bands that were formed in Cambridge include Clean Bandit, Henry Cow, The Movies (UK band), The Movies, Katrina and the Waves, The Soft Boys, Ezio (band), Ezio The Broken Family Band, Uncle Acid & the Deadbeats, and the pop-classical group King's Singers, who were formed at the University. Solo artist Boo Hewerdine is from Cambridge, as are drum and bass artists (and brothers) Nu:Tone and Logistics (artist), Logistics. Singers Matthew Bellamy, of the rock band Muse (band), Muse, Tom Robinson, and Olivia Newton-John were born in the city. 2012 Mercury Prize winners Alt-J are based in Cambridge. Live music venues hosting popular music in the city include the Cambridge Corn Exchange, Cambridge Junction and the Portland Arms.


Classical music

Started in 1991, the annual Cambridge Music Festival takes place each November. The Cambridge Summer Music Festival takes place in July.


Contemporary art

Cambridge contains
Kettle's Yard Kettle's Yard is an art gallery An art gallery is a room or a building in which visual art is displayed. Among the reasons art may be displayed are aesthetic enjoyment, cultural enrichment, or for marketing purposes. While "gallery" continue ...

Kettle's Yard
gallery of modern and contemporary art and the Downing College, Cambridge#Heong Gallery, Heong Gallery which opened to the public in 2016 at Downing College, Cambridge, Downing College. Anglia Ruskin University operates the publicly accessible Ruskin Gallery within the Cambridge School of Art. Wysing Arts Centre, one of the leading research centres for the visual arts in Europe, is associated with the city, though is located several miles west of Cambridge. Artist-run organisations including Aid & Abet, Cambridge Art Salon, Changing Spaces and Motion Sickness also run exhibitions, events and artists' studios in the city, often in short-term or temporary spaces.


Festivals and events

Several fairs and festivals take place in Cambridge, mostly during the British summer. Midsummer Common, Midsummer Fair dates back to 1211, when it was granted a charter by John, King of England, King John. Today it exists primarily as an annual travelling funfair, funfair with the vestige of a market attached and is held over several days around or close to midsummers day. On the first Saturday in June Midsummer Common is the site for
Strawberry Fair Strawberry Fair is a local festival of music, entertainments, arts and crafts which has been held in Cambridge Cambridge ( ) is a College town, university city and the county town of Cambridgeshire, England, on the River Cam approximately nor ...
, a free music and children's fair, with various market stalls. For one week in May, on
Jesus Green . Image:JesusGreenLock-Cambridge.jpg"> Jesus Lock on the River Cam at Jesus Green. Jesus Green is a park in the north of central Cambridge, Cambridgeshire, England., north of Jesus College, Cambridge, Jesus College. Jesus Ditch runs along the sout ...
, the annual
Cambridge Beer Festival The summer Cambridge Beer Festival is the longest-running CAMRA The Campaign for Real Ale (CAMRA) is an independent voluntary consumer organisation headquartered in St Albans, England, which promotes what they designate as "real" ale, real ...
has been held since 1974. Cambridge Folk Festival is held annually in the grounds of Cherry Hinton Hall. The festival has been organised by the city council since its inception in 1964. The Cambridge Summer Music Festival is an annual festival of classical music, held in the University's colleges and chapels. The Cambridge Shakespeare Festival is an eight-week season of open-air performances of the works of William Shakespeare, held in the gardens of various colleges of the university. Started in 1977, the Cambridge Film Festival was held annually in July, moving to September in 2008 to avoid a clash with the rescheduled Edinburgh Film Festival. The Cambridge Science Festival, typically held annually in March, is the United Kingdom's largest free science festival. Between 1975 and 1985 the Cambridge Poetry Festival was held biannually. Other festivals include the annual Mill Road Winter Fair, held the first Saturday of December, the E-luminate Festival, which took place every February from 2013 to 2018, and The Big Weekend, is a city outdoor event organised by the City Council every July. Three Cambridge Free Festivals held in 1969, 1970, and 1971 that featured artists including David Bowie, King Crimson, Roy Harper (singer), Roy Harper, Spontaneous Combustion (UK band), Spontaneous Combustion, UFO (band), UFO and others are believed by the festival organiser to have been the first free multiple-day rock music festivals held in the UK.


Literature and film

The city has been the setting for all or part of several novels, including Douglas Adams' ''Dirk Gently's Holistic Detective Agency'', Rose Macaulay's ''They Were Defeated'', Kate Atkinson's ''Case Histories'', Rebecca Stott's ''Ghostwalk'' and Robert Harris (novelist), Robert Harris' ''Enigma'', while Susanna Gregory wrote a series of novels set in 14th century Cambridge. Gwen Raverat, the granddaughter of Charles Darwin, talked about her late Victorian Cambridge childhood in her memoir ''Period Piece (book), Period Piece'' and ''The Night Climbers of Cambridge'' is a book written by Noel Symington under the pseudonym "Whipplesnaith" about nocturnal climbing on the colleges and town buildings of Cambridge in the 1930s. Fictionalised versions of Cambridge appear in Philippa Pearce's ''Tom's Midnight Garden'' and ''Minnow on the Say'', the city renamed as Castleford, and as the home of Tom Sharpe's fictional college in ''Porterhouse Blue''. ITV (TV network), ITV TV series Grantchester (TV series), ''Granchester'' was partly filmed in Cambridge.


Public services

Cambridge is served by Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, with several smaller medical centres in the city and a teaching hospital at Addenbrooke's Hospital, Addenbrooke's. Located on the
Cambridge Biomedical Campus The Cambridge Biomedical Campus is the largest centre of medical research Medical research (or biomedical research), also known as experimental medicine, encompasses a wide array of research, extending from " basic research" (also called ''be ...
, Addenbrooke's is one of the largest hospitals in the United Kingdom and is a designated regional trauma centre. The East of England Ambulance Service covers the city and has an ambulance station on Hills Road. The smaller Brookfields Hospital stands on Mill Road. Cambridgeshire Constabulary provides the city's policing; the main police station is at Parkside, Cambridge, Parkside, adjacent to the city's fire station, operated by Cambridgeshire Fire and Rescue Service. Cambridge Water Company supplies water services to the city, while Anglian Water provides sewerage services. For the supply of electricity, Cambridge is part of the East of England region, for which the distribution network operator is UK Power Networks. The city has no power stations, though a five-metre wind turbine, part of a
Cambridge Regional College Cambridge Regional College is a mixed further education Further education (often abbreviated FE) in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, Ireland is education in addition to that received at secondary school, that is distinct from the h ...
development, can be seen in
King's Hedges King's Hedges is an electoral ward A ward is a local authority area, typically used for electoral purposes. Wards are usually named after neighbourhoods, thoroughfares, parishes, landmarks, geographical features and in some cases historical figu ...
. The Cambridge Electric Supply Company had provided the city with electricity since the early twentieth century from Cambridge power station. Upon Nationalization, nationalisation of the electricity industry in 1948 ownership passed to the British Electricity Authority and later to the Central Electricity Generating Board. Electricity connections to the National Grid (Great Britain), national grid rendered the small 7.26 Watt, megawatt (MW) coal fired power station redundant. It closed in 1965 and was subsequently demolished; in its final year of operation it delivered 2771 Kilowatt hour, MWh of electricity to the city. Following the Public Libraries Act 1850 the city's first public library, located on Jesus Lane, was opened in 1855. It was moved to the Guildhall in 1862, and is now located in the Grand Arcade (Cambridge), Grand Arcade shopping centre. The library was reopened in September 2009, after having been closed for refurbishment for 33 months, more than twice as long as was forecast when the library closed for redevelopment in January 2007. As of 2018 the city contains six public libraries, run by the County Council. The Cambridge City Cemetery is located to the north of Newmarket Road, Cambridge, Newmarket Road.


Religion

Cambridge has a List of churches in Cambridge, number of churches, some of which form a significant part of the city's architectural landscape. Like the rest of Cambridgeshire it is part of the Anglican
Diocese of Ely The Diocese of Ely is a Church of England diocese in the Province of Canterbury. It is headed by the Bishop of Ely The Bishop of Ely is the Ordinary (officer), ordinary of the Church of England Diocese of Ely in the Province of Canterbury. Th ...
. St Mary the Great with St Michael, Cambridge, Great St Mary's Church has the status of "University Church". Many of the University colleges contain chapels that hold services according to the rites and ceremonies of the Church of England, while the chapel of St Edmund's College, Cambridge, St Edmund's College is Roman Catholic. The city also has a number of Cambridge Theological Federation, theological colleges training clergy for ordination into a number of denominations, with affiliations to both the University of Cambridge and
Anglia Ruskin University Anglia Ruskin University (ARU) is a university in East Anglia, United Kingdom. Its origins are in the Cambridge School of Art, founded by William John Beamont in 1858. It became a university in 1992 and was renamed after John Ruskin in 2005. It i ...

Anglia Ruskin University
. Cambridge is in the Roman Catholic Diocese of East Anglia and is served by the large Gothic Revival
Our Lady and the English Martyrs Church The Church of Our Lady of the Assumption and the English Martyrs, also known as the Church of Our Lady and the English Martyrs (OLEM), is an English Roman Catholic Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome, the capital city of Italy *Ancient Rome, ...
at the junction of Hills Road and Lensfield Road, St Laurence's Church, Cambridge, St Laurence's on Milton Road, St Vincent De Paul Church on Ditton Lane and by the church of St Philip Howard, in Cherry Hinton Road. There is a Moscow Patriarchate, Russian Orthodox church under the Russian Orthodox Diocese of Sourozh, Diocese of Sourozh who worship at the chapel of Westcott House, Cambridge, Westcott House, the Greek Orthodox Church holds services at the purpose-built St Athanasios church under the Archdiocese of Thyateira and Great Britain, while the Romanian Orthodox Church share St Giles' Church, Cambridge, St Giles' with the Church of England. There are two Methodism, Methodist churches in the city. Wesley Methodist Church, Cambridge, Wesley Methodist Church was built in 1913, and is located next to Christ's Pieces. The Castle Street Methodist Church is the oldest of the two, having been built in 1823, and was formerly a Primitive Methodist Church, Primitive Methodist church. There are three Quaker Meetings in Cambridge, located on Jesus Lane, Hartington Grove, and a Meeting called "Oast House" that meets in Pembroke College. An Orthodox Judaism, Orthodox synagogue and Jewish student centre is located on Thompson's Lane, operated jointly by the Cambridge Traditional Jewish Congregation and the Cambridge University Jewish Society, which is affiliated to the Union of Jewish Students. The Beth Shalom Reform Judaism, Reform synagogue which previously met at a local school, opened a purpose-built synagogue in 2015. There is also a student-led egalitarian minyan which holds services on Friday evenings. Cambridge Central Mosque is the main place of worship for Cambridge's community of around 4,000 Muslims. Opened in 2019, it is described as Europe's first eco-friendly mosque and is the first purpose-built mosque within the city. The Abu Bakr Jamia Islamic Centre on Mawson Road and the Omar Faruque Mosque and Cultural Centre in Kings Hedges are additional places of Muslim worship. Cambridge Buddhist Centre which belongs to Triratna Buddhist Community was opened in the former Theatre Royal, Barnwell, Cambridge, Barnwell Theatre on Newmarket Road in 1998. There are also several local Buddhist meditation groups from various Buddhist traditions like Samatha Trust and Buddha Mettā Society that are available for anyone to explore Buddhism and Buddhist meditation practices. A Hinduism, Hindu shrine was opened in 2010 at the Bharat Bhavan Indian cultural centre off Mill Road, Cambridge, Mill Road.


Twinned cities

Cambridge is Twin towns and sister cities, twinned with two cities. Like Cambridge, both have universities and are also similar in population; Heidelberg, Germany since 1965, and Szeged, Hungary since 1987.


Panoramic gallery


See also

* List of bridges in Cambridge * List of churches in Cambridge * Cambridgeshire Archives and Local Studies * :Buildings and structures in Cambridge * :Organisations based in Cambridge * :People from Cambridge


Notes


References


Further reading

* * Tim Rawle, Rawle, Tim (author and photographer), John Adamson (publisher), John Adamson (editor). ''Cambridge (book), Cambridge'' (new ed. with foreword by William Bortrick). Cambridge: Oxbridge Portfolio, The Oxbridge Portfolio (2016), 204 pp.


External links


Cambridge City CouncilCambridgeshire Association for Local HistoryCambridgeshire Community Archives The official tourism website for Cambridge
{{Authority control Cambridge, Cities in the East of England Towns in Cambridgeshire County towns in England University towns in the United Kingdom Non-metropolitan districts of Cambridgeshire Unparished areas in Cambridgeshire