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it, Calabrese , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = , demographics1_footnotes = , demographics1_title1 = , demographics1_info1 = , demographics1_title2 = , demographics1_info2 = , demographics1_title3 = , demographics1_info3 = , timezone1 =
CET CET or cet may refer to: Places * Cet, Albania * Cet, standard astronomical abbreviation for the constellation Cetus * Colchester Town railway station (National Rail code CET), in Colchester, England Arts, entertainment, and media * Comcast Enter ...
, utc_offset1 = +1 , timezone1_DST = CEST , utc_offset1_DST = +2 , postal_code_type = , postal_code = , area_code_type =
ISO 3166 code ISO 3166 is a standard Standard may refer to: Flags * Colours, standards and guidons * Standard (flag), a type of flag used for personal identification Norm, convention or requirement * Standard (metrology), an object that bears a defined ...
, area_code = IT-78 , blank_name_sec1 =
GDP (nominal) Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all the final goods and services produced in a specific time period. List of countries by GDP (nominal) per capita, GDP (nominal) per capita does not, however, reflect di ...
, blank_info_sec1 = €33.3 billion (2018) , blank1_name_sec1 =
GDP per capita Lists of countries by GDP per capita list the countries in the world by their gross domestic product Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all the final goods and services produced in a specific time peri ...
, blank1_info_sec1 = €17,000 (2018) , blank2_name_sec1 =
HDI The Human Development Index (HDI) is a statistic composite index of life expectancy Life expectancy is a statistical measure of the average time an organism is expected to live, based on the year of its birth, its current age, and ot ...
(2018) , blank2_info_sec1 = 0.842
· 20th of 21 , blank_name_sec2 =
NUTS Region
NUTS Region
, blank_info_sec2 = ITF , website
www.regione.calabria.it
, footnotes = , name = Calabria (, , ; scn, label= Calabrian, Calàbbria; el, script=Latn, label=
Calabrian Greek The Calabrian dialect of Greek language, Greek, or Grecanicoantiquity Antiquity or Antiquities may refer to Historical objects or periods Artifacts * Antiquities, objects or artifacts surviving from ancient cultures Eras Any period before the European Middle Ages In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages ...
as Bruttium (), is a
region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of the Earth and planets. The first person to use the wo ...

region
in
Southern Italy Southern Italy ( it, Sud Italia; nap, 'o Sudde; scn, Italia dû Sud), also known as ''Meridione'' or ''Mezzogiorno'' (, literally "Midday"; in nap, 'o Miezojuorno; in scn, Mezzujornu), is a macroregionA macroregion is a geopolitical subdivisi ...
. The capital city of Calabria is
Catanzaro Catanzaro (, or ; scn, label=Central-Southern Calabrian, Catanzarese, Catanzaru ; , or , ''Katastaríoi Lokrói''; la, Catacium), also known as the "City of the two Seas", is an Italy, Italian city of 91,000 inhabitants (2013), the capital of t ...
. The
Regional Council of Calabria The Regional Council of Calabria (''Consiglio regionale della Calabria'') is one of the twenty Regional Councils of Italy. Geography The Regional Council represents the Calabria it, Calabrese , population_note = , populatio ...
is based at the
Palazzo Campanella Palazzo Tommaso Campanella, mostly called Palazzo Campanella, is a major building in Reggio Calabria, Italy, as it is the seat of the Regional Council of Calabria (Consiglio Regionale della Calabria). Overview Dedicated to the Calabrian philosophe ...

Palazzo Campanella
in the city of
Reggio Calabria Reggio di Calabria ( scn, label=Central-Southern Calabrian, Southern Calabrian, Riggiu; el, label=Calabrian Greek, Ρήγι, Rìji), usually referred to as Reggio Calabria, or simply Reggio by its inhabitants, is the List of cities in Italy, l ...
. The region is bordered to the north by the
Basilicata Basilicata (, , ), also known by Lucania, its ancient name Lucania (, also , ), is an administrative Regions of Italy, region in Southern Italy, bordering on Campania to the west, Apulia to the north and east, and Calabria to the south. It has two ...
Region, to the west by the
Tyrrhenian Sea The Tyrrhenian Sea (; it, Mar Tirreno , french: Mer Tyrrhénienne , sc, Mare Tirrenu, co, Mari Tirrenu, scn, Mari Tirrenu, nap, Mare Tirreno) is part of the Mediterranean Sea The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean ...
, and to the east by the
Ionian Sea The Ionian Sea ( el, Ιόνιο Πέλαγος, ''Iónio Pélagos'' ; it, Mar Ionio ; al, Deti Jon ("our sea")) is an elongated bay A bay is a recessed, coastal body of water that directly connects to a larger main body of water, such ...

Ionian Sea
. The
Strait of Messina The Strait of Messina ( it, Stretto di Messina, Sicilian: Strittu di Missina) is a narrow strait A strait is a naturally formed, narrow, typically navigable waterway that connects two larger bodies of water. Most commonly it is a channel o ...

Strait of Messina
separates it from the island of
Sicily Sicily ( it, Sicilia ; scn, Sicilia ) is the in the and one of the 20 of . It is one of the five and is officially referred to as ''Regione Siciliana''. The region has 5 million inhabitants. Its is . Sicily is in the central Mediterranean ...

Sicily
. The region covers and has a population of just under 2 million. The
demonym A demonym (; from Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language used in ancient Greece and the classical antiquity, ancient world from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It is often roughly divided into the following periods ...
of Calabria is ''calabrese'' in Italian and ''Calabrian'' in English. In antiquity the name Calabria referred, not as in modern times to the toe, but to the heel tip of Italy, from Tarentum southwards, a region nowadays known as
Salento Salento (Salentino dialect, Salentino: ''Salentu'', Griko language, Salentino Griko: ''Σαλέντο'') is a cultural, historical and geographic region at the southern end of the administrative region of Apulia in Southern Italy. It is a sub-pen ...

Salento
.


Etymology

Starting in the third century BC, the name ''Calabria'' was originally given to the Adriatic coast of the
Salento Salento (Salentino dialect, Salentino: ''Salentu'', Griko language, Salentino Griko: ''Σαλέντο'') is a cultural, historical and geographic region at the southern end of the administrative region of Apulia in Southern Italy. It is a sub-pen ...

Salento
peninsula in modern
Apulia it, Pugliese , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = , demographics1_footnotes = , demographics1_title1 = , demographics1_info1 = , demographics1_titl ...

Apulia
. In the late first century BC this name came to extend to the entirety of the Salento, when the
Roman Roman or Romans most often refers to: *, the capital city of Italy *, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *, the people of ancient Rome *', shortened to ''Romans'', a letter in the New Testament of the Christian Bible Roman ...

Roman
emperor
Augustus Caesar Augustus (23 September 63 BC19 August AD 14) was the first Roman emperor The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the imperial period (starting in 27 BC). The emperors used a variety of different titles througho ...

Augustus
divided Italy into regions. The whole region of Apulia received the name ''Regio II Apulia et Calabria''. By this time modern Calabria was still known as ''Bruttium'', after the
BruttiansThe Bruttians (alternative spelling, Bretti) ( el, Βρέττιοι, Bréttioi, la, Bruttii) were an ancient Italic tribe of Lucanian descent. They inhabited the southern extremity of Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Repub ...
who inhabited the region. Later in the seventh century AD, the
Byzantine Empire The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire or Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages ...

Byzantine Empire
created the Duchy of Calabria from the Salento and the part of Bruttium. Even though the Calabrian part of the duchy was conquered by the
Longobards The Lombards () or Langobards ( la, Langobardi) were a Germanic peoples, Germanic people who ruled most of the Italian Peninsula from 568 to 774, with origins near the Elbe in northern Germany and Scania in southern Sweden before the Migration p ...
during the eighth and ninth centuries AD, the Byzantines continued to use the name ''Calabria'' for their remaining territory in Bruttium. The modern name ''Italy'' derives from ''Italia'', which was first used as a name for the southern part of modern Calabria. Over time the Greeks started to use it for the rest of the southern Italian peninsula as well. After the Roman conquest of the region, the name was used for the entire Italian peninsula and eventually the Alpine region too.


Geography

The region is generally known as the "toe" of the "boot" of Italy and is a long and narrow peninsula which stretches from north to south for , with a maximum width of . Some 42% of Calabria's area, corresponding to 15,080 km2, is mountainous, 49% is hilly, while plains occupy only 9% of the region's territory. It is surrounded by the and
Tyrrhenian Tyrrhenian may refer to the: * Tyrrhenian Stage, a faunal stage from 0.26 to 0.01143 million years ago * Tyrrhenians, an ancient ethnonym associated with the Etruscans * Tyrrhenian Sea * Tyrrhenian Basin * Tyrrhenian languages See also

* * T ...
seas. It is separated from
Sicily Sicily ( it, Sicilia ; scn, Sicilia ) is the in the and one of the 20 of . It is one of the five and is officially referred to as ''Regione Siciliana''. The region has 5 million inhabitants. Its is . Sicily is in the central Mediterranean ...

Sicily
by the
Strait of Messina The Strait of Messina ( it, Stretto di Messina, Sicilian: Strittu di Missina) is a narrow strait A strait is a naturally formed, narrow, typically navigable waterway that connects two larger bodies of water. Most commonly it is a channel o ...

Strait of Messina
, where the narrowest point between Capo Peloro in
Sicily Sicily ( it, Sicilia ; scn, Sicilia ) is the in the and one of the 20 of . It is one of the five and is officially referred to as ''Regione Siciliana''. The region has 5 million inhabitants. Its is . Sicily is in the central Mediterranean ...

Sicily
and
Punta Pezzo Punta Pezzo is a point in Reggio Calabria Reggio di Calabria ( scn, label= Reggino, Rìggiu; el, label= Bovesia Calabrian Greek, Rìji, script=Latn; grc, Ῥήγιον, translit=Rhḗgion; el, Ρήγιο, translit=Ríyio; la, Rhēgium), com ...
in Calabria is only . Three mountain ranges are present:
Pollino The Pollino (Italian: ''Massiccio del Pollino'') is a massif In geology, a massif ( or ) is a section of a planet's Crust (geology), crust that is demarcated by geologic fault, faults or Lithospheric flexure, flexures. In the Plate tectonics, m ...
,
La Sila La Sila, also simply Sila, is the name of the mountainous plateau In geology Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, ''gē'' ("earth") and -λoγία, ''-logia'', ("study of", "discourse")) is an Earth science concerned with the solid Eart ...
and
Aspromonte The Aspromonte is a mountain massif in the Metropolitan City of Reggio Calabria (Calabria, southern Italy). The literal translation of the name means "rough mountain". But for others the name more likely is related to the Greek word Aspros (wikt:ά ...

Aspromonte
, each with its own flora and fauna. The Pollino Mountains in the north of the region are rugged and form a natural barrier separating Calabria from the rest of Italy. Parts of the area are heavily wooded, while others are vast, wind-swept plateaus with little vegetation. These mountains are home to a rare
Bosnian Pine ''Pinus heldreichii'' (synonym ''P. leucodermis''; family Pinaceae), the Bosnian pine or Heldreich’s pine, is a species of pine native to mountainous areas of the Balkans and southern Italy. Description It is an evergreen tree up to in height, ...
variety and are included in the
Pollino National Park Pollino National Park (Italian language, Italian: ''Parco Nazionale del Pollino'') is a national park in southern Italy that straddles the regions of Basilicata and Calabria. It is Italy's largest national park, covering 1,925.65 square kilometers. ...
, which is the largest national park in Italy, covering 1,925.65 square kilometres.
La Sila La Sila, also simply Sila, is the name of the mountainous plateau In geology Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, ''gē'' ("earth") and -λoγία, ''-logia'', ("study of", "discourse")) is an Earth science concerned with the solid Eart ...
, which has been referred to as the "Great Wood of Italy", is a vast mountainous plateau about
above sea level Above may refer to: * Above (artist), Tavar Zawacki (born 1981), contemporary urban artist * ''Above'' (magazine), an American environmental magazine 2009–2010 *Above (Mad Season album), ''Above'' (Mad Season album), 1995 *Above (Pillar album), ' ...
and stretches for nearly along the central part of Calabria. The highest point is
Botte Donato Botte Donato is a mountain in the Calabria region of southern Italy. It is part of the La Sila mountainous plateau (specifically the ''Sila Grande'' sub-range) and is the highest peak in the range at 1,928 meters in height. The mountain is within S ...
, which reaches . The area boasts numerous lakes and dense coniferous forests. La Sila also has some of the tallest trees in Italy which are called the "Giants of the Sila" and can reach up to in height. The Sila National Park is also known to have the purest air in Europe. The
Aspromonte The Aspromonte is a mountain massif in the Metropolitan City of Reggio Calabria (Calabria, southern Italy). The literal translation of the name means "rough mountain". But for others the name more likely is related to the Greek word Aspros (wikt:ά ...

Aspromonte
massif forms the southernmost tip of the Italian peninsula bordered by the sea on three sides. This unique mountainous structure reaches its highest point at Montalto, at , and is full of wide, man-made terraces that slope down towards the sea. Most of the lower terrain in Calabria has been agricultural for centuries, and exhibits indigenous scrubland as well as introduced plants such as the
prickly pear cactus ''Opuntia'', commonly called prickly pear, is a genus Genus (plural genera) is a taxonomic rank Taxonomy (general) is the practice and science of classification of things or concepts, including the principles that underlie such classification ...

prickly pear cactus
. The lowest slopes are rich in vineyards and orchards of citrus fruit, including the
Diamante citron The diamond citron of Santa Maria del Cedro (:it:Cedro_di_Calabria, Cedro di Calabria or ''Citrus medica'' var. ''vulgaris'' or cv. ''diamante'' − it, cedro liscio diamante di Santa Maria del Cedro, he, אתרוג קלבריה or גינובה) ...
. Further up, olives and chestnut trees appear while in the higher regions there are often dense forests of oak, pine, beech and fir trees.


Climate

Calabria's climate is influenced by the sea and mountains. The
Mediterranean climate A Mediterranean climate or dry summer climate is characterized by dry summers and mild, wet winters. The climate Climate is the long-term pattern of weather Weather is the state of the atmosphere, describing for example the degre ...
is typical of the coastal areas with considerable differences in temperature and rainfall between the seasons, with an average low of during the winter months and an average high of during the summer months. Mountain areas have a typical mountainous climate with frequent snow during winter. The erratic behavior of the Tyrrhenian Sea can bring heavy rainfall on the western slopes of the region, while hot air from Africa makes the east coast of Calabria dry and warm. The mountains that run along the region also influence the climate and temperature of the region. The east coast is much warmer and has wider temperature ranges than the west coast. The geography of the region causes more rain to fall along the west coast than that of the east coast, which occurs mainly during winter and autumn and less during the summer months. Below are the two extremes of climate in Calabria, the warm mediterranean subtype on the coastline and the highland climate of Monte Scuro.


Geology

upright=2.5, Geotectonic Cross Section of the Calabrian Arc. Left: NW; Right: SE. From van Dijk (1992) Calabria is commonly considered part of the "Calabrian Arc", an arc-shaped geographic domain extending from the southern part of the
Basilicata Basilicata (, , ), also known by Lucania, its ancient name Lucania (, also , ), is an administrative Regions of Italy, region in Southern Italy, bordering on Campania to the west, Apulia to the north and east, and Calabria to the south. It has two ...
Region to the northeast of
Sicily Sicily ( it, Sicilia ; scn, Sicilia ) is the in the and one of the 20 of . It is one of the five and is officially referred to as ''Regione Siciliana''. The region has 5 million inhabitants. Its is . Sicily is in the central Mediterranean ...

Sicily
, and including the Peloritano Mountains (although some authors extend this domain from
Naples Naples (; it, Napoli ; nap, Napule ), from grc, Νεάπολις, Neápolis, lit=new city. is the regional capital of and the third-largest city of , after and , with a population of 967,069 within the city's administrative limits as of ...

Naples
in the north to
Palermo Palermo ( , ; scn, Palermu , locally also or ; la, Panormus, from grc, Πάνορμος, Pánormos; older ar, بَلَرْم‎, Balarm) is a city in southern Italy Southern Italy ( it, Sud Italia; nap, 'o Sudde; scn, Italia dû Sud), ...

Palermo
in the southwest). The Calabrian area shows basement (crystalline and metamorphic rocks) of
Paleozoic The Paleozoic (or Palaeozoic) Era ( ; from the Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Eu ...
and younger ages, covered by (mostly Upper)
Neogene The Neogene ( ) (informally Upper Tertiary or Late Tertiary) is a geologic period and system that spans 20.45 million years from the end of the Paleogene The Paleogene ( ; also spelled Palaeogene or Palæogene; informally Lower Tertiary or E ...

Neogene
sediments. Studies have revealed that these rocks comprise the upper part of a pile of thrust sheets which dominate the
Apennines The Apennines or Apennine Mountains (; grc-gre, links=no, Ἀπέννινα ὄρη or Ἀπέννινον ὄρος; la, Appenninus or  – a singular with plural meaning;''Apenninus'' (Greek or ) has the form of an adjective, which wou ...

Apennines
and the Sicilian Maghrebides.van Dijk, J.P., Bello, M., Brancaleoni, G.P., Cantarella, G., Costa, V., Frixa, A., Golfetto, F., Merlini, S., Riva, M., Toricelli, S., Toscano, C., and Zerilli, A. (2000, a); A new structural model for the northern sector of the Calabrian Arc. Tectonophysics, 324, 267–320. The
Neogene The Neogene ( ) (informally Upper Tertiary or Late Tertiary) is a geologic period and system that spans 20.45 million years from the end of the Paleogene The Paleogene ( ; also spelled Palaeogene or Palæogene; informally Lower Tertiary or E ...

Neogene
evolution of the Central Mediterranean system is dominated by the migration of the Calabrian Arc to the southeast, overriding the African Plate and its promontories.Argand, E. (1922); La tectonique de l'Asie. Comptes Rendus 3rd Int. Geol. Congr., Liège (Be), 1922, 1, 171–372.Boccaletti, M., and Guazzone, G. (1972, b); Evoluzione paleogeografica e geodinamica del Mediterraneo: i bacini marginali. Mem. Soc. geol. It., 13, 162–169.) The main tectonic elements of the Calabrian Arc are the Southern Apennines fold-and-thrust belt, the "Calabria-Peloritani", or simply Calabrian block and the Sicilian Maghrebides fold-and-thrust belt. The foreland area is formed by the
Apulia it, Pugliese , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = , demographics1_footnotes = , demographics1_title1 = , demographics1_info1 = , demographics1_titl ...

Apulia
Platform, which is part of the
Adriatic The Adriatic Sea () is a body of water separating the Italian Peninsula from the Balkans. The Adriatic is the northernmost arm of the Mediterranean Sea, extending from the Strait of Otranto (where it connects to the Ionian Sea) to the northwest a ...

Adriatic
Plate, and the
RagusaRagusa is the historical name of Dubrovnik. It may also refer to: Places Croatia * the Republic of Ragusa (or Republic of Dubrovnik), the maritime city-state of Ragusa * Cavtat (historically ' in Italian), a town in Dubrovnik-Neretva County, Croa ...
or Iblean Platform, which is an extension of the African Plate. These platforms are separated by the Ionian Basin. The
Tyrrhenian Tyrrhenian may refer to the: * Tyrrhenian Stage, a faunal stage from 0.26 to 0.01143 million years ago * Tyrrhenians, an ancient ethnonym associated with the Etruscans * Tyrrhenian Sea * Tyrrhenian Basin * Tyrrhenian languages See also

* * T ...
oceanized basin is regarded as the
back-arc basin Back-arc basins are geologic basins, submarine features associated with island arc Island arcs are long chains of active volcanoes with intense seismic activity found along convergent tectonic plate boundaries (such as the Ring of Fire). Most ...
. This
subduction Subduction is a geological process in which the oceanic lithosphere A lithosphere ( grc, λίθος [] for "rocky", and [] for "sphere") is the rigid, outermost shell of a terrestrial planet, terrestrial-type planet or natural satellite. O ...

subduction
system therefore shows the southern plates of African affinity subducting below the northern plates of European affinity. The geology of Calabria has been studied for more than a century.Ogniben, Leo (1973); Schema geologico della Calabria in base ai dati odierni. Geol. Romana, 12, 243–585.Ippolito, Felice (1959); Bibliografia geologica d'Italia, Vol. 4, Calabria. C.N.R., RomaCortese, E. (1895); Descrizione geologica della Calabria. Mem. Descrit. Carta Geol. It., 9, 310 pp., Roma. The earlier works were mainly dedicated to the evolution of the basement rocks of the area. The Neogene sedimentary successions were merely regarded as "post-orogenic" infill of "neo-tectonic" tensional features. In the course of time, however, a shift can be observed in the temporal significance of these terms, from post-
Eocene The Eocene ( ) Epoch is a geological epoch In chronology 222px, Joseph Scaliger's ''De emendatione temporum'' (1583) began the modern science of chronology Chronology (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the ...
to post-Early
Miocene The Miocene ( ) is the first geological epoch In geochronology, an epoch is a subdivision of the geologic timescale that is longer than an age (geology), age but shorter than a period (geology), period. The current epoch is the Holocene Epoch of ...
to post-middle
Pleistocene The Pleistocene ( , often referred to as the ''Ice Age'') is the geological Epoch (geology), epoch that lasted from about 2,580,000 to 11,700 years ago, spanning the earth’s most recent period of repeated glaciations. Before a change finally ...
. The region is seismically active and is generally ascribed to the re-establishment of an equilibrium after the latest (mid-Pleistocene) deformation phase. Some authors believe that the subduction process is still ongoing, which is a matter of debate.van Dijk, J.P., and Scheepers, P.J.J. (1995); Neogene rotations in the Calabrian Arc. Implications for a Pliocene-Recent geodynamic scenario for the Central Mediterranean. Earth Sci. Rev., 39, 207–246. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/222475994_Neotectonic_rotations_in_the_Calabrian_Arc_implications_for_a_Pliocene-Recent_geodynamic_scenario_for_the_Central_Mediterranean


History

Calabria has one of the oldest records of human presence in Italy, which date back to around 700,000 BC when a type of ''
Homo erectus ''Homo erectus'' (meaning "upright Body relative directions (also known as egocentric coordinates) are geometrical orientations relative to a body such as a human Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most abundant and widespread s ...

Homo erectus
'' evolved leaving traces around coastal areas. During the Paleolithic period Stone Age humans created the "
Bos Primigenius The aurochs ( or ; pl. aurochs, or rarely aurochsen, aurochses) (''Bos primigenius''), also known as urus or ure, is an extinct Extinction is the termination of a kind of organism In biology Biology is the natural science ...
", a figure of a bull on a cliff which dates back around 12,000 years in the
Romito Cave The Romito cave ( it, Grotta del Romito) is a natural limestone cave in the Lao Valley of Pollino National Park, near the town of Papasidero in Calabria, Italy. Stratigraphy, Stratigraphic record of the first excavation confirmed prolonged paleo-h ...
in the town of
Papasidero Papasidero is a village and ''comune The (; plural: ) is a basic Administrative division, constituent entity of Italy, roughly equivalent to a township or municipality. Importance and function The provides many of the basic civil funct ...

Papasidero
. When the Neolithic period came the first villages were founded around 3,500 BC.


Antiquity

Around 1500 BC a tribe called the Oenotri ("vine-cultivators"), settled in the region. According to
Greek mythology Greek mythology is the body of myth Myth is a folklore genre Folklore is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the tradition A tradition is a belief A belief is an Attitude (psyc ...
, they were
Greeks The Greeks or Hellenes (; el, Έλληνες, ''Éllines'' ) are an ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people A people is any plurality of person A person (plural people or persons) is a being that has cer ...

Greeks
who were led to the region by their king, Oenotrus. The Greeks used the term 'italoi', which according to some ancient Greek writers was derived from a legendary king of the Oenotri,
Italus Italus or Italos (from ) was a legendary king of the OenotriansThe Oenotrians ("tribe led by Oenotrus" or "people from the land of vines - Οἰνωτρία") were an ancient people who inhabited a territory in southern Italy Italy ( it, It ...
and according to others from the bull. Originally the Greeks used 'italoi' to indicate Calabrians and later it became synonymous with the rest of the peninsula. Calabria therefore was the first region to be called Italia (Italy). During the eighth and seventh centuries BC, Greek settlers founded many colonies (settlements) on the coast of southern Italy (
Magna Grecia Magna Graecia (, ; Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Rom ...

Magna Grecia
). In Calabria they founded Chone ( Pallagorio), Cosentia (
Cosenza Cosenza ( , ; local dialect: ''Cusenza'', ) is a city in Calabria it, Calabrese , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = , demographics ...

Cosenza
), Clampetia (
AmanteaAmantea (Northern Calabrian, Calabrian: ; ) is a town, former bishopric, ''comune'' (municipality) and Latin Catholic titular see in the province of Cosenza in the Calabria region of southern Italy. It is the twentieth municipality in the region by p ...

Amantea
),
ScyllaeumScyllaeum (Greek language, Greek: ) was a promontory, and ancient town or fortress, on the west coast of Bruttium (modern Calabria), about 25 km north of Rhegium (Reggio di Calabria), and almost exactly at the entrance of the Straits of Messina, Sici ...

Scyllaeum
(
Scilla ''Scilla'' () is a genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank In biological classification In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including thei ...

Scilla
),
Sybaris Sybaris ( grc, Σύβαρις; it, Sibari) was an important city of Magna Graecia Magna Graecia (, ; Latin meaning "Greater Greece", grc, Μεγάλη Ἑλλάς, ', it, Magna Grecia) was the name given by the Roman people, Romans to the c ...
(
Sibari Sibari is an Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Italian language, a Romance language *** Regional Italian ...
), Hipponion (
Vibo Valentia Vibo Valentia (; Monteleone before 1861; Monteleone di Calabria from 1861 to 1928; scn, label= Calabrian, Vibbu Valenzia or ) is a city and ''comune The (; plural: ) is a Administrative division, local administrative division of Italy, ...

Vibo Valentia
), Locri Epizefiri (
Locri Locri is a town and ''comune The (; plural: ) is a Administrative division, local administrative division of Italy, roughly equivalent to a township or municipality. Importance and function The provides essential public services: Civi ...
), Kaulon ( Monasterace), Krimisa (), (
Crotone Crotone (, ; nap, label= Crotonese, Cutrone or ) is a city and ''comune The (; plural: ) is a of , roughly equivalent to a or . Importance and function The provides essential public services: of births and deaths, , and maintena ...

Crotone
),
Laüs Laüs or Laus ( grc, Λᾶος; it, Laos) was an ancient city of Magna Graecia on the coast of the Tyrrhenian Sea. It was a colony of Sybaris at the mouth of the Lao River, Italy, Lao River, which formed the boundary between Lucania and Brutti ...
(comune of
Santa Maria del Cedro Santa Maria del Cedro is a town and ''comune'' in the province of Cosenza, Calabria, Italy. The town's name indicates the cultivation of the special Diamante Citron, which is used as Etrog by the Jews during their Feast of Tabernacles. Sights inclu ...
),
Medma Medma or Mesma (Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approxim ...
(
Rosarno Rosarno is a ''comune The (; plural: ) is a Administrative division, local administrative division of Italy, roughly equivalent to a township or municipality. Importance and function The provides essential public services: Civil registr ...

Rosarno
),
Metauros Gioia Tauro () is a ''comune The (; plural: ) is a of , roughly equivalent to a or . Importance and function The provides essential public services: of births and deaths, , and maintenance of local roads and public works. It is head ...
(
Gioia Tauro Gioia Tauro () is a ''comune The (; plural: ) is a local administrative division of Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of a Northern Italy, conti ...
), Petelia (), Rhégion (
Reggio Calabria Reggio di Calabria ( scn, label=Central-Southern Calabrian, Southern Calabrian, Riggiu; el, label=Calabrian Greek, Ρήγι, Rìji), usually referred to as Reggio Calabria, or simply Reggio by its inhabitants, is the List of cities in Italy, l ...
),
Scylletium Scylletium or Scolacium was an ancient seaside city in Calabria it, Calabrese , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = , demographics1_fo ...
(
Borgia Borgia ( , ; Spanish language, Spanish and an, Borja ; ca-valencia, Borja ) was a Spanish-Aragonese noble family, which rose to prominence during the Italian Renaissance. They were from Aragon, the surname being a Toponymic surname, toponymic fr ...
), Temesa (
Campora San Giovanni Campora San Giovanni (''Campura San Giuvanni'' or ''Campura Santu Janni'', in the ancient Camporese dialect) is a ''frazione'' of the ''comune'' (municipality) of Amantea, in the province of Cosenza, Calabria, Italy, located close to the border wi ...
), Terina (
Nocera Terinese Nocera Terinese is a town and ''comune'' of the province of Catanzaro in the Calabria region of southern Italy. In its territory, according to the last archaeological investigations, was located the ancient Greater Greece city of Terina (ancient ci ...

Nocera Terinese
), Pandosia (
Acri Acri ( Calabrian: ) is a town of 19.949 inhabitants in the northern part of Calabria it, Calabrese , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 ...
) and
Thurii Thurii (; grc-gre, Θούριοι, Thoúrioi), called also by some Latin writers Thurium (compare grc-gre, Θούριον in Ptolemy), for a time also Copia and Copiae, was a city of Magna Graecia, situated on the Gulf of Taranto, Tarentine gulf ...
, (Thurio, comune of
Corigliano Calabro Corigliano Calabro is a town and a ''frazione'' of Corigliano-Rossano located in the province of Cosenza, c. 40 km northeast of the city of Cosenza, in Calabria, southern Italy. Geography It is situated near the mouth of a river of the same ...
). Rhegion was the birthplace of one of the famed ,
Ibycus Ibycus (; grc-gre, Ἴβυκος; fl. 2nd half of 6th century BC) was an Ancient Greek lyric poet, a citizen of Rhegium Reggio di Calabria ( scn, label=Central-Southern Calabrian, Southern Calabrian, Riggiu; el, label=Calabrian Greek, Ρ ...
. Metauros was the birthplace of another of the ,
Stesichorus Stesichorus (; grc-gre, Στησίχορος, ''Stēsichoros''; c. 630 – 555 BC) was a Greek Greek lyric, lyric poet. He is best known for telling epic stories in lyric metres but he is also famous for some ancient traditions about his life, su ...

Stesichorus
, who was the first lyric poet of the western world. Kroton spawned many victors during the ancient Olympics and other Panhellenic Games. Amongst the most famous were
Milo of Croton Milo of Croton (; Ancient Greek, Greek: Μίλων, ''Mílōn''; gen.: Μίλωνος, ''Mílōnos'') was a 6th-century BC Greek wrestling, wrestler from the Magna Graecian city of Crotone, Croton, who enjoyed a brilliant wrestling career an ...
, who won six wrestling events in six Olympics in a row, along with seven events in the Pythian Games, nine events in the Nemean Games and ten events in the Isthmian Games and also
Astylos of Croton Astylos of Croton (Ἄστυλος/Ἀστύαλος ὁ Κροτωνιάτης) was an athlete from ancient Croton who starred in the Olympic Games The modern Olympic Games or Olympics (french: Jeux olympiques) are leading international sp ...
, who won six running events in three Olympics in a row. Through
Alcmaeon of Croton Alcmaeon of Croton (; el, Ἀλκμαίων ὁ Κροτωνιάτης, ''Alkmaiōn'', ''gen''.: Ἀλκμαίωνος; fl. 5th century BC) has been described as one of the most eminent natural philosophers and medical theorists of antiquity. H ...
(a philosopher and medical theorist) and
Pythagoras Pythagoras of Samos, or simply ; in Ionian Greek () was an ancient Ionians, Ionian Ancient Greek philosophy, Greek philosopher and the eponymous founder of Pythagoreanism. His political and religious teachings were well known in Magna Graec ...

Pythagoras
(a mathematician and philosopher), who moved to Kroton in 530 BC, the city became a renowned center of philosophy, science and medicine. The Greeks of
Sybaris Sybaris ( grc, Σύβαρις; it, Sibari) was an important city of Magna Graecia Magna Graecia (, ; Latin meaning "Greater Greece", grc, Μεγάλη Ἑλλάς, ', it, Magna Grecia) was the name given by the Roman people, Romans to the c ...
created "Intellectual Property." Sybaris benefited from "vinoducts" which were a series of pipes that carried wine to the homes of its citizens. The
Sybarite Sybarite may refer to: * Sybarite, a native of Sybaris, an ancient Greek city in southern Italy * Sybarite (musician), New York electronic musician * Sybarite (fashion doll) * Sybarite (comics) or Skein, a fictional supervillain in comic books by Ma ...
founded at least 20 other colonies, including Poseidonia (
Paestum Paestum ( , , ) was a major city on the coast of the in (southern Italy). The ruins of Paestum are famous for their three s in the , dating from about 550 to 450 BC, which are in an excellent state of preservation. The city walls and amphith ...

Paestum
in Latin, on the
Tyrrhenian Tyrrhenian may refer to the: * Tyrrhenian Stage, a faunal stage from 0.26 to 0.01143 million years ago * Tyrrhenians, an ancient ethnonym associated with the Etruscans * Tyrrhenian Sea * Tyrrhenian Basin * Tyrrhenian languages See also

* * T ...
coast of Lucania),
Laüs Laüs or Laus ( grc, Λᾶος; it, Laos) was an ancient city of Magna Graecia on the coast of the Tyrrhenian Sea. It was a colony of Sybaris at the mouth of the Lao River, Italy, Lao River, which formed the boundary between Lucania and Brutti ...
(on the border with Lucania) and
ScidrusScidrus, also known as Skidros ( grc, Σκίδρος), was an Ancient Greece, ancient Greek city on the coast of Lucania, on the Tyrrhenian Sea, between Pyxus (Buxentum) and Laüs. History It is mentioned only by Herodotus (vi. 21), from whom we le ...
(on the Lucanian coast in the
Gulf of Taranto The Gulf of Taranto ( it, Golfo di Taranto; Tarantino: ; la, Sinus Tarentinus) is a gulf of the Ionian Sea The Ionian Sea ( el, Ιόνιο Πέλαγος, ''Iónio Pélagos'' ; it, Mar Ionio ; al, Deti Jon ) is an elongated bay of the Medi ...
).
Locri Locri is a town and ''comune The (; plural: ) is a Administrative division, local administrative division of Italy, roughly equivalent to a township or municipality. Importance and function The provides essential public services: Civi ...
was renowned for being the town where
Zaleucus Zaleucus ( grc, Ζάλευκος; fl. 7th century BC) was the Ancient Greece, Greek lawgiver of Epizephyrian Locri and a Pythagoreanism, Pythagorean philosopher, in Italy. According to the Suda, he was previously a slave and a shepherd, and after ...

Zaleucus
created the first Western Greek law, the "Locrian Code" and the birthplace of ancient epigrammist and poet
Nossis Nossis ( grc-gre, Νοσσίς) was a Hellenistic The Hellenistic period spans the period of History of the Mediterranean region, Mediterranean history between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the emergence of the Roman Emp ...

Nossis
. The Itali were the first established people of Calabria. Later came the Bruttii from Lucania. These occupied Calabria and called it Bruttium. The Bruttii were very advanced culturally. The Greek cities of Calabria came under the pressure from these
Lucanians 280px, The Oscan language in the 5th century BC. The Lucanians ( grc-gre, Λευκανοί, Leukanoí; la, Lucani) were an Italic tribe living in Lucania, in what is now southern Italy Southern Italy ( it, Sud Italia; nap, 'o Sudde; scn, I ...
, an
Oscan Oscan is an extinct Indo-European language The Indo-European languages are a language family native to western and southern Eurasia. It comprises most of the languages of Europe together with those of the northern Indian subcontinent and th ...
people who lived in the present day region of
Basilicata Basilicata (, , ), also known by Lucania, its ancient name Lucania (, also , ), is an administrative Regions of Italy, region in Southern Italy, bordering on Campania to the west, Apulia to the north and east, and Calabria to the south. It has two ...
. They conquered the north of Calabria and pushed further south, taking over part of the interior, probably after they defeated the Thurians near Laus in 390 BC. A few decades later Calabria came under pressure from the
BruttiiThe Bruttians (alternative spelling, Bretti) ( el, Βρέττιοι, Bréttioi, la, Bruttii) were an ancient Italic peoples, Italic tribe of Lucanians, Lucanian descent. They inhabited the southern extremity of Italy, from the frontiers of Lucania t ...
. They were Lucanian slaves and other fugitives who were seeking refuge on the steep mountains of Calabria. Their name was Lucanian and meant rebels. They took advantage of the weakening of the Greek cites caused by wars between them. They took over Hipponium, Terina and Thurii. They helped the Lucanians to fight Alexander of Epirus (334–32 BC), who had come to the aid of (in
Apulia it, Pugliese , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = , demographics1_footnotes = , demographics1_title1 = , demographics1_info1 = , demographics1_titl ...

Apulia
), which was also pressured by the Lucanians. After this,
Agathocles of Syracuse Agathocles ( grc-gre, Ἀγαθοκλῆς, ''Agathoklḗs''; 361–289 BC) was a Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is ...
ravaged the coast of Calabria with his fleet, took Hipponium and forced the Bruttii into unfavourable peace terms. However, they soon seized Hipponium again. After Agathloces' death in 289 BC the Lucanians and Bruttii pushed into the territory of Thurii and ravaged it. The city sent envoys to Rome to ask for help in 285 BC and 282 BC. On the second occasion, the Romans sent forces to garrison the city. This was part of the episode which sparked the Pyrrhic war. During the Pyrrhic War (280–275 BC) the Lucanians and Bruttii sided with Pyrrhus and provided contingents which fought with his army. When Pyrrhus landed in Italy the people of Rhegion were worried about their safety and asked Rome for protection. The Romans sent soldiers from
Campania it, Campano (man) it, Campana (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = , demographics1_footnotes = , demographics1_title1 = , demographics1_info1 ...
to garrison the city. Coveting the wealth of the city, the soldiers killed its prominent men, sent away the rest and seized their property. The Romans could not do much about it because they were engaged in the war. A few years after the end of the war, in 271 BC, the Romans retook the city, arrested the soldiers and took them to Rome, where they were executed. After Pyrrhus was defeated, to avoid Roman revenge, the Bruttii submitted willingly and gave up half of the Sila, a mountainous plateau which was valuable for its pitch and timber. The timber here was sold all over Italy and the resin of the area was of the highest quality. During the Second Punic War (218–201 BC) the Bruttii allied with
Hannibal Hannibal (; xpu, 𐤇𐤍𐤁𐤏𐤋, ''Ḥannibaʿl''; 247 – between 183 and 181 BC) was a Carthaginian general and statesman who commanded the forces of Carthage Carthage was the capital city of the ancient , on the eastern ...

Hannibal
, who sent
Hanno Hanno may refer to: People *Hanno ( xpu, 𐤇‬𐤍‬𐤀‬‬, '; , ''Hannōn''), common Carthaginian name :* Hanno the Navigator, Carthaginian explorer :* Hanno the Elder (died 204 BC), Carthaginian general :*Hanno I the Great (4th century ...
, one of his commanders, to Calabria. Hanno marched towards
Capua Capua (, ) is a city and ''comune The (; plural: ) is a Administrative division, local administrative division of Italy, roughly equivalent to a township or municipality. Importance and function The provides essential public services ...

Capua
(in Campania) with Bruttian soldiers to take them to Hannibal's headquarters there twice, but he was defeated on both occasions. When his campaign in Italy came to a dead end, Hannibal took refuge in Calabria, whose steep mountains provided protection against the Roman legions. He set up his headquarters in Kroton and stayed there for four years until he was recalled to Carthage. The Romans fought a battle with him near Kroton, but its details are unknown. Many Calabrian cities surrendered. Calabria was put under a military commander. Nearly a decade after the war, the Romans set up colonies in Calabria: at Tempsa and Kroton (Croto in Latin) in 194 BC, Copiae in the territory of Thurii (Thurium in Latin) in 193 BC, and Vibo Valentia in the territory of Hipponion in 192 BC. The Romans called Calabria Bruttium. Later, during the reign of Augustus it became part of the third region of Italy, the 'Regio III Lucania et Brettium.


Middle Ages

After sacking Rome in 410, Alaric I (King of the Visigoths) went to Calabria with the intention of sailing to Africa. He contracted malaria and died in Cosentia (
Cosenza Cosenza ( , ; local dialect: ''Cusenza'', ) is a city in Calabria it, Calabrese , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = , demographics ...

Cosenza
), probably of fever. Legend has it that he along with the treasure of Rome were buried under the bed of the River Busento. With the fall of the western part of the Roman Empire in 476, Italy was taken over by the Germanic chieftain Odoacer and later became part of the
Ostrogothic Kingdom The Ostrogothic Kingdom, officially the Kingdom of Italy (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communi ...

Ostrogothic Kingdom
in 489. The Ostrogothic kings ruled officially as Magistri Militum of the Byzantine Emperors and all government and administrative positions were held by the Romans while all primary laws were legislated by the Byzantine Emperor. Therefore, during the sixth century, under the Ostrogoths' rule, Romans could still be at the center of government and cultural life, such as the Roman
Cassiodorus Magnus Aurelius Cassiodorus Senator (c. 485 – c. 585), commonly known as Cassiodorus (), was a Roman Roman or Romans most often refers to: *, the capital city of Italy *, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *, the people ...
who, like Boethius and Symmachus, emerged as one of the most prominent men of his time. He was an administrator, politician, scholar and historian who was born in Scylletium (near Catanzaro). He spent most of his career trying to bridge the divides of East and West, Greek and Latin cultures, Romans and Goths, and official Christianity and
Arian Christianity Arianism is a Christological doctrine first attributed to Arius Arius (; grc-koi, Ἄρειος, ; 250 or 256–336) was a Cyrenaic The Cyrenaics or Kyrenaics ( grc, Κυρηναϊκοί; ''Kyrēnaïkoí'') were a sensual hedonist Greek ...
, which was the form of Christianity of the Ostrogoths and which had earlier been banned. He set up his
Vivarium (monastery) The Vivarium was a monastery, library, and biblical studies center founded c. 544 by Cassiodorus Magnus Aurelius Cassiodorus Senator (c. 485 – c. 585), commonly known as Cassiodorus (), was a Roman statesman, renowned scholar of antiquity, and w ...
in Scylletium. He oversaw the collation of three editions of the Bible in Latin. Seeing the practicality of uniting all the books of the Bible in one volume, he was the first who produced Latin Bibles in single volumes. The most well-known of them was the
Codex Grandior The ''Codex Grandior'' ("Larger Codex") was a large single-volume copy of the Bible The Bible (from Koine Greek Koine Greek (, , Greek approximately ;. , , , lit. "Common Greek"), also known as Alexandrian dialect, common Attic, Helle ...
which was the ancestor of all modern western Bibles. Cassiodorus was at the heart of the administration of the Ostrogothic kingdom. Theodoric made him quaestor sacri palatii (quaestor of the sacred palace, the senior legal authority) in 507, governor of Lucania and Bruttium, consul in 514 and magister officiorum (master of offices, one of the most senior administrative officials) in 523. He was praetorian prefect (chief minister) under the successors of Theodoric: under Athalaric (Theodoric's grandson, reigned 526–34) in 533 and, between 535 and 537, under Theodahad (Theodoric's nephew, reigned 534–36) and Witiges (Theodoric's grandson-in-law, reigned, 536–40). The major works of Cassiodorus, besides the mentioned bibles, were the Historia Gothorum, a history of the Goths, the Variae and account of his administrative career and the Institutiones divinarum et saecularium litterarum, an introduction to the study of the sacred scriptures and the liberal arts which was very influential in the Middle Ages.
Byzantine The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire, or Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople. It survi ...
(Eastern Roman) Emperor Justinian I, retook Italy from the Ostrogoths between 535 and 556. They soon lost much of Italy to the
Lombards The Lombards () or Langobards ( la, Langobardi) were a Germanic people The Germanic peoples were a historical group of people living in Central Europe Central Europe is an area of Europe between Western Europe and Eastern Europe, based on ...
between 568 and 590, but retained the south for around 500 years until 1059–1071, where they thrived and where the Greek language was the official and vernacular language. In Calabria and towns such as
Stilo , image_skyline = Stilo vecchio 2.jpg , imagesize = , image_alt = , image_caption = , image_shield = Stilo-Stemma.png , shield_alt = , image_map = , map_alt = , ma ...

Stilo
and
Rossano Rossano is a town and ''frazione A ''frazione'' (plural: ) is a type of subdivision of a '' comune'' ( municipality) in Italy, often a small village or hamlet outside the main town. Most ''frazioni'' were created during the Fascist era (1922–1 ...

Rossano
and
San Demetrio Corone San Demetrio Corone (Arbëresh language, Arbëreshë: ''Shën Mitri'') is a town and comune, municipality in the Calabria region of Italy, at an altitude of 521 meters and with 3,387 inhabitants. The town is among the most important cultural cent ...
achieved great religious status. From the 7th Century many monasteries were built in the Amendolea and Stilaro Valleys and Stilo was the destination of hermits and Basilian monks. Many Byzantine churches are still seen in the region. The 10th-century church in Rossano, together with the "twin" church of Sant'Adriano in San Demetrio Corone (foundation 955, rebuilt by the
Normans The Normans (Norman Norman or Normans may refer to: Ethnic and cultural identity * The Normans The Normans (Norman language, Norman: ''Normaunds''; french: Normands; la, Nortmanni/Normanni) were inhabitants of the early medieval Duchy of N ...

Normans
on the, still, visible foundations of the previous Byzantine church), are considered between the best preserved Byzantine churches in Italy. They were both built by St.
Nilus the Younger Nilus the Younger, also called Neilos of Rossano ( it, Nilo di Rossano, gr, Όσιος Νείλος, ο εκ Καλαβρίας; 910 – 27 December 1005) was a monk, abbot, and founder of Italo-Byzantine monasticism in southern Italy. He is vener ...
as a retreat for the monks who lived in the tufa grottos underneath. The present name of Calabria comes from the duchy of Calabria. Around the year 800,
Saracen file:Erhard Reuwich Sarazenen 1486.png, upright 1.5, Late 15th century German woodcut depicting Saracens Saracens () were primarily Arab Muslims, but also Turkish people, Turks, Persian people, Persians or other Muslims as referred to by Christian ...
s began invading the shores of Calabria, attempting to wrest control of the area from the Byzantines. This group of Arabs had already been successful in Sicily and knew that Calabria was another key spot. The people of Calabria retreated into the mountains for safety. Although the Arabs never really got a stronghold on the whole of Calabria, they did control some villages while enhancing trade relations with the eastern world. In 918, Saracens captured Reggio (which was renamed ''Rivà''), holding many of its inhabitants to ransom or keeping them prisoners as slaves. It is during this time of Arab invasions that many staples of today's Calabrian cuisine came into fashion:
citrus fruits ''Citrus'' is a genus Genus (plural genera) is a taxonomic rank Taxonomy (general) is the practice and science of classification of things or concepts, including the principles that underlie such classification. The term may also refer to a ...

citrus fruits
and
eggplant Eggplant ( US, Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous ...

eggplant
s for example. Exotic spices such as cloves and nutmeg were also introduced. Under the Byzantine dominion, between the end of the 9th and the beginning of the 10th century, Calabria was one of the first regions of Italy to introduce
silk Silk is a natural Nature, in the broadest sense, is the natural, physical, material world or universe The universe ( la, universus) is all of space and time and their contents, including planets, stars, galaxies, and all o ...

silk
production to Europe. According to André Guillou,
mulberry trees ''Morus'', a genus of flowering plants in the family Moraceae, consists of diverse species of deciduous trees commonly known as mulberries, growing wild and under cultivation in many temperate world regions. Generally, the plant has three main ...
for the production of raw silk were introduced to southern Italy by the Byzantines at the end of the ninth century. Around 1050 the theme of Calabria had 24,000, mulberry trees cultivated for their foliage, and their number tended to expand. In the 1060s the
Normans The Normans (Norman Norman or Normans may refer to: Ethnic and cultural identity * The Normans The Normans (Norman language, Norman: ''Normaunds''; french: Normands; la, Nortmanni/Normanni) were inhabitants of the early medieval Duchy of N ...

Normans
from their duchy in France, under the leadership of
Robert Guiscard Robert Guiscard (; Modern ; – 17 July 1085) was a Normans, Norman adventurer remembered for the Norman conquest of southern Italy, conquest of southern Italy and Sicily. Robert was born into the Hauteville family in Normandy, went on to become ...

Robert Guiscard
's brother,
Roger I of Sicily Roger I ( it, Ruggero I, Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East The Middle East is a list of transcontinental co ...

Roger I of Sicily
, established a presence in this borderland, and organized a government modeled on the Eastern Roman Empire and was run by the local magnates of Calabria. Of note is that the Normans established their presence here, in southern Italy (namely Calabria), 6 years prior to their conquest of England, (see The Battle of Hastings). The purpose of this strategic presence in Calabria was to lay the foundations for the Crusades 30 years later, and for the creation of two Kingdoms: the Kingship of Jerusalem, and the Kingdom of Sicily. Ships would sail from Calabria to the Holy Land. This made Calabria one of the richest regions in Europe as princes from the noble families of England, France and other regions, constructed secondary residences and palaces here, on their way to the Holy Land. Guiscard's son , who was born in
San Marco ArgentanoSan Marco Argentano is a town and ''comune The (; plural: ) is a basic Administrative division, constituent entity of Italy, roughly equivalent to a township or municipality. Importance and function The provides many of the basic civil fu ...
, would be one of the leaders in the first crusade. Of particular note is the
Via Francigena The Via Francigena () is an ancient road and pilgrimage route running from the cathedral city City status in the United Kingdom is granted by the monarch of the United Kingdom The monarchy of the United Kingdom, commonly referred to as ...

Via Francigena
, an ancient pilgrim route that goes from Canterbury to Rome and southern Italy, reaching Calabria, Basilicata and Apulia, where the crusaders lived, prayed and trained, respectively. At the beginning of the tenth century (circa 903), the city of Catanzaro was occupied by the Muslim
Saracens upright 1.5, Late 15th century German woodcut depicting Saracens Saracens () were primarily Arab Muslims, but also Turkish people, Turks, Persian people, Persians or other Muslims as referred to by Christian writers in Europe during the Middle Ag ...
, who founded an
emirate An emirate is a territory ruled by an emir Emir (; ar, أمير ' ), sometimes Romanization of Arabic, transliterated amir, amier, or ameer, is a word of Arabic language, Arabic origin that can refer to a male monarch, aristocratic, aristoc ...
and took the Arab name of قطنصار – QaTanSáar. An Arab presence is evidenced by findings at an eighth-century necropolis which had items with Arabic inscriptions. Around the year 1050, Catanzaro rebelled against Saracen dominance and returned to a brief period of Byzantine control. In 1098,
Roger I of Sicily Roger I ( it, Ruggero I, Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East The Middle East is a list of transcontinental co ...

Roger I of Sicily
was named the equivalent of an apostolic legate by Pope
Urban II Pope Urban II ( la, Urbanus II;  – 29 July 1099), otherwise known as Odo of Châtillon or Otho de Lagery, was the head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 12 March 1088 to his death. He is best known for initiating t ...
and later his son
Roger II of Sicily Roger II ( it, Ruggero II; 22 December 1095 – 26 February 1154) was King of Sicily Sicily ( it, Sicilia ; scn, Sicilia ) is the in the and one of the 20 of . It is one of the five and is officially referred to as ''Regione Siciliana ...

Roger II of Sicily
became the first
King of Sicily The monarchs of Sicily ruled from the establishment of the County of Sicily in 1071 until the "perfect fusion" in the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies in 1816. The origins of the Sicilian monarchy lie in the Norman conquest of southern Italy which occ ...
and formed what would become the
Kingdom of Sicily Kingdom may refer to: Monarchy * A type of monarchy A monarchy is a form of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, ente ...

Kingdom of Sicily
which lasted nearly 700 years. Under the Normans Southern Italy was united as one region and started a feudal system of land ownership in which the Normans were made lords of the land while peasants performed all the work on the land. In 1147, Roger II of Sicily attacked
Corinth Corinth ( ; el, Κόρινθος, Kórinthos, ) is the successor to an ancient city, and is a former municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). ...

Corinth
and Thebes, two important centres of Byzantine silk production, capturing the weavers and their equipment and establishing his own silkworks in Calabria,Muthesius, Anna, "Silk in the Medieval World". In Jenkins (2003), p. 331. thereby causing the Norman silk industry to flourish. In 1194 the Swabians took control under
Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II (German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germany, see also German nationality law * German la ...

Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor
, who inherited the kingdom from his mother
Constance, Queen of Sicily Constance I (2 November 1154 – 27 November 1198) was Queen regnant of Sicily in 1194–98, jointly with her spouse from 1194 to 1197, and with her infant son Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor, in 1198, as the heiress of the Norman kings of ...
. He created a kingdom that blended cultures, philosophy and customs and would build several castles while fortifying existing ones which the Normans previously constructed. After the death of Frederick II in 1250, Calabria was controlled by the French, the Capetian House of Anjou, under the rule of Charles d’Anjou after being granted the crown by
Pope Clement IV Pope Clement IV ( la, Clemens IV; 23 November 1190 – 29 November 1268), born Gui Foucois ( la, Guido Falcodius; french: Guy de Foulques or ') and also known as Guy le Gros ( French for "Guy the Fat"; it, Guido il Grosso), was bishop of Le P ...

Pope Clement IV
. Under Charles d’Anjou, the Kingdom of Sicily was changed to the
Kingdom of Naples The Kingdom of Naples ( la, Regnum Neapolitanum; it, Regno di Napoli; nap, Regno 'e Napule), also known as the Kingdom of Sicily, was a state that ruled the part of the Italian Peninsula The Italian Peninsula (Italian Italian may refer ...

Kingdom of Naples
in 1282 after he lost Sicily due to the rebellion of the
Sicilian Vespers The Sicilian Vespers ( it, Vespri siciliani; scn, Vespiri siciliani) was a successful rebellion on the island of Sicily that broke out at Easter 1282 against the rule of the French-born king Charles I of Naples, Charles I, who had ruled the Kin ...
. During the 14th century, would emerge
Barlaam of Seminara Barlaam of Seminara (Bernardo Massari, as a layman), c. 1290–1348, or Barlaam of Calabria ( gr, Βαρλαὰμ Καλαβρός) was a southern Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** ...
who would be
Petrarch Francesco Petrarca (; 20 July 1304 – 18/19 July 1374), commonly anglicized Linguistic anglicisation (or anglicization, occasionally anglification, anglifying, or Englishing) is the practice of modifying foreign words, names, and phrases ...

Petrarch
's Greek teacher and his disciple Leonzio Pilato, who would translate Homer's works for
Giovanni Boccaccio Giovanni Boccaccio (, , ; 16 June 1313 – 21 December 1375) was an Italian writer, poet, correspondent of Petrarch Francesco Petrarca (; 20 July 1304 – 18/19 July 1374), commonly anglicized Linguistic anglicisation (or angliciza ...

Giovanni Boccaccio
. While the cultivation of
mulberry ''Morus'', a genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of extant taxon, living and fossil organisms as well as Virus classification#ICTV classification, viruses. In ...

mulberry
was moving first steps in
Northern Italy Northern Italy ( it, Italia settentrionale, it, Nord Italia, label=none, it, Alta Italia, label=none or just it, Nord, label=none) is a geographical and cultural region In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical cha ...
, silk made in Calabria reached the peak of 50% of the whole Italian/European production. As the cultivation of mulberry was difficult in Northern and Continental Europe, merchants and operators used to purchase in Calabria raw materials in order to finish the products and resell them for a better price. The
Genoese Genoese may refer to: * a person from Genoa * Genoese dialect, a dialect of the Ligurian language * Republic of Genoa (–1805), a former state in Liguria See also

* Genovese, a surname * Genovesi, a surname * * * * * Genova (disambiguati ...

Genoese
silk artisans used fine Calabrian silk for the production of velvets. In particular, the silk of
Catanzaro Catanzaro (, or ; scn, label=Central-Southern Calabrian, Catanzarese, Catanzaru ; , or , ''Katastaríoi Lokrói''; la, Catacium), also known as the "City of the two Seas", is an Italy, Italian city of 91,000 inhabitants (2013), the capital of t ...
supplied almost all of Europe and was sold in a large market fair to
Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Canada * Spanish River (disambiguation), the name of several ...

Spanish
, ,
Genoese Genoese may refer to: * a person from Genoa * Genoese dialect, a dialect of the Ligurian language * Republic of Genoa (–1805), a former state in Liguria See also

* Genovese, a surname * Genovesi, a surname * * * * * Genova (disambiguati ...

Genoese
,
Florentine Florentine most commonly refers to: * a person or thing from Florence, a city in Italy * the Florentine dialect Florentine may also refer to: Places * Florentin, Tel Aviv, a neighborhood in the southern part of Tel Aviv, Israel * Leone, Floren ...

Florentine
and
Dutch Dutch commonly refers to: * Something of, from, or related to the Netherlands * Dutch people () * Dutch language () *Dutch language , spoken in Belgium (also referred as ''flemish'') Dutch may also refer to:" Castle * Dutch Castle Places * ...

Dutch
merchants. Catanzaro became the lace capital of Europe with a large silkworm breeding facility that produced all the laces and linens used in the
Vatican Vatican City Vatican City (), officially the Vatican City State ( it, Stato della Città del Vaticano; la, Status Civitatis Vaticanae),—' * german: Vatikanstadt, cf. '—' (in Austria: ') * pl, Miasto Watykańskie, cf. '—' * pt, Ci ...

Vatican
. The city was famous for its fine fabrication of silks, velvets, damasks and brocades.


Early modern period

In the XV century,
Catanzaro Catanzaro (, or ; scn, label=Central-Southern Calabrian, Catanzarese, Catanzaru ; , or , ''Katastaríoi Lokrói''; la, Catacium), also known as the "City of the two Seas", is an Italy, Italian city of 91,000 inhabitants (2013), the capital of t ...
was exporting both its silk cloth and its technical skills to neighbouring
Sicily Sicily ( it, Sicilia ; scn, Sicilia ) is the in the and one of the 20 of . It is one of the five and is officially referred to as ''Regione Siciliana''. The region has 5 million inhabitants. Its is . Sicily is in the central Mediterranean ...

Sicily
. By the middle of the century, silk spinning was taking place in Catanzaro, on a large scale. In 1442 the Aragonese took control under
Alfonso V of Aragon Alfonso the Magnanimous (also Alphonso; ca, Alfons; 1396 – 27 June 1458) was the King of Aragon (as Alfonso V), Valencia Valencia (), officially València ( ), is the capital of the Autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous communi ...
who became ruler under the
Crown of Aragon The Crown of Aragon (; an, Corona d'Aragón; ca, Corona d'Aragó; es, Corona de Aragón)' ()' (, , )' ()' (). was a composite monarchy A composite monarchy (or composite state) is a historical category, introduced by H. G. Koenigsberger ...
. In 1501 Calabria came under the control of
Ferdinand II of Aragon Ferdinand II of Aragon ( an, Ferrando; ca, Ferran; eu, Errando; es, Fernando; 10 March 1452 – 23 January 1516), also called ''Ferdinand the Catholic'', was King of Aragon from 1479, King of Sicily (as Ferdinand II) from 1469, List of monar ...
who is famed for sponsoring the first voyage of Christopher Columbus in 1492. Calabria suffered greatly under Aragonese rule with heavy taxes, feuding landlords, starvation and sickness. After a brief period in the early 1700s under the Austrian Habsburgs, Calabria came into the control of the Spanish Bourbons in 1735. It was during the 16th century that Calabria would contribute to modern world history with the creation of the
Gregorian calendar The Gregorian calendar is the calendar A calendar is a system of organizing days. This is done by giving names to periods of time, typically days, weeks, months and years. A calendar date, date is the designation of a single, speci ...
by the Calabrian doctor and astronomer Luigi Lilio. In 1466, King
Louis XI Louis XI (3 July 1423 – 30 August 1483), called "Louis the Prudent" (french: le Prudent), was King of France from 1461 to 1483. He succeeded his father, Charles VII of France, Charles VII. Louis entered into open rebellion against his father ...

Louis XI
decided to develop a national silk industry in
Lyon Lyon or Lyons (, , ; frp, Liyon, ) is the third-largest city and second-largest urban area of France. It is located at the confluence of the rivers Rhône The Rhône ( , ; german: Rhone ; wae, Rotten ; it, Rodano ; frp, Rôno ; oc, ...

Lyon
and called a large number of Italian workers, mainly from Calabria. The fame of the master weavers of Catanzaro spread throughout
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses ...

France
and they were invited to Lyon in order to teach the techniques of weaving. In 1470, one of these weavers, known in France as Jean Le Calabrais, invented the first prototype of a
JacquardJacquard may refer to: People * Albert Jacquard (1925-2013), French geneticist and essayist * Joseph Marie Jacquard (1752-1834), French weaver and inventor of the Jacquard loom * Robert Jacquard (born 1958), American politician Other uses * A M Jac ...
-type loom. He introduced a new kind of machine which was able to work the yarns faster and more precisely. Over the years, improvements to the loom were ongoing. Emperor
Charles VCharles V may refer to: * Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, german: Karl V, it, Carlo V, nl, Karel V, la, Carolus V (24 February 1500 – 21 September 1558) was Holy Roman Emperor The Holy Roman Emperor, originally and offici ...

Charles V
formally recognized the growth of the silk industry of
Catanzaro Catanzaro (, or ; scn, label=Central-Southern Calabrian, Catanzarese, Catanzaru ; , or , ''Katastaríoi Lokrói''; la, Catacium), also known as the "City of the two Seas", is an Italy, Italian city of 91,000 inhabitants (2013), the capital of t ...
in 1519 by allowing the city to establish a consulate of the silk craft, charged with regulating and check in the various stages of a production that flourished throughout the sixteenth century. At the moment of the creation of its guild, the city declared that it had over 500
loom A loom is a device used to weaving, weave cloth and tapestry. The basic purpose of any loom is to hold the Warp (weaving), warp threads under tension (mechanics), tension to facilitate the interweaving of the weft threads. The precise shape o ...

loom
s. By 1660, when the town had about 16,000 inhabitants, its silk industry kept 1,000 looms, and at least 5,000 people, busy. The silk textiles of
Catanzaro Catanzaro (, or ; scn, label=Central-Southern Calabrian, Catanzarese, Catanzaru ; , or , ''Katastaríoi Lokrói''; la, Catacium), also known as the "City of the two Seas", is an Italy, Italian city of 91,000 inhabitants (2013), the capital of t ...
were not only sold at the
kingdom Kingdom may refer to: Monarchy * A type of monarchy * A realm ruled by: **A king, during the reign of a male monarch **A queen regnant, during the reign of a female monarch Taxonomy * Kingdom (biology), a category in biological taxonomy Arts an ...

kingdom
's markets, they were also exported to Venice,
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses ...

France
, Spain and
England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to its west and Scotland to its north. The Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea to the southwest. E ...

England
. In the 16th century, Calabria was characterized by a strong demographic and economic development, mainly due to the increasing demand of silk products and the simultaneous growth of prices, and became one of the most important Mediterranean markets for silk. In 1563 philosopher and natural scientist
Bernardino Telesio Bernardino Telesio (; 7 November 1509 – 2 October 1588) was an Italian philosopher and natural scientist. While his natural theories were later disproven, his emphasis on observation made him the "first of the moderns" who eventually develo ...

Bernardino Telesio
wrote "On the Nature of Things according to their Own Principles" and pioneered early modern empiricism. He would also influence the works of Francis Bacon, René Descartes, Giordano Bruno, Tommaso Campanella and Thomas Hobbes. In 1602 philosopher and poet
Tommaso Campanella Tommaso Campanella (; 5 September 1568 – 21 May 1639), baptized Giovanni Domenico Campanella, was an Italian Dominican friar, philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy. The term ''philosopher'' comes from the grc, φ ...

Tommaso Campanella
wrote his most famous work, "
The City of the Sun ''The City of the Sun'' ( it, La città del Sole; la, Civitas Solis) is a philosophical work by the Italian Dominican philosopher Tommaso Campanella. It is an important early utopia A utopia ( ) is an imagined community or society that posse ...
" and would later defend Galileo Galilei during his first trial with his work "A Defense of Galileo", which was written in 1616 and published in 1622. In 1613 philosopher and economist
Antonio Serra Antonio Serra was a late 16th-century Italy, Italian philosopher and economist in the Mercantilist tradition. Biography Little is known about Serra's life. He was born in Cosenza in the late 16th century (the dates of his birth and death are unkn ...

Antonio Serra
wrote "A Short Treatise on the Wealth and Poverty of Nations" and was a pioneer in the Mercantilist tradition. During the 17th century silk production in Calabria begin to suffer by the strong competition of new-raising competitors in Italian Peninsula and Europe (France), but also the increasing import from Ottoman Empire and Persia. Foundation of the historical Italo-Albanian College and Library in 1732 by
Pope Clement XII Pope Clement XII ( la, Clemens XII; 7 April 16526 February 1740), born Lorenzo Corsini, was head of the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, often referred to as the Roman Catholic Church, is the List of Christian denominations by number ...

Pope Clement XII
transferred from San Benedetto Ullano to
San Demetrio Corone San Demetrio Corone (Arbëresh language, Arbëreshë: ''Shën Mitri'') is a town and comune, municipality in the Calabria region of Italy, at an altitude of 521 meters and with 3,387 inhabitants. The town is among the most important cultural cent ...
in 1794. In 1783 a series of earthquakes across Calabria caused around 50,000 deaths and much damage to property, so that many of the buildings in the region were rebuilt after this date. At the end of the 18th century the French took control and in 1808 Napoleon Bonaparte gave the Kingdom of Naples to his brother-in-law
Joachim Murat it, Gioacchino-Napoleone Murat , religion = Roman Catholic Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome, the capital city of Italy *Ancient Rome, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *Roman people, the people of ancien ...

Joachim Murat
. Murat controlled the kingdom until the return of the Bourbons in 1815. The population of Calabria in 1844 was 1,074,558. Calabria experienced a series of peasant revolts as part of the European
Revolutions of 1848 The Revolutions of 1848, known in some countries as the Springtime of the Peoples or the Springtime of Nations, were a series of political upheaval A political revolution, in the Trotskyist Trotskyism is the political ideology and branch o ...
. This set the stage for the eventual unification with the rest of Italy in 1861, when the
Kingdom of Naples The Kingdom of Naples ( la, Regnum Neapolitanum; it, Regno di Napoli; nap, Regno 'e Napule), also known as the Kingdom of Sicily, was a state that ruled the part of the Italian Peninsula The Italian Peninsula (Italian Italian may refer ...

Kingdom of Naples
was brought into the union by
Giuseppe Garibaldi Giuseppe Maria Garibaldi ( , ;In his native Ligurian language, he is known as ''Gioxeppe Gaibado. 4 July 1807 – 2 June 1882) was an Italian general, patriot, revolutionary, and republican. He contributed to the Italian unification The ...

Giuseppe Garibaldi
. The unification was orchestrated by Great Britain in an attempt to nationalize the production of sulfur from the two volcanoes located in Naples and Sicily respectively. The
Aspromonte The Aspromonte is a mountain massif in the Metropolitan City of Reggio Calabria (Calabria, southern Italy). The literal translation of the name means "rough mountain". But for others the name more likely is related to the Greek word Aspros (wikt:ά ...

Aspromonte
was the scene of a famous battle of the unification of Italy. During the late 19th or early 20th century, pianist and composer invented the "Third Pedal", which augmented the interpretative resources of the piano. The ancient Greek colonies from Naples and to the south, had been completely
Latinized Latinisation or Latinization can refer to: * Latinisation of names, the practice of rendering a non-Latin name in a Latin style * Latinisation in the Soviet Union, the campaign in the USSR during the 1920s and 1930s to replace traditional writing sy ...
, but from the fifth century AD onward Greeks had once again emigrated there when pressed out of their homeland by invasions. This Greek Diaspora allowed the ancient Greek dialects to continue in Southern Italy, much in the same way that the Italian Diaspora allowed long-lost dialects from Italy to thrive in countries where Italians emigrated to. Greek texts were also valued in monasteries and places of learning. However it was
Charlemagne Charlemagne ( , ) or Charles the Great ( la, Carolus Magnus; 2 April 748 – 28 January 814) was King of the Franks The Franks—Germanic-speaking peoples that invaded the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century—were first led by i ...

Charlemagne
in the 8th century, who made Latin the 'official' language of study and communication for Europe. For the sake of uniformity, he supplanted much of the Greek spoken, read or taught in Europe. It was through language (Latin) and education (Latin texts) that Charlemagne united Europe. During the 13th century a French chronicler who traveled through Calabria stated that "the peasants of Calabria spoke nothing but Greek" given he had traveled to areas where Greek was still available. But the educated classes spoke Italian. Indeed, formal Italian has been taught in schools throughout Italy for nearly two centuries, causing the ancient languages and dialects to continually disappear, much to the chagrin of the cultural community. These lost dialects continue to thrive to this day in North America and Australia, places where Italians emigrated to, on account of the
Diaspora A diaspora ( ) is a scattered population whose origin Origin(s) or The Origin may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Comics and manga * , a Wolverine comic book mini-series published by Marvel Comics in 2002 * , a 1999 ''Buffy th ...

Diaspora
.


Modern era

On 19 August 1860, Calabria was invaded from Sicily by
Giuseppe Garibaldi Giuseppe Maria Garibaldi ( , ;In his native Ligurian language, he is known as ''Gioxeppe Gaibado. 4 July 1807 – 2 June 1882) was an Italian general, patriot, revolutionary, and republican. He contributed to the Italian unification The ...

Giuseppe Garibaldi
and his Redshirts as part of the
Expedition of the Thousand The Expedition of the Thousand ( it, Spedizione dei Mille) was an event of the Italian Risorgimento Italian unification ( it, Unità d'Italia ), also known as the Risorgimento (, ; meaning "Resurgence"), was the 19th-century political and ...
. Through King Francesco II of Naples had dispatched 16,000 soldiers to stop the Redshirts, who numbered about 3,500, after a token battle at Reggio Calabria won by the Redshirts, all resistance ceased and Garibaldi was welcomed as a liberator from the oppressive rule of the Bourbons whatever he went in Calabria. Calabria together with the rest of the Kingdom of Naples was incorporated in 1861 into the Kingdom of Italy. Garibaldi planned to complete the ''Risorgimento'' by invading Rome, still ruled by the Pope protected by a French garrison, and began with semi-official encouragement to raise an army. Subsequently, King Victor Emmanuel II decided the possibility of war with France was too dangerous, and on 29 August 1862 Garibaldi's base in the Calabrian town of
Aspromonte The Aspromonte is a mountain massif in the Metropolitan City of Reggio Calabria (Calabria, southern Italy). The literal translation of the name means "rough mountain". But for others the name more likely is related to the Greek word Aspros (wikt:ά ...

Aspromonte
was attacked by the ''Regio Esercito''. The
Battle of Aspromonte The Battle of Aspromonte, also known as The Day of Aspromonte (in Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Italian ...
ended with the Redshirts defeated with several being executed after surrendering while Garibaldi was badly wounded.   In the newly unified Kingdom of Italy, there were significant differences in level of economic development between the ''Nord'' (north) of Italy and the ''Mezzogiorno'' (the south of Italy). Calabria together with the rest of the ''Mezzogiorno'' was neglected under the Kingdom of Italy with the general feeling in Rome being that the region was hopelessly backward and poor. In the late 19th century about 70% of the population of the ''Mezzogiorno'' were illiterate as the government never seemed to have the money to build schools or hire teachers for the south. Owing to the
Roman Question The Roman Question ( it, Questione romana; la, Quaestio Romana) was a dispute regarding the temporal power of the pope The pope ( la, papa, from el, πάππας, translit=pappas, "father"), also known as the supreme pontiff () or the Rom ...
, until 1903 the Roman Catholic Church had prohibited on the pain of excommunication Catholic men from voting in Italian elections (Italian women were not granted the right to vote until 1946). As the devoutly Catholic population of Calabria tended to boycott elections, the deputies who were elected from the region were the products of the clientistic system, representing the interests of the land-owning aristocracy. In common with the deputies from other regions of the ''Mezzogiorno'', they voted against more money for education under the grounds that an educated population would demand changes that would threaten the power of the traditional elite. Owing to a weak state, society in Calabria came to be dominated in the late 19th century by an organised crime group known as
'Ndrangheta The 'Ndrangheta (, , ) is a prominent Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Italian language, a Romance lang ...
which like the Mafia in Sicily and the Camorra in Campania formed a "parallel state" that co-existed alongside the Italian state. Between 1901 and 1914, an exodus of people left Calabria, mostly for North America and South America, with the peak year of migration being 1905 with 62,690 Calabrians departing that year.  On 28 December 1908, Calabria together with Sicily was devastated by an earthquake and then by a tsunami caused by the earthquake, causing about 80, 000 deaths. Within hours of the disaster, ships of the British and Russian navies had arrived on the coast to assist the survivors, but it took the ''Regia Marina'' two days to send a relief expedition from Naples. The bumbling and ineffectual response of the Italian authorities to the disaster caused by feuding officials who did not wish to co-operate with each other contributed to the high death toll as it took weeks for aid to reach some villages and caused much resentment in Calabria. To offset widespread criticism that the northern-dominated government in Rome did not care about the people of Calabria, King
Victor Emmanuel III Victor or Viktor may refer to: Arts and entertainment Film * ''Victor'' (1951 film), a French drama film * ''Victor'' (1993 film), a French short film * ''Victor'' (2008 film), a 2008 TV film about Canadian swimmer Victor Davis * ''Victor ...

Victor Emmanuel III
personally took over the relief operation and toured the destroyed villages of Calabria, which won the House of Savoy a measure of popularity in the region. Most notably, after the king took charge of the relief efforts, the feuding between officials ceased and relief aid was delivered with considerably more efficiency, winning Victor Emmanuel the gratitude of the Calabrians.   Fascism was not popular in Calabria. In December 1924 when a false rumor spread in
Reggio Calabria Reggio di Calabria ( scn, label=Central-Southern Calabrian, Southern Calabrian, Riggiu; el, label=Calabrian Greek, Ρήγι, Rìji), usually referred to as Reggio Calabria, or simply Reggio by its inhabitants, is the List of cities in Italy, l ...
that had resigned as Prime Minister because of the Matteotti affair, joyous celebrations took place in the city that lasted all night. In the morning, the people of Reggio Calabria learned that Mussolini was still prime minister, but several Fascist officials were dismissed for not suppressing the celebrations. The landed aristocracy and gentry of Calabria, through generally not ideologically committed to Fascism, saw the Fascist regime as a force for order and social stability, and supported the dictatorship. Likewise, the prefects and the policemen of Calabria were conservatives who saw themselves as serving King Victor Emmanuel III first and Mussolini second, but supported Fascism as preferable to Socialism and Communism and persecuted anti-Fascists. Traditional elites in Calabria joined the Fascist Party to pursue their own interests, and local branches of Fascist Party were characterized by much jostling for power and influence between elite families. Under the Fascist regime, several concentration camps were built in Calabria and used to imprison foreigners whose presence in Italy was considered undesirable, such as Chinese immigrants and foreign Jews (though not Italian Jews) together with members of the Roma (Gypsy) minority, whose nomadic lifestyle was viewed as anti-social. The camps which operated from 1938 to 1943 were not death camps, and the majority of those imprisoned survived, but conditions were harsh for the imprisoned. On 3 September 1943, British and Canadian troops of the British 8th Army landed in Calabria in
Operation Baytown Operation Baytown was an Allied amphibious landing Amphibious warfare is a type of offensive military operation that today uses naval ships to project ground and air power onto a hostile or potentially hostile shore at a designated la ...
, marking the first time that the Allies landed on the mainland of Italy. However, the landings in Calabria were a feint and the main Allied blow came on 8 September 1943 with the landing of the American 5th Army at
Salerno Salerno (, , ; nap, label=Neapolitan language, Salernitano, Saliernë, ) is an ancient city and ''comune'' in Campania (southwestern Italy) and is the capital of the province of Salerno, namesake province. It is located on the Gulf of Salerno o ...

Salerno
in Campania that was intended to cut off Axis forces in the ''Mezzogiorno''. The Germans anticipated that the Allies would land at Salerno, and as a consequence, there was relatively little fighting in Calabria. The Italian troops in Calabria mostly surrendered to the advancing 5th British Division and the 1st Canadian Division while there were relatively few German forces in the region to oppose their advance. The main obstacle to the advancing Anglo-Canadian troops turned out to be the trail of destruction left by German combat engineers who systematically blew up bridges and destroyed roads and railroads as the Wehrmacht retreated north. On the same day the Americans landed at Salerno, General
Dwight Eisenhower Dwight David "Ike" Eisenhower (; October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969) was an American military officer An officer is a member of an armed forces or uniformed service who holds a position of authority. In its broadest sense, the term " ...
announced on the radio the
Armistice of Cassibile The Armistice of Cassibile was an armistice An armistice is a formal agreement Agreement or concord (list of glossing abbreviations, abbreviated ) happens when a word changes form depending on the other words to which it relates. It is an in ...
that had been signed on 3 September, and with the announcement of the armistice all Italian resistance ceased. The Germans committed most of their forces in the ''Mezzogiorno'' to the Battle of Salerno with the aim of driving the Allies back into the sea and pulled their remaining forces out of Calabria to send them to Salerno. Under the Allied occupation, some Fascists in Calabria waged a terrorist struggle on behalf of the Salo republic, though significantly many of the Fascists tended to be from well-off families concerned about the possibility of social reforms that might weaken their power and only a minority such as Prince Valerio Pignatelli were ideological Fascists. In June 1944, celebrations in Reggio Calabria over the news of the liberation of Rome were disturbed by local Fascists.   The British historian Jonathan Dunnage wrote that there was an "institutional continuity" between the civil servants of the Liberal, Fascist and post-Fascist eras in Calabria as each change of regime saw the bureaucrats of the region adjust to whatever regime was in power in Rome and there was no purge of civil servants either after 1922 or 1943. The "institutional continuity" of the bureaucracy of Calabria were committed to preserving the social structure. On 2 June 1946 referendum, Calabria like the rest of the ''Mezzogiorno'' voted solidly to retain the monarchy. The clientistic political system in Calabria under which elite families handed out patronage to their supporters and used violence against their opponents, which was the prevailing norm in the Liberal and Fascist eras continued after 1945. During the Second World War, the already low living standards of Calabria declined further and the region was notorious as one of the most violent and lawless areas of Italy. Attempts by the peasants of Calabria to take over the land owned by the elite were usually resisted by the authorities. On 28 October 1949 in Melissa the police opened fire on peasants who had seized the land of a local baron, killing three men who were shot in the back as they attempted to flee. Between 1949 and 1966 another wave of migration took place with the peak year of migration being 1957 with some 38, 090 Calabrians leaving that year.     Under the First Republic, starting in the 1960s, investment plans were launched under which Italian state sponsored industrialisation and attempted to improve the infrastructure of Calabria by building modern roads, railroads, ports, etc. The plan was a notable failure with the infrastructure projects going wildly over-budget and taking far longer to complete then scheduled; for an example, construction started on the A3 highway in 1964 intended to link Reggio Calabria to Salerno, which was as of 2016 still unfinished. The failure to complete the A3 highway after 52 years of effort is regarded as a scandal in Italy, and many parts of Calabria were described as an "industrial graveyard" full of the closed down steel mills and chemical plants that all went bankrupt. From July 1970 to February 1971 the Reggio revolt took place as the decision to make Catanzaro instead of Reggio the regional capital prompted massive protests. The compromise decision to make Catanzaro the executive capital and Reggio the administrative capital has led to a bloated and inefficient administration. The high unemployment rate in Calabria has led to extensive migration and Calabria's biggest export has been its own people as Calabrians have moved to either other parts of Italy and abroad, especially to the United States, Canada and Argentina, to seek a better life. In 2016, it was estimated that 18% of the people born in Calabria were living abroad.  


Economy

Calabria enjoys a diversified economy comparable to western nations in various categories, as shown in these statistics: the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Calabria is subdivided as follows: service industry (28.94%), financial activities and real estate (21.09%), trade, tourism, transportation and communication (19.39%), taxation (11.49%), manufacturing (8.77%), construction (6.19%) and agriculture (4.13%). Calabria's economy is still based mainly on
agriculture Agriculture is the science, art and practice of cultivating plants and livestock. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary Image:Family watching television 1958.jpg, Exercise trends, Increases in sedentary behaviors su ...

agriculture
. The economy of the region is strongly affected by the presence of the
'Ndrangheta The 'Ndrangheta (, , ) is a prominent Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Italian language, a Romance lang ...
(the local
Mafia A mafia is a type of criminal organization whose central activity is the arbitration of disputes between criminals and the organization and enforcement of illicit agreements through the use of violence. Mafias often engage in secondary activities ...

Mafia
syndicate).


Agriculture

Calabria is agriculturally rich, with the Italy's second highest number of
organic farm upright=1.5, Vegetables from ecological farming Organic farming is an agricultural system which originated early in the 20th century in reaction to rapidly changing farming practices. Certified organic agriculture accounts for 70 million hecta ...
ers after
Sicily Sicily ( it, Sicilia ; scn, Sicilia ) is the in the and one of the 20 of . It is one of the five and is officially referred to as ''Regione Siciliana''. The region has 5 million inhabitants. Its is . Sicily is in the central Mediterranean ...

Sicily
. The
red onion Red onions (also known as purple onions in some European countries) are cultivar A cultivar is a type of plant that people have bred for desired traits, which are reproduced in each new generation by a method such as grafting, tissue cultu ...

red onion
of
Tropea Tropea (; scn, label= Calabrian, Trupìa; la, Tropaea; grc, Τράπεια, Trápeia) is a municipality in the province of Vibo Valentia The province of Vibo Valentia ( it, provincia di Vibo Valentia; Central-Southern Calabrian, Vibonese: ) ...

Tropea
is cultivated during summer period on the Tyrrhenian coast of central Calabria. It has been awarded with the
protected geographical indication Three European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of member states that are located primarily in Europe Europe is a which is also recognised as part of , located entirely in the and mostly in the ...
(PGI). The
olive tree The olive, known by the botanical name ''Olea europaea'', meaning "European olive", is a species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit o ...

olive tree
represents 29.6% of UAA and approximately 70% of tree crops. Olive tree cultivation extends from coastal lowland areas to hilly and lower mountainous areas. The region is the second-highest for
olive oil Olive oil is a liquid fat obtained from olive The olive, botanical name ''Olea europaea'', meaning "European olive", is a species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomi ...

olive oil
production with Carolea, Ogliarola, and Saracena olives as the main regional varieties. In Calabria, there are 3 PDO oils: "Bruzio" in the province of
Cosenza Cosenza ( , ; local dialect: ''Cusenza'', ) is a city in Calabria it, Calabrese , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = , demographics ...

Cosenza
, "Lametia" in the area of
Lamezia Terme Lamezia Terme (), commonly called Lamezia, is an Italian city and ''comune The (; plural: ) is a basic Administrative division, constituent entity of Italy, roughly equivalent to a township or municipality. Importance and function The p ...

Lamezia Terme
and the more recent "Alto Crotonese". In addition to DOP oils there are also PGI oils. The production area of "Olio di Calabria" PGI includes the entire territory of the Calabria region. The production is made exclusively from indigenous olives. Calabria produces about a quarter of Italy's
citrus fruit ''Citrus'' is a genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank In biological classification In biology, taxonomy () is the scientific study of naming, defining (Circumscription (taxonomy), circums ...
. The contribution of this region to growing citrus fruit in Italy can be attributed mainly to
clementines A clementine (''Citrus × clementina'') is a tangor, a citrus fruit hybrid between a willowleaf mandarin orange (Citrus × deliciosa, ''C.'' × ''deliciosa'') and a sweet orange (''C. × sinensis''), named for its late 19th-century discoverer. ...

clementines
,
oranges The orange is the fruit of various citrus species in the family (biology), family Rutaceae (see list of plants known as orange); it primarily refers to Citrus × sinensis, ''Citrus'' × ''sinensis'', which is also called sweet orange, to dis ...

oranges
,
mandarins Mandarin may refer to: * Mandarin (bureaucrat), a bureaucrat of Imperial China (the original meaning of the word) ** by extension, any senior government bureaucrat Language * Mandarin Chinese, branch of Chinese spoken in northern and southwester ...
and
lemons The lemon (''Citrus limon'') is a species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A species is often defined as the la ...

lemons
. Calabria is by far the country's most important
clementine A clementine (''Citrus × clementina'') is a tangor, a citrus fruit hybrid between a willowleaf mandarin orange (Citrus × deliciosa, ''C.'' × ''deliciosa'') and a sweet orange (''C. × sinensis''), named in honor of Clément Rodier, a French ...

clementine
-growing region, which account for about 62% (16,164 ha) of the Italian surface dedicated to its cultivation and 69% (437,800 tons) of the total production. Clementina di Calabria is the PGI variety grown in the Calabria region. Minor fruits such as bergamot and
citron The citron (''Citrus medica'') is a large fragrant citrus fruit with a thick Peel (fruit), rind. It is one of the original citrus fruits from which all other citrus types developed through natural hybrid speciation or artificial Hybrid (biolog ...

citron
and lemon-citron hybrids are found exclusively in Calabria. The south coast of the region produces 90% of the world's bergamots, with a huge industry built around the extraction of bergamot oil. The
Bergamot orange ''Citrus bergamia'', the bergamot orange (pronounced ), is a fragrant citrus fruit ''Citrus'' is a genus of flowering plant, flowering trees and shrubs in the rue family, Rutaceae. Plants in the genus produce citrus fruits, including importa ...
has been intensively cultivated since the 18th century, but only in the coastal area nearby to Reggio, where geological and weather conditions are optimal. The province of Cosenza represents an important area for
figs The fig is the edible fruit of ''Ficus carica'', a species of small tree in the flowering plant Flowering plants include multiple members of the clade Angiospermae (), commonly called angiosperms. The term "angiosperm" is derived from the Gr ...
growing belonging to cultivar "Dottato" that is used to produce the quality-branded dried figs "Fichi di Cosenza" PDO (
Protected Designation of Origin The protected designation of origin (PDO) is a type of geographical indication of the European Union and the United Kingdom aimed at preserving the designations of origin of food-related products. The designation was created in 1992 and its mai ...
). In the province of Catanzaro, between San Floro and
Cortale Cortale (Central-Southern Calabrian, Calabrian: ; ) is a and town in the province of Catanzaro in the Calabria region of Italy. Twin towns — sister cities

Cortale is town twinning, twinned with: * Erba, Lombardy, Italy * Ponte Lambro, I ...
, the ancient tradition of
sericulture Sericulture, or silk farming, is the cultivation of silkworm ''Bombyx mori'', the domestic silk moth, is an insect from the moth Moths are a paraphyletic In taxonomy, a group is paraphyletic if it consists of the group's last ...

sericulture
is still kept alive, thanks to young generations. Calabria is the largest producer of in Italy, thanks to the heavily wooded forests of the mountains ranges of
Pollino The Pollino (Italian: ''Massiccio del Pollino'') is a massif In geology, a massif ( or ) is a section of a planet's Crust (geology), crust that is demarcated by geologic fault, faults or Lithospheric flexure, flexures. In the Plate tectonics, m ...
, Sila, Serre and
Aspromonte The Aspromonte is a mountain massif in the Metropolitan City of Reggio Calabria (Calabria, southern Italy). The literal translation of the name means "rough mountain". But for others the name more likely is related to the Greek word Aspros (wikt:ά ...

Aspromonte
.
Chestnut The chestnuts are the deciduous trees and shrubs in the genus ''Castanea'', in the beech family Fagaceae. They are native to temperate climate, temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere. The name also refers to the edible nut (fruit), nut ...

Chestnut
production is also widespread in the Calabrian mountains.
Peaches The peach (''Prunus persica'') is a deciduous In the fields of horticulture and botany, the term ''deciduous'' (; ) means "falling off at maturity" and "tending to fall off", in reference to trees and shrubs that seasonally shed leaves, usu ...

Peaches
and nectarines from Calabria have greatly improved in terms of flavour, quality, safety and service. A part of the production is sold on the domestic market, mainly to retailers. The remaining is exported to
Northern Europe Northern Europe is the northern region of Europe. Narrower definitions may describe Northern Europe as being roughly north of the southern coast of the Baltic Sea, which is about 54th parallel north, 54°N, or may be based on other geographic ...
, mainly
Scandinavia Scandinavia; Sami Places * Sápmi, a cultural region in Northern Europe * Sami, Burkina Faso, a district of the Banwa Province * Sami District, Gambia * Sami, Cephalonia, a municipality in Greece * Sami (ancient city), in Elis, Greece * Sa ...

Scandinavia
and
Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin Berlin (; ) is the Capital city, capital and List of cities in Germany by population, largest city of Germany by both area and population. Its 3,769,495 inh ...

Germany
. The region boasts a very ancient tradition in the cultivation and production of
liquorice Liquorice ( UK) or licorice ( US) ( ; also ) is the common name Common may refer to: Places * Common, a townland in County Tyrone, Northern Ireland * Boston Common Boston Common (also known as the Common) is a central public park in dow ...

liquorice
. The eighty percent of the national production is concentrated in this region.


Manufacturing

Food and textile industries are the most developed and vibrant. Within the industrial sector, manufacturing contributes to a gross value added of 7.2%. In the manufacturing sector the main branches are foodstuff, beverage and tobacco with a contribution to the sector very close to the national average. Over the recent decades some petrochemical, engineering and chemical industries have emerged, within the areas of
Crotone Crotone (, ; nap, label= Crotonese, Cutrone or ) is a city and ''comune The (; plural: ) is a of , roughly equivalent to a or . Importance and function The provides essential public services: of births and deaths, , and maintena ...

Crotone
,
Vibo Valentia Vibo Valentia (; Monteleone before 1861; Monteleone di Calabria from 1861 to 1928; scn, label= Calabrian, Vibbu Valenzia or ) is a city and ''comune The (; plural: ) is a Administrative division, local administrative division of Italy, ...

Vibo Valentia
and
Reggio Calabria Reggio di Calabria ( scn, label=Central-Southern Calabrian, Southern Calabrian, Riggiu; el, label=Calabrian Greek, Ρήγι, Rìji), usually referred to as Reggio Calabria, or simply Reggio by its inhabitants, is the List of cities in Italy, l ...
. The province of Catanzaro boasts a great tradition in the textile manufacturing, especially
silk Silk is a natural Nature, in the broadest sense, is the natural, physical, material world or universe The universe ( la, universus) is all of space and time and their contents, including planets, stars, galaxies, and all o ...

silk
. Recently, several young people have given new life to this activity, developing green and sustainable economy projects. In fact, among the municipalities of
Girifalco Girifalco is a '' comune'' and town A town is a human settlement. Towns are generally larger than villages and smaller than city, cities, though the criteria to distinguish between them vary considerably in different parts of the world ...
, San Floro and
Cortale Cortale (Central-Southern Calabrian, Calabrian: ; ) is a and town in the province of Catanzaro in the Calabria region of Italy. Twin towns — sister cities

Cortale is town twinning, twinned with: * Erba, Lombardy, Italy * Ponte Lambro, I ...
,
sericulture Sericulture, or silk farming, is the cultivation of silkworm ''Bombyx mori'', the domestic silk moth, is an insect from the moth Moths are a paraphyletic In taxonomy, a group is paraphyletic if it consists of the group's last ...

sericulture
is still practiced, the breeding of
silkworms ''Bombyx mori'', the domestic silk moth, is an insect from the moth Moths are a paraphyletic In taxonomy, a group is paraphyletic if it consists of the group's last common ancestor and all descendants of that ancestor excluding a ...
combined with the cultivation of
mulberry trees ''Morus'', a genus of flowering plants in the family Moraceae, consists of diverse species of deciduous trees commonly known as mulberries, growing wild and under cultivation in many temperate world regions. Generally, the plant has three main ...
.
Tiriolo Tiriolo is a town and ''comune'' in the province of Catanzaro in the Calabria region of southern Italy. It was the birthplace of Renaissance painter Marco Cardisco. Geography The town is bordered by Catanzaro, Gimigliano, Marcellinara, Miglierina, ...
and
Badolato Badolato is a ''comune'' and town in the province of Catanzaro in the Calabria region of Italy. As of 2013 Badolato had an estimated population of 3,152. Territory The village of Badolato is from Catanzaro on Calabria's Ionian Sea, Ionian coa ...
are known above all for the manufacturing of the "vancale", the typical Calabrian shawl, made of
wool Wool is the textile A textile is a flexible material made by creating an interlocking bundle of yarn Yarn is a long continuous length of interlocked fibres, suitable for use in the production of textiles, sewing, crocheting, knitt ...
or silk, worn by women in ancient times on traditional costumes during the dance of
tarantella () is a group of various folk dances characterized by a fast upbeat tempo, usually in time Time is the indefinite continued sequence, progress of existence and event (philosophy), events that occur in an apparently irreversible process ...

tarantella
, or as an ornamental decoration of the houses. Typical in Tiriolo is also the manufacturing of carpets,
linen Linen () is a textile made from the fibers of the flax plant. Linen is very strong, absorbent, and dries faster than cotton. Because of these properties, linen is comfortable to wear in hot weather and is valued for use in garments. It also h ...

linen
and
broom A broom (also known in some forms as a broomstick) is a cleaning tool consisting of usually stiff fibers (often made of materials such as plastic, hair, or corn husks) attached to, and roughly parallel to, a cylindrical handle, the broomstick. It ...

broom
fibers,
bobbin lace Bobbin lace is a lace Lace is a delicate fabric A textile is a flexible material made by creating an interlocking network of yarn Yarn is a long continuous length of interlocked fibres, suitable for use in the production of textil ...

bobbin lace
making,
embroidery Embroidery is the craft A craft or trade is a pastime or an occupation that requires particular skills and knowledge of skilled work. In a historical sense, particularly the Middle Ages In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages ...

embroidery
, precious
ceramics A ceramic is any of the various hard, brittle, heat-resistant and corrosion-resistant Corrosion is a Erosion, natural process that converts a refined metal into a more chemically stable form such as oxide, hydroxide, carbonate or sulfide. It ...

ceramics
, furnishing objects and artistic sculptures. The artistic production of weaving is also active in other centers such as in
Platania Image:Platania,Catanzaro.jpg, Platania Platania is a ''comune'' and town in the province of Catanzaro in the western part of the Calabria region of Italy. Bounding communes * Conflenti * Decollatura * Lamezia Terme * Serrastretta Population hist ...

Platania
and
Petrizzi Petrizzi is a ''comune'' and town in the province of Catanzaro in the Calabria region of Italy. Petrizzi is located in the hills above Soverato. It overlooks the Ionian SeaDocumentary "Petrizzi - Il fiore di Pietra" References

https://en.wi ...
where once
hemp Hemp, or industrial hemp, is a botanical class of ''Cannabis sativa ''Cannabis sativa'' is an annual indigenous to , but now of cosmopolitan distribution due to widespread cultivation. It has been cultivated throughout , used as a source ...
fibers were also produced. In
Soveria Mannelli Soveria Mannelli ( scn, Suverìa Mannielli) is a town and ''comune'' in the province of Catanzaro, in the Calabria region of southern Italy. The town is bordered by Bianchi, Italy, Bianchi, Carlopoli, Colosimi, Decollatura, Gimigliano, Pediviglia ...

Soveria Mannelli
, Lanificio Leo, the oldest textile factory in Calabria founded in 1873, is still active. The factory still retains majestic and evocative tools dating back to the late
nineteenth century The 19th (nineteenth) century began on January 1, 1801 ( MDCCCI), and ended on December 31, 1900 ( MCM). The 19th century was the ninth century of the 2nd millennium. The 19th century saw much social change; slavery Slavery and enslavemen ...
. The traditional production of artistic ceramics dating back to the
Magna Graecia Magna Graecia (, ; Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic ...

Magna Graecia
period is handed down in the ancient towns of
Squillace Squillace ( grc, Σκυλλήτιον ''Skylletion''; grc-x-medieval, Σκυλάκιον ''Skylakion'') is an ancient town and '' comune'', in the Province of Catanzaro, part of Calabria it, Calabrese , population_note = , p ...
and
Seminara ''For people with the surname, see Seminara (surname).'' Seminara is a ''comune'' (municipality) in the Province of Reggio Calabria in the Italy, Italian region Calabria, located about southwest of Catanzaro and about northeast of Reggio Calabria ...

Seminara
. The small town of
Serrastretta Serrastretta is a town and ''comune'' in the province of Catanzaro in the Calabria region of southern Italy. The town is bordered by Amato, Decollatura, Feroleto Antico, Lamezia Terme, Miglierina, Pianopoli, Platania and San Pietro Apostolo. Econo ...
, a green village in the woods of Presila, is famous for its
wood Wood is a porous and fibrous structural tissue found in the stems and roots of tree In botany, a tree is a perennial plant with an elongated Plant stem, stem, or trunk (botany), trunk, supporting branches and leaves in most species. ...

wood
production, in particular for its chairs characterized by a very original
straw Straw is an agricultural byproduct A by-product or byproduct is a secondary product derived from a production process, manufacturing Manufacturing is the Production (economics), production of goods through the use of Work (human activity ...

straw
.


Tourism

Calabria attracts year-round tourism, offering both summer and winter activities, in addition to its cultural, historical, artistic heritage, it has an abundance of protected natural habitats and 'green' zones. The of its coast make Calabria a tourist destination during the summer. The low industrial development and the lack of major cities in much of its territory have allowed the maintenance of indigenous marine life. The most sought-after seaside destinations are:
Tropea Tropea (; scn, label= Calabrian, Trupìa; la, Tropaea; grc, Τράπεια, Trápeia) is a municipality in the province of Vibo Valentia The province of Vibo Valentia ( it, provincia di Vibo Valentia; Central-Southern Calabrian, Vibonese: ) ...

Tropea
, Pizzo Calabro, Capo Vaticano,
Reggio Calabria Reggio di Calabria ( scn, label=Central-Southern Calabrian, Southern Calabrian, Riggiu; el, label=Calabrian Greek, Ρήγι, Rìji), usually referred to as Reggio Calabria, or simply Reggio by its inhabitants, is the List of cities in Italy, l ...
,
Soverato Soverato (Central-Southern Calabrian, Calabrian: ) is a town and ''comune'' in the province of Catanzaro in the Calabria region of Southern Italy. Soverato is the wealthiest town per capita in Calabria, and it has recently been experiencing a spik ...
,
Scilla ''Scilla'' () is a genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank In biological classification In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including thei ...
,
ScaleaScalea ( Calabrian: ) is a town and ''comune The (; plural: ) is a local administrative division of Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of a Northe ...
, Sellia Marina, Montepaone, Montauro, Copanello (comune of Staletti), Tonnara di Palmi, Diamante,
Paola Paola is a female given name, the Italian language, Italian form of the name Paula (given name), Paula. Notable people with the name include: People In arts and entertainment *Paola Del Medico (born 1950), Swiss singer *Paola e Chiara, pop music ...
, ,
AmanteaAmantea (Northern Calabrian, Calabrian: ; ) is a town, former bishopric, ''comune'' (municipality) and Latin Catholic titular see in the province of Cosenza in the Calabria region of southern Italy. It is the twentieth municipality in the region by p ...

Amantea
, , , Roseto Capo Spulico,
Corigliano Calabro Corigliano Calabro is a town and a ''frazione'' of Corigliano-Rossano located in the province of Cosenza, c. 40 km northeast of the city of Cosenza, in Calabria, southern Italy. Geography It is situated near the mouth of a river of the same ...
, , Amendolara,
Roccella Ionica Roccella Ionica (also known as Roccella Jonica or simply as Roccella (Central-Southern Calabrian, Roccellese: ) is a town and ''comune'' located on the Ionian Sea in Calabria, southern Italy. Possibly built on the site of the ancient Ancient Greec ...
,
Bagnara Calabra Bagnara Calabra (or simply Bagnara) is a ''comune The (; plural: ) is a basic Administrative division, constituent entity of Italy, roughly equivalent to a township or municipality. Importance and function The provides many of the bas ...

Bagnara Calabra
, ,
Cariati Cariati () is a town and ''comune'' in the province of Cosenza in the Calabria region of southern Italy. Cariati is divided into two parts: Cariati Superiore, situated on top of a hill, and Cariati Marina, which is stretched along the Ionian Sea, I ...

Cariati
, ,
Isola di Capo Rizzuto Isola di Capo Rizzuto is a ''comune The (; plural: ) is a basic Administrative division, constituent entity of Italy, roughly equivalent to a township or municipality. Importance and function The provides many of the basic civil functio ...
, Caminia (comune of Staletti),
Siderno Siderno ( scn, label= Calabrian, Sidernu or ; ) is a town and ''comune The (; plural: ) is a basic Administrative division, constituent entity of Italy, roughly equivalent to a township or municipality. Importance and function The provid ...
,
Parghelia Parghelia is a ''comune'' (municipality) in the Province of Vibo Valentia in the Italy, Italian region Calabria, located about southwest of Catanzaro and about west of Vibo Valentia. As of 31 December 2004, it had a population of 1,383 and an are ...
,
Ricadi Ricadi ( grc, Ρηγάδιον, translit=Rigádion) is a small rural town, as well as a municipality, located along the Tyrrhenian Tyrrhenian may refer to the: * Tyrrhenian Stage, a faunal stage from 0.26 to 0.01143 million years ago * Tyrrhenian ...
and San Nicola Arcella. In addition to the coastal tourist destinations, the interior of Calabria is rich in history, traditions, art and culture. Cosenza is among the most important cultural cities of Calabria, with a rich historical and artistic patrimony. Medieval castles, towers, churches, monasteries and other French castles and structures from the Norman to the Aragonese periods are common elements in both the interior and coastline of Calabria. The mountains offer skiing and other winter activities: Sila,
Pollino The Pollino (Italian: ''Massiccio del Pollino'') is a massif in the southern Apennines, on the border between Basilicata and Calabria, southern Italy. It became part of the Pollino National Park in 1992. The main peaks include Monte Pollino (2,248 ...
and
Aspromonte The Aspromonte is a mountain massif in the Metropolitan City of Reggio Calabria (Calabria, southern Italy). The literal translation of the name means "rough mountain". But for others the name more likely is related to the Greek word Aspros (wikt:ά ...

Aspromonte
are three national parks that offer facilities for winter sports, especially in the towns of Camigliatello (comune of Spezzano della Sila), Lorica (comune of ),
Gambarie Santo Stefano in Aspromonte is a ''comune'' (municipality) in the Province of Reggio Calabria in the Italy, Italian region Calabria, located about southwest of Catanzaro and about northeast of Reggio Calabria. As of 31 December 2004, it had a pop ...
and Monte Sant'Elia (comune of
Palmi Palmi may refer to: People Given name Palmi is an Icelandic male given name. Notable people with this surname include: * Pálmi Gestsson (born 1957), Icelandic actor and voice actor * Pálmi Gunnarsson (born 1950), Icelandic musician * Pálmi Ha ...
).


Unemployment rate

The unemployment rate stood at 21.6% in 2017 and was the highest in Italy and one of the highest inside the European Union.


Infrastructure and transport

The main Calabrian ports are in Reggio and in
Gioia Tauro Gioia Tauro () is a ''comune The (; plural: ) is a local administrative division of Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of a Northern Italy, conti ...
. The Reggio port is equipped with five loading docks of a length of . The
Gioia Tauro Gioia Tauro () is a ''comune The (; plural: ) is a local administrative division of Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of a Northern Italy, conti ...
port has seven loading docks with an extension of ; it is the largest in Italy and the seventh largest
container A container is any receptacle or enclosure for holding a product used in storage, packaging, and transportation, including shipping. Things kept inside of a container are protected by being inside of its structure. The term is most frequently ...

container
port in Europe, with a 2007 throughput of s from more than 3,000 ships. The region is served by three heavily used roads: two national highways along the coasts (SS18
Napoli Naples (; it, Napoli ; nap, Napule ), from grc, Νεάπολις, Neápolis, lit=new city. is the regional capital of Campania it, Campano (man) it, Campana (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , popul ...

Napoli
- Reggio and SS106 Reggio-
Taranto Taranto (, also ; ; nap, label=Tarantino Quentin Jerome Tarantino (; born March 27, 1963) is an American film director, screenwriter, producer, and actor. His films are characterized by nonlinear narrative, nonlinear storylines, dark humo ...

Taranto
) and the A2 motorway, which links
Salerno Salerno (, , ; nap, label=Neapolitan language, Salernitano, Saliernë, ) is an ancient city and ''comune'' in Campania (southwestern Italy) and is the capital of the province of Salerno, namesake province. It is located on the Gulf of Salerno o ...

Salerno
and Reggio, passing by
Cosenza Cosenza ( , ; local dialect: ''Cusenza'', ) is a city in Calabria it, Calabrese , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = , demographics ...

Cosenza
along the old inland route. In Calabria there are two main airports: one is situated in Reggio, a few kilometres from city centre, built in 1939 is chronologically the first airport in Calabria; another is located in
Lamezia Terme Lamezia Terme (), commonly called Lamezia, is an Italian city and ''comune The (; plural: ) is a basic Administrative division, constituent entity of Italy, roughly equivalent to a township or municipality. Importance and function The p ...
municipality area, currently being the first airport in Calabria concerning the number of passengers per year.


Demographics

The following is a list of Calabrian municipalities with a population of over 20,000: #
Reggio Calabria Reggio di Calabria ( scn, label=Central-Southern Calabrian, Southern Calabrian, Riggiu; el, label=Calabrian Greek, Ρήγι, Rìji), usually referred to as Reggio Calabria, or simply Reggio by its inhabitants, is the List of cities in Italy, l ...
– 186,013 #
Catanzaro Catanzaro (, or ; scn, label=Central-Southern Calabrian, Catanzarese, Catanzaru ; , or , ''Katastaríoi Lokrói''; la, Catacium), also known as the "City of the two Seas", is an Italy, Italian city of 91,000 inhabitants (2013), the capital of t ...
– 93,265 # Corigliano-Rossano – 77,220 #
Lamezia Terme Lamezia Terme (), commonly called Lamezia, is an Italian city and ''comune The (; plural: ) is a basic Administrative division, constituent entity of Italy, roughly equivalent to a township or municipality. Importance and function The p ...

Lamezia Terme
– 71,123 #
Cosenza Cosenza ( , ; local dialect: ''Cusenza'', ) is a city in Calabria it, Calabrese , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = , demographics ...

Cosenza
– 69,827 #
Crotone Crotone (, ; nap, label= Crotonese, Cutrone or ) is a city and ''comune The (; plural: ) is a of , roughly equivalent to a or . Importance and function The provides essential public services: of births and deaths, , and maintena ...

Crotone
– 61,529 #
Rende Rende is a town, city and ''comune'' in the province of Cosenza, Calabria, southern Italy, home to the headquarters of the University of Calabria. It has a population of about 35,000, or more than 60,000 if the university students living there are ...
– 35,352 #
Vibo Valentia Vibo Valentia (; Monteleone before 1861; Monteleone di Calabria from 1861 to 1928; scn, label= Calabrian, Vibbu Valenzia or ) is a city and ''comune The (; plural: ) is a Administrative division, local administrative division of Italy, ...

Vibo Valentia
– 33,857 #
Castrovillari Castrovillari (Northern Calabrian, Calabrian: ) is a town and ''comune'' in the province of Cosenza in the Calabria region of southern Italy. Geography Castrovillari lies in the north of Calabria, close to the border with Basilicata and within th ...
– 22,518 #
Acri Acri ( Calabrian: ) is a town of 19.949 inhabitants in the northern part of Calabria it, Calabrese , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 ...
– 21,263 #
Montalto Uffugo Montalto Uffugo (Northern Calabrian, Calabrian: ) is a city and ''comune'' of the province of Cosenza in the Calabria region of southern Italy. The original name of the town was Montalto. Uffugo was added to the town's name after the unification ...

Montalto Uffugo
– 20,553


Government and politics


Sister jurisdictions

* Burwood, Australia. * State of
West Virginia West Virginia () is a U.S. state, state in the Appalachian region, Appalachian, Mid-Atlantic (United States), Mid-Atlantic and Southeastern United States, Southeastern regions of the United States.The United States Census Bureau, Census Burea ...
, United States.


Administrative divisions

Calabria is divided into five provinces:


Tourism

Tourism in Calabria has increased over the years. The main tourist attractions are the coastline and the mountains. The coastline alternates between rugged cliffs and sandy beaches, and is sparsely interrupted by development when compared to other European seaside destinations. The sea around Calabria is clear, and there is a good level of tourist accommodation. The poet
Gabriele D'Annunzio General A general officer is an officer of high rank in the armies, and in some nations' air forces, space forces, or marines Marines or naval infantry, are typically a military force trained to operate on Littoral Zone, littoral ...

Gabriele D'Annunzio
called the coast facing Sicily near Reggio Calabria "... the most beautiful kilometer in Italy" (''il più bel chilometro d'Italia''). The primary mountain tourist draws are
Aspromonte The Aspromonte is a mountain massif in the Metropolitan City of Reggio Calabria (Calabria, southern Italy). The literal translation of the name means "rough mountain". But for others the name more likely is related to the Greek word Aspros (wikt:ά ...

Aspromonte
and
La Sila La Sila, also simply Sila, is the name of the mountainous plateau In geology Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, ''gē'' ("earth") and -λoγία, ''-logia'', ("study of", "discourse")) is an Earth science concerned with the solid Eart ...
, with its national park and lakes. Some other prominent destinations include: *
Reggio Calabria Reggio di Calabria ( scn, label=Central-Southern Calabrian, Southern Calabrian, Riggiu; el, label=Calabrian Greek, Ρήγι, Rìji), usually referred to as Reggio Calabria, or simply Reggio by its inhabitants, is the List of cities in Italy, l ...
is on the strait between the mainland and
Sicily Sicily ( it, Sicilia ; scn, Sicilia ) is the in the and one of the 20 of . It is one of the five and is officially referred to as ''Regione Siciliana''. The region has 5 million inhabitants. Its is . Sicily is in the central Mediterranean ...

Sicily
, the largest and oldest city in Calabria dating from the 8th century BC, known for its panoramic seaside with botanical gardens between the
art nouveau Art Nouveau (; ) is an international style Style is a manner of doing or presenting things and may refer to: * Architectural style, the features that make a building or structure historically identifiable * Design, the process of creating som ...
buildings and the beaches, and its 3,000 years of history with its Aragonese Castle and the
Museo Nazionale della Magna Grecia The Museo Nazionale della Magna Grecia (''National Museum of Magna Græcia''), Museo Archeologico Nazionale di Reggio Calabria (''National Archaeological Museum of Reggio Calabria'') or Palazzo Piacentini is a museum in Reggio Calabria Reggio ...
where the
Riace bronzes The ''Riace bronzes'' (Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Italian language, a Romance language *** Regional I ...
(''Bronzi di Riace'') are located. *
Cosenza Cosenza ( , ; local dialect: ''Cusenza'', ) is a city in Calabria it, Calabrese , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = , demographics ...

Cosenza
, birthplace of scientist and philosopher
Bernardino Telesio Bernardino Telesio (; 7 November 1509 – 2 October 1588) was an Italian philosopher and natural scientist. While his natural theories were later disproven, his emphasis on observation made him the "first of the moderns" who eventually develo ...

Bernardino Telesio
and seat of the
Cosentian Academy The Accademia Cosentina ("Cosentian Academy" or "Telesian Academy" in English) is still an Italian ''accademia'' or learned society A learned society (; also known as a learned academy, scholarly society, or academic association) is an organi ...
, known for its cultural institutions, the old quarter, a
Hohenstaufen The Hohenstaufen (, , ), also called Staufer, was a noble dynasty of unclear origin that rose to rule the Duchy of Swabia The Duchy of Swabia ( German: ''Herzogtum Schwaben'') was one of the five stem duchies of the medieval German Kingdom. I ...
Castle, an open-air museum and an 11th-century Romanesque-Gothic Cathedral. On 12 October 2011, the Cathedral of Cosenza received UNESCO World Heritage status for being "Heritage Witness to a Culture of Peace". This is the first award given by UNESCO to the region of Calabria. *
Scilla ''Scilla'' () is a genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank In biological classification In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including thei ...
, on the
Tyrrhenian Sea The Tyrrhenian Sea (; it, Mar Tirreno , french: Mer Tyrrhénienne , sc, Mare Tirrenu, co, Mari Tirrenu, scn, Mari Tirrenu, nap, Mare Tirreno) is part of the Mediterranean Sea The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean ...
, "pearl" of the "Violet Coast", has a delightful panorama and is the site of some of
Homer Homer (; grc, Ὅμηρος , ''Hómēros'') was an ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally re ...

Homer
's tales. *
Tropea Tropea (; scn, label= Calabrian, Trupìa; la, Tropaea; grc, Τράπεια, Trápeia) is a municipality in the province of Vibo Valentia The province of Vibo Valentia ( it, provincia di Vibo Valentia; Central-Southern Calabrian, Vibonese: ) ...

Tropea
, on the Tyrrhenian Sea coast, is home to a dramatic seaside beach, and the Santa Maria dell'Isola sanctuary. It is renowned for its sweet red
onion The onion (''Allium cepa'' L., from Latin ''cepa'' "onion"), also known as the bulb onion or common onion, is a vegetable Vegetables are parts of plants that are consumed by humans or other animals as food. The original meaning is still co ...

onion
s (mainly produced in
Ricadi Ricadi ( grc, Ρηγάδιον, translit=Rigádion) is a small rural town, as well as a municipality, located along the Tyrrhenian Tyrrhenian may refer to the: * Tyrrhenian Stage, a faunal stage from 0.26 to 0.01143 million years ago * Tyrrhenian ...
) and was named “Most beautiful village in Italy” for 2021. * Capo Vaticano, on the Tyrrhenian Sea, is a wide bathing place near Tropea. *
Gerace Gerace (; is a town and ''comune'' in the Metropolitan City of Reggio Calabria, Calabria, southern Italy. Gerace is located some inland from Locri, yet the latter town and the sea can be seen from Gerace's perch atop a vertical rock. The ...
, near
Locri Locri is a town and ''comune The (; plural: ) is a Administrative division, local administrative division of Italy, roughly equivalent to a township or municipality. Importance and function The provides essential public services: Civi ...
, is a medieval city with a Norman Castle and Norman Cathedral. *
Squillace Squillace ( grc, Σκυλλήτιον ''Skylletion''; grc-x-medieval, Σκυλάκιον ''Skylakion'') is an ancient town and '' comune'', in the Province of Catanzaro, part of Calabria it, Calabrese , population_note = , p ...
, a seaside resort and important archaeological site. Nearby is the birthplace of
Cassiodorus Magnus Aurelius Cassiodorus Senator (c. 485 – c. 585), commonly known as Cassiodorus (), was a Roman Roman or Romans most often refers to: *, the capital city of Italy *, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *, the people ...
. *
Stilo , image_skyline = Stilo vecchio 2.jpg , imagesize = , image_alt = , image_caption = , image_shield = Stilo-Stemma.png , shield_alt = , image_map = , map_alt = , ma ...

Stilo
, the birthplace of philosopher
Tommaso Campanella Tommaso Campanella (; 5 September 1568 – 21 May 1639), baptized Giovanni Domenico Campanella, was an Italian Dominican friar, philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy. The term ''philosopher'' comes from the grc, φ ...

Tommaso Campanella
, with its Norman Castle and
Byzantine The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire, or Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople. It survi ...
church, the ''
Cattolica Cattolica (; rgn, Catòlga) is a town and ''comune'' in the Province of Rimini, Italy, with 16,233 inhabitants as of 2007. History Archaeological excavations show that the area was already settled in ancient Rome, Roman times. Cattolica rose as ...

Cattolica
''. * , on the Tyrrhenian Sea coast, known for its ice cream called "Tartufo". Interesting places in Pizzo are Piazza Repubblica and the Aragonese castle where
MuratMurat may refer to: Places Australia *Murat Bay, a bay in South Australia **District Council of Murat Bay, the former name of the District Council of Ceduna ** Tourville and Murat Bays Important Bird Area, South Australia *Murat Marine Park, a mar ...

Murat
was shot. *
Paola Paola is a female given name, the Italian language, Italian form of the name Paula (given name), Paula. Notable people with the name include: People In arts and entertainment *Paola Del Medico (born 1950), Swiss singer *Paola e Chiara, pop music ...
, a town situated on the Tyrrhenian Sea coast, renowned for being the birthplace of St. Francis of Paola, patron saint of Calabria and Italian sailors, and for the old Franciscan sanctuary built during the last hundred years of the Middle Ages by the will of St. Francis. *
Sibari Sibari is an Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Italian language, a Romance language *** Regional Italian ...
, on the Ionian coast, a village situated near the archaeological site of the ancient city of ''
Sybaris Sybaris ( grc, Σύβαρις; it, Sibari) was an important city of Magna Graecia Magna Graecia (, ; Latin meaning "Greater Greece", grc, Μεγάλη Ἑλλάς, ', it, Magna Grecia) was the name given by the Roman people, Romans to the c ...
'', a Greek colony of the 8th century BC. *
Lamezia Terme Lamezia Terme (), commonly called Lamezia, is an Italian city and ''comune The (; plural: ) is a basic Administrative division, constituent entity of Italy, roughly equivalent to a township or municipality. Importance and function The p ...

Lamezia Terme
, the main transportation hub of the region with its international
airport An airport is an aerodrome An aerodrome (Commonwealth English The use of the English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval En ...
which links it to many destinations in Europe plus Canada and Israel and the
train station A train station, railway station, railroad station or depot is a railway Rail transport (also known as train transport) is a means of transferring passengers and goods on wheeled vehicle A vehicle (from la, vehiculum) is a machine ...
. Several are the historical sights of the city, like the Norman-Swabian castle, the Jewish historical quarter and the Casa del Libro Antico (House of the Ancient Book) where books from the 16th to the 19th centuries, as well as old globes and ancient maps reproduction are well preserved and available to be seen by the public. *
Catanzaro Catanzaro (, or ; scn, label=Central-Southern Calabrian, Catanzarese, Catanzaru ; , or , ''Katastaríoi Lokrói''; la, Catacium), also known as the "City of the two Seas", is an Italy, Italian city of 91,000 inhabitants (2013), the capital of t ...
, an important silk center since the time of the Byzantines, is located at the centre of the narrowest point of Italy, from where the Ionian Sea and Tyrrhenian Sea are both visible, but not from Catanzaro. Of note are the well-known one-arch bridge (Viaduct Morandi-Bisantis, one of the tallest in Europe), the cathedral (rebuilt after World War II bombing), the castle, the promenade on the Ionian sea, the park of biodiversity and the archaeological park. *
Soverato Soverato (Central-Southern Calabrian, Calabrian: ) is a town and ''comune'' in the province of Catanzaro in the Calabria region of Southern Italy. Soverato is the wealthiest town per capita in Calabria, and it has recently been experiencing a spik ...
on the
Ionian Sea The Ionian Sea ( el, Ιόνιο Πέλαγος, ''Iónio Pélagos'' ; it, Mar Ionio ; al, Deti Jon ("our sea")) is an elongated bay A bay is a recessed, coastal body of water that directly connects to a larger main body of water, such ...

Ionian Sea
, also known as the "Pearl" of the Ionian Sea. Especially renowned for its beaches, boardwalk and nightlife. *
Badolato Badolato is a ''comune'' and town in the province of Catanzaro in the Calabria region of Italy. As of 2013 Badolato had an estimated population of 3,152. Territory The village of Badolato is from Catanzaro on Calabria's Ionian Sea, Ionian coa ...
near
Soverato Soverato (Central-Southern Calabrian, Calabrian: ) is a town and ''comune'' in the province of Catanzaro in the Calabria region of Southern Italy. Soverato is the wealthiest town per capita in Calabria, and it has recently been experiencing a spik ...
is a well-preserved medieval hilltop village with 13 churches. It was selected as one of the 1000 marvels of Italy to mark the
anniversary of the unification of Italy The anniversary of the Unification of Italy ( it, Anniversario dell'Unità d'Italia) is a national day that falls annually on March 17 and celebrates the birth of the Italy, modern Italian state, which took place following the proclamation of the ...
. It is popular with wealthy foreigners who have renovated the old houses. * on the Tyrrhenian Sea, is a small medieval town with an ancient Ruffo's castle. * Ancient temples of the Roman gods on the sun-kissed hills of
Catanzaro Catanzaro (, or ; scn, label=Central-Southern Calabrian, Catanzarese, Catanzaru ; , or , ''Katastaríoi Lokrói''; la, Catacium), also known as the "City of the two Seas", is an Italy, Italian city of 91,000 inhabitants (2013), the capital of t ...
still stand as others are swept beneath the earth. Many excavations are going on along the east coast, digging up what seems to be an ancient burial ground. *
Samo Samo founded the first recorded political union of Slavic tribes This is a list of Slavic peoples Slavs are an ethno-linguistic group of people who speak the various Slavic languages of the larger Balto-Slavic language, Balto-Slavic ling ...
, a village on the foot of the Aspromonte, is well known for its spring water and ruins of the old village destroyed in the 1908 Messina earthquake. * Mammola, art center, tourist and gastronomic, has an ancient history. The old town, with its small houses attached to each other, the ancient churches and noble palaces. Of particular interest is the Museum Park Santa Barbara, a place of art and cultural events of many international artists and the Shrine of St. Nicodemo of the 10th century, in the highlands of Limina. Its gastronomy with the "Stocco" typical of Mammola, cooked in various ways, other typical products are smoked ricotta and goat cheese, salami pepper and wild fennel, bread "pizza" (corn bread) and wheat bread baked in a wood oven. * on the Tyrrhenian Sea, is a well-known tourist city, thanks to the Isola di Dino and the seaside beach. * Spilinga is known for its spicy pork pâté, .


Language

Although the official national language of Calabria has been Standard
Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Italian language, a Romance language *** Regional Italian, regional variants of the ...

Italian
since before unification in 1861, Calabria has dialects that have been spoken in the region for centuries. The Calabrian language is a direct derivative of Latin. Most linguists divide the various
dialects The term dialect (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to b ...
into two different language groups. In the northern area of the region, the Calabrian dialects are considered part of the
Neapolitan language , altname= , states=Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of delimited by the and surrounding it, whose territory largely coincides with the . Italy ...

Neapolitan language
and are grouped as Northern Calabrian. In the rest of the region, the Calabrian dialects are often grouped as Central and Southern Calabrian, and are considered part of the
Sicilian language Sicilian ( scn, sicilianu, link=no, ; it, siciliano) is a Romance language The Romance languages (less commonly Latin languages, or Neo-Latin languages) are the modern languages that evolved from Vulgar Latin between the third and eighth ce ...
. However, in
Guardia Piemontese Guardia Piemontese (Occitan Occitan (; oc, occitan, link=no , ), also known as ''lenga d'òc'' (; french: langue d'oc) by its native speakers, is a Romance language The Romance languages (less commonly Latin languages, or Neo-Latin lang ...
, as well as some quarters of Reggio Calabria, a variety of
Occitan Occitan (; oc, occitan, link=no ,), also known as ''lenga d'òc'' (; french: langue d'oc) by its native speakers, is a Romance language The Romance languages, less commonly Latin or Neo-Latin languages, are the modern languages that evol ...
called Gardiol can also be found. In addition, since Calabria was once ruled by the French and Spanish, some Calabrian dialects exhibit
Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Canada * Spanish River (disambiguation), the name of several ...

Spanish
and influences. Another important linguistic minority, in the nine towns of in the province of
Reggio Calabria Reggio di Calabria ( scn, label=Central-Southern Calabrian, Southern Calabrian, Riggiu; el, label=Calabrian Greek, Ρήγι, Rìji), usually referred to as Reggio Calabria, or simply Reggio by its inhabitants, is the List of cities in Italy, l ...
, speaks a derivative of
ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally referred to by speakers simply as Greek (, ), refers collectively to the diale ...
called
Griko Griko, sometimes spelled Grico, is the dialect of Italiot Greek Italiot Greek, also known as Salentino-Calabrian Greek, Italic-Greek or Apulia-Calabrian Greek refers to two dialect The term dialect (from Latin , , from the Ancient Greek word , ...
, a remnant of
Byzantine The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire, or Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople. It survi ...

Byzantine
rule and ancient
Magna Grecia Magna Graecia (, ; Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Rom ...
.


Religion

The majority of Calabrians are
Roman Catholic Roman or Romans most often refers to: *Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Laz ...

Roman Catholic
. There are also communities of
Evangelical Evangelicalism (), also called evangelical Christianity, or evangelical Protestantism, is a worldwide trans-denominational movement within Protestant Christianity Protestantism is a form of Christianity that originated with the 16th-century ...

Evangelical
s in the region. Calabria has also been called "The Land of Saints" as the region was the birthplace of many saints spanning nearly 2,000 years. The most famous saint in Calabria and also the patron saint of the region is St.
Francis of Paola Francis of Paola, O.M., (or: Francesco di Paola or Francis the Fire Handler; 27 March 1416 – 2 April 1507) was an Italian mendicant A mendicant (from la, mendicans, "begging") is one who practices mendicancy, relying chiefly or exclusively ...
. Calabria also has another patron saint called Saint
Bruno of Cologne Bruno of Cologne (c. 1030 – 6 October 1101) was the founder of the Carthusian The Carthusians, also known as the Order of Carthusians ( la, Ordo Cartusiensis), are an enclosed religious order Enclosed religious orders or ''cloistered cler ...
who was the founder of the
Carthusian The Carthusians, also known as the Order of Carthusians ( la, Ordo Cartusiensis), are an enclosed religious order Enclosed religious orders or ''cloistered clergy'' are religious orders whose members strictly separate themselves from the affai ...
Order. Saint Bruno would build the charterhouse of Serra San Bruno, a town which bears his name, in 1095 and later die there in 1101. in 1101. Even though it is currently a very small community, there has been a long history of the presence of Jews in Calabria. The Jews have had a presence in the region for at least 1600 years and possibly as much as 2300 years. Calabrian Jews have had notably influence on many areas of Jewish life and culture. Although virtually identical to the Jews of Sicily, the Jews of Calabria are considered a distinct Jewish population due to historical and geographic considerations. There is a small community of Italian
Anusim Anusim ( he, אֲנוּסִים, ; singular male, anús, he, אָנוּס ; singular female, anusáh, , meaning "coerced") is a legal category of Jews Jews ( he, יְהוּדִים ISO 259-2ISO The International Organization for S ...
who have resumed the
Jewish Jews ( he, יְהוּדִים ISO 259-2 , Israeli pronunciation ) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and nation originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is ...

Jewish
faith. It is important to highlight the presence of Calabrians in
Renaissance humanism Renaissance humanism was a revival in the study of classical antiquity Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history between the 8th century BC and the 6th century AD cent ...
and in the
Renaissance The Renaissance ( , ) , from , with the same meanings. is a period Period may refer to: Common uses * Era, a length or span of time * Full stop (or period), a punctuation mark Arts, entertainment, and media * Period (music), a concept in ...

Renaissance
. Indeed, the Hellenistics in this period frequently came from Calabria maybe because of the Greek influence. The rediscovery of Ancient Greek was very difficult because this language had been almost forgotten. In this period the presence of Calabrian humanists or refugees from Constantinople was fundamental. The study of Ancient Greek, in this period, was mainly a work of two monks of the monastery of
Seminara ''For people with the surname, see Seminara (surname).'' Seminara is a ''comune'' (municipality) in the Province of Reggio Calabria in the Italy, Italian region Calabria, located about southwest of Catanzaro and about northeast of Reggio Calabria ...

Seminara
: Barlaam,
bishop of Gerace The Italian Catholic Diocese of Locri-Gerace ( la, Dioecesis Locrensis-Hieracensis ) is in Calabria. It is a suffragan of the Archdiocese of Reggio Calabria-Bova. Historically it was the Diocese of Gerace, becoming in 1954 the Diocese of Gerace-Loc ...
, and his disciple, Leonzio Pilato. Leonzio Pilato, in particular, was a Calabrian born near
Reggio Calabria Reggio di Calabria ( scn, label=Central-Southern Calabrian, Southern Calabrian, Riggiu; el, label=Calabrian Greek, Ρήγι, Rìji), usually referred to as Reggio Calabria, or simply Reggio by its inhabitants, is the List of cities in Italy, l ...
. He was an important teacher of Ancient Greek and translator, and he helped
Giovanni Boccaccio Giovanni Boccaccio (, , ; 16 June 1313 – 21 December 1375) was an Italian writer, poet, correspondent of Petrarch Francesco Petrarca (; 20 July 1304 – 18/19 July 1374), commonly anglicized Linguistic anglicisation (or angliciza ...

Giovanni Boccaccio
in the translations of
Homer Homer (; grc, Ὅμηρος , ''Hómēros'') was an ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally re ...

Homer
's works.


Cuisine

The cuisine is a typical southern Italian
Mediterranean cuisine Mediterranean cuisine is the food and methods of preparation used by the people of the Mediterranean Basin. The idea of a Mediterranean cuisine originates with the cookery writer Elizabeth David's book, ''A Book of Mediterranean Food'' (1950) ...

Mediterranean cuisine
with a balance between meat-based dishes (pork, lamb, goat), vegetables (especially
eggplant Eggplant ( US, Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous ...

eggplant
), and fish. Pasta (as in Central Italy and the rest of Southern Italy) is also very important in Calabria. In contrast to most other Italian regions, Calabrians have traditionally placed an emphasis on the preservation of their food and packing vegetables and meats in
olive oil Olive oil is a liquid fat obtained from olive The olive, botanical name ''Olea europaea'', meaning "European olive", is a species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomi ...

olive oil
. Also making sausages and cold cuts (, ,
Capocollo Capocollo (), coppa (), (in the U.S. ''gabagool'', or ''capicola'') is a traditional Cuisine of Italy, Italian and Cuisine of Corsica, Corsican pork cold cut (''salumi, salume'') made from the Curing (food preservation), dry-cured muscle running f ...
), along the coast curing fish – especially
swordfish Swordfish (''Xiphias gladius''), also known as broadbills in some countries, are large, highly migratory predatory fish Predatory fish are fish Fish are Aquatic animal, aquatic, craniate, gill-bearing animals that lack Limb (anatomy), lim ...

swordfish
,
sardine "Sardine" and "pilchard" are common names that refer to various small, oily forage fish in the herring family Clupeidae. The term "sardine" was first used in English during the early 15th century and may come from the Mediterranean Sea, Med ...

sardine
s (''sardelle rosamarina'') and
cod Cod is the common name Common may refer to: Places * Common, a townland in County Tyrone, Northern Ireland * Boston Common Boston Common (also known as the Common) is a central public park in downtown Boston, Massachusetts. It is sometim ...

cod
( Baccalà). Local desserts are typically fried, honey-sweetened pastries ''Cudduraci'', Nacatole, ''Scalille'' or ''scalidde'' or baked
biscotti Biscotti (; ; en, twice-cooked), known also as cantucci (), are Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Italian ...

biscotti
-type treats (such as ''nzudda''). Some local specialties include
Caciocavallo Caciocavallo is a type of stretched-curd cheese Cheese is a dairy product, derived from milk and produced in wide ranges of flavors, Mouthfeel, textures and forms by coagulation (milk), coagulation of the milk protein casein. It comprises ...

Caciocavallo
Cheese, '' Cipolla rossa di Tropea'' (red onion), '' Frìttuli'' and '' Curcùci'' (fried pork), Liquorice (''liquirizia''), ''Lagane e Cicciari'' (a pasta dish with chickpeas), Pecorino Crotonese (Cheese of Sheep), and Pignolata. In ancient times Calabria was referred to as ''Enotria'' (from Ancient Greek , ', "land of wine"). According to Ancient Greece, ancient Greek tradition, ('), the youngest of the sons of Lycaon of Arcadia, Lycaon, was the eponymous, eponym of Oenotria. Some vineyards have origins dating back to the ancient Greek colonists. The best known Denominazione di Origine Controllata, DOC wines are Cirò (wine), Cirò (Province of Crotone) and Donnici (Province of Cosenza). 3% of the total annual production qualifies as DOC. Important grape varieties are the red Gaglioppo and white Vino Greco, Greco. Many producers are resurrecting local, ancient grape varieties which have been around for as long as 3000 years.


Transportation


Airports

* Lamezia Terme International Airport * Reggio Calabria Airport * Crotone Airport (Used only during the Summer Season)


Seaports

* Port of Gioia Tauro (the busiest container port in Italy and seventh-busiest in mainland Europe) * Port of Reggio Calabria * Port of Vibo Valentia * Port of Villa San Giovanni * Port of Corigliano Calabro * Port of Crotone


Bridges

Calabria has the two highest bridges in Italy * Italia Viaduct * Sfalassa Viaduct (also the highest and longest span frame bridge in the world)


Universities

There are 3 public universities in the region of Calabria * University of Calabria (Cosenza) * Magna Graecia University (Catanzaro) * Mediterranea University of Reggio Calabria There is also the private Università per stranieri "Dante Alighieri" di Reggio Calabria, University for Foreigners "Dante Alighieri" in Reggio Calabria.


Notable people


See also

* 1783 Calabrian earthquakes * 1905 Calabria earthquake * 1908 Messina earthquake * Arbëreshë people * Duke of Calabria * Griko people * Strait of Messina Bridge


References


Further reading

* Dal Lago, Enrico, and Rick Halpern, eds. ''The American South and the Italian Mezzogiorno: Essays in Comparative History'' (2002) * Dunston, Lara, and Terry Carter. ''Travellers Calabria'' (Travellers – Thomas Cook) (2009), guidebook * Moe, Nelson. ''The View from Vesuvius: Italian Culture and the Southern Question'' (2002) * Schneider, Jane. ''Italy's 'Southern Question': Orientalism in One Country'' (1998)


External links


Official website of the region
{{coord, 38, 55, N, 16, 36, E, type:adm1st_region:IT-78, display=title Calabria, Peninsulas of Italy Bruttium, * Regions of Italy NUTS 2 statistical regions of the European Union Wine regions of Italy