HOME

TheInfoList



The Brothers Grimm ( or ),
Jacob Jacob (; ; ar, يَعْقُوب '' Yaʿqūb'', gr, Ἰακώβ, ''Iakṓb''), later given the name Israel Israel (; he, יִשְׂרָאֵל; ar, إِسْرَائِيل), officially known as the State of Israel ( he, מְדִינַ ...

Jacob
(1785–1863) and
Wilhelm Wilhelm may refer to: People * Wilhelm (name), list of people with this name * Wilhelm I, German Emperor (1797–1888), King of Prussia and German Emperor * Wilhelm II, German Emperor (1859–1941), grandson of the former, King of Prussia and Germ ...

Wilhelm
(1786–1859), were German academics, philologists, cultural researchers, lexicographers, and authors who together specialized in collecting and publishing
folklore Folklore is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the traditions common to that culture, subculture or group. These include oral traditions such as Narrative, tales, proverbs and jokes. They inclu ...

folklore
during the 19th century. They were among the best-known storytellers of folk tales, and popularized stories such as "
Cinderella "Cinderella", or "The Little Glass Slipper", is a Folklore, folk tale about oppression and triumphant reward. Thousands of variants are known throughout the world.Dundes, Alan. Cinderella, a Casebook. Madison, Wis: University of Wisconsin Press, ...

Cinderella
" (""), "
The Frog Prince 220px, The frog asks to be allowed to come into the castle – Illustration for "The Frog Prince" by Walter Crane 1874 "The Frog Prince; or, Iron Henry" (german: Der Froschkönig oder der eiserne Heinrich, literally "The Frog King or the Iron H ...
" (""), "
Hansel and Gretel "Hansel and Gretel" (; also known as Hansel and Grettel, or Little Brother and Little Sister; german: Hänsel und Gret(h)el ) is a Germany, German fairy tale collected by the Brothers Grimm and published in 1812 in Grimms' Fairy Tales, ''Grimm's ...

Hansel and Gretel
" (""), "
Rapunzel ''Rapunzel'' (; ) is a German fairy tale A fairy tale, fairytale, wonder tale, magic tale, fairy story or ''Märchen'' is an instance of a folklore genre that takes the form of a short story A short story is a piece of prose fiction th ...

Rapunzel
", "
Rumpelstiltskin "Rumpelstiltskin" ( ; german: Rumpelstilzchen) is a German fairy tale A fairy tale, fairytale, wonder tale, magic tale, fairy story or ''Märchen'' is an instance of a folklore genre that takes the form of a short story A short story is a pi ...

Rumpelstiltskin
" (""), "
Sleeping Beauty "Sleeping Beauty" (french: La Belle au bois dormant), or "Little Briar Rose" (german: Dornröschen), also titled in English as "The Sleeping Beauty in the Woods", is a classic fairy tale A fairy tale, fairytale, wonder tale, magic tale, fairy ...

Sleeping Beauty
" (""), and "
Snow White "Snow White" is a 19th-century German fairy tale that is today known widely across the Western world. The Brothers Grimm published it in 1812 in the first edition of their collection ''Grimms' Fairy Tales'' and numbered as Tale 53. The original Ge ...

Snow White
" (""). Their first collection of folk tales, ''
Children's and Household Tales ''Grimms' Fairy Tales'', originally known as the ''Children's and Household Tales'' (german: Kinder- und Hausmärchen, lead=yes, ), is a German collection of fairy tales by the Brothers Grimm, Grimm brothers or "Brothers Grimm", Jacob Grimm, Jac ...
'' (), began publication in 1812. The brothers spent their formative years in the German town of
Hanau Hanau is a town in the Main-Kinzig-Kreis, in Hesse, Germany. It is located 25 km east of Frankfurt, Frankfurt am Main and is part of the Frankfurt Rhine-Main, Frankfurt Rhine-Main Metropolitan Region. Its Hanau Hauptbahnhof, station is a ma ...
. Their father's death in 1796 caused great poverty for the family and affected the brothers for many years after. Both brothers attended the
University of Marburg The Philipps University of Marburg (german: Philipps-Universität Marburg) was founded in 1527 by Philip I, Landgrave of Hesse, which makes it one of Germany's oldest universities and the oldest still operating Protestant Protestantism is a f ...
, where they developed a curiosity about German folklore, which grew into a lifelong dedication to collecting German folk tales. The rise of
romanticism Romanticism (also known as the Romantic era) was an artistic, literary, musical, and intellectual movement that originated in Europe towards the end of the 18th century, and in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to 1 ...
during the 19th century revived interest in traditional folk stories, which to the brothers represented a pure form of national literature and culture. With the goal of researching a scholarly treatise on folk tales, they established a methodology for collecting and recording folk stories that became the basis for
folklore studies Folklore studies, also known as folkloristics, and occasionally tradition studies or folk life studies in the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Us ...
. Between 1812 and 1857, their first collection was revised and republished many times, growing from 86 stories to more than 200. In addition to writing and modifying folk tales, the brothers wrote collections of well-respected German and Scandinavian mythologies, and in 1838 they began writing a definitive German dictionary () which they were unable to finish during their lifetimes. The popularity of the Grimms' collected folk tales has endured well. The tales are available in more than 100 languages and have been later adapted by filmmakers (including
Lotte Reiniger Charlotte "Lotte" Reiniger (2 June 1899 – 19 June 1981) was a German film director and the foremost pioneer of silhouette animation. Her best known films are ''The Adventures of Prince Achmed'', from 1926, the first feature-length animated film, ...
and
Walt Disney Walter Elias Disney (; December 5, 1901December 15, 1966) was an American entrepreneur, animator, writer, voice actor, and film producer. A pioneer of the Modern animation in the United States, American animation industry, he introduced sever ...
), with films such as ''
Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs "Snow White" is a 19th-century German fairy tale A fairy tale, fairytale, wonder tale, magic tale, fairy story or ''Märchen'' is an instance of a folklore genre that takes the form of a short story A short story is a piece of prose fictio ...
'' and ''
Sleeping Beauty "Sleeping Beauty" (french: La Belle au bois dormant), or "Little Briar Rose" (german: Dornröschen), also titled in English as "The Sleeping Beauty in the Woods", is a classic fairy tale A fairy tale, fairytale, wonder tale, magic tale, fairy ...
''. In the mid-20th century, the tales were used as propaganda by
Nazi Germany Nazi Germany, (lit. "National Socialist State"), ' (lit. "Nazi State") for short; also ' (lit. "National Socialist Germany") officially known as the German Reich from 1933 until 1943, and the Greater German Reich from 1943 to 1945, was t ...

Nazi Germany
; later in the 20th century, psychologists (such as
Bruno Bettelheim Bruno Bettelheim (August 28, 1903 – March 13, 1990) was an Austria, Austrian-born psychologist, scholar, public intellectual and author who spent most of his academic and clinical career in the United States. An early writer on autism, Bettelhei ...
) reaffirmed the value of the work, in spite of the cruelty and violence in original versions of some of the tales, which the Grimms eventually sanitized.


Biography


Early lives

Jacob Ludwig Karl Grimm
Jacob Ludwig Karl Grimm
was born on 4 January 1785, and his brother,
Wilhelm Carl Grimm
Wilhelm Carl Grimm
, was born on 24 February 1786. Both brothers were born in
Hanau Hanau is a town in the Main-Kinzig-Kreis, in Hesse, Germany. It is located 25 km east of Frankfurt, Frankfurt am Main and is part of the Frankfurt Rhine-Main, Frankfurt Rhine-Main Metropolitan Region. Its Hanau Hauptbahnhof, station is a ma ...
in the
Landgraviate of Hesse-Kassel The Landgraviate of Hesse-Kassel (german: Landgrafschaft Hessen-Kassel), spelled Hesse-Cassel during its entire existence, was a state in the Holy Roman Empire that was imperial immediacy, directly subject to the Emperor. The state was created in ...
within the
Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Imperium Romanum; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western Europe, Western and Central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its D ...
(present-day Germany) to
Philipp Wilhelm Grimm
Philipp Wilhelm Grimm
, a
jurist A jurist is a person with expert knowledge of law; someone who analyses and comments on law. This person is usually a specialist legal scholarnot necessarily with a formal qualification in law or a legal practitioner, although in the United S ...
, and Dorothea Grimm (née Zimmer), daughter of a
Kassel Kassel (; in Germany, spelled Cassel until 1926) is a city on the Fulda River in northern Hesse, Germany. It is the administrative seat of the Regierungsbezirk Kassel (region), Kassel and the Districts of Germany, district Kassel (district), of th ...

Kassel
city councilman. They were the second-and-third-eldest surviving siblings in a family of nine children, three of whom died in infancy. In 1791, the family moved to the countryside town of Steinau, when Philipp was employed there as district
magistrate The term magistrate is used in a variety of systems of governments and laws to refer to a civilian officer who administers the law. In ancient Rome, a '' magistratus'' was one of the highest ranking government officers, and possessed both judici ...
(). The family became prominent members of the community, residing in a large home surrounded by fields. Biographer
Jack Zipes Jack David Zipes (born 1937) is a professor emeritus of German, comparative literature, and cultural studies, who has published and lectured on German literature, critical theory, German Jewish culture, children's literature, and folklore. In the la ...
writes that the brothers were happy in Steinau and "clearly fond of country life". The children were educated at home by private tutors, receiving strict instruction as
Lutherans Lutheranism is one of the largest branches of Protestantism that identifies with the teachings of Jesus Christ and was founded by Martin Luther, a 16th-century German monk and Protestant Reformers, reformer whose efforts to reform the theology a ...
that instilled in both a lifelong religious faith. Later, they attended local schools. In 1796 Philipp Grimm died of pneumonia, plunging his family into poverty, and they were forced to relinquish their servants and large house. Dorothea depended on financial support from her father and sister, who was the first
lady-in-waiting A lady-in-waiting or court lady is a female personal assistant at a court, attending on a royal woman or a high-ranking nobility, noblewoman. Historically, in Europe, a lady-in-waiting was often a noblewoman, but of lower rank than the woman to w ...
at the court of
William I, Elector of Hesse William I, Elector of Hesse (german: link=no, Wilhelm I., Kurfürst von Hessen; 3 June 1743 – 27 February 1821) was the eldest surviving son of Frederick II, Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel (or Hesse-Cassel) and Princess Mary of Great Britain, the da ...
. Jacob was the eldest living son, and he was forced at age 11 to assume adult responsibilities (shared with Wilhelm) for the next two years. The two brothers adhered to the advice of their grandfather, who continually exhorted them to be industrious. The brothers left Steinau and their family in 1798 to attend the in
Kassel Kassel (; in Germany, spelled Cassel until 1926) is a city on the Fulda River in northern Hesse, Germany. It is the administrative seat of the Regierungsbezirk Kassel (region), Kassel and the Districts of Germany, district Kassel (district), of th ...

Kassel
, which had been arranged and paid for by their aunt. By then, they were without a male provider (their grandfather died that year), forcing them to rely entirely on each other, and they became exceptionally close. The two brothers differed in temperament: Jacob was introspective and Wilhelm was outgoing (although he often suffered from ill health). However, they shared a strong work ethic and excelled in their studies. In Kassel, they became acutely aware of their inferior social status relative to "high-born" students who received more attention. Still, each brother graduated at the head of his class: Jacob in 1803 and Wilhelm in 1804.


Kassel

After graduation from the , the brothers attended the
University of Marburg The Philipps University of Marburg (german: Philipps-Universität Marburg) was founded in 1527 by Philip I, Landgrave of Hesse, which makes it one of Germany's oldest universities and the oldest still operating Protestant Protestantism is a f ...
. The university was small with about 200 students and there they became painfully aware that students of lower social status were not treated equally. They were disqualified from admission because of their social standing and had to request dispensation to study law. Wealthier students received stipends, but the brothers were excluded even from tuition aid. Their poverty kept them from student activities or university social life; ironically, though, their outsider status worked in their favor and they pursued their studies with extra vigor. The brothers were inspired by their law professor,
Friedrich von Savigny Friedrich Carl von Savigny (21 February 1779 – 25 October 1861) was a German jurist and History of Germany, historian. Early life and education Savigny was born at Frankfurt, of a family recorded in the history of Lorraine (province), Lorraine, d ...

Friedrich von Savigny
, who awakened in them an interest in history and
philology Philology is the study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign language) and writing. Most languages have a writing system composed o ...
, and they turned to studying
medieval German literature#REDIRECT medieval German literature {{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from other capitalisation {{R ambig ...
. They shared Savigny's desire to see the unification of the 200 German
principalities A principality (or sometimes princedom) can either be a monarchical feudatory or a sovereign state A sovereign state is a political entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area. Intern ...
into a single state. Through Savigny and his circle of friends— German romantics such as
Clemens Brentano Clemens Wenzeslaus Brentano (also Klemens; pseudonym: Clemens Maria Brentano ; ; 9 September 1778 – 28 July 1842) was a German poet A poet is a person who creates poetry. Poets may describe themselves as such or be described as such by othe ...
and
Ludwig Achim von Arnim Ludwig may refer to: People * Ludwig (given name), a German name * Ludwig (surname), a German surname * Ludwig Ahgren, an American Twitch streamer and YouTuber who uses the mononym "Ludwig" Arts and entertainment * ''Ludwig'' (cartoon), a 1977 ...

Ludwig Achim von Arnim
—the Grimms were introduced to the ideas of
Johann Gottfried Herder Johann Gottfried (after 1802, von) Herder (; ; 25 August 174418 December 1803) was a German philosopher, theologian, poet, and literary critic. He is associated with the Age of Enlightenment, Enlightenment, ''Sturm und Drang'', and Weimar Classic ...

Johann Gottfried Herder
, who thought that German literature should revert to simpler forms, which he defined as (natural poetry) as opposed to (artistic poetry). The brothers dedicated themselves with great enthusiasm to their studies, about which Wilhelm wrote in his autobiography, "the ardor with which we studied Old German helped us overcome the spiritual depression of those days."qtd. in Jacob was still financially responsible for his mother, brother, and younger siblings in 1805, so he accepted a post in Paris as research assistant to von Savigny. On his return to Marburg, he was forced to abandon his studies to support the family, whose poverty was so extreme that food was often scarce. He took a job with the Hessian War Commission. In a letter written to his aunt at this time, Wilhelm wrote of their circumstances, "We five people eat only three portions and only once a day".qtd. in Jacob found full-time employment in 1808 when he was appointed court librarian to the
King of Westphalia of the King of the Romans (variant used in the early modern period) File:Nezahualpiltzintli.jpg, Aztec King Nezahualpiltzintli of Texcoco King is the title given to a male monarch in a variety of contexts. The female equivalent is queen re ...

King of Westphalia
and went on to become a librarian in Kassel. After their mother's death that year, he became fully responsible for his younger siblings. He arranged and paid for his brother
Ludwig Ludwig may refer to: People * Ludwig (given name), a German name * Ludwig (surname), a German surname * Ludwig Ahgren, an American Twitch streamer and YouTuber who uses the mononym "Ludwig" Arts and entertainment * Ludwig (cartoon), ''Ludwig'' (car ...
's studies at art school and for Wilhelm's extended visit to Halle to seek treatment for heart and respiratory ailments, following which Wilhelm joined Jacob as another librarian where Jacob was. They also began collecting folk tales at about this time, in a cursory manner and on Brentano's request. According to Jack Zipes, at this point "the Grimms were unable to devote all their energies to their research and did not have a clear idea about the significance of collecting folk tales in this initial phase." During their employment as librarians—which paid little but afforded them ample time for research—the brothers experienced a productive period of scholarship, publishing books between 1812 and 1830. In 1812 they published their first volume of 86 folk tales, , followed quickly by two volumes of German legends and a volume of early literary history. They went on to publish works about
Danish Danish may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to the country of Denmark * A national or citizen of Denmark, also called a "Dane", see Demographics of Denmark * Danish people or Danes, people with a Danish ancestral or ethnic identity * Danis ...
and
Irish Irish most commonly refers to: * Someone or something of, from, or related to: ** Ireland, an island situated off the north-western coast of continental Europe ** Northern Ireland, a constituent unit of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and North ...
folk tales (and also
Norse mythology Norse or Scandinavian mythology is the body of mythology, myths of the North Germanic peoples, stemming from Norse paganism and continuing after the Christianization of Scandinavia, and into the Scandinavian folklore of the modern period. The Nor ...
), while continuing to edit the German folk tale collection. These works became so widely recognized that the brothers received honorary doctorates from universities in
Marburg Marburg ( or ) is a college town, university town in the States of Germany, German federal state (''Bundesland'') of Hesse, capital of the Marburg-Biedenkopf Districts of Germany, district (''Landkreis''). The town area spreads along the valley ...

Marburg
,
Berlin Berlin ( , ) is the Capital city, capital and List of cities in Germany by population, largest city of Germany by both area and population. Its 3.7 million inhabitants make it the European Union's List of cities in the European Union by populat ...
, and Breslau (now
Wrocław Wrocław (; german: Breslau ; sli, Brassel; cs, Vratislav), ''Wratislavia''. is a city in southwestern Poland and the largest city in the historical region of Silesia. It lies on the banks of the River Oder in the Silesian Lowlands of Central ...

Wrocław
).


Göttingen

In 1825 Wilhelm married Henriette Dorothea (Dortchen) Wild. She came from a storytelling family and, along with her mother and sisters, provided tales to the Brothers Grimm. Jacob never married but continued to live in the household with Wilhelm and Dortchen. In 1830, both brothers were overlooked when the post of chief librarian came available, which disappointed them greatly. They moved the household to
Göttingen Göttingen (, also , ; nds, Chöttingen) is a college town, university city in Lower Saxony, Germany, the Capital (political), capital of Göttingen (district), the eponymous district. The River Leine runs through it. At the start of 2017, the ...
in the
Kingdom of Hanover The Kingdom of Hanover (german: Königreich Hannover) was established in October 1814 by the Congress of Vienna, with the restoration of George III to his Hanoverian territories after the Napoleonic era. It succeeded the former Electorate of Han ...
where they took employment at the
University of Göttingen The University of Göttingen, officially the Georg August University of Göttingen, (german: Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, known informally as Georgia Augusta) is a public research university A public university or public college is a u ...
: Jacob as a professor and head librarian and Wilhelm as professor. During the next seven years, the brothers continued to research, write, and publish. In 1835 Jacob published the well-regarded ''German Mythology'' (); Wilhelm continued to edit and prepare the third edition of for publication. The two brothers taught
German studies German studies is the field of humanities that researches, documents, and disseminates German language The German language (, ) is a West Germanic language mainly spoken in Central Europe. It is the most widely spoken and official or co-of ...
at the university, becoming well-respected in the newly established discipline. In 1837 they lost their university posts after joining the rest of the
Göttingen Seven The Göttingen Seven (german: Göttinger Sieben) were a group of seven liberal professors from Göttingen Göttingen (, also , ; nds, Chöttingen) is a college town, university city in Lower Saxony, Germany, the Capital (political), capital o ...
in protest. The 1830s were a period of political upheaval and peasant revolt in Germany, leading to the movement for democratic reform known as
Young Germany Young Germany (german: Junges Deutschland) was a group of German writers which existed from about 1830 to 1850. It was essentially a youth ideology (similar to those that had swept France, Ireland Ireland (; ga, Éire ; Ulster Scots dialect, ...
. The brothers were not directly aligned with the Young Germans, but five of their colleagues reacted against the demands of
Ernest Augustus, King of Hanover Ernest Augustus (german: Ernst August; 5 June 177118 November 1851) was King of Hanover from 20 June 1837 until his death in 1851. As the fifth son of King George III of the United Kingdom and Kingdom of Hanover, Hanover, initially he seemed unlik ...
, who dissolved the parliament of
Hanover Hanover (; german: Hannover ; nds, Hannober) is the capital and largest city of the German States of Germany, state of Lower Saxony. Its 534,049 (2020) inhabitants make it the List of cities in Germany by population, 13th-largest city in German ...
in 1837 and demanded oaths of allegiance from civil servants—including professors at the University of Göttingen. For refusing to sign the oath, the seven professors were dismissed and three were deported from Hanover, including Jacob who went to Kassel. He was later joined there by Wilhelm, Dortchen, and their four children. The brothers were without income in 1838 and again in extreme financial difficulty, so they began what became a lifelong project: the writing of a definitive dictionary. The first volume of their ''German Dictionary'' () was not published until 1854. The brothers again depended on friends and supporters for financial assistance and influence in finding employment.


Berlin and later years

In 1840 von Savigny and Bettina von Arnim appealed successfully to
Frederick William IV of Prussia Frederick William IV (german: Friedrich Wilhelm IV.; 15 October 17952 January 1861), the eldest son and successor of Frederick William III of Prussia Frederick William III (german: Friedrich Wilhelm III.; 3 August 1770 – 7 June 1840) was k ...
on behalf of the brothers who were offered posts at the
University of Berlin Humboldt University of Berlin (german: Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, abbreviated HU Berlin) is a public In public relations and communication science, publics are groups of individual people, and the public (a.k.a. the general public) ...
. In addition to teaching posts, the
Academy of Sciences . Image:Pontifical Academy of Sciences, Vatican - entrance.jpg, 260px, Entrance of the Pontifical Academy of Sciences. An academy of sciences is a type of learned society or academy (as special scientific institution) dedicated to sciences tha ...
offered them stipends to continue their research. Once they had established their household in Berlin, they directed their efforts towards the work on the German dictionary and continued to publish their research. Jacob turned his attention to researching German legal traditions and the history of the German language, which was published in the late 1840s and early 1850s; meanwhile, Wilhelm began researching
medieval literature Medieval literature is a broad subject, encompassing essentially all written works available in Europe and beyond during the Middle Ages (that is, the one thousand years from the fall of the Western Roman Empire ca. AD 500 to the beginning of th ...
while editing new editions of . After the
Revolutions of 1848 in the German states In political science Political science is the scientific study of politics. It is a social science dealing with systems of governance and power, and the analysis of politics, political activities, political thoughts, political behavior, and as ...
, the brothers were elected to the civil parliament. Jacob became a prominent member of the National Assembly at
Mainz Mainz (; ) is the capital and largest city of Rhineland-Palatinate Rhineland-Palatinate (german: Rheinland-Pfalz, ) is a western states of Germany, state of Germany. It covers and has about 4.05 million residents. It is the ninth largest and ...

Mainz
. Their political activities were short-lived, as their hope dwindled for a unified Germany and their disenchantment grew. In the late 1840s, Jacob resigned his university position and saw the publication of ''The History of the German Language'' (). Wilhelm continued at his university post until 1852. After retiring from teaching, the brothers devoted themselves to the ''German Dictionary'' for the rest of their lives. Wilhelm died of an infection in Berlin in 1859, and Jacob became increasingly reclusive, deeply upset at his brother's death. He continued working on the dictionary until his own death in 1863. Zipes writes of the Grimm brothers' dictionary and of their very large body of work: "Symbolically, the last word was (fruit)."


Collaborations


''Children's and Household Tales''


Background

The rise of
romanticism Romanticism (also known as the Romantic era) was an artistic, literary, musical, and intellectual movement that originated in Europe towards the end of the 18th century, and in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to 1 ...
,
Romantic nationalism upright=1.15, Brudeferden i Hardanger (Bridal procession in Hardanger), a monumental piece within Norwegian romantic nationalism. Painted by Hans Gude and Adolph Tidemand. Romantic nationalism (also national romanticism, organic nationalism, ide ...
, and trends in valuing popular culture in the early 19th century revived interest in fairy tales, which had declined since their late 17th-century peak.
Johann Karl August Musäus Johann Karl August Musäus (29 March 1735 – 28 October 1787) was a popular German author and one of the first collectors of German folk stories, most celebrated for his '' Volksmärchen der Deutschen'' (1782–1786), a collection of German fairy ...
published a popular collection of tales between 1782 and 1787; the Grimms aided the revival with their folklore collection, built on the conviction that a national identity could be found in popular culture and with the common folk (). They collected and published their tales as a reflection of German cultural identity. In the first collection, though, they included
Charles Perrault Charles Perrault ( , also , ; 12 January 1628 – 16 May 1703) was a French author and member of the Académie Française An academy (Attic Greek: Ἀκαδήμεια; Koine Greek Ἀκαδημία) is an institution of secondary education, se ...
's tales, published in Paris in 1697 and written for the literary salons of an aristocratic French audience. Scholar Lydie Jean says that Perrault created a myth that his tales came from the common people and reflected existing folklore to justify including them—even though many of them were original. The brothers were directly influenced by Brentano and von Arnim, who edited and adapted the folk songs of (''The Boy's Magic Horn'' or
cornucopia In classical antiquity, the cornucopia (), from Latin ''cornu'' (horn) and ''copiae'' (abundance), also called the horn of plenty, was a symbol of abundance and nourishment, commonly a large horn-shaped container overflowing with produce, flower ...
). They began the collection with the purpose of creating a scholarly treatise of traditional stories and of preserving the stories as they had been handed from generation to generation—a practice that was threatened by increased industrialization.
Maria Tatar Maria Magdalene Tatar (born May 13, 1945) is an American academic whose expertise lies in children's literature Children's literature or juvenile literature includes stories, books, magazines, and poems that are made for children. Modern child ...

Maria Tatar
, professor of German studies at
Harvard University Harvard University is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an absence of nearly tw ...

Harvard University
, explains that it is precisely the handing from generation to generation and the genesis in the
oral tradition Oral tradition, or oral lore, is a form of human communication Human communication, or anthroposemiotics, is the field dedicated to understanding how human Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most populous and widespread species of primate ...
that gives folk tales an important mutability. Versions of tales differ from region to region, "picking up bits and pieces of local culture and lore, drawing a turn of phrase from a song or another story and fleshing out characters with features taken from the audience witnessing their performance." However, as Tatar explains, the Grimms appropriated stories as being uniquely German, such as "
Little Red Riding Hood "Little Red Riding Hood" is a European fairy tale A fairy tale, fairytale, wonder tale, magic tale, fairy story or ''Märchen'' is an instance of a folklore genre that takes the form of a short story A short story is a piece of prose f ...

Little Red Riding Hood
", which had existed in many versions and regions throughout Europe, because they believed that such stories were reflections of Germanic culture. Furthermore, the brothers saw fragments of old religions and faiths reflected in the stories, which they thought continued to exist and survive through the telling of stories.


Methodology

When Jacob returned to Marburg from Paris in 1806, their friend Brentano sought the brothers' help in adding to his collection of folk tales, at which time the brothers began to gather tales in an organized fashion. By 1810, they had produced a manuscript collection of several dozen tales, written after inviting storytellers to their home and transcribing what they heard. These tales were heavily modified in transcription, and many had roots in previously written sources. At Brentano's request, they printed and sent him copies of the 53 tales that they collected for inclusion in his third volume of . Brentano either ignored or forgot about the tales, leaving the copies in a church in
Alsace Alsace (, also ; Low Alemannic German/ gsw-als, 's Elsàss ; german: Elsass ; la, Alsatia; ) is a cultural region and a territorial collectivity in Eastern France, on the west bank of the upper Rhine next to Germany and Switzerland. In 2017, i ...

Alsace
where they were found in 1920 and became known as the Ölenberg manuscript. It is the earliest extant version of the Grimms' collection and has become a valuable source to scholars studying the development of the Grimms' collection from the time of its inception. The manuscript was published in 1927 and again in 1975. The brothers gained a reputation for collecting tales from peasants, although many tales came from middle-class or aristocratic acquaintances. Wilhelm's wife Dortchen Wild and her family, with their nursery maid, told the brothers some of the more well-known tales, such as "
Hansel and Gretel "Hansel and Gretel" (; also known as Hansel and Grettel, or Little Brother and Little Sister; german: Hänsel und Gret(h)el ) is a Germany, German fairy tale collected by the Brothers Grimm and published in 1812 in Grimms' Fairy Tales, ''Grimm's ...

Hansel and Gretel
" and "
Sleeping Beauty "Sleeping Beauty" (french: La Belle au bois dormant), or "Little Briar Rose" (german: Dornröschen), also titled in English as "The Sleeping Beauty in the Woods", is a classic fairy tale A fairy tale, fairytale, wonder tale, magic tale, fairy ...

Sleeping Beauty
". Wilhelm collected some tales after befriending
August von Haxthausen August Franz Ludwig Maria, Baron von Haxthausen-Abbenburg (February 3, 1792, in Brakel,_Germany#Bökendorf, Bökendorf, Prince-Bishopric of Paderborn – December 31, 1866, in Hanover) was a Germans, German agricultural scientist, economist, lawyer, ...
, whom he visited in 1811 in
Westphalia Westphalia (; german: Westfalen ; nds, Westfalen ) is a region of northwestern Germany and one of the three historic parts of the state of North Rhine-Westphalia. It has an area of 20,210 km2 (7,803 sq mi) and 7.9 million inha ...

Westphalia
where he heard stories from von Haxthausen's circle of friends. Several of the storytellers were of
Huguenot The Huguenots ( , also , ) were a religious group of French French (french: français(e), link=no) may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République franç ...

Huguenot
ancestry, telling tales of French origin such as those told to the Grimms by
Marie Hassenpflug Marie Magdalene Elisabeth Hassenpflug (27 December 178821 November 1856) was a German author whose versions of various Fairytale, folk tales were an important source for the collection of tales by the Brothers Grimm. She is best known for her ver ...
, an educated woman of French Huguenot ancestry, and it is probable that these informants were familiar with Perrault's (''Stories from Past Times''). Other tales were collected from
Dorothea Viehmann , a brother of Brothers Grimm, Wilhelm and Jacob Grimm. Dorothea Viehmann (November 8, 1755 – November 17, 1816) was a German storyteller. Her stories were an important source for the fairy tales collected by the Brothers Grimm. Most of Doro ...
, the wife of a middle-class tailor and also of French descent. Despite her middle-class background, in the first English translation she was characterized as a peasant and given the name . According to scholars such as Ruth Bottigheimer and
Maria Tatar Maria Magdalene Tatar (born May 13, 1945) is an American academic whose expertise lies in children's literature Children's literature or juvenile literature includes stories, books, magazines, and poems that are made for children. Modern child ...

Maria Tatar
, some of the tales probably originated in written form during the
medieval period In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and the interpretation of past events and affairs of the people of Europe since the beginning of w ...
with writers such as Straparola and
Boccaccio Giovanni Boccaccio (, , ; 16 June 1313 – 21 December 1375) was an Italian writer, poet, correspondent of Petrarch, and an important Renaissance humanist. He was known par excellence as the Certaldese, and one of the most important figur ...
, but were modified in the 17th century and again rewritten by the Grimms. Moreover, Tatar writes that the brothers' goal of preserving and shaping the tales as something uniquely German at a time of French occupation was a form of "intellectual resistance" and, in so doing, they established a methodology for collecting and preserving folklore that set the model followed later by writers throughout Europe during periods of occupation.


Writing

From 1807 onwards, the brothers added to the collection. Jacob established the framework, maintained through many iterations; from 1815 until his death, Wilhelm assumed sole responsibility for editing and rewriting the tales. He made the tales stylistically similar, added dialogue, removed pieces "that might detract from a rustic tone", improved the plots, and incorporated psychological motifs. Ronald Murphy writes in ''The Owl, the Raven, and the Dove'' that the brothers—and in particular Wilhelm—also added religious and spiritual motifs to the tales. He believes that Wilhelm "gleaned" bits from old Germanic faiths, Norse mythology, Roman and
Greek mythology Greek mythology is the body of myths originally told by the Ancient Greece, ancient Greeks, and a genre of Ancient Greek folklore. These stories concern the Cosmogony, origin and Cosmology#Metaphysical cosmology, nature of the world, the lives ...
, and biblical stories that he reshaped. Over the years, Wilhelm worked extensively on the prose and expanded and added detail to the stories, to the point that many grew to twice the length they were in the earliest published editions. In later editions, Wilhelm polished the language to make it more enticing to a bourgeois audience, eliminated sexual elements, and added Christian elements. After 1819, he began writing original tales for children (children were not initially considered the primary audience), and adding
didactic Didacticism is a philosophy that emphasizes instructional and informative qualities in literature Literature broadly is any collection of Writing, written work, but it is also used more narrowly for writings specifically considered to be an a ...
elements to existing tales. Some changes were made in light of unfavorable reviews, particularly from those who objected that not all the tales were suitable for children because of scenes of violence and sexuality. He worked to modify plots for many stories; for example, "
Rapunzel ''Rapunzel'' (; ) is a German fairy tale A fairy tale, fairytale, wonder tale, magic tale, fairy story or ''Märchen'' is an instance of a folklore genre that takes the form of a short story A short story is a piece of prose fiction th ...

Rapunzel
" in the first edition of clearly shows a sexual relationship between the prince and the girl in the tower, which he edited out in subsequent editions. Tatar writes that morals were added (in the second edition, a king's regret was added to the scene in which his wife is to be burned at the stake) and often the characters in the tale were amended to appear more German: "every
fairy A fairy (also ''fay'', ''fae'', ''fey'', ''fair folk'', or ''faerie'') is a type of mythical being or legendary creature found in the folklore Folklore is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it encompass ...

fairy
(), prince () and princess ()—all words of French origin—was transformed into a more Teutonic-sounding enchantress () or wise woman (), king's son (), king's daughter ()."


Themes and analysis

The Grimms' legacy contains legends,
novella A novella is a short novel A novel is a relatively long work of narrative A narrative, story or tale is any account of a series of related events or experiences, whether nonfictional ( memoir, biography, news report, documentary, Travel ...

novella
s, and folk stories, the vast majority of which were not intended as children's tales. Von Armin was deeply concerned about the content of some of the tales, such as those that showed children being eaten, and suggested that they be removed. Instead, the brothers added an introduction with cautionary advice that parents steer children toward age-appropriate stories. Despite von Armin's unease, none of the tales were eliminated from the collection, in the brothers' belief that all the tales were of value and reflected inherent cultural qualities. Furthermore, the stories were didactic in nature at a time when discipline relied on fear, according to scholar
Linda DéghLinda Dégh (18 March 1920 – 19 August 2014) was a folklorist and professor of Folklore & Ethnomusicology at Indiana University, USA. Dégh was born in Budapest, Hungary and is well known as a folklorist for her work with legends, identity, and b ...
, who explains that tales such as "
Little Red Riding Hood "Little Red Riding Hood" is a European fairy tale A fairy tale, fairytale, wonder tale, magic tale, fairy story or ''Märchen'' is an instance of a folklore genre that takes the form of a short story A short story is a piece of prose f ...

Little Red Riding Hood
" and "
Hansel and Gretel "Hansel and Gretel" (; also known as Hansel and Grettel, or Little Brother and Little Sister; german: Hänsel und Gret(h)el ) is a Germany, German fairy tale collected by the Brothers Grimm and published in 1812 in Grimms' Fairy Tales, ''Grimm's ...

Hansel and Gretel
" were written as "warning tales" for children and later were deemed fables. The stories in include scenes of violence that have since been sanitized. For example, in the Grimms' original version of "
Snow White "Snow White" is a 19th-century German fairy tale that is today known widely across the Western world. The Brothers Grimm published it in 1812 in the first edition of their collection ''Grimms' Fairy Tales'' and numbered as Tale 53. The original Ge ...

Snow White
", the Queen is Little Snow White's mother, not her stepmother, yet even so she orders her Huntsman to kill Snow White (her biological daughter) and bring home the child's lungs and liver so that she can eat them. The story ends with the Queen's mother dancing at Snow White's wedding, wearing a pair of red-hot iron shoes that kill her. Another story ("
The Goose Girl "The Goose Girl" (german: Die Gänsemagd) is a German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germany, see also Ger ...
") has a servant being stripped naked and pushed into a barrel "studded with sharp nails" pointing inwards and then rolled down the street. The Grimms' version of "
The Frog Prince 220px, The frog asks to be allowed to come into the castle – Illustration for "The Frog Prince" by Walter Crane 1874 "The Frog Prince; or, Iron Henry" (german: Der Froschkönig oder der eiserne Heinrich, literally "The Frog King or the Iron H ...
" describes the princess throwing the frog against a wall instead of kissing him. To some extent, the cruelty and violence may have been a reflection of medieval culture from which the tales originated, such as scenes of witches burning, as described in "
The Six Swans The Six Swans ( German: ''Die sechs Schwäne'') is a German fairy tale A fairy tale, fairytale, wonder tale, magic tale, fairy story or ''Märchen'' is an instance of a folklore genre that takes the form of a short story A short story is a ...

The Six Swans
". Tales with a spinning
motif Motif may refer to: General concepts * Motif (chess composition), an element of a move in the consideration of its purpose * Motif (folkloristics), a recurring element that creates recognizable patterns in folklore and folk-art traditions * Motif ...
are broadly represented in the collection. In her essay "Tale Spinners: Submerged Voices in Grimms' Fairy Tales",
children's literature Children's literature or juvenile literature includes stories, books, magazines, and poems that are created for children. Modern children's literature is classified in two different ways: genre or the intended age of the reader. Children's l ...
scholar Bottigheimer explains that these stories reflect the degree to which spinning was crucial in the life of women in the 19th century and earlier. Spinning, and particularly the spinning of
flax Flax, also known as common flax or linseed, is a flowering plant The flowering plants, also known as Angiospermae (), or Magnoliophyta (), are the most diverse group of Embryophyte, land plants, with 64 Order(biology), orders, 416 Family (biol ...

flax
, was commonly performed in the home by women. Many stories begin by describing the occupation of their main character, as in "There once was a miller", yet spinning is never mentioned as an occupation, probably because the brothers did not consider it an occupation. Instead, spinning was a communal activity, frequently performed in a (spinning room), a place where women most likely kept the oral traditions alive by telling stories while engaged in tedious work. In the stories, a woman's personality is often represented by her attitude toward spinning; a wise woman might be a spinster and Bottigheimer explains that the spindle was the symbol of a "diligent, well-ordered womanhood." In some stories, such as "
Rumpelstiltskin "Rumpelstiltskin" ( ; german: Rumpelstilzchen) is a German fairy tale A fairy tale, fairytale, wonder tale, magic tale, fairy story or ''Märchen'' is an instance of a folklore genre that takes the form of a short story A short story is a pi ...

Rumpelstiltskin
", spinning is associated with a threat; in others, spinning might be avoided by a character who is either too lazy or not accustomed to spinning because of her high social status. The tales were also criticized for being insufficiently German, which influenced the tales that the brothers included as well as their use of language. Scholars such as Heinz Rölleke say that the stories are an accurate depiction of German culture, showing "rustic simplicity sexual modesty." German culture is deeply rooted in the forest (), a dark dangerous place to be avoided, most particularly the old forests with large oak trees and yet a place where Little Red Riding Hood's mother sent her daughter to deliver food to her grandmother's house. Some critics such as Alistair Hauke use
Jungian analysis Analytical psychology ( de , Analytische Psychologie, sometimes translated as analytic psychology and referred to as Jungian analysis) is a term coined by Carl Jung, a Swiss psychiatrist, to describe research into his new "empirical science" of ...
to say that the deaths of the brothers' father and grandfather are the reason for the Grimms' tendency to idealize and excuse fathers, as well as the predominance of female villains in the tales, such as the wicked stepmother and stepsisters in "Cinderella", but this disregards the fact that they were collectors, not authors of the tales. Another possible influence is found in stories such as "
The Twelve Brothers"The Twelve Brothers" (german: Die zwölf Brüder) is a German fairy tale collected by the Brothers Grimm in ''Grimms' Fairy Tales, Grimm's Fairy Tales'' (KHM 9). Andrew Lang included it in ''The Red Fairy Book''. It is of Aarne-Thompson type 451 ...
", which mirrors the brothers' family structure of several brothers facing and overcoming opposition. Autobiographical elements exist in some of the tales, and according to Zipes the work may have been a "quest" to replace the family life lost after their father died. The collection includes 41 tales about siblings, which Zipes says are representative of Jacob and Wilhelm. Many of the sibling stories follow a simple plot where the characters lose a home, work industriously at a specific task and, in the end, find a new home.


Editions

Between 1812 and 1864, was published 17 times: seven of the "Large edition" () and ten of the "Small edition" (). The Large editions contained all the tales collected to date, extensive annotations, and scholarly notes written by the brothers; the Small editions had only 50 tales and were intended for children. Jacob and Wilhelm's younger brother Emil Grimm illustrated the Small editions, adding Christian symbolism to the drawings, such as depicting Cinderella's mother as an angel, and adding a Bible to the bedside table of Little Red Riding Hood's grandmother. The first volume was published in 1812 with 86 folk tales, and a second volume with 70 additional tales was published late in 1814 (dated 1815 on the title page); together, the two volumes and their 156 tales are considered the first of the Large (annotated) editions. A second expanded edition with 170 tales was published in 1819, followed in 1822 by a volume of scholarly commentary and annotations. Five more Large editions were published in 1837, 1840, 1843, 1850, and 1857. The seventh and final edition of 1857 contained 211 tales—200 numbered folk tales and eleven legends. In Germany, , commonly ''Grimms' Fairy Tales'' in English, was also released in a "popular poster-sized (broadsides)" format and in single story formats for the more popular tales such as "Hansel and Gretel". The stories were often added to collections by other authors without respect to copyright as the tales became a focus of interest for children's book illustrators, with well-known artists such as
Arthur Rackham Arthur Rackham (19 September 1867 – 6 September 1939) was an English book illustrator. He is recognised as one of the leading figures during the Golden Age of British book illustration. His work is noted for its robust pen and ink drawings, ...
,
Walter Crane Walter Crane (15 August 184514 March 1915) was an English artist and book illustrator. He is considered to be the most influential, and among the most prolific, children's book creators of his generation and, along with Randolph Caldecott and Kat ...
, and
Edmund Dulac Edmund Dulac (born Edmond Dulac; 22 October 1882 – 25 May 1953) was a French British naturalised magazine illustrator, book illustrator and stamp designer. Born in Toulouse he studied law but later turned to the study of art at the École d ...
illustrating the tales. A popular edition that sold well was released in the mid-19th century and included elaborate
etching , who is believed to have been the first to apply the technique to printmaking. '', an etching by Rembrandt (c. 1648). Rembrandt is generally considered the greatest etcher in the history of the medium (as an art in its own right). His most im ...
s by
George Cruikshank George Cruikshank (27 September 1792 – 1 February 1878) was a British caricaturist and book illustrator, praised as the "modern Hogarth" during his life. His book illustrations for his friend Charles Dickens Charles John Huffam Dicken ...
. At the deaths of the brothers, the copyright went to Hermann Grimm (Wilhelm's son) who continued the practice of printing the volumes in expensive and complete editions. However, the copyright lapsed after 1893 and various publishers began to print the stories in many formats and editions. In the 21st century, is a universally recognised text. Jacob and Wilhelm's collection of stories has been translated to more than 160 languages with 120 different editions of the text available for sale in the US alone.


Philology

While at the
University of Marburg The Philipps University of Marburg (german: Philipps-Universität Marburg) was founded in 1527 by Philip I, Landgrave of Hesse, which makes it one of Germany's oldest universities and the oldest still operating Protestant Protestantism is a f ...
, the brothers came to see culture as tied to language and regarded the purest cultural expression in the
grammar In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Linguistics encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the me ...
of a language. They moved away from Brentano's practice—and that of the other romanticists—who frequently changed original oral styles of folk tale to a more literary style, which the brothers considered artificial. They thought that the style of the people (the ) reflected a natural and divinely inspired poetry () as opposed to the (art poetry), which they saw as artificially constructed. As literary historians and scholars, they delved into the origins of stories and attempted to retrieve them from the oral tradition without loss of the original traits of oral language. The brothers strongly believed that the dream of national unity and independence relied on a full knowledge of the cultural past that was reflected in folklore. They worked to discover and crystallize a kind of Germanness in the stories that they collected because they believed that folklore contained kernels of ancient mythologies and beliefs crucial to understanding the essence of German culture. By examining culture from a philological point of view, they sought to establish connections between German law and culture and local beliefs. The Grimms considered the tales to have origins in traditional Germanic folklore, which they thought had been "contaminated" by later literary tradition. In the shift from the oral tradition to the printed book, tales were translated from regional dialects to
Standard German Standard German, High German, or more precisely Standard High German (german: Standarddeutsch, , or, in Switzerland, ), is the standardized variety of the German language The German language (, ) is a West Germanic language mainly spoken ...
( or High German). Over the course of the many modifications and revisions, however, the Grimms sought to reintroduce regionalisms, dialects, and
Low German : : : : : , minority = (70,000) (30,000) (8,000) , familycolor = Indo-European , fam2 = Germanic languages, Germanic , fam3 = West Germanic languages, West Germanic , fam4 = North Sea Germ ...
to the tales—to re-introduce the language of the original form of the oral tale. As early as 1812, they published (''The Two Oldest German Poems of the Eighth Century: The Song of Hildebrand and Hadubrand and the Wessobrunn Prayer''). The '' Song of Hildebrand and Hadubrand'' is a 9th-century German heroic song, while the Wessobrunn Prayer is the earliest known German heroic song. Between 1816 and 1818, the brothers published a two-volume work titled (''German Legends'') consisting of 585 German legends. Jacob undertook most of the work of collecting and editing the legends, which he organized according to region and historical (ancient) legends, and were about real people or events. The brothers meant it as a scholarly work, yet the historical legends were often taken from secondary sources, interpreted, modified, and rewritten—resulting in works "that were regarded as trademarks." Some scholars criticized the Grimms' methodology in collecting and rewriting the legends, yet conceptually they set an example for legend collections that was followed by others throughout Europe. Unlike the collection of folk tales, sold poorly, but Zipes says that the collection is a "vital source for folklorists and critics alike". Less well known in the English-speaking world is the Grimms' pioneering scholarly work on a German dictionary, the , which they began in 1838. Not until 1852 did they begin publishing the dictionary in installments. The work on the dictionary could not be finished in their lifetime because in it they gave a history and analysis of each word.


Reception and legacy

was not an immediate bestseller, but its popularity grew with each edition. The early editions attracted lukewarm critical reviews, generally on the basis that the stories were unappealing to children. The brothers responded with modifications and rewrites to increase the book's market appeal to that demographic. By the 1870s, the tales had increased greatly in popularity, to the point that they were added to the teaching curriculum in
Prussia Prussia, , Old Prussian Distribution of the Baltic tribes, circa 1200 CE (boundaries are approximate). Old Prussian was a Western Baltic language belonging to the Balto-Slavic branch of the Indo-European languages The Indo-Europe ...

Prussia
. In the 20th century, the work has maintained status as second only to the Bible as the most popular book in Germany. Its sales generated a mini-industry of criticism, which analyzed the tales' folkloric content in the context of literary history, socialism, and psychological elements often along
Freudian Sigmund Freud ( , ; born Sigismund Schlomo Freud; 6 May 1856 – 23 September 1939) was an Austrian neurologist Neurology (from el, νεῦρον (neûron), "string, nerve" and the suffix -logia, "study of") is a branch of medicine Me ...

Freudian
and
Jungian Analytical psychology ( de , Analytische Psychologie, sometimes translated as analytic psychology and referred to as Jungian analysis) is a term coined by Carl Jung Carl Gustav Jung ( ; born Karl Gustav Jung, ; 26 July 1875 – 6 June ...
lines. In their research, the brothers made a science of the study of folklore (see
folkloristics Folklore studies, also known as folkloristics, and occasionally tradition studies or folk life studies in the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Us ...
), generating a model of research that "launched general fieldwork in most European countries", and setting standards for research and analysis of stories and legends that made them pioneers in the field of folklore in the 19th century. In
Nazi Germany Nazi Germany, (lit. "National Socialist State"), ' (lit. "Nazi State") for short; also ' (lit. "National Socialist Germany") officially known as the German Reich from 1933 until 1943, and the Greater German Reich from 1943 to 1945, was t ...

Nazi Germany
, the Grimms' stories were used to foster nationalism, while the
Nazi Party The Nazi Party, officially the National Socialist German Workers' Party (german: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP), was a far-right political party in Germany active between 1920 and 1945, that created and supported th ...
decreed that every household should own a copy of ; later, officials of the
Allied-occupied Germany Allied-occupied Germany (, literally "Germany in the occupation period") was the administration of Germany () upon German Instrument of Surrender, defeat of Nazi Germany in World War II, when the victorious Allies of World War II, Allies asserte ...
banned the book for a period. In the US, the 1937 release of
Walt Disney Walter Elias Disney (; December 5, 1901December 15, 1966) was an American entrepreneur, animator, writer, voice actor, and film producer. A pioneer of the Modern animation in the United States, American animation industry, he introduced sever ...
's ''
Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs "Snow White" is a 19th-century German fairy tale A fairy tale, fairytale, wonder tale, magic tale, fairy story or ''Märchen'' is an instance of a folklore genre that takes the form of a short story A short story is a piece of prose fictio ...
'' shows the triumph of good over evil, innocence over oppression, according to Zipes—a popular theme that Disney repeated in 1959 during the
Cold War The Cold War was a period of geopolitical tension between the United States and the Soviet Union and their respective allies, the Western Bloc and the Eastern Bloc, which began following World War II. Historians do not fully agree on its sta ...
with the production of ''
Sleeping Beauty "Sleeping Beauty" (french: La Belle au bois dormant), or "Little Briar Rose" (german: Dornröschen), also titled in English as "The Sleeping Beauty in the Woods", is a classic fairy tale A fairy tale, fairytale, wonder tale, magic tale, fairy ...
''. The Grimms' tales have provided much of the early foundation on which Disney built an empire. In film, the Cinderella
motif Motif may refer to: General concepts * Motif (chess composition), an element of a move in the consideration of its purpose * Motif (folkloristics), a recurring element that creates recognizable patterns in folklore and folk-art traditions * Motif ...
, the story of a poor girl finding love and success, has been repeated in movies such as ''
Pretty Woman ''Pretty Woman'' is a 1990 American romantic comedy film directed by Garry Marshall, from a screenplay by J. F. Lawton. The film stars Richard Gere and Julia Roberts, and features Héctor Elizondo, Ralph Bellamy Ralph Rexford Bellamy ...
'', ''
Ever After ''Ever After'' (known in promotional material as ''Ever After: A Cinderella Story'') is a 1998 American romantic drama film inspired by the ''Cinderella "Cinderella", or "The Little Glass Slipper", is a Folklore, folk tale about oppression a ...
'', ''
Maid in Manhattan ''Maid in Manhattan'' is a 2002 American romantic comedy-drama Comedy-drama, or dramedy, is a genre of dramatic works that combines elements of comedy and Drama (film and television), drama. History The advent of radio drama, film, cinema an ...
'', and '' Ella Enchanted''. 20th-century educators debated the value and influence of teaching stories that include brutality and violence, and some of the more gruesome details were sanitized. Dégh writes that some educators believe that children should be shielded from cruelty of any form; that stories with a happy ending are fine to teach, whereas those that are darker, particularly the legends, might pose more harm. On the other hand, some educators and psychologists believe that children easily discern the difference between what is a story and what is not and that the tales continue to have value for children. The publication of
Bruno Bettelheim Bruno Bettelheim (August 28, 1903 – March 13, 1990) was an Austria, Austrian-born psychologist, scholar, public intellectual and author who spent most of his academic and clinical career in the United States. An early writer on autism, Bettelhei ...
's 1976 ''
The Uses of Enchantment ''The Uses of Enchantment: The Meaning and Importance of Fairy Tales'' is a 1976 book by Bruno Bettelheim Bruno Bettelheim (August 28, 1903 – March 13, 1990) was an Austria, Austrian-born psychologist, scholar, public intellectual and author wh ...
'' brought a new wave of interest in the stories as children's literature, with an emphasis on the "therapeutic value for children". More popular stories such as "Hansel and Gretel" and "Little Red Riding Hood" have become staples of modern childhood, presented in coloring books, puppet shows, and cartoons. Other stories, however, have been considered too gruesome and have not made a popular transition. Regardless of the debate, the Grimms' stories have continued to be resilient and popular around the world, although a recent study in England appears to suggest that parents consider the stories to be overly violent and inappropriate for young children, writes Libby Copeland for ''
Slate Slate is a fine-grained, foliated, homogeneous metamorphic rock derived from an original shale-type sedimentary rock Sedimentary rocks are types of Rock (geology), rock that are formed by the accumulation or deposition of mineral or organic ...
''. Nevertheless, children remain enamored of the Grimms' fairy tales with the brothers themselves embraced as the creators of the stories and even as part of the stories themselves. The film ''
Brothers Grimm The Brothers Grimm (' or ', ), Jacob Ludwig Karl Grimm (1785–1863) and Wilhelm Carl Grimm (1786–1859), were Hessian academics, philologists, cultural researchers, lexicographers and authors who together collected and published folklore ...
'' imagines them as con-artists exploiting superstitious German peasants until they are asked to confront a genuine fairy tale curse that calls them to finally be heroes. The movie ''
Ever After ''Ever After'' (known in promotional material as ''Ever After: A Cinderella Story'') is a 1998 American romantic drama film inspired by the ''Cinderella "Cinderella", or "The Little Glass Slipper", is a Folklore, folk tale about oppression a ...
'' shows the Grimms in their role as collectors of fairy tales, though they learn to their surprise that at least one of their stories (Cinderella) is actually true. '' Grimm'' follows a detective who discovers that he is a Grimm, the latest in a line of guardians who are sworn to keep the balance between humanity and mythological creatures. ''
Ever After High ''Ever After High'' is a fashion doll fashion doll from March 1959 Fashion dolls are dolls primarily designed to be dressed to reflect fashion trends. They are manufactured both as toys for children to play with and as collectibles for adult co ...
'' imagines the Grimms (here called Milton and Giles) as the headmasters of the Ever After High boarding school, where they train the children of the previous generation of fairy tales to follow in their parents' footsteps. The '' 10th Kingdom'' miniseries states that the brothers were trapped in the fairy tale world for years where they witnessed the events of their stories before finally making it back to the real world. '' The Sisters Grimm'' book series follows their descendants, Sabrina and Daphne, as they adapt to life in Ferryport Landing, a town in upstate New York populated by the fairy tale people. Separate from the previous series are ''
The Land of Stories ''The Land of Stories'' is a series of children's fiction, adventure and fantasy books written by American author, actor and singer Chris Colfer. The first book, ''The Wishing Spell'', was released on July 17, 2012. The sixth book was publishe ...
'' and ''its'' Sisters Grimm, a self-described
coven "Coven" usually refers to a group or gathering of witches. The word "coven" (from Anglo-Norman ''covent, cuvent'', from Old French ''covent'', from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic bran ...
determined to track down and document creatures from the fairy tale world that cross over to the real world. Their ancestors were in fact chosen by
Mother Goose The figure of Mother Goose is the imaginary author of a collection of French fairy tales and later of English nursery rhymes. As a character, she appeared in a song, the first stanza of which often functions now as a nursery rhyme. This, howeve ...

Mother Goose
and others to tell fairy tales so that they might give hope to the human race. The university library at the
Humboldt University of Berlin Humboldt University of Berlin (german: Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, abbreviated HU Berlin) is a public research university in the central borough of Mitte in Berlin, Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px ...
is housed in the Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm Center (), and among its collections is a large portion of the Grimms' private library.


Collaborative works

* , (''The Two Oldest German Poems of the Eighth Century: The Song of Hildebrand and Hadubrand and the Wessobrunn Prayer'')—ninth century heroic song, published 1812 * (''Children's and Household Tales'')—seven editions, between 1812 and 1857 * (''Old German Forests'')—three volumes between 1813 and 1816 * (''Poor Heinrich by Hartmann von der Aue'')—1815 * (''Songs from the
Elder Edda and a number of its inhabitants (1908) by W. G. Collingwood. The ''Poetic Edda'' is the modern name for an untitled collection of Old Norse Old Norse, Old Nordic, or Old Scandinavian was a North Germanic languages, North Germanic language ...
'')—1815 * ('' German Sagas'')—published in two parts between 1816 and 1818 * —Grimms' translation of
Thomas Crofton Croker Thomas Crofton Croker (15 January 1798 – 8 August 1854) was an Ireland, Irish antiquary, best known for his ''Fairy Legends and Traditions of the South of Ireland'' (1825–1828), and who also showed considerable interest in Irish song and ...
's ''Fairy Legends and Traditions of the South of Ireland'', 1826 * (''German Dictionary'')—32 volumes published between 1852 and 1960


See also

* ''
The Wonderful World of the Brothers Grimm ''The Wonderful World of the Brothers Grimm'' is a 1962 American fantasy film Fantasy films are films that belong to the fantasy genre with fantastic themes, usually magic, supernatural events, mythology, folklore Folklore is the expr ...
'' – A 1962 film starring and
Walter Slezak Walter Slezak (; 3 May 1902 – 21 April 1983) was an Austrian-born film and stage actor active between 1922 and 1976. He mainly appeared in German films before migrating to the United States in 1930 and performing in numerous Hollywood productio ...
* ''
The Brothers Grimm The Brothers Grimm (' or ', ), Jacob Ludwig Karl Grimm (1785–1863) and Wilhelm Carl Grimm (1786–1859), were Hessian academics, philologists Philology is the study of language A language is a structured system of communication used ...
'' – A 2005 film starring Matt Damon and Heath Ledger * '' Grimm'' – A 2011 fantasy crime television series about a Grimm descendant * Alexander Afanasyev * Norwegian Folktales * :de:Ludwig Emil Grimm#Nachfahrenliste der Familie Grimm, Grimm Family Tree (German)


Notes


References


Sources

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *


Further reading

* * * * *


External links

* * * Translated by Edgar Taylor (author), Edgar Taylor and Marian Edwardes. * . Translated by Margaret Raine Hunt. * * {{DEFAULTSORT:Grimm, Brothers Brothers Grimm, 19th-century German writers 19th-century German male writers Collectors of fairy tales Romanticism German children's writers German folklorists Folklore writers Marburg German fantasy writers Sibling duos Brothers