Argentina (), officially the Argentine Republic ( es|link=no|República Argentina), is a country located mostly in the southern half of South America
. Sharing the bulk of the Southern Cone
to the west, the country is also bordered by Bolivia
to the north, Brazil
to the northeast, Uruguay
and the South Atlantic Ocean
to the east, and the Drake Passage
to the south. With a mainland area of , Argentina is the eighth-largest country
in the world, the fourth largest in the Americas
, the second largest in South America after Brazil
, and the largest Spanish-speaking
nation by area. The sovereign state
is subdivided into twenty-three province
s ( es|provincias, singular ''provincia'') and one autonomous city
(''ciudad autónoma''), Buenos Aires
, which is the federal capital
of the nation ( es|Capital Federal|links=no) as decided by Congress
. The provinces and the capital have their own constitutions, but exist under a federal system
. Argentina claims sovereignty over part of Antarctica
, the Falkland Islands
( es|Islas Malvinas|links=no), and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands
The earliest recorded human presence in modern-day Argentina dates back to the Paleolithic
period. The Inca Empire
expanded to the northwest of the country in Pre-Columbian times. The country has its roots in Spanish colonization
of the region during the 16th century. Argentina rose as the successor state of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata
, a Spanish overseas viceroyalty
founded in 1776. The declaration
and fight for independence
(1810–1818) was followed by an extended civil war
that lasted until 1861, culminating in the country's reorganization as a federation
with Buenos Aires
as its capital city. The country thereafter enjoyed relative peace and stability, with several waves of European immigration
, mainly Italians
, radically reshaping its cultural
outlook; 62.5% of the population has full or partial Italian ancestry,
and the Argentine culture has significant connections to the Italian culture
The almost-unparalleled increase in prosperity led to Argentina becoming the seventh wealthiest nation in the world by the early 20th century. According to the Maddison Historical Statistics Project
, Argentina had the world's highest real GDP
per capita in 1895 and 1896, and was consistently in the top ten before at least 1920. Currently, it is ranked 61st in the world. Following the Great Depression
in the 1930s, Argentina descended into political instability and economic decline that pushed it back into underdevelopment,
although it remained among the fifteen richest countries for several decades. Following the death of President Juan Perón
in 1974, his widow and vice president, Isabel Martínez de Perón
, ascended to the presidency. She was overthrown in 1976 by a military dictatorship
. The military government persecuted and murdered numerous political critics, activists, and leftists in the Dirty War
, a period of state terrorism
and civil unrest that lasted over until the election of Raúl Alfonsín
as president in 1983
Argentina is a developing country
and ranks 46th on the Human Development Index
, the second highest in Latin America
It is a regional power
in Latin America and retains its historic status as a middle power
in international affairs. Argentina maintains the second largest economy in South America
, the third-largest in Latin America, the fifth largest in the Americas, and is a member of G-15
. It is also a founding member of the United Nations
, World Bank
, World Trade Organization
, Community of Latin American and Caribbean States
and the Organization of Ibero-American States
Name and etymology
The description of the region by the word ''Argentina'' has been found on a Venetian
map in 1536.
In English, the name "Argentina" comes from the Spanish language
; however, the naming itself is not Spanish, but Italian
. ''Argentina'' (masculine
''argentino'') means in Italian "(made) of silver, silver coloured", probably borrowed from the Old French
adjective ''argentine'' "(made) of silver" > "silver coloured" already mentioned in the 12th century. The French word ''argentine'' is the feminine
form of ''argentin'' and derives from ''argent'' "silver" with the suffix
''-in'' (same construction as Old French ''acerin'' "(made) of steel", from ''acier'' "steel" + ''-in'', or ''sapin'' "(made) of fir wood", from OF ''sap'' "fir" + ''-in''). The Italian naming "Argentina" for the country implies ''Terra Argentina'' "land of silver" or ''Costa Argentina'' "coast of silver". In Italian, the adjective or the proper noun
is often used in an autonomous way as a substantive and replaces it and it is said ''l'Argentina''.
The name ''Argentina'' was probably first given by the Venetian and Genoese navigators, such as Giovanni Caboto
. In Spanish and Portuguese, the words for "silver" are respectively ''plata'' and ''prata'' and "(made) of silver" is said ''plateado'' and ''prateado''. ''Argentina'' was first associated with the silver mountains legend
, widespread among the first European explorers of the La Plata Basin
The first written use of the name in Spanish can be traced to ''La Argentina
'', a 1602 poem by Martín del Barco Centenera
describing the region. Although "Argentina" was already in common usage by the 18th century, the country was formally named "Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata
" by the Spanish Empire, and "United Provinces of the Río de la Plata
" after independence.
The 1826 constitution
included the first use of the name "Argentine Republic" in legal documents. The name "Argentine Confederation" was also commonly used and was formalized in the Argentine Constitution of 1853
. In 1860 a presidential decree settled the country's name as "Argentine Republic", and that year's constitutional amendment ruled all the names since 1810 as legally valid.
In English, the country was traditionally called "the Argentine", mimicking the typical Spanish usage ''la Argentina'' and perhaps resulting from a mistaken shortening of the fuller name 'Argentine Republic'. 'The Argentine' fell out of fashion during the mid-to-late 20th century, and now the country is simply referred to as "Argentina".
In Spanish, "Argentina" is feminine
Argentina''"), taking the feminine article
"la", as the initial syllable of "Argentina" is unstressed
The earliest traces of human life in the area now known as Argentina are dated from the Paleolithic
period, with further traces in the Mesolithic
. Until the period of European colonization, Argentina was relatively sparsely populated by a wide number of diverse cultures with different social organizations, which can be divided into three main groups. The first group are basic hunters and food gatherers without development of pottery
, such as the Selknam
in the extreme south. The second group are advanced hunters and food gatherers which include the Puelche
and Serranos in the centre-east; and the Tehuelche
in the south—all of them conquered by the Mapuche
spreading from Chile
—and the Kom
in the north. The last group are farmers with pottery, like the Charrúa
in the northeast, with slash and burn
semisedentary existence; the advanced Diaguita
sedentary trading culture
in the northwest, which was conquered by the Inca Empire
around 1480; the Toconoté
and Hênîa and Kâmîare
in the country's centre, and the Huarpe
in the centre-west, a culture that raised llama
cattle and was strongly influenced by the Incas.
Europeans first arrived in the region with the 1502 voyage of Amerigo Vespucci
. The Spanish navigators Juan Díaz de Solís
and Sebastian Cabot
visited the territory that is now Argentina in 1516 and 1526, respectively. In 1536 Pedro de Mendoza
founded the small settlement of Buenos Aires
, which was abandoned in 1541.
Further colonization efforts came from Paraguay
—establishing the Governorate of the Río de la Plata
and Chile. Francisco de Aguirre
founded Santiago del Estero
in 1553. Londres
was founded in 1558; Mendoza
, in 1561; San Juan
, in 1562; San Miguel de Tucumán
, in 1565. Juan de Garay
founded Santa Fe
in 1573 and the same year Jerónimo Luis de Cabrera
set up Córdoba
. Garay went further south to re-found Buenos Aires in 1580. San Luis
was established in 1596.
The Spanish Empire
subordinated the economic potential of the Argentine territory to the immediate wealth of the silver and gold mines in Bolivia
and Peru, and as such it became part of the Viceroyalty of Peru
until the creation of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata
in 1776 with Buenos Aires as its capital.
Buenos Aires repelled two ill-fated British invasions
in 1806 and 1807. The ideas of the Age of Enlightenment
and the example of the first Atlantic Revolutions
generated criticism of the absolutist monarchy
that ruled the country. As in the rest of Spanish America, the overthrow of Ferdinand VII
during the Peninsular War
created great concern.
Independence and civil wars
Beginning a process from which Argentina was to emerge as successor state to the Viceroyalty, the 1810 May Revolution
replaced the viceroy Baltasar Hidalgo de Cisneros
with the First Junta
, a new government in Buenos Aires composed by locals. In the first clashes of the Independence War the Junta crushed a royalist counter-revolution in Córdoba
, but failed to overcome those of the Banda Oriental
, Upper Peru
, which later became independent states. The French-Argentine Hippolyte Bouchard
then brought his fleet to wage war against Spain overseas and attacked Spanish California, Spanish Chile, Spanish Peru and Spanish Philippines. He secured the allegiance of escaped Filipinos in San Blas who defected from the Spanish to join the Argentine navy, due to common Argentine and Philippine greivances against Spanish colonization. At a later date, the Argentine Sun of May
was adopted as a symbol by the Filipinos in the Philippine Revolution
against Spain. He also secured the diplomatic recognition of Argentina from King Kamehameha I
of the Kingdom of Hawaii
. Historian Pacho O'Donnell affirms that Hawaii was the first state that recognized Argentina's independence.
Revolutionaries split into two antagonist groups: the Centralists
and the Federalists
—a move that would define Argentina's first decades of independence. The Assembly of the Year XIII
appointed Gervasio Antonio de Posadas
as Argentina's first Supreme Director
On 9 July 1816, the Congress of Tucumán
formalized the Declaration of Independence
, which is now celebrated as Independence Day, a national holiday. One year later General Martín Miguel de Güemes
stopped royalists on the north, and General José de San Martín
took an army across the Andes
and secured the independence of Chile
; then he led the fight to the Spanish stronghold of Lima
and proclaimed the independence of Peru
. In 1819 Buenos Aires enacted a centralist constitution
that was soon abrogated
The 1820 Battle of Cepeda
, fought between the Centralists and the Federalists, resulted in the ''end of the Supreme Director rule''. In 1826 Buenos Aires enacted another centralist constitution
, with Bernardino Rivadavia
being appointed as the first president of the country. However, the interior provinces soon rose against him, forced his resignation and discarded the constitution. Centralists and Federalists resumed the civil war; the latter prevailed and formed the Argentine Confederation
in 1831, led by Juan Manuel de Rosas
. During his regime he faced a French blockade
(1838–1840), the War of the Confederation
(1836–1839), and a combined Anglo-French blockade
(1845–1850), but remained undefeated and prevented further loss of national territory. His trade restriction policies, however, angered the interior provinces and in 1852 Justo José de Urquiza
, another powerful caudillo
, beat him out of power
. As new president of the Confederation, Urquiza enacted the liberal
and federal 1853 Constitution. Buenos Aires seceded
but was forced back into the Confederation after being defeated in the 1859 Battle of Cepeda
Rise of the modern nation
Overpowering Urquiza in the 1861 Battle of Pavón
, Bartolomé Mitre
secured Buenos Aires predominance and was elected as the first president of the reunified country. He was followed by Domingo Faustino Sarmiento
and Nicolás Avellaneda
; these three presidencies set up the bases of the modern Argentine State.
Starting with Julio Argentino Roca
in 1880, ten consecutive federal governments emphasized liberal economic policies
. The massive wave of European immigration
they promoted—second only to the United States'—led to a near-reinvention of Argentine society and economy that by 1908 had placed the country as the seventh wealthiest developed nation in the world.
Driven by this immigration
wave and decreasing mortality, the Argentine population grew fivefold and the economy 15-fold: from 1870 to 1910 Argentina's wheat
exports went from per year, while frozen beef exports increased from per year, placing Argentina as one of the world's top five exporters. Its railway mileage rose from . Fostered by a new public, compulsory, free and secular education
quickly increased from 22% to 65%, a level higher than most Latin America
n nations would reach even fifty years later. Furthermore, real GDP
grew so fast that despite the huge immigration influx, per capita income
between 1862 and 1920 went from 67% of developed country levels to 100%: In 1865, Argentina was already one of the top 25 nations by per capita income. By 1908, it had surpassed Denmark, Canada and the Netherlands to reach 7th place—behind Switzerland, New Zealand, Australia, the United States, the United Kingdom and Belgium. Argentina's per capita income was 70% higher than Italy's, 90% higher than Spain's, 180% higher than Japan's and 400% higher than Brazil
's. Despite these unique achievements, the country was slow to meet its original goals of industrialization: after steep development of capital-intensive local industries in the 1920s, a significant part of the manufacture sector remained labour-intensive in the 1930s.
Between 1878 and 1884 the so-called Conquest of the Desert
occurred, with the purpose of giving by means of the constant confrontations between natives and Criollos in the border, and the appropriation of the indigenous territories, tripling the Argentine territory. The first conquest, consisted of a series of military incursions into the Pampa and Patagonian territories dominated by the indigenous peoples, distributing them among the members of the ''Sociedad Rural Argentina'', financiers of the expeditions. The conquest of Chaco lasted up to the end of the century, since its full ownership of the national economic system only took place when the mere extraction of wood and tannin
was replaced by the production of cotton
. The Argentine government considered indigenous people
as inferior beings, without the same rights as Criollos and Europeans.
In 1912, President Roque Sáenz Peña
enacted universal and secret male suffrage
, which allowed Hipólito Yrigoyen
, leader of the Radical Civic Union
(or UCR), to win the 1916 election
. He enacted social and economic reforms and extended assistance to small farms and businesses. Argentina stayed neutral during World War I
. The second administration of Yrigoyen faced an economic crisis, precipitated by the Great Depression
In 1930, Yrigoyen was ousted from power
by the military led by José Félix Uriburu
. Although Argentina remained among the fifteen richest countries until mid-century, this coup d'état
marks the start of the steady economic and social decline that pushed the country back into underdevelopment.
Uriburu ruled for two years; then Agustín Pedro Justo
was elected in a fraudulent election
, and signed a controversial treaty with the United Kingdom
. Argentina stayed neutral during World War II
, a decision that had full British support but was rejected by the United States after the attack on Pearl Harbor
. In 1943 a military coup d'état
, lead by General Arturo Rawson
toppled the democratically elected government of Ramón Castillo
. Under pressure from the United States, later Argentina declared war on the Axis Powers (on 27 March 1945, roughly a month before the end of World War II in Europe
During Rawson dictatorship a relatively unknown military colonel named Juan Domingo Perón
was named head of the Labour Department. Perón quickly managed climb the political ladder, being named Ministry of Defence by 1944. Being perceived as a political threat by rivals faction in the military and the conservative camp he was forced to resign in 1945 and was arrested days later. He was later released under mounting pressure from both his base and several allied unions. He would later become president after a landslide victory over the UCR
in the 1946 general election
as the laborioust
The Labour Party
later renamed Justicialist Party
, the most powerful and influential party in Argentine history, came into power with the rise of Juan Domingo Perón to the presidency in 1946. He nationalized
strategic industries and services, improved wages and working conditions, paid the full external debt
and claimed he achieved nearly full employment
. He pushed Congress to enact women's suffrage
in 1947, and developed a system of social assistance for the most vulnerable sectors of society. The economy began to decline in 1950 due in part to government expenditures and the protectionist
He also engaged in a campaign of political suppression. Anyone who was perceived to be a political dissident or potential rival were subject to threats, physical violence and harassment. The Argentine intelligentsia
, the middle-class, university students, and professors were seen as particularly troublesome. Perón fired over 2,000 university professors and faculty members from all major public education institutions.
Perón tried to bring under his thumb most trade and labour unions, regularly resorting to violence when needed. For instance, the meat-packers union leader, Cipriano Reyes
, organised strikes in protest against the government after elected labour movement officials were forcefully replaced by Peronist puppets from the Peronist Party
. Reyes was soon arrested on charges of terrorism, though the allegations were never substantiated. Reyes was tortured in prison for five years and was only released after the regime's downfall in 1955 without any formal charges.
Perón managed to get reelected in 1951
. Eva Perón
, his wife who played a critical role in the party, died of cancer in 1952. As the economy continued to tank, Perón started losing popular support. Seen as a threat to the national process and taking advantage of Perón's withering political power, the Navy bombed the Plaza de Mayo
in 1955. Perón survived the attack but a few months later, during the Liberating Revolution
coup, was deposed and went into exile
The new head of State, Pedro Eugenio Aramburu
Peronism and banned the party from any future elections. Arturo Frondizi
from the UCR
won the 1958 general election
. He encouraged investment to achieve energetic and industrial self-sufficiency, reversed a chronic trade deficit
and lifted the ban on Peronism; yet his efforts to stay on good terms with both the Peronists and the military earned him the rejection of both and a new coup forced him out. Amidst the political turmoil, Senate leader José María Guido
reacted swiftly and applied anti-power vacuum
legislation, ascending to the presidency himself; elections were repealed and Peronism was prohibited once again. Arturo Illia
was elected in 1963
and led an increase in prosperity across the board; however he was overthrown in 1966 by another military coup d'état
led by General Juan Carlos Onganía
in the self-proclaimed Argentine Revolution
, creating a new military government that sought to rule indefinitely.
Perón's return and death
Following several years of military rule, Alejandro Agustín Lanusse
was appointed president by the military junta in 1971. Under increasing political pressure for the return of democracy, Lanusse called for elections in 1973. Perón was banned from running but the Peronist party was allowed to participate. The presidential elections were won by Hector Cámpora
, Perón's surrogate candidate. Dr. Héctor Cámpora, a left-wing Peronist, took office on 25 May 1973, and a month later in June, Perón had returned from Spain. One of Cámpora's first presidential actions was the granting of amnesty to members of terrorist organizations who had carried out political assassinations and terrorist attacks, and who had been tried and sentenced to prison by judges. Cámpora's months-long tenure in government was beset by political and social unrest. Over 600 social conflicts, strikes
, and factory occupations
took place within a single month. Even though far-left terrorist organisations had suspended their armed struggle, their joining with the participatory democracy
process was interpreted as a direct threat by the Peronist right-wing faction.
In a state of political, social, and economic upheaval, Cámpora and Vice President Vicente Solano Lima resigned in July 1973, calling for new elections, but this time with Perón as the Justicialist Party nominee. Perón won the election with his wife Isabel Perón
as vice president. Perón's third term was marked by the escalating conflict between left and right-wing factions within the Peronist party, as well as the return of armed terror guerrilla groups like the Guevarist ERP
, leftist Peronist Montoneros
, and the state-backed far-right Triple A
. After a series of heart attacks and with signs of pneumonia in 1974, Perón's health deteriorated quickly. Perón suffered a final heart attack on Monday, 1 July 1974, and died at 13:15. He was 78 years old. After his death, Isabel Perón
, his wife and Vice President, came into office.
Isabel, born María Estela Martínez Cartas, a grade school drop-out
and a former nightclub dancer
, proved to be a thoroughly incompetent and weak president. During her presidency, a military junta along with the Peronists' far-right fascist faction became once again the de facto head of state
. She served as President of Argentina from 1974 until 1976 when she was ousted by the military. Her short presidency was marked by the collapse of Argentine political and social systems and led to a constitutional crisis paving the way for a decade of instability, left-wing terrorist guerrilla attacks, and state-sponsored terrorism.
National Reorganization Process
The "Dirty War" ( es|Guerra Sucia|links=no) was part of Operation Condor
, which included the participation of other right-wing dictatorships in the Southern Cone. The Dirty War involved state terrorism
in Argentina and elsewhere in the Southern Cone
against political dissidents, with military and security forces employing urban and rural violence against left-wing guerrillas, political dissidents, and anyone believed to be associated with socialism or somehow contrary to the neoliberal
economic policies of the regime. Victims of the violence in Argentina alone included an estimated 15,000 to 30,000 left-wing activists and militants, including trade unionists, students, journalists, Marxist
s, Peronist guerrilla
s, and alleged sympathizers. Most of the victims were casualties of state terrorism
. The opposing guerrillas' victims numbered nearly 500–540 military and police officials and up to 230 civilians. Argentina received technical support and military aid from the United States government during the Johnson
, and Reagan
The exact chronology of the repression
is still debated, yet the roots of the long political war may have started in 1969 when trade unionists were targeted for assassination by Peronist and Marxist paramilitaries. Individual cases of state-sponsored terrorism
against Peronism and the left can be traced back even further to the Bombing of Plaza de Mayo
in 1955. The Trelew massacre
of 1972, the actions of the Argentine Anticommunist Alliance
commencing in 1973, and Isabel Martínez de Perón
's "annihilation decrees" against left-wing guerrillas during ''Operativo Independencia
'' (Operation Independence) in 1975, are also possible events signaling the beginning of the Dirty War.
Onganía shut down Congress, banned all political parties, and dismantled student and worker unions. In 1969, popular discontent led to two massive protests: the ''Cordobazo
'' and the ''Rosariazo
''. The terrorist guerrilla organization Montoneros
kidnapped and executed Aramburu. The newly chosen head of government, Alejandro Agustín Lanusse
, seeking to ease the growing political pressure, allowed Héctor José Cámpora
to become the Peronist candidate instead of Perón. Cámpora won the March 1973 election
, issued pardons
for condemned guerrilla members, and then secured Perón's return from his exile in Spain.
On the day Perón returned to Argentina, the clash between Peronist internal factions—right-wing
union leaders and left-wing
youth from the Montoneros—resulted in the Ezeiza Massacre
. Overwhelmed by political violence, Cámpora resigned and Perón won the following September 1973 election
with his third wife Isabel
as vice-president. He expelled Montoneros from the party
and they became once again a clandestine organization. José López Rega
organized the Argentine Anticommunist Alliance
(AAA) to fight against them and the People's Revolutionary Army
Perón died in July 1974 and was succeeded by his wife, who signed a secret decree empowering the military and the police to "annihilate" the left-wing subversion, stopping ERP's attempt
to start a rural insurgence in Tucumán province. Isabel Perón was ousted
one year later by a junta of the combined armed forces, led by army general Jorge Rafael Videla
. They initiated the National Reorganization Process
, often shortened to ''Proceso''.
The ''Proceso'' shut down Congress, removed the judges on the Supreme Court, banned political parties and unions, and resorted to employing the forced disappearance
of suspected guerrilla members including individuals suspected to be associated with the left-wing. By the end of 1976, the Montoneros had lost nearly 2,000 members and by 1977, the ERP was completely subdued. Nevertheless, the severely weakened Montoneros launched a counterattack in 1979, which was quickly put down, effectively ending the guerrilla threat and securing the junta's position in power.
In 1982, the head of state, General Leopoldo Galtieri
, authorised the invasion of the British-claimed territories of South Georgia and, on 2 April, of the Falkland Islands
. The occupation provoked a military response from the United Kingdom leading to the Falklands War
. Argentine forces were defeated and formally surrendered to British troops on 14 June. Street riots in Buenos Aires followed the defeat and the military leadership responsible for the humiliation withdrew. Reynaldo Bignone
replaced Galtieri and began to organize the transition to democratic governance.
Return to democracy
won the 1983 elections
campaigning for the prosecution of those responsible for human rights
violations during the ''Proceso'': the Trial of the Juntas
and other martial courts sentenced all the coup's leaders but, under military pressure, he also enacted the Full Stop
and Due Obedience
laws, which halted prosecutions further down the chain of command
. The worsening economic crisis and hyperinflation
reduced his popular support and the Peronist Carlos Menem
won the 1989 election
. Soon after, riots forced Alfonsín to an early resignation
Menem embraced and enacted neoliberal
policies: a fixed exchange rate
, business deregulation
s, and the dismantling of protectionist
barriers normalized the economy in the short term. He pardoned the officers who had been sentenced during Alfonsín's government. The 1994 Constitutional Amendment
allowed Menem to be elected for a second term
. With the economy beginning to decline in 1995, and with increasing unemployment and recession;, the UCR, led by Fernando de la Rúa
, returned to the presidency in the 1999 elections
De la Rúa left in effect Menem's economic plan despite the worsening crisis, which led to growing social discontent. Massive capital flight
from the country was responded to with a freezing of bank accounts
, generating further turmoil. The December 2001 riots
forced him to resign. Congress appointed Eduardo Duhalde
as acting president, who revoked the fixed exchange rate established by Menem, causing many working- and middle-class Argentines to lose a significant portion of their savings. By late 2002, the economic crisis began to recede, but the assassination of two ''piquetero
s'' by the police caused political unrest, prompting Duhalde to move elections forward. Néstor Kirchner
was elected as the new president
Boosting the neo-Keynesian
economic policies laid by Duhalde, Kirchner ended the economic crisis attaining significant fiscal and trade surpluses, and rapid GDP
growth. Under his administration, Argentina restructured its defaulted debt
with an unprecedented discount of about 70% on most bonds, paid off debts with the International Monetary Fund
, purged the military of officers with dubious human rights records, nullified and voided
the Full Stop and Due Obedience laws, ruled them as unconstitutional, and resumed legal prosecution of the Junta's crimes. He did not run for reelection, promoting instead the candidacy of his wife, senator Cristina Fernández de Kirchner
, who was elected in 2007
and subsequently reelected in 2011
. Fernández de Kirchner's administration established positive foreign relations with countries with questionable human rights records, including Venezuela, Iran, and Cuba, while at the same time relations with the United States and United Kingdom became increasingly strained. By 2015, the Argentine GDP grew by 2.7% and real incomes had risen over 50% since the post-Menem era. Despite these economic gains and increased renewable energy production and subsidies, the overall economy had been sluggish since 2011.
On 22 November 2015, after a tie in the first round of presidential elections on 25 October
, center-right coalition
candidate Mauricio Macri
won the first ballotage
in Argentina's history, beating Front for Victory
candidate Daniel Scioli
and becoming president-elect. Macri was the first democratically elected non-peronist
president since 1916 that managed to complete his term in office without being overthrown. He took office on 10 December 2015 and inherited an economy with a high inflation rate and in a poor shape. In April 2016, the Macri Government
introduced neoliberal austerity measures intended to tackle inflation
and overblown public deficits. Under Macri's administration, economic recovery remained elusive with GDP shrinking 3.4%, inflation totaling 240%, billions of US dollars issued in sovereign debt, and mass poverty increasing by the end of his term. He ran for re-election in 2019 but lost by nearly eight percentage points to Alberto Fernández
, the Justicialist Party candidate.
President Alberto Fernández and Vice President Cristina Fernández de Kirchner took office in December 2019, just months before the COVID-19 pandemic hit Argentina
and among accusations of corruption
and misuse of public funds during Nestor and Cristina Fernández de Kirchner's presidencies
With a mainland surface area of , Argentina is located in southern South America
, sharing land borders with Chile across the Andes
to the west; Bolivia and Paraguay to the north; Brazil to the northeast, Uruguay
and the South Atlantic Ocean
to the east;
and the Drake Passage
to the south; for an overall land border length of . Its coastal border over the Río de la Plata
and South Atlantic Ocean
Argentina's highest point is Aconcagua
in the Mendoza province
( above sea level),
also the highest point in the Southern
and Western Hemisphere
s. The lowest point is Laguna del Carbón
in the ''San Julián Great Depression'' Santa Cruz province
( below sea level,
also the lowest point in the Southern and Western Hemispheres, and the seventh lowest point on Earth)
The northernmost point is at the confluence of the Grande de San Juan
and Río Mojinete rivers in Jujuy province
; the southernmost is Cape San Pío
in Tierra del Fuego province
; the easternmost is northeast of Bernardo de Irigoyen, Misiones
and the westernmost is within Los Glaciares National Park
in Santa Cruz province.
The maximum north–south distance is , while the maximum east–west one is .
Some of the major rivers are the Paraná
—which join to form the Río de la Plata, Paraguay
, Santa Cruz
. These rivers are discharged into the Argentine Sea
, the shallow area of the Atlantic Ocean over the Argentine Shelf
, an unusually wide continental platform
. Its waters are influenced by two major ocean currents: the warm Brazil Current
and the cold Falklands Current
Argentina is one of the most biodiverse
countries in the world
hosting one of the greatest ecosystem
varieties in the world: 15 continental zones, 2 marine zones, and the Antarctic region are all represented in its territory.
This huge ecosystem variety has led to a biological diversity that is among the world's largest:
* 9,372 cataloged vascular plant
species (ranked 24th)
* 1,038 cataloged bird species (ranked 14th)
* 375 cataloged mammal
species (ranked 12th)
* 338 cataloged reptilian
species (ranked 16th)
* 162 cataloged amphibian
species (ranked 19th)
The original pampa had virtually no trees; some imported species like the American sycamore
are present along roads or in towns and country estates (''estancias''). The only tree-like plant native to the pampa is the evergreen Ombú
. The surface soils of the pampa are a deep black color, primarily mollisols
, known commonly as ''humus''. This makes the region one of the most agriculturally productive on Earth; however, this is also responsible for decimating much of the original ecosystem, to make way for commercial agriculture. The western pampas receive less rainfall, this ''dry pampa'' is a plain of short grasses or steppe
The National Parks of Argentina
make up a network of 35 national park
s in Argentina. The parks cover a very varied set of terrains and biotope
s, from Baritú National Park
on the northern border with Bolivia
to Tierra del Fuego National Park
in the far south of the continent. The Administración de Parques Nacionales
(National Parks Administration) is the agency that preserves and manages these national parks along with Natural monument
s and National Reserve
s within the country.
Argentina had a 2018 Forest Landscape Integrity Index
mean score of 7.21/10, ranking it 47th globally out of 172 countries.
In general, Argentina has four main climate types: warm, moderate, arid, and cold, all determined by the expanse across latitude, range in altitude, and relief features.
Although the most populated areas are generally temperate
, Argentina has an exceptional amount of climate diversity,
ranging from subtropical
in the north to polar
in the far south. Consequently, there is a wide variety of biomes
in the country, including subtropical rain forests, semi-arid and arid
regions, temperate plains in the Pampas, and cold subantarctic in the south.
The average annual precipitation ranges from in the driest parts of Patagonia
to over in the westernmost parts of Patagonia and the northeastern parts of the country.
Mean annual temperatures range from in the far south to in the north.
Major wind currents include the cool Pampero Winds
blowing on the flat plains of Patagonia and the Pampas; following the cold front, warm currents blow from the north in middle and late winter, creating mild conditions.
usually moderates cold temperatures but brings very heavy rains, rough seas and coastal flooding
. It is most common in late autumn and winter along the central coast and in the Río de la Plata estuary.
, a hot dry wind
, affects Cuyo and the central Pampas. Squeezed of all moisture during the descent from the Andes, Zonda winds can blow for hours with gusts up to , fueling wildfires and causing damage; between June and November, when the Zonda blows, snowstorms and blizzard
(''viento blanco'') conditions usually affect higher elevations.
Climate change in Argentina
is predicted to have significant effects on the living conditions in Argentina.
The climate of Argentina
is changing with regards to precipitation patterns and temperatures. The highest increases in the precipitation (from the period 1960–2010) have occurred in the eastern parts of the country. The increase in precipitation has led to more variability in precipitation from year to year in the northern parts of the country, with a higher risk of prolonged droughts
, disfavoring agriculture in these regions
In the 20th century, Argentina experienced significant political turmoil and democratic reversals.
Between 1930 and 1976, the armed forces
overthrew six governments in Argentina;
and the country alternated periods of democracy (1912–1930, 1946–1955, and 1973–1976) with periods of restricted democracy and military rule
Following a transition
that began in 1983,
full-scale democracy in Argentina was reestablished.
Argentina's democracy endured through the 2001–02 crisis
and to the present day; it is regarded as more robust than both its pre-1983 predecessors and other democracies in Latin America
Argentina is a federal
constitutional republic and representative democracy
. The government is regulated by a system of checks and balances
defined by the Constitution of Argentina
, the country's supreme legal document. The seat of government
is the city of Buenos Aires
, as designated by Congress
. Suffrage is universal
The federal government is composed of three branches:
branch consists of the bicameral
Congress, made up of the Senate
and the Chamber of Deputies
. The Congress makes federal law
, declares war
, approves treaties
and has the power of the purse
and of impeachment
, by which it can remove sitting members of the government. The Chamber of Deputies represents the people and has 257 voting members elected to a four-year term. Seats are apportioned among the provinces by population every tenth year. ten provinces have just five deputies while the Buenos Aires Province
, being the most populous one, has 70. The Chamber of Senators represents the provinces, has 72 members elected at-large
to six-year terms, with each province having three seats; one third of Senate seats are up for election every other year. At least one-third of the candidates presented by the parties must be women.
In the Executive
branch, the President
is the commander-in-chief
of the military, can veto legislative bills
before they become law—subject to Congressional override—and appoints the members of the Cabinet
and other officers, who administer and enforce federal laws and policies. The President is elected directly
by the vote of the people, serves a four-year term and may be elected to office no more than twice in a row.
branch includes the Supreme Court
and lower federal courts
interpret laws and overturn those
they find unconstitutional
. The Judicial is independent of the Executive and the Legislative. The Supreme Court has seven members appointed by the President—subject to Senate approval—who serve for life. The lower courts' judges are proposed by the Council of Magistracy
(a secretariat composed of representatives of judges, lawyers, researchers, the Executive and the Legislative), and appointed by the President on Senate approval.
Argentina is a federation of twenty-three provinces and one autonomous city
, Buenos Aires. Provinces are divided for administration purposes into departments
, except for Buenos Aires Province, which is divided into partidos
. The City of Buenos Aires is divided into communes
Provinces hold all the power that they chose not to delegate to the federal government; they must be representative republics and must not contradict the Constitution. Beyond this they are fully autonomous: they enact their own constitutions, freely organize their local governments, and own and manage their natural and financial resources. Some provinces have bicameral legislatures, while others have unicameral
During the War of Independence the main cities and their surrounding countrysides became provinces though the intervention of their cabildos
. The Anarchy of the Year XX completed this process, shaping the original thirteen provinces. Jujuy seceded from Salta
in 1834, and the thirteen provinces became fourteen.
After seceding for a decade, Buenos Aires accepted the 1853 Constitution of Argentina in 1861, and was made a federal territory in 1880.
An 1862 law designated as national territories
those under federal control but outside the frontiers of the provinces. In 1884 they served as bases for the establishment of the governorate
s of Misiones, Formosa, Chaco, La Pampa, Neuquén, Río Negro, Chubut, Santa Cruz and Tierra del Fuego.
The agreement about a frontier dispute with Chile in 1900 created the National Territory of Los Andes
; its lands were incorporated into Jujuy, Salta and Catamarca
in 1943. La Pampa
and Chaco became provinces in 1951. Misiones did so in 1953, and Formosa
, Río Negro
and Santa Cruz, in 1955. The last national territory, Tierra del Fuego, became the Tierra del Fuego, Antártida e Islas del Atlántico Sur Province
in 1990. It has three components, although two are nominal because they are not under Argentine sovereignty. The first is the Argentine part of Tierra del Fuego; the second is an area of Antarctica claimed by Argentina that overlaps with similar areas claimed by the UK and Chile; the third comprises the two disputed British Overseas Territories of the Falkland Islands
and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands
Foreign policy is handled by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, International Trade and Worship
, which answers to the President
The country is one of the G-15
and G-20 major economies
of the world, and a founding member of the UN
In 2012 Argentina was elected again
to a two-year non-permanent position on the United Nations Security Council
and is participating in major peacekeeping operations in Haiti
, Western Sahara
and the Middle East
. Argentina is described as a middle power
[Cooper AF (1997]
Niche Diplomacy – Middle Powers after the Cold War
A prominent Latin American and Southern Cone regional power
, Argentina co-founded OEI
It is also a founding member of the Mercosur
block, having Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay and Venezuela
as partners. Since 2002 the country has emphasized its key role in Latin American integration
, and the block—which has some supranational legislative functions—is its first international priority.
Argentina claims in Antarctica
, where it has the world's oldest continuous state presence
, since 1904. This overlaps claims by Chile
and the United Kingdom
, though all such claims fall under the provisions of the 1961 Antarctic Treaty
, of which Argentina is a founding signatory and permanent consulting member, with the Antarctic Treaty Secretariat
being based in Buenos Aires.
Argentina disputes sovereignty
over the Falkland Islands ( es|Islas Malvinas|link=no), and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands
, which are administered by the United Kingdom as Overseas Territories
The President holds the title of commander-in-chief of the Argentine Armed Forces, as part of a legal framework that imposes a strict separation between national defense and internal security systems:
The National Defense System
, an exclusive responsibility of the federal government, coordinated by the Ministry of Defense
, and comprising the Army
, the Navy
and the Air Force
. Ruled and monitored by Congress through the Houses' Defense Committees,
it is organized on the essential principle of legitimate self-defense: the repelling of any external military aggression in order to guarantee freedom of the people, national sovereignty, and territorial integrity.
Its secondary missions include committing to multinational operations within the framework of the United Nations, participating in internal support missions, assisting friendly countries, and establishing a sub-regional defense system.
is voluntary, with enlistment age between 18 and 24 years old and no conscription
. Argentina's defense has historically been one of the best equipped in the region, even managing its own weapon research facilities, shipyards, ordnance, tank and plane factories
. However, real military expenditures declined steadily after 1981 and the defense budget in 2011 was about 0.74% of GDP, a historical minimum, below the Latin American average. Within the defence budget itself funding for training and even basic maintenance has been significantly cut, a factor contributing to the accidental loss of the Argentine submarine San Juan
in 2017. With the United Kingdom also actively acting to restrict even modest Argentinian military modernization efforts, the result has been a steady erosion of Argentine military capabilities, with some arguing that Argentina had, by the end of the 2010s, ceased to be a capable military power.
The Interior Security System
, jointly administered by the federal and subscribing provincial governments.
At the federal level it is coordinated by the Interior, Security
and Justice ministries, and monitored by Congress.
It is enforced by the Federal Police
; the Prefecture
, which fulfills coast guard
duties; the Gendarmerie
, which serves border guard
tasks; and the Airport Security Police
. At the provincial level it is coordinated by the respective internal security ministries and enforced by local police agencies.
Argentina was the only South American country to send warships and cargo planes in 1991 to the Gulf War
mandate and has remained involved in peacekeeping
efforts in multiple locations like UNPROFOR
, Gulf of Fonseca
(where among Army and Marines troops the Air Force provided the UN Air contingent since 1994) and MINUSTAH
. Argentina is the only Latin American country to maintain troops in Kosovo
(and later EUFOR
) operations where combat engineers
of the Argentine Armed Forces are embedded in an Italian brigade
In 2007, an Argentine contingent including helicopters, boats and water purification plants was sent to help Bolivia
against their worst floods in decades. In 2010 the Armed Forces were also involved in Haiti
humanitarian responses after their respective earthquakes.
Benefiting from rich natural resources
, a highly literate population, a diversified industrial base, and an export-oriented agricultural sector, the economy of Argentina is Latin America's third-largest,
and the second largest in South America
. It has a "very high"
rating on the Human Development Index
and a relatively high GDP per capita
with a considerable internal market
size and a growing share of the high-tech sector.
Access to biocapacity
in Argentina is much higher than world average. In 2016, Argentina had 6.8 global hectares
of biocapacity per person within its territory, much more than the world average of 1.6 global hectares per person. In 2016 Argentina used 3.4 global hectares of biocapacity per person – their ecological footprint
of consumption. This means they use half as much biocapacity as Argentina contains. As a result, Argentina is running a biocapacity reserve.
A middle emerging economy
and one of the world's top developing nations,
Argentina is a member of the G-20 major economies
. Historically, however, its economic performance has been very uneven, with high economic growth alternating with severe recessions, income maldistribution and—in the recent decades—increasing poverty. Early in the 20th century Argentina achieved development, and became the world's seventh richest country. Although managing to keep a place among the top fifteen economies until mid-century, it suffered a long and steady decline, but it is still a high income country.
—a weakness of the Argentine economy for decades—has become a trouble once again,
with an annual rate of 24.8% in 2017.
To deter it and support the peso, the government imposed foreign currency control. Income distribution
, having improved since 2002, is classified as "medium", although it is still considerably unequal.
Argentina ranks 85th out of 180 countries in the Transparency International
's 2017 Corruption Perceptions Index
, an improvement of 22 positions over its 2014 rankings. Argentina settled its long-standing debt default crisis in 2016 with the so-called vulture funds
after the election of Mauricio Macri, allowing Argentina to enter capital markets for the first time in a decade.
The government of Argentina defaulted on 22 May 2020 by failing to pay a $500 million due date to its creditors. Negotiations for the restructuring of $66 billion of its debt continue.
accounted for 20.3% of GDP—the largest sector in the nation's economy.
Well-integrated into Argentine agriculture, half of the industrial exports have rural origin.
With a 6.5% production growth rate , the diversified manufacturing sector rests on a steadily growing network of industrial park
s (314 )
the leading sectors by volume were: food processing, beverages and tobacco products; motor vehicles and auto parts; textiles
and leather; refinery products
; chemicals and pharmaceuticals; steel, aluminum and iron; industrial and farm machinery; home appliances and furniture; plastics and tires; glass and cement; and recording and print media.
In addition, Argentina has since long been one of the top five wine-producing countries in the world.
However, it has also been classified as one of the 74 countries where instances of child labour
and forced labour
have been observed and mentioned in a 2014 report published by the Bureau of International Labor Affairs
The ILAB's ''List of Goods Produced by Child Labor or Forced Labor
'' shows that many of the goods produced by child labour or forced labour comes from the agricultural sector
Córdoba is Argentina's major industrial centre, hosting metalworking, motor vehicle and auto parts manufactures. Next in importance are the Greater Buenos Aires
area (food processing, metallurgy, motor vehicles and auto parts, chemicals and petrochemicals, consumer durables, textiles and printing); Rosario
(food processing, metallurgy, farm machinery, oil refining, chemicals, and tanning); San Miguel de Tucumán (sugar refining); San Lorenzo
(chemicals and pharmaceuticals); San Nicolás de los Arroyos
(steel milling and metallurgy); and Ushuaia
and Bahía Blanca
Other manufacturing enterprises are located in the provinces of Santa Fe
(zinc and copper smelting, and flour milling); Mendoza and Neuquén (wineries and fruit processing); Chaco (textiles and sawmills); and Santa Cruz, Salta and Chubut (oil refining).
The electric output of Argentina totaled over , of which about 37% was consumed by industrial activities.
Argentina has the largest railway system
in Latin America, with of operating lines , out of a full network of almost . This system links all 23 provinces plus Buenos Aires City, and connects with all neighbouring countries.
There are four incompatible gauges
in use; this forces virtually all interregional freight traffic to pass through Buenos Aires.
The system has been in decline since the 1940s: regularly running up large budgetary deficits, by 1991 it was transporting 1,400 times less goods than it did in 1973.
However, in recent years the system has experienced a greater degree of investment
from the state, in both commuter rail lines and long-distance lines, renewing rolling stock and infrastructure. In April 2015, by overwhelming majority the Argentine Senate
passed a law which re-created Ferrocarriles Argentinos
(2015), effectively re-nationalising the country's railways, a move which saw support from all major political parties on both sides of the political spectrum.
Buenos Aires, all provincial capitals except Ushuaia, and all medium-sized towns were interconnected by of paved roads, out of a total road network of . Most important cities are linked by a growing number of expressways
, including Buenos Aires–La Plata
, Córdoba–Villa Carlos Paz, Villa Mercedes–Mendoza, National Route 14
''General José Gervasio Artigas'' and Provincial Route 2 ''Juan Manuel Fangio''
, among others.
Nevertheless, this road infrastructure is still inadequate and cannot handle the sharply growing demand caused by deterioration of the railway system.
there were about of waterway
s, mostly comprising the La Plata, Paraná, Paraguay and Uruguay rivers, with Buenos Aires, Zárate
, Rosario, San Lorenzo, Santa Fe, Barranqueras
and San Nicolas de los Arroyos as the main fluvial port
Some of the largest sea port
s are La Plata
, Bahía Blanca, Mar del Plata
, Comodoro Rivadavia
, Puerto Deseado
, Puerto Madryn
, Ushuaia and San Antonio Oeste
Buenos Aires has historically been the most important port; however since the 1990s the Up-River port region has become dominant: stretching along of the Paraná river shore in Santa Fe province, it includes 17 ports and accounted for 50% of all exports.
there were 161 airports with paved runways out of more than a thousand.
The Ezeiza International Airport
, about from downtown Buenos Aires, is the largest in the country, followed by Cataratas del Iguazú
in Misiones, and El Plumerillo
, in the city of Buenos Aires, is the most important domestic airport.
Media and communications
Print media industry is highly developed in Argentina, with more than two hundred newspapers. The major national ones include ''Clarín
'' (centrist, Latin America's best-seller and the second most widely circulated in the Spanish-speaking world), ''La Nación
'' (centre-right, published since 1870), ''Página/12
'' (leftist, founded in 1987), the Buenos Aires Herald
(Latin America's most prestigious English language daily, liberal, dating back to 1876), ''La Voz del Interior
'' (centre, founded in 1904), and the ''Argentinisches Tageblatt
'' (German weekly, liberal, published since 1878)
Argentina began the world's first regular radio broadcasting
on 27 August 1920, when Richard Wagner
'' was aired by a team of medical students led by Enrique Telémaco Susini
in Buenos Aires' Teatro Coliseo
. there were 260 AM
and 1150 FM
registered radio stations in the country.
The Argentine television
industry is large, diverse and popular across Latin America, with many productions and TV format
s having been exported abroad. Since 1999 Argentines enjoy the highest availability of cable and satellite television in Latin America, totaling 87.4% of the country's households, a rate similar to those in the United States, Canada and Europe.
Argentina also had the highest coverage of networked telecommunications among Latin American powers: about 67% of its population had internet access and 137.2%, mobile phone subscriptions.
Science and technology
Argentines have received three Nobel Prize
s in the Sciences. Bernardo Houssay
, the first Latin American recipient, discovered the role of pituitary hormones
in regulating glucose
in animals, and shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
in 1947. Luis Leloir
discovered how organisms store energy converting glucose into glycogen
and the compounds which are fundamental in metabolizing carbohydrate
s, receiving the Nobel Prize in Chemistry
in 1970. César Milstein
did extensive research in antibodies
, sharing the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1984. Argentine research has led to treatments for heart disease
s and several forms of cancer. Domingo Liotta
designed and developed the first artificial heart
that was successfully implanted in a human being in 1969. René Favaloro
developed the techniques and performed the world's first coronary bypass surgery
Argentina's nuclear programme has been highly successful. In 1957 Argentina was the first country in Latin America to design and build a research reactor
with homegrown technology, the RA-1 Enrico Fermi
. This reliance in the development of own nuclear related technologies, instead of simply buying them abroad, was a constant of Argentina's nuclear programme conducted by the civilian National Atomic Energy Commission
(CNEA). Nuclear facilities with Argentine technology have been built in Peru, Algeria, Australia and Egypt. In 1983, the country admitted having the capability of producing weapon-grade uranium
, a major step needed to assemble nuclear weapon
s; since then, however, Argentina has pledged to use nuclear power only for peaceful purposes. As a member of the Board of Governors of the International Atomic Energy Agency
, Argentina has been a strong voice in support of nuclear non-proliferation efforts and is highly committed to global nuclear security. In 1974 it was the first country in Latin America to put in-line a commercial nuclear power plant, Atucha I
. Although the Argentine built parts for that station amounted to 10% of the total, the nuclear fuel it uses are since entirely built in the country. Later nuclear power stations employed a higher percentage of Argentine built components; Embalse
, finished in 1983, a 30% and the 2011 Atucha II
reactor a 40%.
Despite its modest budget and numerous setbacks, academics and the sciences in Argentina have enjoyed an international respect since the turn of the 1900s, when Luis Agote
devised the first safe and effective means of blood transfusion
as well as René Favaloro
, who was a pioneer in the improvement of the coronary artery bypass surgery
. Argentine scientists are still on the cutting edge in fields such as nanotechnology
, computer science
s, molecular biology, oncology, ecology and cardiology. Juan Maldacena
, an Argentine-American scientist, is a leading figure in string theory
Space research has also become increasingly active in Argentina. Argentine built satellites include LUSAT-1 (1990), Víctor-1 (1996), PEHUENSAT-1 (2007), and those developed by CONAE
, the Argentine space agency, of the SAC series. Argentina has its own satellite programme, nuclear power station designs (4th generation) and public nuclear energy company INVAP
, which provides several countries with nuclear reactors.
[Science and Education in Argentina]
Established in 1991, the CONAE
has since launched two satellites successfully and, in June 2009, secured an agreement with the European Space Agency
for the installation of a 35-m diameter antenna and other mission support facilities at the Pierre Auger Observatory
, the world's foremost cosmic ray
observatory. The facility will contribute to numerous ESA space probes, as well as CONAE's own, domestic research projects. Chosen from 20 potential sites and one of only three such ESA installations in the world, the new antenna will create a triangulation which will allow the ESA to ensure mission coverage around the clock
The country had 5.57 million visitors in 2013, ranking in terms of the international tourist arrivals as the top destination in South America
, and second in Latin America
Revenues from international tourists reached billion in 2013, down from billion in 2012.
The country's capital city, Buenos Aires
, is the most visited city in South America
. There are 30 National Parks of Argentina
including many World Heritage Sites
The 2010 census
counted 40,117,096 inhabitants, up from 36,260,130 in 2001. Argentina ranks third in South America in total population, fourth in Latin America and 33rd globally. Its population density of 15 persons per square kilometer of land area is well below the world average of 50 persons. The population growth rate in 2010 was an estimated 1.03% annually, with a birth rate of 17.7 live births per 1,000 inhabitants and a mortality rate of 7.4 deaths per 1,000 inhabitants. Since 2010, the crude net migration rate
has ranged from below zero to up to four immigrants per 1,000 inhabitants per year.
Argentina is in the midst of a demographic transition
to an older and slower-growing population. The proportion of people under 15 is 25.6%, a little below the world average of 28%, and the proportion of people 65 and older is relatively high at 10.8%. In Latin America this is second only to Uruguay
and well above the world average, which is currently 7%. Argentina has one of Latin America's lowest population growth rate
s as well as a comparatively low infant mortality rate
. Its birth rate of 2.3 children per woman is considerably below the high of 7.0 children born per woman in 1895, though still nearly twice as high as in Spain or Italy, which are culturally and demographically similar. The median age is 31.9 years and life expectancy
at birth is 77.14 years.
In 2010, Argentina became the first country in Latin America, the second in the Americas, and the tenth worldwide to legalize same-sex marriage.
Argentina is considered a country of immigrants.
Argentines usually refer to the country as a ''crisol de razas'' (crucible of races, or melting pot
In colonial times, the ethnic composition of Argentina was the result of the interaction of the pre-Columbian indigenous population with a colonizing population of Spanish origin and with sub-Saharan African slaves. Before the middle 19th century, the ethnic make up of Argentina was very similar to that of other countries of Hispanic America
Between 1857 and 1950 Argentina was the country with the second biggest immigration wave in the world, at 6.6 million, second only to the United States in the numbers of immigrants received (27 million) and ahead of other areas of new settlement like Canada, Brazil and Australia.
However, mass European immigration did not have the same impact in the whole country. According to the 1914 national census, 30% of Argentina's population was foreign-born, including 50% of the people in the city of Buenos Aires, but foreigners were only 2% in the provinces of Catamarca
and La Rioja
(North West region).
Strikingly, at those times, the national population doubled every two decades. This belief is endured in the popular saying ''"los argentinos descienden de los barcos"'' (Argentines descend from the ships). Therefore, most Argentines are descended from the 19th- and 20th-century immigrants of the great immigration wave to Argentina
with a great majority of these immigrants coming from diverse European countries, particularly Italy and Spain.
The majority of Argentines descend from multiple European ethnic groups, primarily of Italian
descent, with over 25 million Argentines (almost 60% of the population) having some partial Italian origins.
Argentina is home to a significant Arab
population; including those with partial descent, Arab Argentines
number 1.3 to 3.5 million, mostly of Syrian
origin. As in the United States, they are considered white
. The majority of Arab Argentines are Christians
belonging to the Maronite Church
, Roman Catholic
, Eastern Orthodox
and Eastern Rite Catholic Churches
. A minority are Muslims
, albeit the largest Muslim community in the Americas. The Asian
population in the country numbers around 180,000 individuals, most of whom are of Chinese
descent, although an older Japanese
community originating from the early 20th century still exists.
A 2010 study conducted on 218 individuals by the Argentine geneticist Daniel Corach
established that the genetic map of Argentina is composed of 79% from different European ethnicities (mainly Italian and Spanish), 18% of different indigenous ethnicities, and 4.3% of African ethnic groups; 63.6% of the tested group had at least one ancestor who was Indigenous
From the 1970s, immigration has mostly been coming from Bolivia
, with smaller numbers from the Dominican Republic
, Ecuador and Romania
. The Argentine government estimates that 750,000 inhabitants lack official documents and has launched a program to encourage illegal immigrants to declare their status in return for two-year residence visas—so far over 670,000 applications have been processed under the program.
* Homburguer et al., 2015, PLOS One
Genetics: 67% European, 28% Amerindian, 4% African and 1,4% Asian.
* Avena et al., 2012, PLOS One
Genetics: 65% European, 31% Amerindian, and 4% African.
** Buenos Aires Province: 76% European and 24% others.
** South Zone (Chubut Province): 54% European and 46% others.
** Northeast Zone (Misiones, Corrientes, Chaco & Formosa provinces): 54% European and 46% others.
** Northwest Zone (Salta Province): 33% European and 67% others.
* Oliveira, 2008, on Universidade de Brasília
: 60% European, 31% Amerindian and 9% African.
* National Geographic
: 52% European, 27% Amerindian ancestry, 9% African and 9% others.
The ''de facto
'' official language is Spanish
, spoken by almost all Argentines.
The country is the largest Spanish-speaking society
that universally employs ''voseo
'', the use of the pronoun
''vos'' instead of ''tú'' ("you"), which imposes the use of alternative verb forms as well.
Due to the extensive Argentine geography, Spanish has a strong variation among regions, although the prevalent dialect is ''Rioplatense
'', primarily spoken in the La Plata Basin and accented similarly to the Neapolitan language
. Italian and other European immigrants influenced ''Lunfardo
''—the regional slang—permeating the vernacular vocabulary of other Latin American countries as well.
There are several second-languages in widespread use among the Argentine population:
* English, taught since elementary school
. 42.3% of Argentines claim to speak it, with 15.4% of them claiming to have a high level of language comprehension.
, by 1.5 million people.
, specially its Northern Levantine dialect
, by one million people.
* Standard German
, by 400,000 people.
, by 200,000 people, the largest Jewish population
in Latin America and 7th in the world.
, by 200,000 people, mostly in Corrientes (where it is official ''de jure'') and Misiones.
, by 174,000 people.
, by 65,000 people, mostly in the Northwest.
, by 53,700 people, mainly in Chaco where, along with Kom
, it is official ''de jure''.
* Vlax Romani
, by 52,000 people.
, by 40,000 people
, by 32,000 people.
, by 30,000 people, mostly in the Northwest.
, by 27,000 people.
, 5,000 people in Patagonia. Some districts have incorporated it as an educational language.
The Constitution guarantees freedom of religion
. Although it enforces neither an official nor a state faith, it gives Roman Catholicism
a preferential status.
According to a 2008 CONICET poll, Argentines were 76.5% Catholic
, 11.3% Agnostic
s and Atheist
s, 9% Evangelical Protestants
, 1.2% Jehovah's Witnesses
, and 0.9% Mormon
s, while 1.2% followed other religions, including Islam
. These figures appear to have changed quite significantly in recent years: data recorded in 2017 indicated that Catholics made up 66% of the population, indicating a drop of 10.5% in nine years, and the nonreligious in the country standing at 21% of the population, indicating an almost doubling over the same period.
The country is home to both the largest Muslim
and largest Jewish
communities in Latin America, the latter being the seventh most populous in the world. Argentina is a member of the International Holocaust Remembrance Alliance
Argentines show high individualization and de-institutionalization of religious beliefs; 23.8% claim to always attend religious services; 49.1% seldom do and 26.8% never do.
On 13 March 2013, Argentine Jorge Mario Bergoglio
, the Cardinal Archbishop of Buenos Aires
, was elected Bishop of Rome
and Supreme Pontiff
of the Catholic Church
. He took the name "Francis
", and he became the first Pope from either the Americas
or from the Southern Hemisphere
; he is the first Pope born outside of Europe since the election
of Pope Gregory III
(who was Syrian
) in 741.
Argentina is highly urbanized, with 92% of its population living in cities: the ten largest metropolitan areas account for half of the population.
About 3 million people live in the city of Buenos Aires, and including the Greater Buenos Aires metropolitan area it totals around 13 million, making it one of the largest urban areas in the world.
The metropolitan areas of Córdoba and Rosario have around 1.3 million inhabitants each.
Mendoza, San Miguel de Tucumán, La Plata, Mar del Plata, Salta and Santa Fe have at least half a million people each.
The population is unequally distributed: about 60% live in the Pampas region (21% of the total area), including 15 million people in Buenos Aires province. The provinces of Córdoba and Santa Fe, and the city of Buenos Aires have 3 million each. Seven other provinces have over one million people each: Mendoza, Tucumán, Entre Ríos, Salta, Chaco, Corrientes and Misiones. With , Tucumán is the only Argentine province more densely populated than the world average; by contrast, the southern province of Santa Cruz has around .
The Argentine education system consists of four levels:
* An initial level for children between 45 days to 5 years old, with the last two years being compulsory.
* An elementary or lower school
mandatory level lasting 6 or 7 years. the literacy rate
* A secondary or high school
mandatory level lasting 5 or 6 years. 38.5% of people over age 20 had completed secondary school.
* A higher level
, divided in tertiary, university and post-graduate sub-levels. there were 47 national public universities
across the country, as well as 46 private ones. 7.1% of people over age 20 had graduated from university.
The public universities of Buenos Aires
, La Plata
, and the National Technological University
are some of the most important.
The Argentine state guarantees universal, secular and free-of-charge public education for all levels. Responsibility for educational supervision is organized at the federal and individual provincial states. In the last decades the role of the private sector has grown across all educational stages.
Health care is provided through a combination of employer and labour union-sponsored plans (''Obras Sociales''), government insurance plans, public hospitals and clinics and through private health insurance plans. Health care cooperatives number over 300 (of which 200 are related to labour unions
) and provide health care for half the population; the national INSSJP (popularly known as PAMI) covers nearly all of the five million senior citizens.
There are more than 153,000 hospital beds, 121,000 physicians and 37,000 dentists (ratios comparable to developed nations
[Estadisticas Vitales – Informacionn Basica Año2008]
. Ministry of Health (December 2009)
The relatively high access to medical care has historically resulted in mortality patterns and trends similar to developed nations': from 1953 to 2005, deaths from cardiovascular disease
increased from 20% to 23% of the total, those from tumors
from 14% to 20%, respiratory
problems from 7% to 14%, digestive
maladies (non-infectious) from 7% to 11%, strokes a steady 7%, injuries, 6%, and infectious
diseases, 4%. Causes related to senility
led to many of the rest. Infant deaths have fallen from 19% of all deaths in 1953 to 3% in 2005.
[''UN Demographic Yearbook. 1957.'']
The availability of health care has also reduced infant mortality
from 70 per 1000 live births in 1948
[''UN Demographic Yearbook. Historical Statistics. 1997''.]
to 12.1 in 2009
and raised life expectancy
at birth from 60 years to 76.
Though these figures compare favorably with global averages, they fall short of levels in developed nations and in 2006, Argentina ranked fourth in Latin America.
Argentina is a multicultural country
with significant European influences. Modern Argentine culture has been largely influenced by Italian
and other European immigration from France, United Kingdom
, and Germany among others. Its cities are largely characterized by both the prevalence of people of European descent, and of conscious imitation of American and European styles in fashion, architecture and design.
[Luongo, Michael. ''Frommer's Argentina''. Wiley Publishing, 2007.]
Museums, cinemas, and galleries are abundant in all the large urban centres, as well as traditional establishments such as literary bars, or bars offering live music
of a variety of genres although there are lesser elements of Amerindian
influences, particularly in the fields of music and art. The other big influence is the gaucho
s and their traditional country lifestyle of self-reliance. Finally, indigenous American traditions have been absorbed into the general cultural milieu.
Argentine writer Ernesto Sabato
has reflected on the nature of the culture of Argentina as follows:
Although Argentina's rich literary history began around 1550, it reached full independence with Esteban Echeverría
's ''El Matadero'', a romantic
landmark that played a significant role in the development of 19th century's Argentine narrative, split by the ideological divide between the popular, federalist epic of José Hernández
' ''Martín Fierro
'' and the elitist and cultured discourse of Sarmiento
's masterpiece, ''Facundo
movement advanced into the 20th century including exponents such as Leopoldo Lugones
and poet Alfonsina Storni
; it was followed by Vanguardism
, with Ricardo Güiraldes
's ''Don Segundo Sombra
'' as an important reference.
Jorge Luis Borges
, Argentina's most acclaimed writer and one of the foremost figures in the history of literature
, found new ways of looking at the modern world in metaphor
and philosophical debate and his influence has extended to authors all over the globe. Short stories such as ''Ficciones
'' and ''The Aleph
'' are among his most famous works. He was a friend and collaborator of Adolfo Bioy Casares
, who wrote one of the most praised science fiction novel
s, ''The Invention of Morel
, one of the leading members of the Latin American Boom
and a major name in 20th century literature, influenced an entire generation of writers in the Americas and Europe.
A remarkable episode in the Argentine literature's history is the social and literarial dialectica between the so-called Florida Group
named this way because its members used to meet together at the Richmond Cafeteria
at Florida street and published in the Martin Fierro magazine
, like Jorge Luis Borges
, Leopoldo Marechal
, Antonio Berni
(artist), among others, versus the Boedo Group
of Roberto Arlt
(tango composer), that used to meet at the
and published their works with the Editorial Claridad
, with both the cafe and the publisher located at the Boedo Avenue.
Other highly regarded Argentine writers, poets and essay
ists include Estanislao del Campo
, Eugenio Cambaceres
, Pedro Bonifacio Palacios
, Hugo Wast
, Benito Lynch
, Enrique Banchs
, Oliverio Girondo
, Ezequiel Martínez Estrada
, Victoria Ocampo
, Leopoldo Marechal
, Silvina Ocampo
, Roberto Arlt
, Eduardo Mallea
, Manuel Mujica Láinez
, Ernesto Sábato
, Silvina Bullrich
, Rodolfo Walsh
, María Elena Walsh
, Tomás Eloy Martínez
, Manuel Puig
, Alejandra Pizarnik
, and Osvaldo Soriano
, a ''Rioplatense
'' musical genre with European and African influences, is one of Argentina's international cultural symbols.
The golden age of tango (1930 to mid-1950s) mirrored that of jazz
in the United States, featuring large orchestras like those of Osvaldo Pugliese
, Aníbal Troilo
, Francisco Canaro
, Julio de Caro
and Juan d'Arienzo
After 1955, virtuoso Astor Piazzolla
popularized ''Nuevo tango
'', a subtler and more intellectual trend for the genre.
Tango enjoys worldwide popularity nowadays with groups like Gotan Project
Argentina developed strong classical music and dance scenes that gave rise to renowned artists such as Alberto Ginastera
, composer; Alberto Lysy
, violinist; Martha Argerich
and Eduardo Delgado
, pianists; Daniel Barenboim
, pianist and symphonic orchestra
director; José Cura
and Marcelo Álvarez
, tenors; and to ballet dancer
s Jorge Donn
, José Neglia
, Norma Fontenla
, ''Maximiliano Guerra'', Paloma Herrera
, Marianela Núñez
, Iñaki Urlezaga
and Julio Bocca
A national Argentine folk style emerged in the 1930s from dozens of regional musical genres and went to influence the entirety of Latin American music
. Some of its interpreters, like Atahualpa Yupanqui
and Mercedes Sosa
, achieved worldwide acclaim.
The romantic ballad
genre included singers of international fame such as Sandro de América
developed as a distinct musical style in the mid-1960s, when Buenos Aires and Rosario became cradles of aspiring musicians.
Founding bands like Los Gatos
, Sui Generis
were followed by Seru Giran
, Los Abuelos de la Nada
, Soda Stereo
and Patricio Rey y sus Redonditos de Ricota
, with prominent artists including Gustavo Cerati
, Litto Nebbia
, Andrés Calamaro
, Luis Alberto Spinetta
, Charly García
, Fito Páez
and León Gieco
Tenor saxophonist Leandro "Gato" Barbieri
and composer and big band
conductor Lalo Schifrin
are among the most internationally successful Argentine jazz musicians.
Another popular musical genre at present is Cumbia villera
is a subgenre of cumbia
music originated in the slums of Argentina and popularized all over Latin America
and the Latin communities abroad.
Buenos Aires is one of the great theatre capitals of the world, with a scene of international caliber centered on Corrientes Avenue
, "the street that never sleeps", sometimes referred to as an intellectual Broadway
in Buenos Aires. Teatro Colón
is a global landmark for opera
and classical performances; its acoustics are considered among the world's top five. Other important theatrical venues include Teatro General San Martín
, both in Buenos Aires City; Argentino
in La Plata, El Círculo
in Rosario, Independencia
in Mendoza, and Libertador
, Roberto Cossa
, Marco Denevi
, Carlos Gorostiza
, and Alberto Vaccarezza
are a few of the most prominent Argentine playwrights.
Argentine theatre traces its origins to Viceroy Juan José de Vértiz y Salcedo
's creation of the colony's first theatre, ''La Ranchería'', in 1783. In this stage, in 1786, a tragedy entitled ''Siripo'' had its premiere. ''Siripo'' is now a lost work (only the second act is conserved), and can be considered the first Argentine stage play, because it was written by Buenos Aires poet Manuel José de Lavardén, it was premiered in Buenos Aires, and its plot was inspired by an historical episode of the early colonization of the Río de la Plata Basin
: the destruction of Sancti Spiritu
colony by aboriginals in 1529. ''La Ranchería'' theatre operated until its destruction in a fire in 1792. The second theatre stage in Buenos Aires was Teatro Coliseo
, opened in 1804 during the term of Viceroy Rafael de Sobremonte
. It was the nation's longest-continuously operating stage. The musical creator of the Argentine National Anthem, Blas Parera
, earned fame as a theatre score writer during the early 19th century. The genre suffered during the regime of Juan Manuel de Rosas
, though it flourished alongside the economy later in the century. The national government gave Argentine theatre its initial impulse with the establishment of the Colón Theatre
, in 1857, which hosted classical and operatic, as well as stage performances. Antonio Petalardo's successful 1871 gambit on the opening of the Teatro Opera
, inspired others to fund the growing art in Argentina.
The Argentine film industry has historically been one of the three most developed in Latin American cinema
, along with those produced in Mexico
. Started in 1896; by the early 1930s it had already become Latin America's leading film producer, a place it kept until the early 1950s. The world's first animated feature films
were made and released in Argentina, by cartoonist Quirino Cristiani
, in 1917 and 1918.
Argentine films have achieved worldwide recognition: the country has won two Academy Awards for Best Foreign Language Film
, for ''The Official Story
'' (1985) and ''The Secret in Their Eyes
'' (2009), from seven nominations:
* ''The Truce
'' (''La tregua'') in 1974
'' in 1984
* ''The Official Story
'' (''La historia oficial'') in 1985
'' in 1998
* ''Son of the Bride
'' (''El hijo de la novia'') in 2001
* ''The Secret in Their Eyes
'' (''El secreto de sus ojos'') in 2009
* ''Wild Tales
'' (''Relatos salvajes'') in 2015
In addition, Argentine composers Luis Enrique Bacalov
and Gustavo Santaolalla
have been honored with Academy Awards for Best Original Score
, and Armando Bó
and Nicolás Giacobone
shared in the Academy Award for Best Original Screenplay
for 2014. Also, the Argentine French
actress Bérénice Bejo
received a nomination for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress
in 2011 and won the César Award for Best Actress
and won the Best Actress
award in the Cannes Film Festival
for her role in the film ''The Past
Argentina also has won seventeen Goya Awards for Best Spanish Language Foreign Film
with ''A King and His Movie
'' (1986), ''A Place in the World
'' (1992), ''Gatica, el mono
'' (1993), ''Autumn Sun
'' (1996), ''Ashes of Paradise
'' (1997), ''The Lighthouse
'' (1998), ''Burnt Money
'' (2000), ''The Escape
'' (2001), ''Intimate Stories
'' (2003), ''Blessed by Fire
'' (2005), ''The Hands
'' (2006), ''XXY
'' (2007), ''The Secret in Their Eyes
'' (2009), ''Chinese Take-Away
'' (2011), ''Wild Tales
'' (2014), ''The Clan
'' (2015) and ''The Distinguished Citizen
'' (2016), being by far the most awarded country in Latin America
with twenty-four nominations.
Many other Argentine films have been acclaimed by the international critique: ''Camila
'' (1984), ''Man Facing Southeast
'' (1986), ''A Place in the World
'' (1992), ''Pizza, Beer, and Cigarettes
'' (1997), ''Nine Queens
'' (2000), ''A Red Bear
'' (2002), ''The Motorcycle Diaries
'' (2004), ''The Aura
'' (2005), ''Chinese Take-Away
'' (2011) and ''Wild Tales
'' (2014) being some of them.
about 100 full-length motion pictures were being created annually.
Some of the best-known Argentine painters are Cándido López
and Florencio Molina Campos
); Ernesto de la Cárcova
and Eduardo Sívori
); Fernando Fader
); Pío Collivadino
, Atilio Malinverno
and Cesáreo Bernaldo de Quirós
); Emilio Pettoruti
); Julio Barragán
and Cubism) Antonio Berni
); Roberto Aizenberg
and Xul Solar
); Gyula Košice
); Eduardo Mac Entyre
); Luis Seoane
, ''Carlos Torrallardona'', ''Luis Aquino'', ''Alfredo Gramajo Gutiérrez'' (Modernism
); Lucio Fontana
); Tomás Maldonado
, Guillermo Kuitca
); León Ferrari
, Marta Minujín
); Gustavo Cabral
), and Fabián Pérez (Neoemotionalism)
In 1946 Gyula Košice and others created The Madí Movement
in Argentina, which then spread to Europe and United States, where it had a significant impact.
Tomás Maldonado was one of the main theorists of the Ulm Model
of design education, still highly influential globally.
Other Argentine artists of worldwide fame include Adolfo Bellocq
, whose lithograph
s have been influential since the 1920s, and Benito Quinquela Martín
, the quintessential port painter, inspired by the immigrant-bound La Boca
Internationally laureate sculptors Erminio Blotta
, Lola Mora
and Rogelio Yrurtia
authored many of the classical evocative monuments of the Argentine cityscape.
The colonization brought the Spanish Baroque architecture
, which can still be appreciated in its simpler ''Rioplatense'' style in the reduction
of San Ignacio Miní
, the Cathedral of Córdoba
, and the Cabildo of Luján. Italian and French influences increased at the beginning of the 19th century with strong eclectic
overtones that gave the local architecture a unique feeling.
Numerous Argentine architects have enriched their own country's cityscape and those around the world: Juan Antonio Buschiazzo
helped popularize Beaux-Arts architecture
and Francisco Gianotti
combined Art Nouveau
styles, each adding flair to Argentine cities during the early 20th century. Francisco Salamone
and Viktor Sulčič
left an Art Deco
legacy, and Alejandro Bustillo
created a prolific body of Neoclassical
and Rationalist architecture
. Alberto Prebisch
and Amancio Williams
were highly influenced by Le Corbusier
, while Clorindo Testa
introduced Brutalist architecture
locally. César Pelli
's and Patricio Pouchulu
creations have graced cities worldwide: Pelli's 1980s throwbacks to the Art Deco glory of the 1920s made him one of the world's most prestigious architects, with the Norwest Center
and the Petronas Towers
among his most celebrated creations.
'' is the national sport
an ancient horseback game locally originated in the early 1600s and predecessor of horseball
The most popular sport is football
. Along with Brazil
, the men's national team
is the only one to have won the most important international triplet: World Cup
, Confederations Cup
, and the Olympic Gold Medal
. It has also won 14 Copas América
, 7 Pan American Gold Medals
and many other trophies. Alfredo Di Stéfano
, Diego Maradona
and Lionel Messi
are among the best players in the game's history.
The country's women's field hockey team ''Las Leonas''
, is one of the world's most successful with four Olympic medals
, two World Cups
, a World League
and seven Champions Trophy
. Luciana Aymar
is recognized as the best female player in the history of the sport,
being the only player to have received the FIH Player of the Year Award
is a very popular sport. The men's national team
is the only one in the FIBA Americas
zone that has won the quintuplet crown: World Championship
, Olympic Gold Medal
, Diamond Ball
, Americas Championship
, and Pan American Gold Medal
. It has also conquered 13 South American Championships
, and many other tournaments.
, Luis Scola
, Andrés Nocioni
, Fabricio Oberto
, Pablo Prigioni
, Carlos Delfino
and Juan Ignacio Sánchez
are a few of the country's most acclaimed players, all of them part of the NBA
. Argentina hosted the Basketball World Cup
in 1950 and 1990.
is another popular sport in Argentina. the men's national team
, known as 'Los Pumas' has competed at the Rugby World Cup
each time it has been held, achieving their highest ever result in 2007
when they came third. Since 2012
the Los Pumas have competed against Australia
, New Zealand
& South Africa
in The Rugby Championship
, the premier international Rugby competition in the Southern Hemisphere. Since 2009 the secondary men's national team
known as the 'Jaguares' has competed against the US
, and Uruguay
first teams in the Americas Rugby Championship
, which Los Jaguares have won six out of eight times it has taken place.
Argentina has produced some of the most formidable champions for Boxing
, including Carlos Monzón
, the best middleweight
, one of the most decorated flyweight
boxers of all times; Horacio Accavallo
, the former WBA
world flyweight champion; Víctor Galíndez
, record holder for consecutive world light heavyweight
title defenses and Nicolino Locche
, nicknamed "The Untouchable" for his masterful defense; they are all inductees into the International Boxing Hall of Fame
has been quite popular among people of all ages. Guillermo Vilas
is the greatest Latin American player of the Open Era
, while Gabriela Sabatini
is the most accomplished Argentine female player of all time—having reached #3 in the WTA Ranking
, are both inductees into the International Tennis Hall of Fame
Argentina reigns undisputed in Polo
, having won more international championships than any other country and been seldom beaten since the 1930s. The Argentine Polo Championship
is the sport's most important international team trophy. The country is home to most of the world's top players, among them Adolfo Cambiaso
, the best in Polo history.
Historically, Argentina has had a strong showing within Auto racing
. Juan Manuel Fangio
was five times Formula One
world champion under four different teams, winning 102 of his 184 international races, and is widely ranked as the greatest driver of all time. Other distinguished racers were Oscar Alfredo Gálvez
, Juan Gálvez
, José Froilán González
and Carlos Reutemann
Besides many of the pasta, sausage and dessert dishes common to continental Europe, Argentines enjoy a wide variety of Indigenous and Criollo
creations, including ''empanada
s'' (a small stuffed pastry), ''locro
'' (a mixture of corn, beans, meat, bacon, onion, and gourd), ''humita
'' and ''mate
The country has the highest consumption of red meat
in the world, traditionally prepared as ''asado
'', the Argentine barbecue. It is made with various types of meats, often including ''chorizo
, and blood sausage
Common desserts include ''facturas
s and pancake
s filled with ''dulce de leche
'' (a sort of milk caramel
es'' (shortbread cookies sandwiched together with chocolate, ''dulce de leche'' or a fruit paste), and ''tortas fritas
'' (fried cakes)
, one of the world's finest, is an integral part of the local menu. Malbec
, Cabernet Sauvignon
are some of the most sought-after varieties
Some of Argentina's national symbols are defined by law, while others are traditions lacking formal designation.
The Flag of Argentina
consists of three horizontal stripes equal in width and colored light blue, white and light blue, with the Sun of May
in the centre of the middle white stripe. The flag was designed by Manuel Belgrano
in 1812; it was adopted as a national symbol on 20 July 1816. The Coat of Arms
, which represents the union of the provinces, came into use in 1813 as the seal
for official documents.
The Argentine National Anthem
was written by Vicente López y Planes
with music by Blas Parera
, and was adopted in 1813.
The National Cockade
was first used during the May Revolution
of 1810 and was made official two years later. The Virgin of Luján
is Argentina's patron saint
, living across most of the national territory, was chosen as the national bird
in 1928 after a lower school survey.
is the national floral emblem
and national tree
while the ''quebracho colorado''
is the national forest tree.
is known as the national gemstone.
The national sport is ''pato
'', an equestrian
game that was popular among gauchos.
is the national liquor
, and ''mate
'', the national infusion
'' and ''locro
'' are considered the national dish
* Index of Argentina-related articles
* Outline of Argentina
National Institute of Tourism PromotionArgentina
''The World Factbook
''. Central Intelligence Agency
at the Latin American Network Information Center
at the University Libraries – University of Colorado Boulder
Key Development Forecasts for Argentina
at International Futures
Category:1816 establishments in South America
Category:Countries in South America
Category:Federal constitutional republics
Category:Former Spanish colonies
Category:Southern Cone countries
Category:Member states of Mercosur
Category:Member states of the United Nations
Category:Spanish-speaking countries and territories
Category:States and territories established in 1816