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Argentina (), officially the Argentine Republic ( es, link=no, República Argentina), is a country located mostly in the southern half of
South America South America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven geographical regions are commonly regarded as continent ...

South America
. Sharing the bulk of the
Southern Cone The Southern Cone ( es, Cono Sur, pt, Cone Sul) is a geographic and cultural region composed of the southernmost areas of South America South America is a continent entirely in the Western Hemisphere and mostly in the Southern Hemisp ...
with
Chile Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a country in the western part of South America South America is a entirely in the and mostly in the , with a relatively small portion in the . It can also be described as the southern ...

Chile
to the west, the country is also bordered by
Bolivia Bolivia ; ay, Wuliwya ; : ''Puliwya'' , officially the Plurinational State of Bolivia, is a located in western-central . The constitutional capital is , while the and executive capital is . The largest city and principal industrial ce ...

Bolivia
and
Paraguay Paraguay (; ), officially the Republic of Paraguay ( es, República del Paraguay, links=no; gn, Tetã Paraguái, links=no), is a country in South America South America is a entirely in the and mostly in the , with a relatively sma ...

Paraguay
to the north,
Brazil Brazil ( pt, Brasil; ), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (Portuguese: ), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. At 8.5 million square kilometers (3.2 million square miles) and with over 211 mill ...

Brazil
to the northeast,
Uruguay Uruguay (; ; pt, Uruguai), officially the Oriental Republic of Uruguay ( es, República Oriental del Uruguay), is a country in South America South America is a continent entirely in the Western Hemisphere and mostly in the Southern He ...

Uruguay
and the South
Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
to the east, and the
Drake Passage Image:Drake-Passage profile hg.png, Depth profile with salinity and temperature for surface The Drake Passage (referred to as Mar de Hoces Hoces Sea"in Spain and other Spanish speaking countries) is the body of water between South America's ...
to the south. With a mainland area of , Argentina is the eighth-largest country in the world, the fourth largest in the
Americas The Americas (also collectively called America) is a landmass comprising the totality of North North is one of the four compass points or cardinal directions. It is the opposite of south and is perpendicular to East and West. ''North'' ...

Americas
, the second largest in South America after
Brazil Brazil ( pt, Brasil; ), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (Portuguese: ), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. At 8.5 million square kilometers (3.2 million square miles) and with over 211 mill ...

Brazil
, and the largest
Spanish-speaking Hispanophone and Hispanic refers to anything relating to the speech of Spain (the ''Hispanosphere''). In a cultural, rather than merely linguistic sense, the notion of "Hispanophone" goes further than the above definition. The Hispanic culture is t ...
nation by area. The
sovereign state A sovereign state is a political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective identity, who are organized by some form of Institutionalisation, institutionalized social relation, social relatio ...
is subdivided into twenty-three
province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, are g ...

province
s ( es, provincias, singular ''provincia'') and one
autonomous city Autonomous city is a type of autonomous administrative division. Argentina The 1994 amendment of the Argentine Constitution granted Buenos Aires Buenos Aires ( or ; ), officially Autonomous City of Buenos Aires, is the Capital city, capital a ...
(''ciudad autónoma''),
Buenos Aires Buenos Aires ( or ; ), officially Autonomous City of Buenos Aires, is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or cap ...

Buenos Aires
, which is the
federal capitalA federal capital is a political entity, often a municipality or capital city A capital or capital city is the municipality holding primary status in a Department (country subdivision), department, country, Constituent state, state, province, or ...
of the nation ( es, Capital Federal, links=no) as decided by
Congress Congresses are formal meetings of the representatives of different countries A country is a distinct territorial body or political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective identity, ...
. The provinces and the capital have their own constitutions, but exist under a
federal system Federalism is a mixed or compound mode of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a State (polity), state. In the case of its broad associative definition, government norm ...
. Argentina claims sovereignty over
part of Antarctica
part of Antarctica
, the
Falkland Islands The Falkland Islands (; es, Islas Malvinas, ) are an archipelago An archipelago ( ), sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection of island An island (or isle) is an isolated piece ...
( es, Islas Malvinas, links=no), and
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands ) , anthem = "God Save the Queen" , song_type = , song = , image_map = South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands in United Kingdom.svg , map_caption = Location of South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands in the southern Atlantic Oce ...
. The earliest recorded human presence in modern-day Argentina dates back to the
Paleolithic The Paleolithic or Palaeolithic or Palæolithic (), also called the Old Stone Age (from Greek palaios - old, lithos - stone), is a period in prehistory Prehistory, also known as pre-literary history, is the period of human history ...
period. The
Inca Empire The Inca Empire, also known as Incan Empire and the Inka Empire, and at the time known as the Realm of the Four Parts,,  "four parts together" was the largest empire in pre-Columbian America. The administrative, political and military c ...

Inca Empire
expanded to the northwest of the country in Pre-Columbian times. The country has its roots in
Spanish colonization The Spanish Empire ( es, Imperio Español; la, Imperium Hispanicum), historically known as the Hispanic Monarchy ( es, Monarquía Hispánica) and as the Catholic Monarchy ( es, Monarquía Católica), was a colonial empire governed by Spain that ...

Spanish colonization
of the region during the 16th century. Argentina rose as the successor state of the
Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata The Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata ( es, Virreinato del Río de la Plata, meaning "River of the Silver", also called "Viceroyalty A viceroyalty was an entity headed by a viceroy. It dates back to the Spanish colonization of the Americas ...
, a Spanish overseas viceroyalty founded in 1776. The
declaration Declaration may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''Declaration'' (book), a self-published electronic pamphlet by Michael Hardt and Antonio Negri * ''The Declaration'' (novel), a 2008 children's novel by Gemma Malley Music ...
and fight for independence (1810–1818) was followed by an extended civil war that lasted until 1861, culminating in the country's reorganization as a
federation A federation (also known as a federal state) is a political entity A polity is an identifiable political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with Decision-making, making decisions in Social group, groups, ...

federation
of
provinces A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, are g ...
with
Buenos Aires Buenos Aires ( or ; ), officially Autonomous City of Buenos Aires, is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or cap ...

Buenos Aires
as its capital city. The country thereafter enjoyed relative peace and stability, with several waves of European immigration, mainly
Italians Italians ( it, italiani ) are a Romance Romance (from Vulgar Latin , "in the Roman language", i.e., "Latin") may refer to: Common meanings * Romance (love) Romance or Romantic love is an emotional feeling of love for, or a strong att ...
and
Spaniards Spaniards, or Spanish people, are a predominantly Romance Romance (from Vulgar Latin , "in the Roman language", i.e., "Latin") may refer to: Common meanings * Romance (love) Romance or Romantic love is an emotional feeling of love for, ...
, radically reshaping its
cultural Culture () is an umbrella term which encompasses the social behavior Social behavior is behavior among two or more organisms within the same species, and encompasses any behavior in which one member affects the other. This is due to an int ...
and
demographic Demography (from prefix ''demo-'' from Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the used in and the from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It is often roughly divided into the following periods: (), Dark Ages (), the period ...
outlook; 62.5% of the population has full or partial Italian ancestry, and the Argentine culture has significant connections to the
Italian culture Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of delimited by the and surrounding it, whose territory largely coincides with the . Italy is located in the c ...
. The almost-unparalleled increase in prosperity led to Argentina becoming the seventh wealthiest nation in the world by the early 20th century. According to the Maddison Historical Statistics Project, Argentina had the world's highest
real GDP Real gross domestic product (real GDP) is a macroeconomic measure of the value of economic output adjusted for price changes (i.e. inflation or deflation). This adjustment transforms the money-value measure, nominal GDP, into an index Index m ...
per capita in 1895 and 1896, and was consistently in the top ten before at least 1920. Currently, it is ranked 61st in the world. Following the
Great Depression The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression An economic depression is a sustained, long-term downturn in economic activity in one or more economies. It is a more severe economic downturn than a economic recession, recess ...
in the 1930s, Argentina descended into political instability and economic decline that pushed it back into underdevelopment, although it remained among the fifteen richest countries for several decades. Following the death of President
Juan Perón Juan Domingo Perón (, , ; 8 October 1895 – 1 July 1974) was an Argentine Army general and politician. After serving in several government positions, including Minister of Labour and Vice President A vice president (in British English: ...
in 1974, his widow and vice president, Isabel Martínez de Perón, ascended to the presidency. She was overthrown in 1976 by a
military dictatorship A military dictatorship is a dictatorship in which the military exerts complete or substantial control over political authority, and the dictator is often a high-ranked military officer. The reverse situation is to have civilian control of the m ...
. The military government persecuted and murdered numerous political critics, activists, and leftists in the
Dirty War The Dirty War ( es, Guerra sucia) is the name used by the military junta or civic-military dictatorship of Argentina ( es, dictadura cívico-militar de Argentina, links=no) for the period of state terrorism in Argentina from 1974 to 1983 as ...
, a period of
state terrorism State terrorism refers to acts of terrorism Terrorism is, in the broadest sense, the use of intentional violence to achieve political aims. It is used in this regard primarily to refer to violence during peacetime or in the context of war ...
and civil unrest that lasted over until the election of
Raúl Alfonsín
Raúl Alfonsín
as president in 1983. Argentina is a
developing country A developing country is a sovereign state A sovereign state is a polity, political entity represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area. International law defines sovereign states as having a perman ...
and ranks 46th on the
Human Development Index The Human Development Index (HDI) is a statistic composite index of life expectancy Life expectancy is a statistical measure of the average time an organism is expected to live, based on the year of its birth, its current age, and ot ...
, the second highest in
Latin America * ht, Amerik Latin, link=no * pt, América Latina, link=no , image = Latin America (orthographic projection).svg , area = , population = ( est.) , density = , ethnic_groups = , ethnic_groups_year = 2018 , ethnic ...

Latin America
after
Chile Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a country in the western part of South America South America is a entirely in the and mostly in the , with a relatively small portion in the . It can also be described as the southern ...

Chile
. It is a
regional power In international relations since the late 20th century, a regional power is a term used for a state that has power Power typically refers to: * Power (physics) In physics, power is the amount of energy transferred or converted per unit ti ...
in Latin America and retains its historic status as a
middle power In international relations The field of international relations dates from the time of the Ancient Greece, Greek historian Thucydides. International relations (IR), international affairs (IA) or international studies (IS) is the scienti ...
in international affairs. Argentina maintains the second largest economy in
South America South America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven geographical regions are commonly regarded as continent ...

South America
, the third-largest in Latin America, the fifth largest in the Americas, and is a member of G-15 and
G20 The G20 or Group of Twenty is an intergovernmental forum comprising 19 countries and the European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of Member state of the European Union, member states that are located ...

G20
. It is also a founding member of the
United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization aiming to maintain international peace and international security, security, develop friendly relations among nations, achieve international cooperation, and be a centre for harm ...

United Nations
,
World Bank The World Bank is an international financial institution An international financial institution (IFI) is a financial institution that has been established (or chartered) by more than one country, and hence is subject to international law. Its o ...

World Bank
,
World Trade Organization The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an intergovernmental organization An intergovernmental organization (IGO) is an organization composed primarily of sovereign states (referred to as ''member states''), or of other organizations through ...
,
Mercosur Mercosur (in Spanish), Mercosul (in Portuguese), or Ñemby Ñemuha (in Guarani), officially Southern Common Market,, pt, link=no, Mercado Comum do Sul, gn, link=no, Ñemby Ñemuha is a South American South America is a continent ...

Mercosur
,
Community of Latin American and Caribbean States The Community of Latin American and Caribbean States (CELAC), french: link=no, Communauté des États latino-américains et caribéens, nl, Gemeenschap van Latijns-Amerikaanse en Caraïbische Staten is a regional bloc of Latin American and Ca ...

Community of Latin American and Caribbean States
and the
Organization of Ibero-American States The Organization of Ibero-American States ( es, Organización de Estados Iberoamericanos, pt, Organização dos Estados Ibero-americanos; abbreviated as OEI), formally the Organization of Ibero-American States for Education, Science and Culture, ...
.


Name and etymology

The description of the region by the word ''Argentina'' has been found on a Venetian map in 1536. In English, the name "Argentina" comes from the
Spanish language Spanish ( or , ) is a Romance language The Romance languages, less commonly Latin or Neo-Latin languages, are the modern languages that evolved from Vulgar Latin Vulgar Latin, also known as Popular or Colloquial Latin is a range of inform ...

Spanish language
; however, the naming itself is not Spanish, but
Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Italian language, a Romance language *** Regional Italian, regional variants of the ...

Italian
. ''Argentina'' (
masculine Masculinity (also called manhood or manliness) is a set of attributes, behavior Behavior (American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of vari ...
''argentino'') means in Italian "(made) of silver, silver coloured", probably borrowed from the
Old French Old French (, , ; Modern French French ( or ) is a Romance language The Romance languages, less commonly Latin or Neo-Latin languages, are the modern languages that evolved from Vulgar Latin Vulgar Latin, also known as Popular o ...

Old French
adjective ''argentine'' "(made) of silver" > "silver coloured" already mentioned in the 12th century. The French word ''argentine'' is the
feminine Femininity (also called womanliness or girlishness) is a set of attributes, behaviors, and roles generally associated with women A woman is an adult female Female (symbol: ♀) is the sex of an organism that produces the large non-mob ...
form of ''argentin'' and derives from ''argent'' "silver" with the
suffix In linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for studying and modeling them. The traditional areas of linguistic analysis include ...
''-in'' (same construction as Old French ''acerin'' "(made) of steel", from ''acier'' "steel" + ''-in'', or ''sapin'' "(made) of fir wood", from OF ''sap'' "fir" + ''-in''). The Italian naming "Argentina" for the country implies ''Terra Argentina'' "land of silver" or ''Costa Argentina'' "coast of silver". In Italian, the adjective or the
proper noun A proper noun is a noun A noun () is a word In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequence of phonemes that can be uttered in isolation with semantic, objective or pragmatics, practical meaning (lingu ...
is often used in an autonomous way as a substantive and replaces it and it is said ''l'Argentina''. The name ''Argentina'' was probably first given by the Venetian and Genoese navigators, such as
Giovanni Caboto John Cabot ( it, Giovanni Caboto ; 1450 – 1500) was an Italian navigator and explorer Exploration is the act of searching for the purpose of discovery of information Information can be thought of as the resolution of uncerta ...

Giovanni Caboto
. In Spanish and Portuguese, the words for "silver" are respectively ''plata'' and ''prata'' and "(made) of silver" is said ''plateado'' and ''prateado''. ''Argentina'' was first associated with the silver mountains legend, widespread among the first European explorers of the La Plata Basin. The first written use of the name in Spanish can be traced to '' La Argentina'', a 1602 poem by Martín del Barco Centenera describing the region. Although "Argentina" was already in common usage by the 18th century, the country was formally named "
Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata The Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata ( es, Virreinato del Río de la Plata, meaning "River of the Silver", also called "Viceroyalty A viceroyalty was an entity headed by a viceroy. It dates back to the Spanish colonization of the Americas ...
" by the Spanish Empire, and "
United Provinces of the Río de la Plata The United Provinces of the Río de la Plata ( es, Provincias Unidas del Río de la Plata), earlier known as the United Provinces of South America ( es, Provincias Unidas de Sudamérica), was a union of provinces in the Viceroyalty of the Río d ...
" after independence. The 1826 constitution included the first use of the name "Argentine Republic" in legal documents. The name "Argentine Confederation" was also commonly used and was formalized in the
Argentine Constitution of 1853 The Argentine Constitution of 1853 is the current constitution of Argentina Argentina (), officially the Argentine Republic ( es, link=no, República Argentina), is a country located mostly in the southern half of South America. Sharing the ...
. In 1860 a presidential decree settled the country's name as "Argentine Republic", and that year's constitutional amendment ruled all the names since 1810 as legally valid. In English, the country was traditionally called "the Argentine", mimicking the typical Spanish usage ''la Argentina'' and perhaps resulting from a mistaken shortening of the fuller name 'Argentine Republic'. 'The Argentine' fell out of fashion during the mid-to-late 20th century, and now the country is simply referred to as "Argentina". In Spanish, "Argentina" is
feminine Femininity (also called womanliness or girlishness) is a set of attributes, behaviors, and roles generally associated with women A woman is an adult female Female (symbol: ♀) is the sex of an organism that produces the large non-mob ...
("''La epúblicaArgentina''"), taking the feminine
article Article often refers to: * Article (grammar) An article is any member of a class of dedicated words that are used with noun phrases to mark the identifiability of the referents of the noun phrases. The category of articles constitutes a part of ...
"la", as the initial syllable of "Argentina" is
unstressed In linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for studying and modeling them. The traditional areas of linguistic analysis includ ...
.


History


Pre-Columbian era

The earliest traces of human life in the area now known as Argentina are dated from the
Paleolithic The Paleolithic or Palaeolithic or Palæolithic (), also called the Old Stone Age (from Greek palaios - old, lithos - stone), is a period in prehistory Prehistory, also known as pre-literary history, is the period of human history ...
period, with further traces in the
Mesolithic The Mesolithic (Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is appro ...

Mesolithic
and
Neolithic The Neolithic period is the final division of the Stone Age The Stone Age was a broad prehistoric Prehistory, also known as pre-literary history, is the period of human history Human history, also known as world history, is t ...
. Until the period of European colonization, Argentina was relatively sparsely populated by a wide number of diverse cultures with different social organizations, which can be divided into three main groups. The first group are basic hunters and food gatherers without development of
pottery Pottery is the process and the products of forming vessels and other objects with and other materials, which are fired at high temperatures to give them a hard, durable form. Major types include , and . The place where such wares are mad ...

pottery
, such as the Selknam and Yaghan in the extreme south. The second group are advanced hunters and food gatherers which include the Puelche, Querandí and Serranos in the centre-east; and the Tehuelche in the south—all of them conquered by the
Mapuche The Mapuche ( (Spanish: )) are a group of Indigenous Indigenous may refer to: *Indigenous peoples Indigenous peoples, also referred to as First people, Aboriginal people, Native people, or autochthonous people, are culturally distinct ethni ...

Mapuche
spreading from
Chile Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a country in the western part of South America South America is a entirely in the and mostly in the , with a relatively small portion in the . It can also be described as the southern ...

Chile
—and the Kom and Wichi in the north. The last group are farmers with pottery, like the
Charrúa The Charrúa were an Amerindian, Indigenous peoples of the Americas, Indigenous People or Indigenous Nation of the Southern Cone in present-day Uruguay and the adjacent areas in Argentina (Entre Ríos Province, Entre Ríos) and Brazil (Rio Grande ...
,
Minuane Minuane were one of the native nations of Uruguay Uruguay (; ; pt, Uruguai), officially the Oriental Republic of Uruguay ( es, República Oriental del Uruguay), is a country in the southeastern region of South America. It borders Argentina to ...
and Guaraní in the northeast, with
slash and burn Slash-and-burn agriculture is a farming method that involves the cutting and burning of plants in a forest A forest is an area of land dominated by trees. Hundreds of definitions of forest are used throughout the world, incorporating ...
semisedentary existence; the advanced
Diaguita The Diaguita people are a group of South America South America is a continent entirely in the Western Hemisphere and mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere. It can also be described as ...
sedentary in the northwest, which was conquered by the
Inca Empire The Inca Empire, also known as Incan Empire and the Inka Empire, and at the time known as the Realm of the Four Parts,,  "four parts together" was the largest empire in pre-Columbian America. The administrative, political and military c ...

Inca Empire
around 1480; the Toconoté and Hênîa and Kâmîare in the country's centre, and the
Huarpe The Huarpes or Warpes are an indigenous people Indigenous peoples, also referred to as First people, Aboriginal people, Native people, or autochthonous people, are culturally distinct ethnic groups who are native to a particular place. The ter ...
in the centre-west, a culture that raised
llama The llama (; ) (''Lama glama'') is a domesticated South American camelid, widely used as a List of meat animals, meat and pack animal by Inca empire, Andean cultures since the Pre-Columbian era. Llamas are social animals and live with othe ...

llama
cattle and was strongly influenced by the Incas.


Colonial era

Europeans first arrived in the region with the 1502 voyage of
Amerigo Vespucci Amerigo Vespucci (; ; 9 March 1451 – 22 February 1512) was an Italian-born merchant, explorer, and navigator from the Republic of Florence, from whose name the term " America" is derived. He became a Castillian citizen in 1505. Between 1 ...
. The Spanish navigators Juan Díaz de Solís and Sebastian Cabot (explorer), Sebastian Cabot visited the territory that is now Argentina in 1516 and 1526, respectively. In 1536 Pedro de Mendoza founded the small settlement of
Buenos Aires Buenos Aires ( or ; ), officially Autonomous City of Buenos Aires, is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or cap ...

Buenos Aires
, which was abandoned in 1541. Further colonization efforts came from
Paraguay Paraguay (; ), officially the Republic of Paraguay ( es, República del Paraguay, links=no; gn, Tetã Paraguái, links=no), is a country in South America South America is a entirely in the and mostly in the , with a relatively sma ...

Paraguay
—establishing the Governorate of the Río de la Plata—Peru and Chile. Francisco de Aguirre (conquistador), Francisco de Aguirre founded Santiago del Estero in 1553. Londres, Catamarca, Londres was founded in 1558; Mendoza, Argentina, Mendoza, in 1561; San Juan, Argentina, San Juan, in 1562; San Miguel de Tucumán, in 1565. Juan de Garay founded Santa Fe, Argentina, Santa Fe in 1573 and the same year Jerónimo Luis de Cabrera set up Córdoba, Argentina, Córdoba. Garay went further south to re-found Buenos Aires in 1580. San Luis, Argentina, San Luis was established in 1596. The Spanish Empire subordinated the economic potential of the Argentine territory to the immediate wealth of the silver and gold mines in
Bolivia Bolivia ; ay, Wuliwya ; : ''Puliwya'' , officially the Plurinational State of Bolivia, is a located in western-central . The constitutional capital is , while the and executive capital is . The largest city and principal industrial ce ...

Bolivia
and Peru, and as such it became part of the Viceroyalty of Peru until the creation of the
Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata The Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata ( es, Virreinato del Río de la Plata, meaning "River of the Silver", also called "Viceroyalty A viceroyalty was an entity headed by a viceroy. It dates back to the Spanish colonization of the Americas ...
in 1776 with Buenos Aires as its capital. Buenos Aires repelled British invasions of the Río de la Plata, two ill-fated British invasions in 1806 and 1807. The ideas of the Age of Enlightenment and the example of the first Atlantic Revolutions generated criticism of the absolutist monarchy that ruled the country. As in the rest of Spanish America, the overthrow of Ferdinand VII of Spain, Ferdinand VII during the Peninsular War created great concern.


Independence and civil wars

Beginning a process from which Argentina was to emerge as successor state to the Viceroyalty, the 1810 May Revolution replaced the viceroy Baltasar Hidalgo de Cisneros with the Primera Junta, First Junta, a new government in Buenos Aires composed by locals. In the first clashes of the Independence War the Junta crushed a royalist Liniers Counter-revolution, counter-revolution in Córdoba, but failed to overcome those of the Banda Oriental, First Upper Peru campaign, Upper Peru and Paraguay campaign, Paraguay, which later became independent states. The French-Argentine Hippolyte Bouchard then brought his fleet to wage war against Spain overseas and attacked Spanish California, Spanish Chile, Spanish Peru and Spanish Philippines. He secured the allegiance of escaped Filipinos in San Blas who defected from the Spanish to join the Argentine navy, due to common Argentine and Philippine greivances against Spanish colonization. At a later date, the Argentine Sun of May was adopted as a symbol by the Filipinos in the Republic of Biak-na-Bato, Philippine Revolution against Spain. He also secured the diplomatic recognition of Argentina from King Kamehameha I of the Kingdom of Hawaii. Historian Pacho O'Donnell affirms that Hawaii was the first state that recognized Argentina's independence. Revolutionaries split into two antagonist groups: the Unitarian Party, Centralists and the Federales (Argentina), Federalists—a move that would define Argentina's first decades of independence. The Assembly of the Year XIII appointed Gervasio Antonio de Posadas as Argentina's first Supreme Director of the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata, Supreme Director. On 9 July 1816, the Congress of Tucumán formalized the Argentine Declaration of Independence, Declaration of Independence, which is now celebrated as Independence Day, a national holiday. One year later General Martín Miguel de Güemes stopped royalists on the north, and General José de San Martín took an army Crossing of the Andes, across the Andes and secured the independence of Chile; then he led the fight to the Spanish stronghold of Lima and proclaimed the independence of Peru. In 1819 Buenos Aires enacted a Argentine Constitution of 1819, centralist constitution that was soon repeal, abrogated by federalists. The 1820 Battle of Cepeda (1820), Battle of Cepeda, fought between the Centralists and the Federalists, resulted in the ''end of the Supreme Director rule''. In 1826 Buenos Aires enacted another Argentine Constitution of 1826, centralist constitution, with Bernardino Rivadavia being appointed as the first president of the country. However, the interior provinces soon rose against him, forced his resignation and discarded the constitution. Centralists and Federalists resumed the civil war; the latter prevailed and formed the Argentine Confederation in 1831, led by Juan Manuel de Rosas. During his regime he faced a French blockade to the Río de la Plata, French blockade (1838–1840), the War of the Confederation (1836–1839), and a combined Anglo-French blockade of the Río de la Plata, Anglo-French blockade (1845–1850), but remained undefeated and prevented further loss of national territory. His trade restriction policies, however, angered the interior provinces and in 1852 Justo José de Urquiza, another powerful caudillo, Battle of Caseros, beat him out of power. As new president of the Confederation, Urquiza enacted the liberalism, liberal and federal 1853 Constitution. State of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires seceded but was forced back into the Confederation after being defeated in the 1859 Battle of Cepeda (1859), Battle of Cepeda.


Rise of the modern nation

Overpowering Urquiza in the 1861 Battle of Pavón, Bartolomé Mitre secured Buenos Aires predominance and was elected as the first president of the reunified country. He was followed by Domingo Faustino Sarmiento and Nicolás Avellaneda; these three presidencies set up the bases of the modern Argentine State. Starting with Julio Argentino Roca in 1880, ten consecutive federal governments emphasized economic liberalism, liberal economic policies. The Immigration in Argentina, massive wave of European immigration they promoted—second only to the United States'—led to a near-reinvention of Argentine society and economy that by 1908 had placed the country as the seventh wealthiest developed nation in the world. Driven by this immigration wave and decreasing mortality, the Argentine population grew fivefold and the economy 15-fold: from 1870 to 1910 Argentina's wheat exports went from per year, while frozen beef exports increased from per year, placing Argentina as one of the world's top five exporters. Its railway mileage rose from . Fostered by a new Argentine Law 1420, public, compulsory, free and secular education system, literacy quickly increased from 22% to 65%, a level higher than most
Latin America * ht, Amerik Latin, link=no * pt, América Latina, link=no , image = Latin America (orthographic projection).svg , area = , population = ( est.) , density = , ethnic_groups = , ethnic_groups_year = 2018 , ethnic ...

Latin America
n nations would reach even fifty years later. Furthermore, real GDP grew so fast that despite the huge immigration influx, per capita income between 1862 and 1920 went from 67% of developed country levels to 100%: In 1865, Argentina was already one of the top 25 nations by per capita income. By 1908, it had surpassed Denmark, Canada and the Netherlands to reach 7th place—behind Switzerland, New Zealand, Australia, the United States, the United Kingdom and Belgium. Argentina's per capita income was 70% higher than Italy's, 90% higher than Spain's, 180% higher than Japan's and 400% higher than
Brazil Brazil ( pt, Brasil; ), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (Portuguese: ), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. At 8.5 million square kilometers (3.2 million square miles) and with over 211 mill ...

Brazil
's. Despite these unique achievements, the country was slow to meet its original goals of industrialization: after steep development of capital-intensive local industries in the 1920s, a significant part of the manufacture sector remained labour-intensive in the 1930s. Between 1878 and 1884 the so-called Conquest of the Desert occurred, with the purpose of giving by means of the constant confrontations between natives and Criollos in the border, and the appropriation of the indigenous territories, tripling the Argentine territory. The first conquest, consisted of a series of military incursions into the Pampa and Patagonian territories dominated by the indigenous peoples, distributing them among the members of the ''Sociedad Rural Argentina'', financiers of the expeditions. The conquest of Chaco lasted up to the end of the century, since its full ownership of the national economic system only took place when the mere extraction of wood and tannin was replaced by the production of cotton. The Argentine government considered Indigenous peoples in Argentina, indigenous people as inferior beings, without the same rights as Criollos and Europeans. In 1912, President Roque Sáenz Peña enacted Saenz Peña Law, universal and secret male suffrage, which allowed Hipólito Yrigoyen, leader of the Radical Civic Union (or UCR), to win Argentine general election, 1916, the 1916 election. He enacted social and economic reforms and extended assistance to small farms and businesses. Argentina stayed neutral during World War I. The second administration of Yrigoyen faced an economic crisis, precipitated by the
Great Depression The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression An economic depression is a sustained, long-term downturn in economic activity in one or more economies. It is a more severe economic downturn than a economic recession, recess ...
. In 1930, Yrigoyen 1930 Argentine coup d'état, was ousted from power by the military led by José Félix Uriburu. Although Argentina remained among the fifteen richest countries until mid-century, this coup d'état marks the start of the steady economic and social decline that pushed the country back into underdevelopment. Uriburu ruled for two years; then Agustín Pedro Justo was elected in a Argentine general election, 1931, fraudulent election, and signed a controversial Roca-Runciman Treaty, treaty with the United Kingdom. Argentina Argentina in World War II, stayed neutral during World War II, a decision that had full British support but was rejected by the United States after the attack on Pearl Harbor. In 1943 Revolution of '43, a military coup d'état, lead by Arturo Rawson, General Arturo Rawson toppled the democratically elected government of Ramón Castillo. Under pressure from the United States, later Argentina declared war on the Axis Powers (on 27 March 1945, roughly a month before the end of World War II in Europe). During Rawson dictatorship a relatively unknown military colonel named Juan Domingo Perón was named head of the Labour Department. Perón quickly managed climb the political ladder, being named Ministry of Defence by 1944. Being perceived as a political threat by rivals faction in the military and the conservative camp he was forced to resign in 1945 and was arrested days later. He was later released under mounting pressure from both his base and several allied unions. He would later become president after a landslide victory over the Radical Civic Union, UCR in the 1946 Argentine general election, 1946 general election as the Labour Party (Argentina), laborioust candidate.


Peronist years

The Labour Party (Argentina), Labour Party later renamed Justicialist Party, the most powerful and influential party in Argentine history, came into power with the rise of Juan Domingo Perón to the presidency in 1946. He nationalization, nationalized strategic industries and services, improved wages and working conditions, paid the full external debt and claimed he achieved nearly full employment. He pushed Congress to enact women's suffrage in 1947, and developed a system of social assistance for the most vulnerable sectors of society. The economy began to decline in 1950 due in part to government expenditures and the protectionism, protectionist economic policies. He also engaged in a campaign of political suppression. Anyone who was perceived to be a political dissident or potential rival were subject to threats, physical violence and harassment. The Argentine intelligentsia, the middle-class, university students, and professors were seen as particularly troublesome. Perón fired over 2,000 university professors and faculty members from all major public education institutions. Perón tried to bring under his thumb most trade and labour unions, regularly resorting to violence when needed. For instance, the meat-packers union leader, Cipriano Reyes, organised strikes in protest against the government after elected labour movement officials were forcefully replaced by Peronist puppets from the Justicialist Party, Peronist Party. Reyes was soon arrested on charges of terrorism, though the allegations were never substantiated. Reyes was tortured in prison for five years and was only released after the regime's downfall in 1955 without any formal charges. Perón Argentine general election, 1951, managed to get reelected in 1951. Eva Perón, his wife who played a critical role in the party, died of cancer in 1952. As the economy continued to tank, Perón started losing popular support. Seen as a threat to the national process and taking advantage of Perón's withering political power, the Navy bombing of Plaza de Mayo, bombed the Plaza de Mayo in 1955. Perón survived the attack but a few months later, during the Revolución Libertadora, Liberating Revolution coup, was deposed and went into exile in Spain.


Revolución Libertadora

The new head of State, Pedro Eugenio Aramburu, proscription, proscribed Peronism and banned the party from any future elections. Arturo Frondizi from the Radical Civic Union, UCR won the Argentine general election, 1958, 1958 general election. He encouraged investment to achieve energetic and industrial self-sufficiency, reversed a chronic trade deficit and lifted the ban on Peronism; yet his efforts to stay on good terms with both the Peronists and the military earned him the rejection of both and a new coup forced him out. Amidst the political turmoil, Senate leader José María Guido reacted swiftly and applied anti-power vacuum legislation, ascending to the presidency himself; elections were repealed and Peronism was prohibited once again. Arturo Illia was Argentine general election, 1963, elected in 1963 and led an increase in prosperity across the board; however he was overthrown in 1966 by another military coup d'état led by General Juan Carlos Onganía in the self-proclaimed Argentine Revolution, creating a new military government that sought to rule indefinitely.


Perón's return and death

Following several years of military rule, Alejandro Agustín Lanusse was appointed president by the military junta in 1971. Under increasing political pressure for the return of democracy, Lanusse called for elections in 1973. Perón was banned from running but the Peronist party was allowed to participate. The presidential elections were won by Hector Cámpora, Perón's surrogate candidate. Dr. Héctor Cámpora, a left-wing Peronist, took office on 25 May 1973, and a month later in June, Perón had returned from Spain. One of Cámpora's first presidential actions was the granting of amnesty to members of terrorist organizations who had carried out political assassinations and terrorist attacks, and who had been tried and sentenced to prison by judges. Cámpora's months-long tenure in government was beset by political and social unrest. Over 600 social conflicts, Strike action, strikes, and Workers' self-management, factory occupations took place within a single month. Even though far-left terrorist organisations had suspended their armed struggle, their joining with the participatory democracy process was interpreted as a direct threat by the Peronist right-wing faction. In a state of political, social, and economic upheaval, Cámpora and Vice President Vicente Solano Lima resigned in July 1973, calling for new elections, but this time with Perón as the Justicialist Party nominee. Perón won the election with his wife Isabel Perón as vice president. Perón's third term was marked by the escalating conflict between left and right-wing factions within the Peronist party, as well as the return of armed terror guerrilla groups like the Guevarist People's Revolutionary Army (Argentina), ERP, leftist Peronist Montoneros, and the state-backed far-right Argentine Anticommunist Alliance, Triple A. After a series of heart attacks and with signs of pneumonia in 1974, Perón's health deteriorated quickly. Perón suffered a final heart attack on Monday, 1 July 1974, and died at 13:15. He was 78 years old. After his death, Isabel Perón, his wife and Vice President, came into office. Isabel, born María Estela Martínez Cartas, a Grade School, grade school Dropping out, drop-out and a former nightclub dancer, proved to be a thoroughly incompetent and weak president. During her presidency, a military junta along with the Peronists' far-right fascist faction became once again the de facto head of state. She served as President of Argentina from 1974 until 1976 when she was ousted by the military. Her short presidency was marked by the collapse of Argentine political and social systems and led to a constitutional crisis paving the way for a decade of instability, left-wing terrorist guerrilla attacks, and state-sponsored terrorism.


National Reorganization Process

The "Dirty War" ( es, Guerra Sucia, links=no) was part of Operation Condor, which included the participation of other right-wing dictatorships in the Southern Cone. The Dirty War involved
state terrorism State terrorism refers to acts of terrorism Terrorism is, in the broadest sense, the use of intentional violence to achieve political aims. It is used in this regard primarily to refer to violence during peacetime or in the context of war ...
in Argentina and elsewhere in the
Southern Cone The Southern Cone ( es, Cono Sur, pt, Cone Sul) is a geographic and cultural region composed of the southernmost areas of South America South America is a continent entirely in the Western Hemisphere and mostly in the Southern Hemisp ...
against political dissidents, with military and security forces employing urban and rural violence against left-wing guerrillas, political dissidents, and anyone believed to be associated with socialism or somehow contrary to the Neoliberalism, neoliberal economic policies of the regime. Victims of the violence in Argentina alone included an estimated 15,000 to 30,000 left-wing activists and militants, including trade unionists, students, journalists, Marxists, Peronism, Peronist guerrillas, and alleged sympathizers. Most of the victims were casualties of
state terrorism State terrorism refers to acts of terrorism Terrorism is, in the broadest sense, the use of intentional violence to achieve political aims. It is used in this regard primarily to refer to violence during peacetime or in the context of war ...
. The opposing guerrillas' victims numbered nearly 500–540 military and police officials and up to 230 civilians. Argentina received technical support and military aid from the United States government during the Presidency of Lyndon B. Johnson, Johnson, Presidency of Richard Nixon, Nixon, Presidency of Gerald Ford, Ford, Presidency of Jimmy Carter, Carter, and Presidency of Ronald Reagan, Reagan administrations. The exact chronology of the political repression, repression is still debated, yet the roots of the long political war may have started in 1969 when trade unionists were targeted for assassination by Peronist and Marxist paramilitaries. Individual cases of state-sponsored terrorism against Peronism and the left can be traced back even further to the Bombing of Plaza de Mayo in 1955. The Trelew massacre of 1972, the actions of the Argentine Anticommunist Alliance commencing in 1973, and Isabel Martínez de Perón's "annihilation decrees" against left-wing guerrillas during ''Operativo Independencia'' (Operation Independence) in 1975, are also possible events signaling the beginning of the Dirty War. Onganía shut down Congress, banned all political parties, and dismantled student and worker unions. In 1969, popular discontent led to two massive protests: the ''Cordobazo'' and the ''Rosariazo''. The terrorist guerrilla organization Montoneros kidnapped and executed Aramburu. The newly chosen head of government, Alejandro Agustín Lanusse, seeking to ease the growing political pressure, allowed Héctor José Cámpora to become the Peronist candidate instead of Perón. Cámpora won the Argentine general election, March 1973, March 1973 election, issued amnesty, pardons for condemned guerrilla members, and then secured Perón's return from his exile in Spain. On the day Perón returned to Argentina, the clash between Peronist internal factions—right-wing union leaders and left-wing youth from the Montoneros—resulted in the Ezeiza Massacre. Overwhelmed by political violence, Cámpora resigned and Perón won the following Argentine general election, September 1973, September 1973 election with his third wife Isabel Martínez de Perón, Isabel as vice-president. He expulsion of Montoneros from Plaza de Mayo, expelled Montoneros from the party and they became once again a clandestine organization. José López Rega organized the Argentine Anticommunist Alliance (AAA) to fight against them and the People's Revolutionary Army (Argentina), People's Revolutionary Army (ERP). Perón died in July 1974 and was succeeded by his wife, who signed a secret decree empowering the military and the police to "annihilate" the left-wing subversion, Operation Independence, stopping ERP's attempt to start a rural insurgence in Tucumán province. March 1976 coup, Isabel Perón was ousted one year later by a junta of the combined armed forces, led by army general Jorge Rafael Videla. They initiated the National Reorganization Process, often shortened to ''Proceso''. The ''Proceso'' shut down Congress, removed the judges on the Supreme Court, banned political parties and unions, and resorted to employing the forced disappearance of suspected guerrilla members including individuals suspected to be associated with the left-wing. By the end of 1976, the Montoneros had lost nearly 2,000 members and by 1977, the ERP was completely subdued. Nevertheless, the severely weakened Montoneros launched a counterattack in 1979, which was quickly put down, effectively ending the guerrilla threat and securing the junta's position in power. In 1982, the head of state, General Leopoldo Galtieri, authorised the invasion of the British-claimed territories of South Georgia and, on 2 April, of the Operation Rosario, Falkland Islands. The occupation provoked a military response from the United Kingdom leading to the Falklands War. Argentine forces were defeated and formally surrendered to British troops on 14 June. Street riots in Buenos Aires followed the defeat and the military leadership responsible for the humiliation withdrew. Reynaldo Bignone replaced Galtieri and began to organize the transition to democratic governance.


Return to democracy

won the Argentine general election, 1983, 1983 elections campaigning for the prosecution of those responsible for human rights violations during the ''Proceso'': the Trial of the Juntas and other martial courts sentenced all the coup's leaders but, under military pressure, he also enacted the Full Stop Law, Full Stop and Law of Due Obedience, Due Obedience laws, which halted prosecutions further down the chain of command. The worsening economic crisis and hyperinflation reduced his popular support and the Peronist Carlos Menem won the Argentine general election, 1989, 1989 election. Soon after, 1989 riots in Argentina, riots forced Alfonsín to an early resignation. Menem embraced and enacted neo-liberalism, neoliberal policies: a Argentine Currency Board, fixed exchange rate, business deregulation, privatizations, and the dismantling of protectionism, protectionist barriers normalized the economy in the short term. He pardoned the officers who had been sentenced during Alfonsín's government. The 1994 amendment of the Argentine Constitution, 1994 Constitutional Amendment allowed Menem to Argentine general election, 1995, be elected for a second term. With the economy beginning to decline in 1995, and with increasing unemployment and recession;, the UCR, led by Fernando de la Rúa, returned to the presidency in the Argentine general election, 1999, 1999 elections. De la Rúa left in effect Menem's economic plan despite the worsening crisis, which led to growing social discontent. Massive capital flight from the country was responded to with a corralito, freezing of bank accounts, generating further turmoil. The December 2001 riots in Argentina, December 2001 riots forced him to resign. Congress appointed Eduardo Duhalde as acting president, who revoked the fixed exchange rate established by Menem, causing many working- and middle-class Argentines to lose a significant portion of their savings. By late 2002, the economic crisis began to recede, but the assassination of two ''piqueteros'' by the police caused political unrest, prompting Duhalde to move elections forward. Néstor Kirchner was Argentine general election, 2003, elected as the new president. Boosting the neo-Keynesianism, neo-Keynesian economic policies laid by Duhalde, Kirchner ended the economic crisis attaining significant fiscal and trade surpluses, and rapid Gross domestic product, GDP growth. Under his administration, Argentina Argentine debt restructuring, restructured its defaulted debt with an unprecedented discount of about 70% on most bonds, paid off debts with the International Monetary Fund, purged the military of officers with dubious human rights records, void (law), nullified and voided the Full Stop and Due Obedience laws, ruled them as unconstitutional, and resumed legal prosecution of the Junta's crimes. He did not run for reelection, promoting instead the candidacy of his wife, senator Cristina Fernández de Kirchner, who was Argentine general election, 2007, elected in 2007 and subsequently Argentine general election, 2011, reelected in 2011. Fernández de Kirchner's administration established positive foreign relations with countries with questionable human rights records, including Venezuela, Iran, and Cuba, while at the same time relations with the United States and United Kingdom became increasingly strained. By 2015, the Argentine GDP grew by 2.7% and real incomes had risen over 50% since the post-Menem era. Despite these economic gains and increased renewable energy production and subsidies, the overall economy had been sluggish since 2011. On 22 November 2015, after a tie in the first round of Argentine general election, 2015, presidential elections on 25 October, Juntos por el Cambio, center-right coalition candidate Mauricio Macri won the first Ballotage in Argentina, ballotage in Argentina's history, beating Front for Victory candidate Daniel Scioli and becoming president-elect. Macri was the first democratically elected non-Justicialist Party, peronist president since 1916 that managed to complete his term in office without being overthrown. He took office on 10 December 2015 and inherited an economy with a high inflation rate and in a poor shape. In April 2016, the Presidency of Mauricio Macri, Macri Government introduced neoliberal austerity measures intended to tackle inflation and overblown public deficits. Under Macri's administration, economic recovery remained elusive with GDP shrinking 3.4%, inflation totaling 240%, billions of US dollars issued in sovereign debt, and mass poverty increasing by the end of his term. He ran for re-election in 2019 but lost by nearly eight percentage points to Alberto Fernández, the Justicialist Party candidate. President Alberto Fernández and Vice President Cristina Fernández de Kirchner took office in December 2019, just months before the COVID-19 pandemic in Argentina, COVID-19 pandemic hit Argentina and among accusations of corruption, bribery and The Route of the K-Money, misuse of public funds during Nestor and Cristina Fernández de Kirchner's presidencies.


Geography

With a mainland surface area of , Argentina is located in Southern Cone, southern South America, sharing land borders with Chile across the Andes to the west; Bolivia and Paraguay to the north; Brazil to the northeast,
Uruguay Uruguay (; ; pt, Uruguai), officially the Oriental Republic of Uruguay ( es, República Oriental del Uruguay), is a country in South America South America is a continent entirely in the Western Hemisphere and mostly in the Southern He ...

Uruguay
and the South Atlantic Ocean to the east; and the
Drake Passage Image:Drake-Passage profile hg.png, Depth profile with salinity and temperature for surface The Drake Passage (referred to as Mar de Hoces Hoces Sea"in Spain and other Spanish speaking countries) is the body of water between South America's ...
to the south; for an overall land border length of . Its coastal border over the Río de la Plata and South Atlantic Ocean is long. Argentina's highest point is Aconcagua in the Mendoza province ( above sea level), also the highest point in the Southern Hemisphere, Southern and Western Hemispheres. The lowest point is Laguna del Carbón in the ''San Julián Great Depression'' Santa Cruz province, Argentina, Santa Cruz province ( below sea level, also the lowest point in the Southern and Western Hemispheres, and the seventh lowest point on Earth) The northernmost point is at the confluence of the Río Grande de San Juan, Grande de San Juan and Río Mojinete rivers in Jujuy province; the southernmost is Cape San Pío in Tierra del Fuego province, Argentina, Tierra del Fuego province; the easternmost is northeast of Bernardo de Irigoyen, Misiones and the westernmost is within Los Glaciares National Park in Santa Cruz province. The maximum north–south distance is , while the maximum east–west one is . Some of the major rivers are the Paraná River, Paraná, Uruguay River, Uruguay—which join to form the Río de la Plata, Paraguay River, Paraguay, Salado River, Argentina, Salado, Río Negro River, Argentina, Negro, Santa Cruz River, Argentina, Santa Cruz, Pilcomayo River, Pilcomayo, Bermejo River, Bermejo and Colorado River, Argentina, Colorado. These rivers are discharged into the Argentine Sea, the shallow area of the Atlantic Ocean over the Argentine Shelf, an unusually wide continental platform. Its waters are influenced by two major ocean currents: the warm Brazil Current and the cold Falklands Current.


Biodiversity

Argentina is one of the most biodiverse countries in the world hosting one of the greatest ecosystem varieties in the world: 15 continental zones, 2 marine zones, and the Antarctic region are all represented in its territory. This huge ecosystem variety has led to a biological diversity that is among the world's largest: * 9,372 cataloged vascular plant species (ranked 24th) * 1,038 cataloged bird species (ranked 14th) * 375 cataloged mammal species (ranked 12th) * 338 cataloged reptile, reptilian species (ranked 16th) * 162 cataloged amphibian species (ranked 19th) The original pampa had virtually no trees; some imported species like the Platanus occidentalis, American sycamore or eucalyptus are present along roads or in towns and country estates (''estancias''). The only tree-like plant native to the pampa is the evergreen Ombú. The surface soils of the pampa are a deep black color, primarily mollisols, known commonly as ''humus''. This makes the region one of the most agriculturally productive on Earth; however, this is also responsible for decimating much of the original ecosystem, to make way for commercial agriculture. The western pampas receive less rainfall, this ''dry pampa'' is a plain of short grasses or steppe. The National Parks of Argentina make up a network of 35 national parks in Argentina. The parks cover a very varied set of terrains and biotopes, from Baritú National Park on the northern border with
Bolivia Bolivia ; ay, Wuliwya ; : ''Puliwya'' , officially the Plurinational State of Bolivia, is a located in western-central . The constitutional capital is , while the and executive capital is . The largest city and principal industrial ce ...

Bolivia
to Tierra del Fuego National Park in the far south of the continent. The Administración de Parques Nacionales (National Parks Administration) is the agency that preserves and manages these national parks along with Natural monuments and National Reserves within the country. Argentina had a 2018 Forest Landscape Integrity Index mean score of 7.21/10, ranking it 47th globally out of 172 countries.


Climate

In general, Argentina has four main climate types: warm, moderate, arid, and cold, all determined by the expanse across latitude, range in altitude, and relief features. Although the most populated areas are generally temperate climate, temperate, Argentina has an exceptional amount of climate diversity, ranging from subtropical in the north to Polar climate, polar in the far south. Consequently, there is a wide variety of biomes in the country, including subtropical rain forests, semi-arid and arid regions, temperate plains in the Pampas, and cold subantarctic in the south. The average annual precipitation ranges from in the driest parts of Patagonia to over in the westernmost parts of Patagonia and the northeastern parts of the country. Mean annual temperatures range from in the far south to in the north. Major wind currents include the cool Pampero Winds blowing on the flat plains of Patagonia and the Pampas; following the cold front, warm currents blow from the north in middle and late winter, creating mild conditions. The Sudestada usually moderates cold temperatures but brings very heavy rains, rough seas and coastal flooding. It is most common in late autumn and winter along the central coast and in the Río de la Plata estuary. The Zonda wind, Zonda, a foehn wind, hot dry wind, affects Cuyo and the central Pampas. Squeezed of all moisture during the descent from the Andes, Zonda winds can blow for hours with gusts up to , fueling wildfires and causing damage; between June and November, when the Zonda blows, snowstorms and blizzard (''viento blanco'') conditions usually affect higher elevations. Climate change in Argentina is predicted to have significant effects on the living conditions in Argentina. The climate of Argentina is changing with regards to precipitation patterns and temperatures. The highest increases in the precipitation (from the period 1960–2010) have occurred in the eastern parts of the country. The increase in precipitation has led to more variability in precipitation from year to year in the northern parts of the country, with a higher risk of prolonged droughts, disfavoring agriculture in these regions.


Politics

In the 20th century, Argentina experienced significant political turmoil and democratic reversals. Between 1930 and 1976, the Armed Forces of the Argentine Republic, armed forces overthrew six governments in Argentina; and the country alternated periods of democracy (1912–1930, 1946–1955, and 1973–1976) with periods of restricted democracy and military regime, military rule. Following a transition to democracy, transition that began in 1983, full-scale democracy in Argentina was reestablished. Argentina's democracy endured through the 1998–2002 Argentine great depression, 2001–02 crisis and to the present day; it is regarded as more robust than both its pre-1983 predecessors and other democracies in
Latin America * ht, Amerik Latin, link=no * pt, América Latina, link=no , image = Latin America (orthographic projection).svg , area = , population = ( est.) , density = , ethnic_groups = , ethnic_groups_year = 2018 , ethnic ...

Latin America
.


Government

Argentina is a Federalism, federal constitutional republic and representative democracy. The government is regulated by a system of separation of powers, checks and balances defined by the Constitution of Argentina, the country's supreme legal document. The seat of government is the city of
Buenos Aires Buenos Aires ( or ; ), officially Autonomous City of Buenos Aires, is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or cap ...

Buenos Aires
, as designated by Argentine National Congress, Congress. Suffrage is Universal suffrage, universal, Equal suffrage, equal, Secret ballot, secret and Compulsory voting, mandatory. The federal government is composed of three branches: The Legislature, Legislative branch consists of the bicameralism, bicameral Congress, made up of the Argentine Senate, Senate and the Argentine Chamber of Deputies, Chamber of Deputies. The Congress makes federal law, declaration of war, declares war, approves treaty, treaties and has the power of the purse and of impeachment, by which it can remove sitting members of the government. The Chamber of Deputies represents the people and has 257 voting members elected to a four-year term. Seats are apportioned among the provinces by population every tenth year. ten provinces have just five deputies while the Buenos Aires Province, being the most populous one, has 70. The Chamber of Senators represents the provinces, has 72 members elected at-large to six-year terms, with each province having three seats; one third of Senate seats are up for election every other year. At least one-third of the candidates presented by the parties must be women. In the Executive (government), Executive branch, the President of Argentina, President is the commander-in-chief of the military, can veto bill (law), legislative bills before they become law—subject to Congressional override—and appoints the Cabinet of Argentina, members of the Cabinet and other officers, who administer and enforce federal laws and policies. The President is elected direct vote, directly by the vote of the people, serves a four-year term and may be elected to office no more than twice in a row. The Judiciary, Judicial branch includes the Supreme Court of Argentina, Supreme Court and lower Law of Argentina, federal courts interpret laws and judicial review, overturn those they find constitutionality, unconstitutional. The Judicial is independent of the Executive and the Legislative. The Supreme Court has seven members appointed by the President—subject to Senate approval—who serve for life. The lower courts' judges are proposed by the Council of Magistracy of the Nation, Council of Magistracy (a secretariat composed of representatives of judges, lawyers, researchers, the Executive and the Legislative), and appointed by the President on Senate approval.


Provinces

Argentina is a federation of twenty-three provinces and one
autonomous city Autonomous city is a type of autonomous administrative division. Argentina The 1994 amendment of the Argentine Constitution granted Buenos Aires Buenos Aires ( or ; ), officially Autonomous City of Buenos Aires, is the Capital city, capital a ...
, Buenos Aires. Provinces are divided for administration purposes into Departments of Argentina, departments and Municipalities of Argentina, municipalities, except for Buenos Aires Province, which is divided into Partidos of Buenos Aires, partidos. The City of Buenos Aires is divided into Barrios and Communes of Buenos Aires, communes. Provinces hold all the power that they chose not to delegate to the federal government; they must be representative republics and must not contradict the Constitution. Beyond this they are fully autonomous: they enact their own constitutions, freely organize their local governments, and own and manage their natural and financial resources. Some provinces have bicameral legislatures, while others have Unicameralism, unicameral ones. During the War of Independence the main cities and their surrounding countrysides became provinces though the intervention of their cabildo (council), cabildos. The Anarchy of the Year XX completed this process, shaping the original thirteen provinces. Jujuy seceded from Salta Province, Salta in 1834, and the thirteen provinces became fourteen. After seceding for a decade, Buenos Aires accepted the 1853 Constitution of Argentina in 1861, and was made a federal territory in 1880. An 1862 law designated as national territory, national territories those under federal control but outside the frontiers of the provinces. In 1884 they served as bases for the establishment of the governorates of Misiones, Formosa, Chaco, La Pampa, Neuquén, Río Negro, Chubut, Santa Cruz and Tierra del Fuego. The agreement about a frontier dispute with Chile in 1900 created the National Territory of Los Andes; its lands were incorporated into Jujuy, Salta and Catamarca Province, Catamarca in 1943. La Pampa Province, La Pampa and Chaco became provinces in 1951. Misiones did so in 1953, and Formosa Province, Formosa, Neuquén Province, Neuquén, Río Negro Province, Río Negro, Chubut Province, Chubut and Santa Cruz, in 1955. The last national territory, Tierra del Fuego, became the Tierra del Fuego, Antártida e Islas del Atlántico Sur Province in 1990. It has three components, although two are nominal because they are not under Argentine sovereignty. The first is the Argentine part of Tierra del Fuego; the second is an area of Antarctica claimed by Argentina that overlaps with similar areas claimed by the UK and Chile; the third comprises the two disputed British Overseas Territories of the Falkland Islands and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands.


Foreign relations

Foreign policy is handled by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, International Trade and Worship, which answers to the President of Argentina, President. The country is one of the G-15 and G-20 major economies of the world, and a founding member of the UN, World Bank Group, WBG, World Trade Organization, WTO and Organization of American States, OAS. In 2012 United Nations Security Council election, 2012, Argentina was elected again to a two-year non-permanent position on the United Nations Security Council and is participating in major peacekeeping operations in United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti, Haiti, United Nations Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus, Cyprus, Western Sahara and the Middle East. Argentina is described as a
middle power In international relations The field of international relations dates from the time of the Ancient Greece, Greek historian Thucydides. International relations (IR), international affairs (IA) or international studies (IS) is the scienti ...
.Cooper AF (1997
Niche Diplomacy – Middle Powers after the Cold War
''palgrave''
A prominent Latin American and Southern Cone
regional power In international relations since the late 20th century, a regional power is a term used for a state that has power Power typically refers to: * Power (physics) In physics, power is the amount of energy transferred or converted per unit ti ...
, Argentina co-founded Organization of Ibero-American States, OEI and Community of Latin American and Caribbean States, CELAC. It is also a founding member of the
Mercosur Mercosur (in Spanish), Mercosul (in Portuguese), or Ñemby Ñemuha (in Guarani), officially Southern Common Market,, pt, link=no, Mercado Comum do Sul, gn, link=no, Ñemby Ñemuha is a South American South America is a continent ...

Mercosur
block, having Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay and Venezuela as partners. Since 2002 the country has emphasized its key role in Latin American integration, and the block—which has some supranational legislative functions—is its first international priority. Argentina claims in Argentine Antarctica, Antarctica, where it has the world's oldest Orcadas Base, continuous state presence, since 1904. This overlaps claims by Chilean Antarctic Territory, Chile and the British Antarctic Territory, United Kingdom, though all such claims fall under the provisions of the 1961 Antarctic Treaty, of which Argentina is a founding signatory and permanent consulting member, with the Antarctic Treaty Secretariat being based in Buenos Aires. Argentina Falkland Islands sovereignty dispute, disputes sovereignty over the Falkland Islands ( es, Islas Malvinas, link=no), and South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands sovereignty dispute, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, which are administered by the United Kingdom as British Overseas Territories, Overseas Territories.


Armed forces

The President holds the title of commander-in-chief of the Argentine Armed Forces, as part of a legal framework that imposes a strict separation between national defense and internal security systems: The Argentine defense industry, National Defense System, an exclusive responsibility of the federal government, coordinated by the Ministry of Defense (Argentina), Ministry of Defense, and comprising the Argentine Army, Army, the Argentine Navy, Navy and the Argentine Air Force, Air Force. Ruled and monitored by Congress through the Houses' Defense Committees, it is organized on the essential principle of legitimate self-defense: the repelling of any external military aggression in order to guarantee freedom of the people, national sovereignty, and territorial integrity. Its secondary missions include committing to multinational operations within the framework of the United Nations, participating in internal support missions, assisting friendly countries, and establishing a sub-regional defense system. Military service is voluntary, with enlistment age between 18 and 24 years old and no conscription. Argentina's defense has historically been one of the best equipped in the region, even managing Argentine defense industry, its own weapon research facilities, shipyards, ordnance, tank and plane factories. However, real military expenditures declined steadily after 1981 and the defense budget in 2011 was about 0.74% of GDP, a historical minimum, below the Latin American average. Within the defence budget itself funding for training and even basic maintenance has been significantly cut, a factor contributing to the Disappearance of ARA San Juan, accidental loss of the Argentine submarine San Juan in 2017. With the United Kingdom also actively acting to restrict even modest Argentinian military modernization efforts, the result has been a steady erosion of Argentine military capabilities, with some arguing that Argentina had, by the end of the 2010s, ceased to be a capable military power. The Argentine Interior Security System, Interior Security System, jointly administered by the federal and subscribing provincial governments. At the federal level it is coordinated by the Interior, Ministry of Defense (Argentina), Security and Justice ministries, and monitored by Congress. It is enforced by the Argentine Federal Police, Federal Police; the Argentine Naval Prefecture, Prefecture, which fulfills coast guard duties; the Argentine National Gendarmerie, Gendarmerie, which serves border guard tasks; and the Airport Security Police (Argentina), Airport Security Police. At the provincial level it is coordinated by the respective internal security ministries and enforced by local police agencies. Argentina was the only South American country to send warships and cargo planes in 1991 to the Gulf War under United Nations, UN mandate and has remained involved in peacekeeping efforts in multiple locations like UNPROFOR in Croatia/Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bosnia, Gulf of Fonseca, United Nations Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus, UNFICYP in Cyprus (where among Army and Marines troops the Air Force provided the UN Air contingent since 1994) and MINUSTAH in Haiti. Argentina is the only Latin American country to maintain troops in Kosovo during SFOR (and later EUFOR) operations where Combat engineering, combat engineers of the Argentine Armed Forces are embedded in an Italian Army, Italian brigade. In 2007, an Argentine contingent including helicopters, boats and water purification plants was sent to help
Bolivia Bolivia ; ay, Wuliwya ; : ''Puliwya'' , officially the Plurinational State of Bolivia, is a located in western-central . The constitutional capital is , while the and executive capital is . The largest city and principal industrial ce ...

Bolivia
against their worst floods in decades. In 2010 the Armed Forces were also involved in Humanitarian response by national governments to the 2010 Haiti earthquake, Haiti and Humanitarian response to the 2010 Chile earthquake, Chile humanitarian responses after their respective earthquakes.


Economy

Benefiting from rich natural resources, a highly literate population, a diversified industrial base, and an export-oriented agricultural sector, the economy of Argentina is Latin America's third-largest, and the second largest in
South America South America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven geographical regions are commonly regarded as continent ...

South America
. It has a List of countries by Human Development Index, "very high" rating on the Human Development Index and a relatively List of countries by GDP (PPP) per capita, high GDP per capita, with a considerable internal market size and a growing share of the high-tech sector. Access to biocapacity in Argentina is much higher than world average. In 2016, Argentina had 6.8 global hectares of biocapacity per person within its territory, much more than the world average of 1.6 global hectares per person. In 2016 Argentina used 3.4 global hectares of biocapacity per person – their ecological footprint of consumption. This means they use half as much biocapacity as Argentina contains. As a result, Argentina is running a biocapacity reserve. A emerging economy, middle emerging economy and one of the world's top developing nations, Argentina is a member of the G-20 major economies. Historically, however, its economic performance has been very uneven, with high economic growth alternating with severe recessions, income maldistribution and—in the recent decades—increasing poverty. Early in the 20th century Argentina achieved development, and became the world's seventh richest country. Although managing to keep a place among the top fifteen economies until mid-century, it suffered a long and steady decline, but it is still a high income country. High inflation—a weakness of the Argentine economy for decades—has become a trouble once again, with an annual rate of 24.8% in 2017. To deter it and support the peso, the government imposed foreign currency control. Income distribution, having improved since 2002, is classified as "medium", although it is still considerably unequal. Argentina ranks 85th out of 180 countries in the Transparency International's 2017 Corruption Perceptions Index, an improvement of 22 positions over its 2014 rankings. Argentina settled its long-standing debt default crisis in 2016 with the so-called vulture funds after the election of Mauricio Macri, allowing Argentina to enter capital markets for the first time in a decade. The government of Argentina defaulted on 22 May 2020 by failing to pay a $500 million due date to its creditors. Negotiations for the restructuring of $66 billion of its debt continue.


Industry

manufacturing accounted for 20.3% of GDP—the largest sector in the nation's economy. Well-integrated into Argentine agriculture, half of the industrial exports have rural origin. With a 6.5% production growth rate , the diversified manufacturing sector rests on a steadily growing network of industrial parks (314 ) the leading sectors by volume were: food processing, beverages and tobacco products; motor vehicles and auto parts; textiles and leather; petroleum refineries, refinery products and biodiesel; chemicals and pharmaceuticals; steel, aluminum and iron; industrial and farm machinery; home appliances and furniture; plastics and tires; glass and cement; and recording and print media. In addition, Argentina has since long been one of the top five wine-producing countries in the world. However, it has also been classified as one of the 74 countries where instances of child labour and forced labour have been observed and mentioned in a 2014 report published by the Bureau of International Labor Affairs. The ILAB's ''List of Goods Produced by Child Labor or Forced Labor'' shows that many of the goods produced by child labour or forced labour comes from the Agriculture in Argentina, agricultural sector. Córdoba is Argentina's major industrial centre, hosting metalworking, motor vehicle and auto parts manufactures. Next in importance are the Greater Buenos Aires area (food processing, metallurgy, motor vehicles and auto parts, chemicals and petrochemicals, consumer durables, textiles and printing); Rosario (food processing, metallurgy, farm machinery, oil refining, chemicals, and tanning); San Miguel de Tucumán (sugar refining); San Lorenzo, Santa Fe, San Lorenzo (chemicals and pharmaceuticals); San Nicolás de los Arroyos (steel milling and metallurgy); and Ushuaia and Bahía Blanca (oil refining). Other manufacturing enterprises are located in the provinces of Santa Fe Province, Santa Fe (zinc and copper smelting, and flour milling); Mendoza and Neuquén (wineries and fruit processing); Chaco (textiles and sawmills); and Santa Cruz, Salta and Chubut (oil refining). The electric output of Argentina totaled over , of which about 37% was consumed by industrial activities.


Transport

Argentina has the largest Rail transport in Argentina, railway system in Latin America, with of operating lines , out of a full network of almost . This system links all 23 provinces plus Buenos Aires City, and connects with all neighbouring countries. There are four incompatible Track gauge, gauges in use; this forces virtually all interregional freight traffic to pass through Buenos Aires. The system has been in decline since the 1940s: regularly running up large budgetary deficits, by 1991 it was transporting 1,400 times less goods than it did in 1973. However, in recent years the system has experienced a Rail transport in Argentina#Recent developments and moves towards re-nationalisation, greater degree of investment from the state, in both commuter rail lines and long-distance lines, renewing rolling stock and infrastructure. In April 2015, by overwhelming majority the Argentine Senate passed a law which re-created Ferrocarriles Argentinos (2015), effectively re-nationalising the country's railways, a move which saw support from all major political parties on both sides of the political spectrum. Buenos Aires, all provincial capitals except Ushuaia, and all medium-sized towns were interconnected by of paved roads, out of a total road network of . Most important cities are linked by a growing number of Controlled-access highway, expressways, including Buenos Aires-La Plata Highway, Buenos Aires–La Plata, Rosario-Córdoba Highway, Rosario–Córdoba, Córdoba–Villa Carlos Paz, Villa Mercedes–Mendoza, National Route 14 ''General José Gervasio Artigas'' and Provincial Route 2 (Buenos Aires), Provincial Route 2 ''Juan Manuel Fangio'', among others. Nevertheless, this road infrastructure is still inadequate and cannot handle the sharply growing demand caused by deterioration of the railway system. there were about of waterways, mostly comprising the La Plata, Paraná, Paraguay and Uruguay rivers, with Buenos Aires, Zárate, Buenos Aires, Zárate, Campana, Buenos Aires, Campana, Rosario, San Lorenzo, Santa Fe, Barranqueras and San Nicolas de los Arroyos as the main fluvial ports. Some of the largest sea ports are La Plata–Ensenada, Buenos Aires, Ensenada, Bahía Blanca, Mar del Plata, Quequén–Necochea, Comodoro Rivadavia, Puerto Deseado, Puerto Madryn, Ushuaia and San Antonio Oeste. Buenos Aires has historically been the most important port; however since the 1990s the Up-River port region has become dominant: stretching along of the Paraná river shore in Santa Fe province, it includes 17 ports and accounted for 50% of all exports. there were 161 airports with paved runways out of more than a thousand. The Ezeiza International Airport, about from downtown Buenos Aires, is the largest in the country, followed by Cataratas del Iguazú International Airport, Cataratas del Iguazú in Misiones, and El Plumerillo International Airport, El Plumerillo in Mendoza. Aeroparque, in the city of Buenos Aires, is the most important domestic airport.


Media and communications

Print media industry is highly developed in Argentina, with more than two hundred newspapers. The major national ones include ''Clarín (Argentine newspaper), Clarín'' (centrist, Latin America's best-seller and the second most widely circulated in the Spanish-speaking world), ''La Nación (Buenos Aires), La Nación'' (centre-right, published since 1870), ''Página/12'' (leftist, founded in 1987), the Buenos Aires Herald (Latin America's most prestigious English language daily, liberal, dating back to 1876), ''La Voz del Interior'' (centre, founded in 1904), and the ''Argentinisches Tageblatt'' (German weekly, liberal, published since 1878) Argentina began History of radio, the world's first regular radio broadcasting on 27 August 1920, when Richard Wagner's ''Parsifal'' was aired by a team of medical students led by Enrique Telémaco Susini in Buenos Aires' Teatro Coliseo. there were 260 AM broadcasting, AM and 1150 FM broadcasting, FM registered radio stations in the country. The Television in Argentina, Argentine television industry is large, diverse and popular across Latin America, with many productions and TV formats having been exported abroad. Since 1999 Argentines enjoy the highest availability of cable and satellite television in Latin America, totaling 87.4% of the country's households, a rate similar to those in the United States, Canada and Europe. Argentina also had the highest coverage of networked telecommunications among Latin American powers: about 67% of its population had internet access and 137.2%, mobile phone subscriptions.


Science and technology

Argentines have received three Nobel Prizes in the Sciences. Bernardo Houssay, the first Latin American recipient, discovered the role of pituitary gland, pituitary hormones in regulating glucose in animals, and shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1947. Luis Leloir discovered how organisms store energy converting glucose into glycogen and the compounds which are fundamental in metabolism, metabolizing carbohydrates, receiving the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1970. César Milstein did extensive research in antibody, antibodies, sharing the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1984. Argentine research has led to treatments for heart diseases and several forms of cancer. Domingo Liotta designed and developed the first artificial heart that was successfully implanted in a human being in 1969. René Favaloro developed the techniques and performed the world's first Coronary artery bypass surgery, coronary bypass surgery. Argentina's nuclear programme has been highly successful. In 1957 Argentina was the first country in Latin America to design and build a research reactor with homegrown technology, the RA-1 Enrico Fermi. This reliance in the development of own nuclear related technologies, instead of simply buying them abroad, was a constant of Argentina's nuclear programme conducted by the civilian National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA). Nuclear facilities with Argentine technology have been built in Peru, Algeria, Australia and Egypt. In 1983, the country admitted having the capability of producing weapon-grade uranium, a major step needed to assemble nuclear weapons; since then, however, Argentina has pledged to use nuclear power only for peaceful purposes. As a member of the Board of Governors of the International Atomic Energy Agency, Argentina has been a strong voice in support of nuclear non-proliferation efforts and is highly committed to global nuclear security. In 1974 it was the first country in Latin America to put in-line a commercial nuclear power plant, Atucha I Nuclear Power Plant, Atucha I. Although the Argentine built parts for that station amounted to 10% of the total, the nuclear fuel it uses are since entirely built in the country. Later nuclear power stations employed a higher percentage of Argentine built components; Embalse Nuclear Power Station, Embalse, finished in 1983, a 30% and the 2011 Atucha II Nuclear Power Plant, Atucha II reactor a 40%. Despite its modest budget and numerous setbacks, academics and the sciences in Argentina have enjoyed an international respect since the turn of the 1900s, when Luis Agote devised the first safe and effective means of blood transfusion as well as René Favaloro, who was a pioneer in the improvement of the coronary artery bypass surgery. Argentine scientists are still on the cutting edge in fields such as nanotechnology, physics, computer sciences, molecular biology, oncology, ecology and cardiology. Juan Maldacena, an Argentine-American scientist, is a leading figure in string theory. Space research has also become increasingly active in Argentina. Argentine built satellites include LUSAT-1 (1990), Víctor-1 (1996), PEHUENSAT-1 (2007), and those developed by CONAE, the Argentine space agency, of the SAC series. Argentina has its own satellite programme, nuclear power station designs (4th generation) and public nuclear energy company INVAP, which provides several countries with nuclear reactors.Science and Education in Argentina
argentina.ar
Established in 1991, the CONAE has since launched two satellites successfully and, in June 2009, secured an agreement with the European Space Agency for the installation of a 35-m diameter antenna and other mission support facilities at the Pierre Auger Observatory, the world's foremost cosmic ray observatory. The facility will contribute to numerous ESA space probes, as well as CONAE's own, domestic research projects. Chosen from 20 potential sites and one of only three such ESA installations in the world, the new antenna will create a triangulation which will allow the ESA to ensure mission coverage around the clock


Tourism

The country had 5.57 million visitors in 2013, ranking in terms of the international tourist arrivals as the top destination in
South America South America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven geographical regions are commonly regarded as continent ...

South America
, and second in
Latin America * ht, Amerik Latin, link=no * pt, América Latina, link=no , image = Latin America (orthographic projection).svg , area = , population = ( est.) , density = , ethnic_groups = , ethnic_groups_year = 2018 , ethnic ...

Latin America
after Mexico. Revenues from international tourists reached billion in 2013, down from billion in 2012. The country's capital city,
Buenos Aires Buenos Aires ( or ; ), officially Autonomous City of Buenos Aires, is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or cap ...

Buenos Aires
, is the most visited city in
South America South America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven geographical regions are commonly regarded as continent ...

South America
. There are 30 National Parks of Argentina including many World Heritage Sites in Argentina, World Heritage Sites.


Demographics

The INDEC, 2010 census counted 40,117,096 inhabitants, up from 36,260,130 in 2001. Argentina ranks third in South America in total population, fourth in Latin America and 33rd globally. Its population density of 15 persons per square kilometer of land area is well below the world average of 50 persons. The population growth rate in 2010 was an estimated 1.03% annually, with a birth rate of 17.7 live births per 1,000 inhabitants and a mortality rate of 7.4 deaths per 1,000 inhabitants. Since 2010, the crude net migration rate has ranged from below zero to up to four immigrants per 1,000 inhabitants per year. Argentina is in the midst of a demographic transition to an older and slower-growing population. The proportion of people under 15 is 25.6%, a little below the world average of 28%, and the proportion of people 65 and older is relatively high at 10.8%. In Latin America this is second only to
Uruguay Uruguay (; ; pt, Uruguai), officially the Oriental Republic of Uruguay ( es, República Oriental del Uruguay), is a country in South America South America is a continent entirely in the Western Hemisphere and mostly in the Southern He ...

Uruguay
and well above the world average, which is currently 7%. Argentina has one of Latin America's lowest population growth rates as well as a comparatively low infant mortality rate. Its birth rate of 2.3 children per woman is considerably below the high of 7.0 children born per woman in 1895, though still nearly twice as high as in Spain or Italy, which are culturally and demographically similar. The median age is 31.9 years and life expectancy at birth is 77.14 years. In 2010, Argentina became the first country in Latin America, the second in the Americas, and the tenth worldwide to legalize same-sex marriage.


Ethnography

Argentina is considered a country of immigrants. Argentines usually refer to the country as a ''crisol de razas'' (crucible of races, or melting pot). In colonial times, the ethnic composition of Argentina was the result of the interaction of the pre-Columbian indigenous population with a colonizing population of Spanish origin and with sub-Saharan African slaves. Before the middle 19th century, the ethnic make up of Argentina was very similar to that of other countries of Hispanic America. Between 1857 and 1950 Argentina was the country with the second biggest immigration wave in the world, at 6.6 million, second only to the United States in the numbers of immigrants received (27 million) and ahead of other areas of new settlement like Canada, Brazil and Australia. However, mass European immigration did not have the same impact in the whole country. According to the 1914 national census, 30% of Argentina's population was foreign-born, including 50% of the people in the city of Buenos Aires, but foreigners were only 2% in the provinces of Catamarca Province, Catamarca and La Rioja Province, Argentina, La Rioja (North West region). Strikingly, at those times, the national population doubled every two decades. This belief is endured in the popular saying ''"los argentinos descienden de los barcos"'' (Argentines descend from the ships). Therefore, most Argentines are descended from the 19th- and 20th-century immigrants of the Immigration to Argentina, great immigration wave to Argentina (1850–1955), with a great majority of these immigrants coming from diverse European countries, particularly Italy and Spain. The majority of Argentines descend from multiple European ethnic groups, primarily of Italian people, Italian and Spanish people, Spanish descent, with over 25 million Argentines (almost 60% of the population) having some partial Italian origins. Argentina is home to a significant Arab Argentine, Arab population; including those with partial descent, Arab Argentines number 1.3 to 3.5 million, mostly of Syrian people, Syrian and Lebanese people, Lebanese origin. As in the United States, they are considered white people, white. The majority of Arab Argentines are Christians belonging to the Maronite Church, Roman Catholic Church, Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox Churches, Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Rite Catholic Churches. A minority are Muslims, albeit the largest Muslim community in the Americas. The Asian Argentine, Asian population in the country numbers around 180,000 individuals, most of whom are of Chinese people, Chinese and Korean people, Korean descent, although an older Japanese people, Japanese community originating from the early 20th century still exists. A 2010 study conducted on 218 individuals by the Argentine geneticist Daniel Corach established that the genetic map of Argentina is composed of 79% from different European ethnicities (mainly Italian and Spanish), 18% of different indigenous ethnicities, and 4.3% of African ethnic groups; 63.6% of the tested group had at least one ancestor who was Indigenous peoples in Argentina, Indigenous. From the 1970s, immigration has mostly been coming from
Bolivia Bolivia ; ay, Wuliwya ; : ''Puliwya'' , officially the Plurinational State of Bolivia, is a located in western-central . The constitutional capital is , while the and executive capital is . The largest city and principal industrial ce ...

Bolivia
,
Paraguay Paraguay (; ), officially the Republic of Paraguay ( es, República del Paraguay, links=no; gn, Tetã Paraguái, links=no), is a country in South America South America is a entirely in the and mostly in the , with a relatively sma ...

Paraguay
and Peru, with smaller numbers from the Dominican Republic, Ecuador and Romania. The Argentine government estimates that 750,000 inhabitants lack official documents and has launched a program to encourage illegal immigrants to declare their status in return for two-year residence visas—so far over 670,000 applications have been processed under the program.


Genetics studies

* Homburguer et al., 2015, PLOS One Genetics: 67% European, 28% Amerindian, 4% African and 1,4% Asian. * Avena et al., 2012, PLOS One Genetics: 65% European, 31% Amerindian, and 4% African. ** Buenos Aires Province: 76% European and 24% others. ** South Zone (Chubut Province): 54% European and 46% others. ** Northeast Zone (Misiones, Corrientes, Chaco & Formosa provinces): 54% European and 46% others. ** Northwest Zone (Salta Province): 33% European and 67% others. * Oliveira, 2008, on Universidade de Brasília: 60% European, 31% Amerindian and 9% African. * National Geographic Society, National Geographic: 52% European, 27% Amerindian ancestry, 9% African and 9% others.


Languages

The ''de facto'' official language is Spanish language, Spanish, spoken by almost all Argentines. The country is the largest Hispanophone, Spanish-speaking society that universally employs ''voseo'', the use of the pronoun ''vos'' instead of ''tú'' ("you"), which imposes the use of alternative verb forms as well. Due to the extensive Argentine geography, Spanish has a strong variation among regions, although the prevalent dialect is ''Rioplatense Spanish, Rioplatense'', primarily spoken in the La Plata Basin and accented similarly to the Neapolitan language. Italian and other European immigrants influenced ''Lunfardo''—the regional slang—permeating the vernacular vocabulary of other Latin American countries as well. There are several second-languages in widespread use among the Argentine population: * English, taught since elementary school. 42.3% of Argentines claim to speak it, with 15.4% of them claiming to have a high level of language comprehension. *
Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Italian language, a Romance language *** Regional Italian, regional variants of the ...

Italian
, by 1.5 million people. * Arabic language, Arabic, specially its Levantine Arabic, Northern Levantine dialect, by one million people. * Standard German, by 400,000 people. * Yiddish language, Yiddish, by 200,000 people, the Jewish Argentine, largest Jewish population in Latin America and 7th in the world. * Guarani language, Guaraní, by 200,000 people, mostly in Corrientes (where it is official ''de jure'') and Misiones. * Catalan language, Catalan, by 174,000 people. * Quechua language, Quechua, by 65,000 people, mostly in the Northwest. * Wichí languages, Wichí, by 53,700 people, mainly in Chaco where, along with Kom language (South America), Kom and Moqoit language, Moqoit, it is official ''de jure''. * Vlax Romani language, Vlax Romani, by 52,000 people. * Albanian language, Albanian, by Albanians in South America, 40,000 people. * Japanese language, Japanese, by 32,000 people. * Aymara language, Aymara, by 30,000 people, mostly in the Northwest. * Ukrainian language, Ukrainian, by 27,000 people. * Welsh language, Welsh, 5,000 people in Patagonia. Some districts have incorporated it as an educational language.


Religion

The Constitution guarantees freedom of religion. Although it enforces neither an official nor a state faith, it gives Roman Catholicism a preferential status. According to a 2008 CONICET poll, Argentines were 76.5% Catholic, 11.3% Agnostics and Atheists, 9% Evangelicalism, Evangelical Protestants, 1.2% Jehovah's Witnesses, and 0.9% Mormons, while 1.2% followed other religions, including Islam, Judaism and Buddhism. These figures appear to have changed quite significantly in recent years: data recorded in 2017 indicated that Catholics made up 66% of the population, indicating a drop of 10.5% in nine years, and the nonreligious in the country standing at 21% of the population, indicating an almost doubling over the same period. The country is home to both the Islam in Argentina, largest Muslim and Jewish Argentine, largest Jewish communities in Latin America, the latter being the seventh most populous in the world. Argentina is a member of the International Holocaust Remembrance Alliance. Argentines show high individualization and de-institutionalization of religious beliefs; 23.8% claim to always attend religious services; 49.1% seldom do and 26.8% never do. On 13 March 2013, Argentine Pope Francis, Jorge Mario Bergoglio, the Cardinal (Catholicism), Cardinal Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Buenos Aires, Archbishop of Buenos Aires, was Papal conclave, 2013, elected Pope, Bishop of Rome and Supreme Pontiff of the Catholic Church. He took the name "St. Francis of Assisi, Francis", and he became the first Pope from either the
Americas The Americas (also collectively called America) is a landmass comprising the totality of North North is one of the four compass points or cardinal directions. It is the opposite of south and is perpendicular to East and West. ''North'' ...

Americas
or from the Southern Hemisphere; he is the first Pope born outside of Europe since the Papal conclave, election of Pope Gregory III (who was Syrian) in 741.


Urbanization

Argentina is highly urbanized, with 92% of its population living in cities: the ten largest metropolitan areas account for half of the population. About 3 million people live in the city of Buenos Aires, and including the Greater Buenos Aires metropolitan area it totals around 13 million, making it one of the largest urban areas in the world. The metropolitan areas of Córdoba and Rosario have around 1.3 million inhabitants each. Mendoza, San Miguel de Tucumán, La Plata, Mar del Plata, Salta and Santa Fe have at least half a million people each. The population is unequally distributed: about 60% live in the Pampas region (21% of the total area), including 15 million people in Buenos Aires province. The provinces of Córdoba and Santa Fe, and the city of Buenos Aires have 3 million each. Seven other provinces have over one million people each: Mendoza, Tucumán, Entre Ríos, Salta, Chaco, Corrientes and Misiones. With , Tucumán is the only Argentine province more densely populated than the world average; by contrast, the southern province of Santa Cruz has around .


Education

The Argentine education system consists of four levels: * An initial level for children between 45 days to 5 years old, with the last two years being compulsory. * An elementary or lower school mandatory level lasting 6 or 7 years. the literacy rate was 98.07%. * A secondary or high school mandatory level lasting 5 or 6 years. 38.5% of people over age 20 had completed secondary school. * A Higher education, higher level, divided in tertiary, university and post-graduate sub-levels. there were 47 List of Argentine universities, national public universities across the country, as well as 46 private ones. 7.1% of people over age 20 had graduated from university. The public universities of University of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Córdoba, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, La Plata, Universidad Nacional de Rosario, Rosario, and the National Technological University are some of the most important. The Argentine state guarantees universal, secular and free-of-charge public education for all levels. Responsibility for educational supervision is organized at the federal and individual provincial states. In the last decades the role of the private sector has grown across all educational stages.


Health care

Health care is provided through a combination of employer and labour union-sponsored plans (''Obras Sociales''), government insurance plans, public hospitals and clinics and through private health insurance plans. Health care cooperatives number over 300 (of which 200 are related to Trade union, labour unions) and provide health care for half the population; the national INSSJP (popularly known as PAMI) covers nearly all of the five million senior citizens. There are more than 153,000 hospital beds, 121,000 physicians and 37,000 dentists (ratios comparable to developed country, developed nations).Estadisticas Vitales – Informacionn Basica Año2008
. Ministry of Health (December 2009)
The relatively high access to medical care has historically resulted in mortality patterns and trends similar to developed nations': from 1953 to 2005, deaths from cardiovascular disease increased from 20% to 23% of the total, those from tumors from 14% to 20%, respiratory problems from 7% to 14%, digestive system, digestive maladies (non-infectious) from 7% to 11%, strokes a steady 7%, injuries, 6%, and infection, infectious diseases, 4%. Causes related to senility led to many of the rest. Infant deaths have fallen from 19% of all deaths in 1953 to 3% in 2005.''UN Demographic Yearbook. 1957.'' The availability of health care has also reduced infant mortality from 70 per 1000 live births in 1948''UN Demographic Yearbook. Historical Statistics. 1997''. to 12.1 in 2009 and raised life expectancy at birth from 60 years to 76. Though these figures compare favorably with global averages, they fall short of levels in developed nations and in 2006, Argentina ranked fourth in Latin America.


Culture

Argentina is a multiculturalism, multicultural country with significant European influences. Modern Argentine culture has been largely influenced by Italian people, Italian, Spanish people, Spanish and other European immigration from France, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, United Kingdom, and Germany among others. Its cities are largely characterized by both the prevalence of people of European descent, and of conscious imitation of American and European styles in fashion, architecture and design.Luongo, Michael. ''Frommer's Argentina''. Wiley Publishing, 2007. Museums, cinemas, and galleries are abundant in all the large urban centres, as well as traditional establishments such as literary bars, or bars offering live music of a variety of genres although there are lesser elements of Amerindian and African culture, African influences, particularly in the fields of music and art. The other big influence is the gauchos and their traditional country lifestyle of self-reliance. Finally, indigenous American traditions have been absorbed into the general cultural milieu. Argentine writer Ernesto Sabato has reflected on the nature of the culture of Argentina as follows:


Literature

Although Argentina's rich literary history began around 1550, it reached full independence with Esteban Echeverría's ''El Matadero'', a Romantic literature, romantic landmark that played a significant role in the development of 19th century's Argentine narrative, split by the ideological divide between the popular, federalist epic of José Hernández (writer), José Hernández' ''Martín Fierro'' and the elitist and cultured discourse of Domingo Faustino Sarmiento, Sarmiento's masterpiece, ''Facundo''. The Modernist literature, Modernist movement advanced into the 20th century including exponents such as Leopoldo Lugones and poet Alfonsina Storni; it was followed by Vanguardism, with Ricardo Güiraldes's ''Don Segundo Sombra'' as an important reference. Jorge Luis Borges, Argentina's most acclaimed writer and one of the foremost figures in the history of literature, found new ways of looking at the modern world in metaphor and philosophical debate and his influence has extended to authors all over the globe. Short stories such as ''Ficciones'' and ''The Aleph (short story collection), The Aleph'' are among his most famous works. He was a friend and collaborator of Adolfo Bioy Casares, who wrote one of the most praised science fiction novels, ''The Invention of Morel''. Julio Cortázar, one of the leading members of the Latin American Boom and a major name in 20th century literature, influenced an entire generation of writers in the Americas and Europe. A remarkable episode in the Argentine literature's history is the social and literarial dialectica between the so-called :es:Grupo Florida, Florida Group named this way because its members used to meet together at the :es: Confitería Richmond, Richmond Cafeteria at Florida street and published in the :es:Martín Fierro (Revista), Martin Fierro magazine, like Jorge Luis Borges, :es: Leopoldo Marechal, Leopoldo Marechal, :es:Antonio Berni, Antonio Berni (artist), among others, versus the :es:Grupo Boedo, Boedo Group of Roberto Arlt, :es:Cesar Tiempo, Cesar Tiempo, :es:Homero Manzi, Homero Manzi (tango composer), that used to meet at the :es:Café El Japonés, Japanese Cafe and published their works with the :es: Editorial Claridad, Editorial Claridad, with both the cafe and the publisher located at the Boedo Avenue. Other highly regarded Argentine writers, poets and essayists include Estanislao del Campo, Eugenio Cambaceres, Pedro Bonifacio Palacios, Hugo Wast, Benito Lynch, Enrique Banchs, Oliverio Girondo, Ezequiel Martínez Estrada, Victoria Ocampo, Leopoldo Marechal, Silvina Ocampo, Roberto Arlt, Eduardo Mallea, Manuel Mujica Láinez, Ernesto Sábato, Silvina Bullrich, Rodolfo Walsh, María Elena Walsh, Tomás Eloy Martínez, Manuel Puig, Alejandra Pizarnik, and Osvaldo Soriano.


Music

Tango, a ''Río de la Plata, Rioplatense'' musical genre with European and African influences, is one of Argentina's international cultural symbols. The golden age of tango (1930 to mid-1950s) mirrored that of jazz and swing music, swing in the United States, featuring large orchestras like those of Osvaldo Pugliese, Aníbal Troilo, Francisco Canaro, Julio de Caro and Juan d'Arienzo. After 1955, virtuoso Astor Piazzolla popularized ''Nuevo tango'', a subtler and more intellectual trend for the genre. Tango enjoys worldwide popularity nowadays with groups like Gotan Project, Bajofondo and Tanghetto. Argentina developed strong classical music and dance scenes that gave rise to renowned artists such as Alberto Ginastera, composer; Alberto Lysy, violinist; Martha Argerich and Eduardo Delgado, pianists; Daniel Barenboim, pianist and symphonic orchestra director; José Cura and Marcelo Álvarez, tenors; and to ballet dancers Jorge Donn, José Neglia, Norma Fontenla, ''Maximiliano Guerra'', Paloma Herrera, Marianela Núñez, Iñaki Urlezaga and Julio Bocca. A national Argentine folk style emerged in the 1930s from dozens of regional musical genres and went to influence the entirety of Latin American music. Some of its interpreters, like Atahualpa Yupanqui and Mercedes Sosa, achieved worldwide acclaim. The romantic ballad genre included singers of international fame such as Sandro de América. Argentine rock developed as a distinct musical style in the mid-1960s, when Buenos Aires and Rosario became cradles of aspiring musicians. Founding bands like Los Gatos, Sui Generis, Almendra (band), Almendra and Manal were followed by Seru Giran, Los Abuelos de la Nada, Soda Stereo and Patricio Rey y sus Redonditos de Ricota, with prominent artists including Gustavo Cerati, Litto Nebbia, Andrés Calamaro, Luis Alberto Spinetta, Charly García, Fito Páez and León Gieco. Tenor saxophone, Tenor saxophonist Gato Barbieri, Leandro "Gato" Barbieri and composer and big band conductor Lalo Schifrin are among the most internationally successful Argentine jazz musicians. Another popular musical genre at present is Cumbia villera is a subgenre of cumbia music originated in the slums of Argentina and popularized all over
Latin America * ht, Amerik Latin, link=no * pt, América Latina, link=no , image = Latin America (orthographic projection).svg , area = , population = ( est.) , density = , ethnic_groups = , ethnic_groups_year = 2018 , ethnic ...

Latin America
and the Latin communities abroad.


Theatre

Buenos Aires is one of the great theatre capitals of the world, with a scene of international caliber centered on Corrientes Avenue, "the street that never sleeps", sometimes referred to as an intellectual Broadway (Manhattan), Broadway in Buenos Aires. Teatro Colón is a global landmark for opera and classical performances; its acoustics are considered among the world's top five. Other important theatrical venues include Teatro General San Martín, Cervantes Theatre (Buenos Aires), Cervantes, both in Buenos Aires City; Teatro Argentino de La Plata, Argentino in La Plata, Teatro El Círculo, El Círculo in Rosario, Teatro Independencia, Independencia in Mendoza, and Libertador Theatre, Libertador in Córdoba. Griselda Gambaro, Copi, Roberto Cossa, Marco Denevi, Carlos Gorostiza, and Alberto Vaccarezza are a few of the most prominent Argentine playwrights. Argentine theatre traces its origins to Viceroy Juan José de Vértiz y Salcedo's creation of the colony's first theatre, ''La Ranchería'', in 1783. In this stage, in 1786, a tragedy entitled ''Siripo'' had its premiere. ''Siripo'' is now a lost work (only the second act is conserved), and can be considered the first Argentine stage play, because it was written by Buenos Aires poet Manuel José de Lavardén, it was premiered in Buenos Aires, and its plot was inspired by an historical episode of the early colonization of the Río de la Plata Basin: the destruction of Sancti Spiritu (Argentina), Sancti Spiritu colony by aboriginals in 1529. ''La Ranchería'' theatre operated until its destruction in a fire in 1792. The second theatre stage in Buenos Aires was Teatro Coliseo, opened in 1804 during the term of Viceroy Rafael de Sobremonte. It was the nation's longest-continuously operating stage. The musical creator of the Argentine National Anthem, Blas Parera, earned fame as a theatre score writer during the early 19th century. The genre suffered during the regime of Juan Manuel de Rosas, though it flourished alongside the economy later in the century. The national government gave Argentine theatre its initial impulse with the establishment of the Colón Theatre, in 1857, which hosted classical and operatic, as well as stage performances. Antonio Petalardo's successful 1871 gambit on the opening of the Teatro Opera, inspired others to fund the growing art in Argentina.


Cinema

The Argentine film industry has historically been one of the three most developed in Latin American cinema, along with those produced in Cinema of Mexico, Mexico and Cinema of Brazil, Brazil. Started in 1896; by the early 1930s it had already become Latin America's leading film producer, a place it kept until the early 1950s. The world's first list of animated feature films, animated feature films were made and released in Argentina, by cartoonist Quirino Cristiani, in 1917 and 1918. Argentine films have achieved worldwide recognition: the country has won two Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film, Academy Awards for Best Foreign Language Film, for ''The Official Story'' (1985) and ''The Secret in Their Eyes'' (2009), from seven nominations: * ''The Truce (1974 film), The Truce'' (''La tregua'') in 1974 * ''Camila (film), Camila'' in 1984 * ''The Official Story'' (''La historia oficial'') in 1985 * ''Tango (1998 film), Tango'' in 1998 * ''Son of the Bride'' (''El hijo de la novia'') in 2001 * ''The Secret in Their Eyes'' (''El secreto de sus ojos'') in 2009 * ''Wild Tales (film), Wild Tales'' (''Relatos salvajes'') in 2015 In addition, Argentine composers Luis Enrique Bacalov and Gustavo Santaolalla have been honored with Academy Award for Best Original Score, Academy Awards for Best Original Score, and Armando Bó (screenwriter), Armando Bó and Nicolás Giacobone shared in the Academy Award for Best Original Screenplay for 2014. Also, the French Argentine, Argentine French actress Bérénice Bejo received a nomination for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress in 2011 and won the César Award for Best Actress and won the Best Actress Award (Cannes Film Festival), Best Actress award in the Cannes Film Festival for her role in the film ''The Past (2013 film), The Past''. Argentina also has won seventeen Goya Award for Best Spanish Language Foreign Film, Goya Awards for Best Spanish Language Foreign Film with ''A King and His Movie'' (1986), ''A Place in the World (film), A Place in the World'' (1992), ''Gatica, el mono'' (1993), ''Autumn Sun'' (1996), ''Ashes of Paradise'' (1997), ''The Lighthouse (1998 film), The Lighthouse'' (1998), ''Plata Quemada, Burnt Money'' (2000), ''La Fuga (2001 film), The Escape'' (2001), ''Intimate Stories'' (2003), ''Blessed by Fire'' (2005), ''The Hands'' (2006), ''XXY (film), XXY'' (2007), ''The Secret in Their Eyes'' (2009), ''Chinese Take-Away'' (2011), ''Wild Tales (film), Wild Tales'' (2014), ''The Clan (2015 film), The Clan'' (2015) and ''The Distinguished Citizen'' (2016), being by far the most awarded country in
Latin America * ht, Amerik Latin, link=no * pt, América Latina, link=no , image = Latin America (orthographic projection).svg , area = , population = ( est.) , density = , ethnic_groups = , ethnic_groups_year = 2018 , ethnic ...

Latin America
with twenty-four nominations. Many other Argentine films have been acclaimed by the international critique: ''Camila (film), Camila'' (1984), ''Man Facing Southeast'' (1986), ''A Place in the World (film), A Place in the World'' (1992), ''Pizza, Beer, and Cigarettes'' (1997), ''Nine Queens'' (2000), ''A Red Bear (film), A Red Bear'' (2002), ''The Motorcycle Diaries (film), The Motorcycle Diaries'' (2004), ''The Aura (film), The Aura'' (2005), ''Chinese Take-Away'' (2011) and ''Wild Tales (film), Wild Tales'' (2014) being some of them. about 100 full-length motion pictures were being created annually.


Visual arts

Some of the best-known Argentine painters are Cándido López and Florencio Molina Campos (Naïve art, Naïve style); Ernesto de la Cárcova and Eduardo Sívori (Realism (art), Realism); Fernando Fader (Impressionism); Pío Collivadino, Atilio Malinverno and Cesáreo Bernaldo de Quirós (Postimpressionism); Emilio Pettoruti (Cubism); Julio Barragán (Concretism (art), Concretism and Cubism) Antonio Berni (Neofigurativism); Roberto Aizenberg and Xul Solar (Surrealism); Gyula Košice (Constructivism (art), Constructivism); Eduardo Mac Entyre (Generative art); Luis Seoane, ''Carlos Torrallardona'', ''Luis Aquino'', ''Alfredo Gramajo Gutiérrez'' (Modernism); Lucio Fontana (Spatialism); Tomás Maldonado, Guillermo Kuitca (Abstract art); León Ferrari, Marta Minujín (Conceptual art); Ciruelo Cabral, Gustavo Cabral (Fantasy art), and Fabian Perez, Fabián Pérez (Neoemotionalism). In 1946 Gyula Košice and others created The Madí Movement in Argentina, which then spread to Europe and United States, where it had a significant impact. Tomás Maldonado was one of the main theorists of the Ulm School of Design, Ulm Model of design education, still highly influential globally. Other Argentine artists of worldwide fame include Adolfo Bellocq, whose lithographs have been influential since the 1920s, and Benito Quinquela Martín, the quintessential port painter, inspired by the immigrant-bound La Boca neighbourhood. Internationally laureate sculptors Erminio Blotta, Lola Mora and Rogelio Yrurtia authored many of the classical evocative monuments of the Argentine cityscape.


Architecture

The colonization brought the Spanish Baroque architecture, which can still be appreciated in its simpler ''Rioplatense'' style in the Indian Reductions, reduction of San Ignacio Miní, the Cathedral of Córdoba (Argentina), Cathedral of Córdoba, and the Cabildo of Luján. Italian and French influences increased at the beginning of the 19th century with strong Eclectic architecture, eclectic overtones that gave the local architecture a unique feeling. Numerous Argentine architects have enriched their own country's cityscape and those around the world: Juan Antonio Buschiazzo helped popularize Beaux-Arts architecture and Francisco Gianotti combined Art Nouveau with Italianate styles, each adding flair to Argentine cities during the early 20th century. Francisco Salamone and Viktor Sulčič left an Art Deco legacy, and Alejandro Bustillo created a prolific body of Neoclassical architecture, Neoclassical and Rationalist architecture. Alberto Prebisch and Amancio Williams were highly influenced by Le Corbusier, while Clorindo Testa introduced Brutalist architecture locally. César Pelli's and Patricio Pouchulu's Futurist architecture, Futurist creations have graced cities worldwide: Pelli's 1980s throwbacks to the Art Deco glory of the 1920s made him one of the world's most prestigious architects, with the Norwest Center and the Petronas Towers among his most celebrated creations.


Sport

''Pato'' is the national sport, an ancient horseback game locally originated in the early 1600s and predecessor of horseball. The most popular sport is Association Football, football. Along with Brazilian national football team, Brazil and French national football team, France, the Argentina national football team, men's national team is the only one to have won the most important international triplet: FIFA World Cup, World Cup, FIFA Confederations Cup, Confederations Cup, and the Football at the Summer Olympics, Olympic Gold Medal. It has also won 14 Copa América, Copas América, 7 Football at the Pan American Games, Pan American Gold Medals and many other trophies. Alfredo Di Stéfano, Diego Maradona and Lionel Messi are among the best players in the game's history. The country's Argentina women's national field hockey team, women's field hockey team ''Las Leonas'', is one of the world's most successful with four Field hockey at the Summer Olympics, Olympic medals, two Women's Hockey World Cup, World Cups, a FIH Hockey World League, World League and seven Hockey Champions Trophy, Champions Trophy. Luciana Aymar is recognized as the best female player in the history of the sport, being the only player to have received the FIH Player of the Year Awards, FIH Player of the Year Award eight times. Basketball is a very popular sport. The Argentina national basketball team, men's national team is the only one in the FIBA Americas zone that has won the quintuplet crown: FIBA World Championship, World Championship, Basketball at the Summer Olympics, Olympic Gold Medal, FIBA Diamond Ball, Diamond Ball, FIBA Americas Championship, Americas Championship, and Basketball at the Pan American Games, Pan American Gold Medal. It has also conquered 13 South American Basketball Championship, South American Championships, and many other tournaments. Emanuel Ginóbili, Luis Scola, Andrés Nocioni, Fabricio Oberto, Pablo Prigioni, Carlos Delfino and Juan Ignacio Sánchez are a few of the country's most acclaimed players, all of them part of the National Basketball Association, NBA. Argentina hosted the Basketball World Cup in 1950 and 1990. Rugby Union, Rugby is another popular sport in Argentina. the Argentina national rugby union team, men's national team, known as 'Los Pumas' has competed at the Rugby World Cup each time it has been held, achieving their highest ever result in 2007 Rugby World Cup, 2007 when they came third. Since 2012 Rugby Championship, 2012 the Los Pumas have competed against Australia national rugby union team, Australia, New Zealand national rugby union team, New Zealand & South Africa national rugby union team, South Africa in The Rugby Championship, the premier international Rugby competition in the Southern Hemisphere. Since 2009 the Argentina Jaguars, secondary men's national team known as the 'Jaguares' has competed against the USA Selects, US, Canada A national rugby union team, Canada, and Uruguay national rugby union team, Uruguay first teams in the Americas Rugby Championship, which Los Jaguares have won six out of eight times it has taken place. Argentina has produced some of the most formidable champions for Boxing, including Carlos Monzón, the best middleweight in history; Pascual Pérez (boxer), Pascual Pérez, one of the most decorated flyweight boxers of all times; Horacio Accavallo, the former World Boxing Association, WBA and World Boxing Council, WBC world flyweight champion; Víctor Galíndez, record holder for consecutive world light heavyweight title defenses and Nicolino Locche, nicknamed "The Untouchable" for his masterful defense; they are all inductees into the International Boxing Hall of Fame. Tennis has been quite popular among people of all ages. Guillermo Vilas is the greatest Latin American player of the History of tennis, Open Era, while Gabriela Sabatini is the most accomplished Argentine female player of all time—having reached #3 in the WTA Ranking, are both inductees into the International Tennis Hall of Fame. Argentina reigns undisputed in Polo, having won more international championships than any other country and been seldom beaten since the 1930s. The Campeonato Argentino Abierto de Polo, Argentine Polo Championship is the sport's most important international team trophy. The country is home to most of the world's top players, among them Adolfo Cambiaso, the best in Polo history. Historically, Argentina has had a strong showing within Auto racing. Juan Manuel Fangio was five times Formula One world champion under four different teams, winning 102 of his 184 international races, and is widely ranked as the greatest driver of all time. Other distinguished racers were Oscar Alfredo Gálvez, Juan Gálvez (racing driver), Juan Gálvez, José Froilán González and Carlos Reutemann.


Cuisine

Besides many of the pasta, sausage and dessert dishes common to continental Europe, Argentines enjoy a wide variety of Indigenous and Criollo people, Criollo creations, including ''empanadas'' (a small stuffed pastry), ''locro'' (a mixture of corn, beans, meat, bacon, onion, and gourd), ''humita'' and ''mate (beverage), mate''. The country has the highest consumption of red meat in the world, traditionally prepared as ''asado'', the Argentine barbecue. It is made with various types of meats, often including ''chorizo'', sweetbread, chitterlings, and blood sausage. Common desserts include ''facturas'' (Viennese cuisine, Viennese-style pastry), cakes and pancakes filled with ''dulce de leche'' (a sort of milk caramel jam), ''alfajores'' (shortbread cookies sandwiched together with chocolate, ''dulce de leche'' or a fruit paste), and ''torta frita, tortas fritas'' (fried cakes) Argentine wine, one of the world's finest, is an integral part of the local menu. Malbec, Torrontés, Cabernet Sauvignon, Syrah and Chardonnay are some of the most sought-after international varieties, varieties.


National symbols

Some of Argentina's national symbols are defined by law, while others are traditions lacking formal designation. The Flag of Argentina consists of three horizontal stripes equal in width and colored light blue, white and light blue, with the Sun of May in the centre of the middle white stripe. The flag was designed by Manuel Belgrano in 1812; it was adopted as a national symbol on 20 July 1816. The Coat of Arms of Argentina, Coat of Arms, which represents the union of the provinces, came into use in 1813 as the seal (emblem), seal for official documents. The Argentine National Anthem was written by Vicente López y Planes with music by Blas Parera, and was adopted in 1813. The Cockade of Argentina, National Cockade was first used during the May Revolution of 1810 and was made official two years later. Our Lady of Luján, The Virgin of Luján is Argentina's patron saint. The Furnarius rufus, ''hornero'', living across most of the national territory, was chosen as the national bird in 1928 after a lower school survey. The Erythrina crista-galli, ''ceibo'' is the national floral emblem and national tree, while the Schinopsis balansae, ''quebracho colorado'' is the national forest tree. Rhodochrosite is known as the national gemstone. The national sport is ''pato'', an Equestrianism, equestrian game that was popular among gauchos. Argentine wine is the national liquor, and ''mate (beverage), mate'', the national infusion. ''Asado'' and ''locro'' are considered the national dishes.


See also

* Index of Argentina-related articles * Outline of Argentina * *


Notes


References


Bibliography


Legal documents

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Articles

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Books

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External links


Official website

National Institute of Tourism Promotion

Argentina
''The World Factbook''. Central Intelligence Agency. *
Argentina
at the Latin American Network Information Center

at the University of Colorado Boulder, University Libraries – University of Colorado Boulder
Key Development Forecasts for Argentina
at International Futures * * {{Authority control Argentina, 1816 establishments in South America Christian states Countries in South America Federal constitutional republics Former Spanish colonies G15 nations G20 nations Southern Cone countries Member states of Mercosur Member states of the United Nations Spanish-speaking countries and territories States and territories established in 1816