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Aberdeenshire or the County of Aberdeen ( sco, Coontie o Aiberdeen, gd, Siorrachd Obar Dheathain) is a historic county and
registration county A registration county was, in Great Britain Great Britain is an island in the North Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe. With an area of , it is the largest of the British Isles, the List of European islands by are ...
of
Scotland Scotland ( sco, Scotland, gd, Alba Alba (Scottish Gaelic Scottish Gaelic ( gd, Gàidhlig or Scots Gaelic, sometimes referred to simply as Gaelic) is a Goidelic language (in the Celtic languages, Celtic branch of the Indo-European ...

Scotland
. The area of the county, excluding the
city of Aberdeen gd, Comhairle Cathair Obar Dheathain , native_name_lang = , other_name = , image_skyline = Town House, Municipal Offices and Court Houses in Aberdeen.jpg , image_caption = Aberdeen Town House Aberdeen ...
itself, is also a
lieutenancy area Lieutenancy areas are the separate areas of the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a s ...
. The county borders
Kincardineshire Kincardineshire, also known as the Mearns (from the Scottish Gaelic Scottish Gaelic ( gd, Gàidhlig ), also known as Scots Gaelic and Gaelic, is a Goidelic language The Goidelic or Gaelic languages ( ga, teangacha Gaelacha; gd, càn ...
,
Angus Angus may refer to: Animals * Angus cattle, a breed of cattle taking its name from Angus, Scotland * Red Angus, a breed of Angus cattle with a red coloured coat Media * Angus (film), ''Angus'' (film), a 1995 film about an overweight boy humilia ...
and
Perthshire Perthshire (; gd, Siorrachd Pheairt), officially the County of Perth, is a historic county and registration county A registration county was, in Great Britain Great Britain is an island in the North Atlantic Ocean off the northwes ...
to the south,
Inverness-shire Inverness-shire ( gd, Siorrachd Inbhir Nis) is a Counties of Scotland, historic county, registration county and Lieutenancy areas of Scotland, lieutenancy area of Scotland. Covering much of the Scottish Highlands, Highlands and Outer Hebrides, ...

Inverness-shire
and
Banffshire Banffshire ; sco, Coontie o Banffshire; gd, Siorrachd Bhanbh) is a historic county, registration county A registration county was, in Great Britain Great Britain is an island in the North Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of cont ...
to the west, and the
North Sea The North Sea is a sea The sea, connected as the world ocean or simply the ocean The ocean (also the sea or the world ocean) is the body of salt water which covers approximately 71% of the surface of the Earth.
to the north and east. It has a coast-line of . Between 1890 and 1975, Aberdeenshire was one of the administrative counties of Scotland, governed by a
county council A county council is the elected administrative body governing an area known as a county. This term has slightly different meanings in different countries. Members are elected in County Council elections. Ireland The county councils created und ...
. In 1900, the county town of
Aberdeen Aberdeen (; sco, Aiberdeen, ; gd, Obar Dheathain ; la, Aberdonia) is a city in northeast Scotland. It is the List of towns and cities in Scotland by population, third most populous city in Scotland, one of Scotland's 32 Local government in ...

Aberdeen
became a county of a city and was thus removed from the
administrative county An administrative county was a first-level administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar term ...
. In 1975 the
Local Government (Scotland) Act 1973 The Local Government (Scotland) Act 1973 (c. 65) is an Act of Parliament of the United Kingdom The Parliament of the United Kingdom is the supreme legislative body A legislature is an assembly Assembly may refer to: Organisations ...
reorganised local administration in Scotland into a two-tier system of regions and districts. The administrative counties of Aberdeenshire, the City of Aberdeen, Banffshire, Kincardineshire and most of
Morayshire Moray (; gd, Moireibh ) or Morayshire, called Elginshire until 1919, is a historic counties of Scotland, historic county, registration counties, registration county and lieutenancy areas of Scotland, lieutenancy area of Scotland, bordering N ...
were merged to form
Grampian Region Grampian ( gd, Roinn a' Mhonaidh) was one of nine former local government Local government is a generic term for the lowest tiers of public administration Public administration is the implementation of government policy Public policy i ...
, with the area of county being divided between the districts of
City of Aberdeen gd, Comhairle Cathair Obar Dheathain , native_name_lang = , other_name = , image_skyline = Town House, Municipal Offices and Court Houses in Aberdeen.jpg , image_caption = Aberdeen Town House Aberdeen ...
,
Banff and Buchan :''For the constituencies, see Banff and Buchan (Scottish Parliament constituency) or Banff and Buchan (UK Parliament constituency).'' Banff and Buchan is a committee area of the Aberdeenshire Council, Scotland. It has a population of 35,742 (20 ...

Banff and Buchan
, Gordon and
Kincardine and Deeside Kincardine and Deeside was formerly (1975–96) a local government district in the Grampian Grampian ( gd, Roinn a' Mhonaidh) was one of nine former Local government in Scotland, local government Regions and districts of Scotland, regions of ...

Kincardine and Deeside
for administration. In 1996 Scottish local government system was reorganised a second time to form a single tier of unitary council areas. The name was revived in local government for the
council area of Aberdeenshire
council area of Aberdeenshire
, which has vastly different boundaries. The area is generally hilly, and from the south-west, near the centre of Scotland, the
Grampians The Grampian Mountains (''Am Monadh'' in Scottish Gaelic, Gaelic) are one of the three major mountain ranges in Scotland, occupying a considerable portion of the Scottish Highlands in northern Scotland. The other major mountain ranges in Scotla ...
send out various branches, mostly to the north-east.


Symbols

The coat of arms of Aberdeenshire County Council was granted in 1890. The four quarters represented the Buchan, Mar, Garioch and Strathbogie areas.R M Urquhart, ''Scottish Burgh and County Heraldry'', London 1973


Constituencies

There was an Aberdeenshire constituency of the
House of Commons The House of Commons is the name for the elected lower house A lower house is one of two chambers Chambers may refer to: Places Canada: *Chambers Township, Ontario United States: *Chambers County, Alabama *Chambers, Arizona, an unincorpor ...
of the
Parliament of Great Britain The Parliament of Great Britain was formed in May 1707 following the ratification of the Acts of UnionAct of Union may refer to: In Great Britain and Ireland * Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542, passed during the reign of King Henry VIII to m ...
from 1708 to 1801 and of the
Parliament of the United Kingdom The Parliament of the United Kingdom is the supreme legislative body A legislature is an assembly Assembly may refer to: Organisations and meetings * Deliberative assembly A deliberative assembly is a gathering of members (of any kin ...
from 1801 to 1868. This constituency did not include the
parliamentary burgh In the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some prefer to ...
of
Aberdeen Aberdeen (; sco, Aiberdeen, ; gd, Obar Dheathain ; la, Aberdonia) is a city in northeast Scotland. It is the List of towns and cities in Scotland by population, third most populous city in Scotland, one of Scotland's 32 Local government in ...

Aberdeen
, which was represented as a component of Aberdeen District of Burghs until 1832, when it was enlarged and became the Aberdeen burgh constituency. The other components of the
district of burghs The Act of Union 1707 and pre-Union Scottish legislation provided for 14 Members of Parliament (MPs) from Scotland to be elected from districts of burghs. All the parliamentary burghs (burghs represented in the pre-Union Parliament of Scotland) we ...
became components of the then new Montrose District of Burghs. In 1868 the Aberdeenshire constituency was divided to form two new
county division In the United Kingdom (UK), each of the electoral areas or divisions called constituencies elects one member to the British House of Commons, House of Commons. Within the United Kingdom there are five bodies with members elected by electoral distr ...
s, or ''county constituencies'', namely Eastern Aberdeenshire and Western Aberdeenshire. In 1885 the Aberdeen
burgh constituency A burgh constituency is a type of parliamentary United Kingdom constituencies, constituency in Scotland. It is a constituency which is predominantly urban area, urban, and on this basis has been designated as a burgh constituency. They are the succ ...
was divided to form the burgh constituencies of Aberdeen North and Aberdeen South. In 1918 Aberdeenshire and
Kincardineshire Kincardineshire, also known as the Mearns (from the Scottish Gaelic Scottish Gaelic ( gd, Gàidhlig ), also known as Scots Gaelic and Gaelic, is a Goidelic language The Goidelic or Gaelic languages ( ga, teangacha Gaelacha; gd, càn ...
were treated as if a single county for parliamentary representation purposes, with the area of the Kincardineshire county constituency and the Aberdeenshire constituencies being divided into three new constituencies, Kincardine and Western Aberdeenshire, Aberdeen and Kincardine Central and Aberdeen and Kincardine East. Kincardine and Western Aberdeenshire included the whole of the former Kincardineshire constituency. In 1950 the area of the former Kincardinshire constituency (as abolished in 1918) was merged into the then new North Angus and Mearns constituency, and the Aberdeenshire area was divided into the East Aberdeenshire constituency and the West Aberdeenshire constituency, but the boundary between these new eastern and western constituencies differed from that for the constituencies of the 1868 to 1918 period. Boundary changes in 1955 enlarged the Aberdeenshire West constituency, and reduced the size of the Aberdeenshire East constituency. In 1983, eight years after the local government county of Aberdeenshire was abolished, the Aberdeenshire constituencies were replaced with new constituencies.


Geography

Aberdeenshire has been traditionally divided into five districts: *
Mar Mar (from syc, ܡܪܝ ', written with a silent final yodh Yodh (also spelled jodh, yod, jod, or yud) is the tenth letter Letter, letters, or literature may refer to: Characters typeface * Letter (alphabet) A letter is a segmental symbol ...

Mar
, mostly between the Dee and Don, which nearly covers the southern half of the county and contains the city of
Aberdeen Aberdeen (; sco, Aiberdeen, ; gd, Obar Dheathain ; la, Aberdonia) is a city in northeast Scotland. It is the List of towns and cities in Scotland by population, third most populous city in Scotland, one of Scotland's 32 Local government in ...
. It is mountainous, especially
Braemar Braemar is a village in Aberdeenshire, Scotland, around west of Aberdeen in the Scottish Highlands, Highlands. It is the closest significantly-sized settlement to the upper course of the River Dee, Aberdeenshire, River Dee sitting at an eleva ...

Braemar
, which contains the greatest mass of elevated land in the
British Isles The British Isles are a group of islands in the North Atlantic off the north-western coast of continental Europe Continental Europe or mainland Europe is the contiguous continent A continent is any of several large landmasse ...

British Isles
. The Dee valley has sandy soil, the
Don Don, don or DON and variants may refer to: Places *Don, BeninDon is a town in Benin, Africa. It has a population of 696,969. Nearest large airports are Cadjehoun Airport, Cotonou Cadjehoun in Cotonou and Lomé-Tokoin Airport, Lomé-Tokoin in Lom ...
valley loamy. *
Formartine Formartine ( gd, Fearann Mhàrtainn meaning "Martin's land") is a committee area Many large local government Local government is a generic term for the lowest tiers of public administration Public administration is the implementation of p ...
, between the lower Don and Ythan, has a sandy coast, which is succeeded inland by a clayey, fertile, tilled tract, and then by low hills, moors, mosses and tilled land. *
Buchan Buchan is one of the six committee area Many large local government Local government is a generic term for the lowest tiers of public administration Public administration is the implementation of public policy, government policy and al ...
lies north of the Ythan, and comprising the north-east of the county, is next in size to Mar, parts of the coast being bold and rocky, the interior bare, low, flat, undulating and in places peaty. On the coast, six miles (10 km) south of
Peterhead Peterhead (; gd, Ceann Phàdraig, sco, Peterheid ) is a town in Aberdeenshire Aberdeenshire ( sco, Aiberdeenshire; gd, Siorrachd Obar Dheathain) is one of the 32 council areas of Scotland For local government Local governmen ...
, are the Bullers of Buchan – a basin in which the sea, entering by a natural arch, boils up violently in stormy weather.
Buchan Ness Buchan is one of the six committee areas and administrative areas of Aberdeenshire Council, Scotland. These areas were created by the council in 1996, when the Aberdeenshire Council areas of Scotland, council area was created under the Local G ...
is the most easterly point of Scotland. *
Garioch Garioch ( sco, The Geerie, , gd, Gaibheach) is one of six committee areas in Aberdeenshire, Scotland. It has a population of 46,254 (2006 estimate), which gives it the largest population of Aberdeenshire's six committee areas. The Garioch cons ...
, in the centre of the shire, comprises an undulating, loamy, fertile valley, formerly called the granary of
Aberdeen Aberdeen (; sco, Aiberdeen, ; gd, Obar Dheathain ; la, Aberdonia) is a city in northeast Scotland. It is the List of towns and cities in Scotland by population, third most populous city in Scotland, one of Scotland's 32 Local government in ...
. * Strathbogie, occupying a considerable area south of the Deveron, mostly consists of hills, moors and mosses. The interior mountains of the
Cairngorms The Cairngorms ( gd, Am Monadh Ruadh) are a mountain range in the eastern Highlands Highlands or uplands are any mountainous region or elevated mountainous plateau. Generally speaking, upland (or uplands) refers to ranges of hills, typically up ...

Cairngorms
provide the most striking of the physical features of the county: * Ben Macdhui, , a magnificent mass, the second highest mountain in the
United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some prefer to use Britain as shorth ...

United Kingdom
(''shared with Banffshire'') *
Braeriach Braeriach (Scottish Gaelic: ''Am Bràigh Riabhach'') is the third-highest mountain in the British Isles, surpassed only by Ben Nevis and Ben Macdhui (Scotland), Ben Macdui. It is the highest point in the western massif of the Cairngorms, separate ...

Braeriach
*
Cairn Toul Cairn Toul (from the Scottish Gaelic language, Gaelic Càrn an t-Sabhail, 'Hill of the barn') is the List of mountains and hills of the United Kingdom, fourth highest mountain in Scotland, The United Kingdom, and The British Isles, after Ben Nev ...

Cairn Toul
, * Beinn a' Bhùird, *
Ben Avon Ben Avon (Scottish Gaelic: Beinn Athfhinn) is a mountain in the Cairngorms, Cairngorm mountains of Scotland. The highest point of the massif, known as Leabaidh an Dàimh Bhuidhe (''bed of the yellow stag'') is classified as both a Munro and a Mar ...

Ben Avon
, *"Dark"
Lochnagar Lochnagar or is a mountain A mountain is an elevated portion of the Earth's crust, generally with steep sides that show significant exposed bedrock. A mountain differs from a plateau in having a limited summit area, and is larger than a ...
, * Cairn Eas, , * Sgarsoch, * Culardoch Farther north rise the
Buck of Cabrach Buck may refer to: Common meanings * A colloquialism for a dollar Dollar is the name of more than 20 currencies A currency, "in circulation", from la, currens, -entis, literally meaning "running" or "traversing" in the most specific sen ...
, on the Banffshire border,
Tap o' Noth The Tap o' Noth is a hill and hill fort, fort, 8 miles south of Huntly in Aberdeenshire, Scotland at grid reference NJ485293. It is the second highest fort in Scotland and its main feature is its well-preserved Vitrified fort, vitrified wall whi ...
, ,
Bennachie Bennachie ( ; Scottish Gaelic Scottish Gaelic ( gd, Gàidhlig ), also known as Scots Gaelic and Gaelic, is a Goidelic language The Goidelic or Gaelic languages ( ga, teangacha Gaelacha; gd, cànanan Goidhealach; gv, çhengaghyn Gaelg ...
, , which from its central position is a landmark visible from many different parts of the county, and which is celebrated in John Imlah's song, ''O gin I war faur the Gadie rins,'' and Foudland, . The chief rivers are the
Dee
Dee
, long; the Don, ; the Ythan, , with mussel-beds at its mouth; the
Ugie The River Ugie (Scottish Gaelic: Uisge Ùigidh) or Ugie Water is a river in North East Scotland; it flows into the North Sea on the east coast at Peterhead, north of Cruden Bay. There is considerable evidence of prehistoric settlement within the ...
, , and the Deveron, , partly on the boundary of Banffshire. In 1911 the rivers abounded with salmon and trout, and the pearl mussel occurs in the Ythan and Don. A valuable pearl in the Scottish crown is said to be from the Ythan.
Loch Muick Loch Muick (; Gaelic Gaelic is an adjective that means "pertaining to the Gaels". As a noun it refers to the group of languages spoken by the Gaels, or to any one of the languages individually. Gaelic languages are spoken in Ireland, Scotland, an ...
, the largest of the few lakes in the county, above the sea, long and broad, lies some southwest of
Ballater Ballater (, gd, Bealadair) is a burgh A burgh is an autonomous The federal subject in Russia">Federal subjects of Russia">federal subject in Russia, close to borders of Finland. Picture of Petrozavodsk, the capital of the Republic of ...
, and has Altnagiuthasach, a royal shooting-box, near its south-western end. Loch Strathbeg, southeast of Fraserburgh, is only separated from the sea by a narrow strip of land. There are noted
chalybeate Chalybeate () waters, also known as Iron oxide, ferruginous waters, are mineral spring waters containing salts of iron. Name The word "chalybeate" is derived from the Latin word for steel, ''chalybs'', which follows from the Ancient Greek, Gree ...
springs at Peterhead, Fraserburgh, and Pannanich near
Ballater Ballater (, gd, Bealadair) is a burgh A burgh is an autonomous The federal subject in Russia">Federal subjects of Russia">federal subject in Russia, close to borders of Finland. Picture of Petrozavodsk, the capital of the Republic of ...
. Other lochs of note are
Loch Kinord Loch Kinord is a small, freshwater loch at Muir of Dinnet, Aberdeenshire, Scotland just north of the River Dee, Aberdeenshire, River Dee and east of Ballater. The loch is also known as ''Loch Ceander'' and ''Loch Cannor''. It is approximately ...
,
Loch Davan Loch Davan is a small, triangular, freshwater loch approximately northeast of Ballater, Scotland and lying immediately north of Loch Kinord. It is approximately in length and was formed from a glacial kettle hole. The loch sits within the ''Mu ...
,
Dubh Loch Dub mac Maíl Coluim ( Modern Gaelic: ''Dubh mac Mhaoil Chaluim'', ), sometimes anglicised as Duff MacMalcolm, called Dén, "the Vehement" and, "the Black" (born c. 928 – died 967) was king of Alba The monarch of Scotland was the head of ...
,
Lochnagar Lochnagar or is a mountain A mountain is an elevated portion of the Earth's crust, generally with steep sides that show significant exposed bedrock. A mountain differs from a plateau in having a limited summit area, and is larger than a ...
, Sandy Loch, Loch Callater, Loch Phadraig,
Loch nan Eun Loch nan Eun is an remote freshwater loch, located in Gleann Taitneach in the Grampian Mountains, Perth and Kinross, some 4.5 miles west of The Cairnwell, Scotland. References

{{reflist Freshwater lochs of Scotland, Eun Lochs of Perth and ...

Loch nan Eun
and the
Loch of Skene Loch of Skene is a large lowland, freshwater loch in Aberdeenshire, Scotland. It lies approximately to the west of the village of Skene, Aberdeenshire, Kirkton of Skene and west of Aberdeen. The loch is partially man-made being dammed at its ou ...
.


Geology

The greater part of the county is composed of crystalline
schist Schist ( ) is a medium-grained metamorphic rock , a type of metamorphic rock Metamorphic rocks arise from the transformation of existing rock (geology), rock to new types of rock, in a process called metamorphism upright=1.35, Schematic r ...

schist
s belonging to the
metamorphic rock Metamorphic rocks arise from the transformation of existing rock Rock most often refers to: * Rock (geology) A rock is any naturally occurring solid mass or aggregate of minerals or mineraloid matter. It is categorized by the mineral ...

metamorphic rock
s of the Eastern Highlands. In the upper parts of the valleys of the Dee and the Don they form well-marked groups, of which the most characteristic are: #the black schists and
phyllite Phyllite ( ) is a type of foliated metamorphic rock Metamorphic rocks arise from the transformation of existing rock Rock most often refers to: * Rock (geology) A rock is any naturally occurring solid mass or aggregate of miner ...

phyllite
s, with flints, and a thin band of
tremolite Tremolite is a member of the amphibole Amphibole () is a group of Silicate minerals, inosilicate minerals, forming prism or needlelike crystals, composed of double chain tetrahedron, tetrahedra, linked at the vertices and generally containin ...

tremolite
limestone Limestone is a common type of carbonate In chemistry, a carbonate is a salt Salt is a mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride (NaCl), a chemical compound belonging to the larger class of Salt (chemistry), salts; salt in its na ...

limestone
, #the main or
Blair Atholl Blair Atholl (from the Scottish Gaelic Scottish Gaelic ( gd, Gàidhlig ), also known as Scots Gaelic and Gaelic, is a Goidelic language The Goidelic or Gaelic languages ( ga, teangacha Gaelacha; gd, cànanan Goidhealach; gv, çhengag ...
limestone, #the
quartzite Quartzite is a hard, non-Foliation (geology), foliated metamorphic rock which was originally pure quartz sandstone.Essentials of Geology, 3rd Edition, Stephen Marshak, p 182 Sandstone is converted into quartzite through heating and pressure usu ...

quartzite
. These divisions are folded on highly inclined or vertical axes trending north-east and south-west, and hence the same zones are repeated over a considerable area. The quartzite is generally regarded as the highest member of the series. Excellent sections showing the component strata occur in
Glen Clunie A glen is a valley A valley is an elongated low area often running between hills or mountains, which will typically contain a river or stream running from one end to the other. Most valleys are formed by erosion of the land surface by ...
and its tributary valleys above Braemar. Eastwards down the Dee and the Don and northwards across the plain of Buchan towards
Rattray Head Rattray Head (), historically Rattray Point, is a headland in Buchan Buchan is one of the six committee area Many large local government Local government is a generic term for the lowest tiers of public administration Public admin ...
and Fraserburgh there is a development of
biotite Biotite is a common group of Silicate minerals#Phyllosilicates, phyllosilicate minerals within the mica group, with the approximate chemical formula . It is primarily a solid solution, solid-solution series between the iron-endmember annite, and ...

biotite
gneiss Gneiss ( ) is a common and widely distributed type of metamorphic rock Metamorphic rocks arise from the transformation of existing rock Rock most often refers to: * Rock (geology) A rock is any naturally occurring solid mass or ag ...

gneiss
, partly of
sedimentary Sedimentary rocks are types of rock (geology), rock that are formed by the accumulation or deposition of mineral or organic matter, organic particles at Earth#Surface, Earth's surface, followed by cementation (geology), cementation. Sedimentatio ...

sedimentary
and perhaps partly of
igneous Igneous rock (derived from the Latin word ''ignis'' meaning fire), or magmatic rock, is one of the three main The three types of rocks, rock types, the others being Sedimentary rock, sedimentary and metamorphic rock, metamorphic. Igneous rock i ...
origin. A belt of slate which has been quarried for roofing purposes runs along the west border of the county from Turriff by Auchterless and the
Foudland Hills The Foudland Hills is a mountainous landform in the northeast of Aberdeenshire, Scotland and northwest of County of Moray, Morayshire. The Foudland Hills are a prominent feature along the northern coastal region of Aberdeenshire, and are visible ...
towards the Tap o' Noth near
Gartly Gartly ( sco, Gairtlie, gd, Gartaidh) is an inland hamlet in Aberdeenshire Aberdeenshire ( sco, Aiberdeenshire; gd, Siorrachd Obar Dheathain) is one of the 32 council areas of Scotland For local government Local government is a ...
. The metamorphic rocks have been invaded by igneous materials, some before, and by far the larger series after the folding of the strata. The basic types of the former are represented by the sills of
epidiorite Amphibolite () is a metamorphic rock that contains amphibole, especially hornblende and actinolite, as well as plagioclase. Amphibolite is a grouping of rocks composed mainly of amphibole and plagioclase feldspar, with little or no quartz. It is ...
and
hornblende Hornblende is a complex inosilicate Silicate minerals are rock-forming minerals made up of silicate groups. They are the largest and most important class of minerals and make up approximately 90 percent of Earth's crust. In mineralogy, silica ...

hornblende
gneiss in Glen Muick and Glen Callater, which have been permeated by
granite Granite () is a coarse-grained (phanerite, phaneritic) intrusive rock, intrusive igneous rock composed mostly of quartz, alkali feldspar, and plagioclase. It forms from magma with a high content of silica and alkali metal oxides that slowly cool ...

granite
and
pegmatite A pegmatite is an igneous rock showing a very coarse Texture (geology), texure, with large interlocking crystals usually greater in size than and sometimes greater than . Most pegmatites are composed of quartz, feldspar, and mica, having a si ...
in
vein Veins are blood vessels The blood vessels are the components of the circulatory system The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system or the vascular system, is an organ system An organ system is a biological system A b ...

vein
s and lenticles, often foliated. The later granites subsequent to the plication of the schists have a wide distribution on the Ben Macdhui and Ben Avon range, and on Lochnagar; they stretch eastwards from Ballater by Tarland to
Aberdeen Aberdeen (; sco, Aiberdeen, ; gd, Obar Dheathain ; la, Aberdonia) is a city in northeast Scotland. It is the List of towns and cities in Scotland by population, third most populous city in Scotland, one of Scotland's 32 Local government in ...

Aberdeen
and north to Bennachie. Isolated masses appear at Peterhead and at Strichen. Though consisting mainly of biotite granite, these later intrusions pass by intermediate stages into
diorite Diorite ( ) is an intrusive rock, intrusive igneous rock formed by the slow cooling underground of magma (molten rock) that has a moderate content of silica and a relatively low content of alkali metals. It is Intermediate composition, inter ...

diorite
, as in the area between Balmoral and the head-waters of the Gairn. The granites have been extensively quarried at
Rubislaw
Rubislaw
, Peterhead and
Kemnay Kemnay (Scottish Gaelic language, Gaelic: ''Camnaidh'') is a village west of Aberdeen in Garioch, Aberdeenshire, Scotland. History The village name ''Kemnay'' is believed to originate from the Celtic words that mean "little crook in the river ...
.
Serpentinite Serpentinite is a rock Rock most often refers to: * Rock (geology) A rock is any naturally occurring solid mass or aggregate of minerals or mineraloid matter. It is categorized by the minerals included, its Chemical compound, chemic ...

Serpentinite
and
troctolite Troctolite (from Greek τρώκτης 'trout' and λίθος 'stone') is a mafic A mafic mineral or rock is a silicate mineral Silicate minerals are rock-forming mineral In geology and mineralogy, a mineral or mineral species is, broa ...
, the precise age of which is uncertain, occur at the
Black Dog Rock Black is a color which results from the absence or complete absorption Absorption may refer to: Chemistry and biology *Absorption (chemistry), diffusion of particles of gas or liquid into liquid or solid materials *Absorption (skin), a rou ...
north of
Aberdeen Aberdeen (; sco, Aiberdeen, ; gd, Obar Dheathain ; la, Aberdonia) is a city in northeast Scotland. It is the List of towns and cities in Scotland by population, third most populous city in Scotland, one of Scotland's 32 Local government in ...

Aberdeen
, at Belhelvie and near
Old Meldrum Oldmeldrum (commonly known as Meldrum) is a village and Civil parish, parish in the Formartine area of Aberdeenshire, not far from Inverurie in North East Scotland (Scottish Parliament electoral region), North East Scotland. With a population of ...
. Where the schists of sedimentary origin have been pierced by these igneous intrusions, they are charged with contact minerals such as
sillimanite Sillimanite is an aluminosilicate Aluminosilicate mineral In geology Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, ''gē'' ("earth") and -λoγία, ''-logia'', ("study of", "discourse")) is an Earth science concerned with the solid Earth, the ...

sillimanite
,
cordierite Cordierite (mineralogy Mineralogy is a subject of geology Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, ''gē'' ("earth") and -λoγία, ''-logia'', ("study of", "discourse")) is an Earth science concerned with the solid Earth, the rock (geology ...

cordierite
, kyanite and andalusite. Cordierite-bearing rocks occur near Ellon, at the foot of Bennachie, and on the top of the Buck of Cabrach. A banded and mottled calc-silicate hornfels occurring with the
limestone Limestone is a common type of carbonate In chemistry, a carbonate is a salt Salt is a mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride (NaCl), a chemical compound belonging to the larger class of Salt (chemistry), salts; salt in its na ...

limestone
at Derry Falls, west-northwest of Braemar, has yielded malacolite, wollastonite, brown idocrase, garnet, sphene and hornblende. A larger list of minerals has been obtained from an exposure of limestone and associated beds in Glen Gairn, about four miles (6 km) above the point where that river joins the Dee. Narrow belts of Old Red Sandstone, resting unconformably on the old platform of slates and schists, have been traced from the north coast at Peterhead by Turriff to Fyvie, and also from Huntly by Gartly to Kildrummy Castle. The strata consist mainly of conglomerate (geology), conglomerates and sandstones, which, at Gartly and at Rhynie, Aberdeenshire, Rhynie, are associated with lenticular bands of andesite indicating contemporaneous volcano, volcanic action. Small outliers of conglomerate and sandstone of this age have recently been found in the course of excavations in Aberdeen. The glacial deposits, especially in the belt bordering the coast between
Aberdeen Aberdeen (; sco, Aiberdeen, ; gd, Obar Dheathain ; la, Aberdonia) is a city in northeast Scotland. It is the List of towns and cities in Scotland by population, third most populous city in Scotland, one of Scotland's 32 Local government in ...

Aberdeen
and Peterhead, furnish important evidence. The ice moved eastwards off the high ground at the head of the Dee and the Don, while the mass spreading outwards from the Moray Firth invaded the low plateau of
Buchan Buchan is one of the six committee area Many large local government Local government is a generic term for the lowest tiers of public administration Public administration is the implementation of public policy, government policy and al ...
; but at a certain stage there was a marked defection northwards parallel with the coast, as proved by the deposit of red clay north of
Aberdeen Aberdeen (; sco, Aiberdeen, ; gd, Obar Dheathain ; la, Aberdonia) is a city in northeast Scotland. It is the List of towns and cities in Scotland by population, third most populous city in Scotland, one of Scotland's 32 Local government in ...

Aberdeen
. At a later date the local glaciers laid down materials on top of the red clay. The committee appointed by the British Association proved that the Greensand, which has yielded a large suite of Cretaceous fossils at Moreseat, in the parish of Cruden Bay, Cruden, occurs in glacial drift, resting probably on granite. The strata from which the Moreseat fossils were derived are not now found in place in that part of
Scotland Scotland ( sco, Scotland, gd, Alba Alba (Scottish Gaelic Scottish Gaelic ( gd, Gàidhlig or Scots Gaelic, sometimes referred to simply as Gaelic) is a Goidelic language (in the Celtic languages, Celtic branch of the Indo-European ...

Scotland
, but Mr Jukes Brown considers that the horizon of the fossils is that of the lower Greensand of the Isle of Wight or the Aptien stage of France. Chalk flints are widely distributed in the drift between Fyvie and the east coast of Buchan. At Plaidy a patch of clay with Liassic fossils occurs. At several localities between Logie Coldstone and Dinnet a deposit of diatomite (Kieselguhr) occurs beneath the peat.


Flora and fauna

The tops of the highest mountains have an Arctic flora. At the royal lodge on
Loch Muick Loch Muick (; Gaelic Gaelic is an adjective that means "pertaining to the Gaels". As a noun it refers to the group of languages spoken by the Gaels, or to any one of the languages individually. Gaelic languages are spoken in Ireland, Scotland, an ...
, above the sea, grow larches, vegetables, currants, laurels, roses, etc. Some ash-trees, 1 to 1.5 m (4 or 5 ft) in girth, grow at above the sea. Trees, especially Scotch fir and larch, grow well, and Braemar has plentiful natural timber, said to surpass any in the north of Europe. Stumps of Scotch fir and oak found in peat sometimes far exceed any now growing in size. Moles occur at above the sea, and squirrels at . Grouse, partridges and hares abound, and rabbits are often numerous. Red deer abound in Braemar, which in 1911 had the most extensive deer forest in
Scotland Scotland ( sco, Scotland, gd, Alba Alba (Scottish Gaelic Scottish Gaelic ( gd, Gàidhlig or Scots Gaelic, sometimes referred to simply as Gaelic) is a Goidelic language (in the Celtic languages, Celtic branch of the Indo-European ...

Scotland
.


Economy


Agriculture

Except in the mountainous districts, Aberdeenshire has a comparatively mild climate, owing to the proximity of much of the shire to the sea. The mean annual temperature at Braemar reaches , and that at
Aberdeen Aberdeen (; sco, Aiberdeen, ; gd, Obar Dheathain ; la, Aberdonia) is a city in northeast Scotland. It is the List of towns and cities in Scotland by population, third most populous city in Scotland, one of Scotland's 32 Local government in ...

Aberdeen
. The mean yearly rainfall varies from about . In summer the upper Dee and Don valleys provide the driest and most bracing climate in the
British Isles The British Isles are a group of islands in the North Atlantic off the north-western coast of continental Europe Continental Europe or mainland Europe is the contiguous continent A continent is any of several large landmasse ...

British Isles
, and grain grows cultivated up to above the sea, or higher than elsewhere in North Britain. Poor, gravelly, clayey and peaty soils prevail, but tile-draining, bones and guano, and the best methods of modern tillage, greatly increased the produce. Indeed, in 1911, no part of
Scotland Scotland ( sco, Scotland, gd, Alba Alba (Scottish Gaelic Scottish Gaelic ( gd, Gàidhlig or Scots Gaelic, sometimes referred to simply as Gaelic) is a Goidelic language (in the Celtic languages, Celtic branch of the Indo-European ...

Scotland
had a more productive soil developed out of such unpromising material. Farm-houses and steadings have much improved, and the best agricultural implements and machines get widespread use. About two-thirds of the population depend entirely on agriculture. Farms are small compared with those in the south-eastern counties. Oats form the predominant crop, wheat has practically gone out of cultivation, but barley has largely increased. The most distinctive industry in 1911 was cattle-feeding. Aberdeenshire fattens a great number of the home-bred crosses for the London and local markets, and imports Irish animals on an extensive scale for the same purpose, while an exceedingly heavy trade in dead meat for London and the south occurs all over the county. Farmers also raise sheep farm, sheep, horses and pigs in large numbers. Since the encyclopedia article was published in 1911, there have been significant changes. Few Irish cattle now come in, the area is still famed for cattle, more commonly continental breeds, with most slaughtered in Scotland, and in particular a good local abattoir capacity. Spring Barley is the predominant crop, and in lowland Winter Wheat, Oil Seed Rape & Potatoes would be more common than oats. There is also a significant area of carrots grown. With no slaughter capacity in Scotland the pig industry is diminishing but still a very important part of the North East economy. Farm sizes are perhaps still relatively smaller than UK but there are some significant agribusinesses in Aberdeenshire. Few farmers raise horses, though horses are more common, kept by private owners & specialists, than in any other area of Scotland.


Fisheries

In 1911 a large fishing population in villages along the coast engage in the white and herring fishery, fostering the next most important industry to agriculture. Aberdeenshire fishing developed almost exclusively due to the introduction of steam trawlers. In 1911 the total value of the annual catch, of which between a half and a third consists of herrings, amounts to £1,000,000. In 1911 the industry produced both speldings (salted and rock-dried haddocks) and finnans (smoked haddocks). The ports and creeks belong to the fishery districts of Peterhead, Fraserburgh and Aberdeen, the last of which includes also three Kincardineshire ports. The herring season for
Aberdeen Aberdeen (; sco, Aiberdeen, ; gd, Obar Dheathain ; la, Aberdonia) is a city in northeast Scotland. It is the List of towns and cities in Scotland by population, third most populous city in Scotland, one of Scotland's 32 Local government in ...

Aberdeen
, Peterhead and Fraserburgh lasts from June to September, at which time the ports become crowded with boats from other Scottish districts. Valuable salmon-fishings exist – rod, net and stake-net – on the Dee, Don, Ythan and Ugie. In 1911 the average annual despatch of salmon from Aberdeenshire comprises about .


Other industries

Manufactures mainly cluster in or near the city of
Aberdeen Aberdeen (; sco, Aiberdeen, ; gd, Obar Dheathain ; la, Aberdonia) is a city in northeast Scotland. It is the List of towns and cities in Scotland by population, third most populous city in Scotland, one of Scotland's 32 Local government in ...

Aberdeen
, but throughout the rural districts one finds much milling of corn, brick and tile making, smith-work, brewing and distilling, cart and farm-implement making, casting and drying of peat, and timber-felling, especially on Deeside and Donside, for pit-props, railway sleepers, laths and barrel staves. A number of paper-making establishments operate, most of them on the Don near
Aberdeen Aberdeen (; sco, Aiberdeen, ; gd, Obar Dheathain ; la, Aberdonia) is a city in northeast Scotland. It is the List of towns and cities in Scotland by population, third most populous city in Scotland, one of Scotland's 32 Local government in ...

Aberdeen
. In 1911 the chief mineral wealth comes from the noted durable
granite Granite () is a coarse-grained (phanerite, phaneritic) intrusive rock, intrusive igneous rock composed mostly of quartz, alkali feldspar, and plagioclase. It forms from magma with a high content of silica and alkali metal oxides that slowly cool ...

granite
, quarried at
Aberdeen Aberdeen (; sco, Aiberdeen, ; gd, Obar Dheathain ; la, Aberdonia) is a city in northeast Scotland. It is the List of towns and cities in Scotland by population, third most populous city in Scotland, one of Scotland's 32 Local government in ...

Aberdeen
, Kemnay, Peterhead and elsewhere including for causewaying stones. Sandstone and other rocks are also quarried at different parts. The shire imports mostly coal, lime, timber, iron, slate, raw materials for the textile manufactures, wheat, cattle-feeding stuffs, bones, guano, sugar, alcoholic liquors, fruits. The exports include granite (rough-dressed and polished), flax, woollen and cotton goods, paper, combs, preserved provisions, oats, barley, and live and dead cattle. In last quarter of the 20th Century and into the 21st the North Sea oil industry was to become a large employer and overseas revenue earner. Much of the industry's onshore facilities are based in Aberdeen.


Transport

On the south
Aberdeen Aberdeen (; sco, Aiberdeen, ; gd, Obar Dheathain ; la, Aberdonia) is a city in northeast Scotland. It is the List of towns and cities in Scotland by population, third most populous city in Scotland, one of Scotland's 32 Local government in ...

Aberdeen
city has rail links with Stonehaven, Montrose, Angus, Montrose and Dundee, and to the north-west a line runs to Inverness via Huntly, Scotland, Huntly, Keith, Scotland, Keith and Elgin, Moray, Elgin. Branch lines from various points used to run to several smaller towns, e.g. from
Aberdeen Aberdeen (; sco, Aiberdeen, ; gd, Obar Dheathain ; la, Aberdonia) is a city in northeast Scotland. It is the List of towns and cities in Scotland by population, third most populous city in Scotland, one of Scotland's 32 Local government in ...

Aberdeen
to Ballater by Deeside, from
Aberdeen Aberdeen (; sco, Aiberdeen, ; gd, Obar Dheathain ; la, Aberdonia) is a city in northeast Scotland. It is the List of towns and cities in Scotland by population, third most populous city in Scotland, one of Scotland's 32 Local government in ...

Aberdeen
to Fraserburgh (with a branch at Maud for
Peterhead Peterhead (; gd, Ceann Phàdraig, sco, Peterheid ) is a town in Aberdeenshire Aberdeenshire ( sco, Aiberdeenshire; gd, Siorrachd Obar Dheathain) is one of the 32 council areas of Scotland For local government Local governmen ...
and at Ellon for Cruden Bay and Boddam), from Kintore to Alford, and from Inverurie to Old Meldrum and also to Macduff. These lines all closed, largely as a result of the Beeching Axe in the 1960s, they now serve as local pathways or bicycle tracks. By sea Aberdeenshire has regular communication with the Orkney Islands and the Shetland Islands. The highest of the macadamized roads crossing the eastern Grampians rises to a point above sea-level. Over the 20th Century road and air communications have improved. Aberdeen Airport is an international airport, located at Dyce, a suburb of Aberdeen, approximately north-west of Aberdeen city centre. A total of nearly 3.5 million passengers used the airport in 2015, a fall of 6.8% compared with 2014.


Population and government

In 1801 the population numbered 284,036 and in 1901 304,439 (of whom 159,603 were females), or 154 persons to the square mile (59/km2). In 1901 Aberdeenshire had 8 persons who spoke Gaelic only, and 1333 who spoke Gaelic and English. The chief towns include
Aberdeen Aberdeen (; sco, Aiberdeen, ; gd, Obar Dheathain ; la, Aberdonia) is a city in northeast Scotland. It is the List of towns and cities in Scotland by population, third most populous city in Scotland, one of Scotland's 32 Local government in ...

Aberdeen
(population in 1901, 153,503), Bucksburn (2231), Fraserburgh (9105), Huntly (4136), Inverurie (3624), Peterhead (11,794), Turriff (2273). The county total was 137, 962 in 1971. https://www.geni.com/projects/Aberdeenshire-Main-Page/14403 In 1911 the Supreme Court of Justiciary sat in
Aberdeen Aberdeen (; sco, Aiberdeen, ; gd, Obar Dheathain ; la, Aberdonia) is a city in northeast Scotland. It is the List of towns and cities in Scotland by population, third most populous city in Scotland, one of Scotland's 32 Local government in ...

Aberdeen
to try cases from the counties of Aberdeen, Banff and Kincardine. The three counties are under a sheriff, and two sheriffs-substitute reside in Aberdeen, and also sat at Fraserburgh, Huntly, Peterhead and Turriff. The sheriff courts occurred in
Aberdeen Aberdeen (; sco, Aiberdeen, ; gd, Obar Dheathain ; la, Aberdonia) is a city in northeast Scotland. It is the List of towns and cities in Scotland by population, third most populous city in Scotland, one of Scotland's 32 Local government in ...

Aberdeen
and Peterhead. The higher branches of education have always been thoroughly taught in the schools throughout the shire, and pupils have long been in the habit of going directly from the schools to the university. According to the 1911 Encyclopædia, Aberdeenshire people have a quick, sharp, rather angry accent. The local Scots language, Scots dialect, affectionately known as the Doric dialect (Scotland), Doric, appears broad, and rich in diminutives, and is noted for the use of in ''bane'' and ''stane'' and ''muin'' but before and in ''guid'' and ''cuit'' etc., the realisation of ''wh'', for medial ''th'' etc. As recently as 1830 Gaelic provided the fireside language of almost every family in Braemar, but by the start of the 20th century was little used.


History

The country later forming the shires of
Aberdeen Aberdeen (; sco, Aiberdeen, ; gd, Obar Dheathain ; la, Aberdonia) is a city in northeast Scotland. It is the List of towns and cities in Scotland by population, third most populous city in Scotland, one of Scotland's 32 Local government in ...

Aberdeen
and Banff once served as home to the northern Picts, whom Claudius Ptolemy, Ptolemy called ''Taixall'', dubbing the territory ''Taixalon''. Their town of Devana, once supposed to be the modern
Aberdeen Aberdeen (; sco, Aiberdeen, ; gd, Obar Dheathain ; la, Aberdonia) is a city in northeast Scotland. It is the List of towns and cities in Scotland by population, third most populous city in Scotland, one of Scotland's 32 Local government in ...

Aberdeen
, has been identified by John Stuart (genealogist), John Stuart with a site in the parish of Peterculter, where there are remains of an ancient camp at Normandykes, and by William Forbes Skene with a station on
Loch Davan Loch Davan is a small, triangular, freshwater loch approximately northeast of Ballater, Scotland and lying immediately north of Loch Kinord. It is approximately in length and was formed from a glacial kettle hole. The loch sits within the ''Mu ...
, west of Aboyne. Roman Camps have also been discovered on the upper Ythan and Deveron, but evidence of effective Roman occupation is still to seek. Traces of the native inhabitants, however, occur much more frequently. Weems or earth-houses occur fairly commonly in the west. Relics of crannogs or lake-dwellings exist at
Loch Kinord Loch Kinord is a small, freshwater loch at Muir of Dinnet, Aberdeenshire, Scotland just north of the River Dee, Aberdeenshire, River Dee and east of Ballater. The loch is also known as ''Loch Ceander'' and ''Loch Cannor''. It is approximately ...
, five miles (8 km) northeast of
Ballater Ballater (, gd, Bealadair) is a burgh A burgh is an autonomous The federal subject in Russia">Federal subjects of Russia">federal subject in Russia, close to borders of Finland. Picture of Petrozavodsk, the capital of the Republic of ...
, at Loch Goul in the parish of New Machar and elsewhere. Duns or forts occur on hills at Dunecht, where the dun encloses an area of two acres (8,000 m2), Barra near Old Meldrum, Tap o' Noth, Dunnideer near Insch and other places. Monoliths, standing stones and "druidical" stone circle, circles of the pagan period abound, as do many examples of the sculptured stones of the early Christianity, Christian epoch. Efforts to convert the Picts started with Teman in the 5th century, and continued with Columba (who founded a monastery at Old Deer), Drostan, Maluog, and Saint Machar, Machar, lasting results emerged only slowly. Indeed, dissensions within the Columban church and the expulsion of the clergy from Pictland by the Pictish king Nechtan mac Der-Ilei, Nectan in the 8th century undid most of the progress that missionaries had made. The Vikings and Danes (Germanic tribe), Danes periodically raided the coast, but after Macbeth of Scotland, Macbeth ascended the throne of
Scotland Scotland ( sco, Scotland, gd, Alba Alba (Scottish Gaelic Scottish Gaelic ( gd, Gàidhlig or Scots Gaelic, sometimes referred to simply as Gaelic) is a Goidelic language (in the Celtic languages, Celtic branch of the Indo-European ...

Scotland
in 1040, the Orkney men, under the guidance of Thorfinn Sigurdsson, Earl of Orkney, Thorfinn Sigurdsson, refrained from further trouble in the north-east. Macbeth was afterwards slain at Lumphanan (1057), a cairn on Perkhill marking the spot. The influence of the Norman conquest of England made itself felt even in Aberdeenshire. Along with numerous Anglo-Saxon exiles, there also settled in the country Flemings who introduced various industries, Saxons who brought farming, and Scandinavians who taught nautical skill. The Celts revolted more than once, but Malcolm III of Scotland, Malcolm Canmore and his successors crushed them and confiscated their lands. In the reign of Alexander I of Scotland, Alexander I (ruled 1107–1124) mention first appears of
Aberdeen Aberdeen (; sco, Aiberdeen, ; gd, Obar Dheathain ; la, Aberdonia) is a city in northeast Scotland. It is the List of towns and cities in Scotland by population, third most populous city in Scotland, one of Scotland's 32 Local government in ...

Aberdeen
(originally called Abordon and, in the Norse sagas, Apardion), which received its charter from William I of Scotland, William the Lion in 1179, by which date its burgesses had already combined with those of Banff, Elgin, Inverness and other trans-Grampian communities to form a free Hanse, under which they enjoyed exceptional trading privileges. By this time, too, the Church had extended its organisation, establishing the bishopric of
Aberdeen Aberdeen (; sco, Aiberdeen, ; gd, Obar Dheathain ; la, Aberdonia) is a city in northeast Scotland. It is the List of towns and cities in Scotland by population, third most populous city in Scotland, one of Scotland's 32 Local government in ...

Aberdeen
in 1150. In the 12th and 13th centuries some of the great Aberdeenshire families arose, including the earl of Mar (c. 1122), the Leslies, Freskins (ancestors of the dukes of Sutherland), Durwards, Bysets, Comyns and Cheynes; significantly, in most cases their founders had immigrated to the district. The Celtic thanes and their retainers slowly fused with the settlers. They declined to take advantage of the disturbed condition of the country during the wars of the Scots independence, and made common cause with the bulk of the nation. Though John II Comyn, John Comyn (d. 1300?), one of the competitors for the throne, had considerable interests in the shire, his claim received locally little support. In 1296 Edward I of England, Edward I made a triumphal march to the north to terrorise the more turbulent nobles. Next year William Wallace surprised the England, English garrison in
Aberdeen Aberdeen (; sco, Aiberdeen, ; gd, Obar Dheathain ; la, Aberdonia) is a city in northeast Scotland. It is the List of towns and cities in Scotland by population, third most populous city in Scotland, one of Scotland's 32 Local government in ...

Aberdeen
, but failed to capture the castle. In 1303 Edward again visited the county, halting at the Castle of Kildrummy, then in the possession of Robert I of Scotland, Robert Bruce, who shortly afterwards became the acknowledged leader of the Scots and made
Aberdeen Aberdeen (; sco, Aiberdeen, ; gd, Obar Dheathain ; la, Aberdonia) is a city in northeast Scotland. It is the List of towns and cities in Scotland by population, third most populous city in Scotland, one of Scotland's 32 Local government in ...

Aberdeen
his headquarters for several months. Despite the seizure of Kildrummy Castle by the English in 1306, Bruce's prospects brightened from 1308, when he defeated earls of Buchan, John Comyn, earl of Buchan (died 1313?), at Inverurie. For a hundred years after Robert Bruce's death (1329) intermittent anarchy occurred in the shire. The English burned
Aberdeen Aberdeen (; sco, Aiberdeen, ; gd, Obar Dheathain ; la, Aberdonia) is a city in northeast Scotland. It is the List of towns and cities in Scotland by population, third most populous city in Scotland, one of Scotland's 32 Local government in ...

Aberdeen
itself in 1336, and the re-settlement of the districts of
Buchan Buchan is one of the six committee area Many large local government Local government is a generic term for the lowest tiers of public administration Public administration is the implementation of public policy, government policy and al ...
and Strathbogie occasioned constant quarrels on the part of the dispossessed. Moreover, the crown had embroiled itself with some of the Highland chieftains, whose independence it sought to abolish. This policy culminated in the invasion of Aberdeenshire by Domhnall of Islay, Lord of the Isles, Donald, Lord of the Isles, who, however, suffered defeat at Harlaw, near Inverurie, at the hands of the Earl of Mar in 1411. In the 15th century two further leading county families emerged: Alexander Forbes, 1st Lord Forbes, Sir Alexander Forbes becoming Lord Forbes about 1442, and Alexander Gordon, 1st Earl of Huntly, Sir Alexander Seton, Lord Gordon in 1437 and Earl of Huntly in 1445. Bitter feuds raged between these families for a long period, but the Gordons reached the height of their power in the first half of the 16th century, when their domains, already vast, were enhanced by the acquisition, through marriage, of the Earl of Sutherland, Earldom of Sutherland (1514). Meanwhile, commerce with the Low Countries, Poland and the Baltic had grown apace, Campvere (''Veere'' in Dutch language, Dutch), near Flushing (''Vlissingen'') in the Netherlands, becoming the emporium of the Scottish traders, while education was fostered by the foundation of King's College, Aberdeen in 1497 (Marischal College followed a century later). At the Reformation so little intuition had the clergy of the drift of opinion that at the very time that religious structures were being despoiled in the south, the building and decoration of churches went on in the shire. Protestantism came in without much tumult, though rioting took place in
Aberdeen Aberdeen (; sco, Aiberdeen, ; gd, Obar Dheathain ; la, Aberdonia) is a city in northeast Scotland. It is the List of towns and cities in Scotland by population, third most populous city in Scotland, one of Scotland's 32 Local government in ...

Aberdeen
and St. Machar's Cathedral in the city suffered damage. The George Gordon, 4th Earl of Huntly, Earl of Huntly offered some resistance, on behalf of the Catholics, to the influence of James Stewart, 1st Earl of Moray, who was regent during the reign of James I of England, James VI, but was defeated and killed at Corrichie on the Hill of Fare in 1562. As years passed it became apparent that Presbyterianism gained less generally support than Episcopacy, of which system Aberdeenshire remained for generations the stronghold in Scotland. Another crisis in ecclesiastical affairs arose in 1638, when the authorities ordered subscription to the Solemn League and Covenant, National Covenant. Aberdeenshire responded so grudgingly to this demand that James Graham, 1st Marquess of Montrose visited the shire in the following year to enforce acceptance. The Cavaliers, not being disposed to yield, dispersed an armed gathering of Covenanters in the affair called the Trot of Turriff (1639), shedding the first blood of the civil war. The Covenanters obtained the upper hand in a few weeks, when Montrose appeared at the Bridge of Dee and compelled the surrender of
Aberdeen Aberdeen (; sco, Aiberdeen, ; gd, Obar Dheathain ; la, Aberdonia) is a city in northeast Scotland. It is the List of towns and cities in Scotland by population, third most populous city in Scotland, one of Scotland's 32 Local government in ...

Aberdeen
, which had no choice but to cast in its lot with the victors. Montrose, however, soon changed sides, and after defeating the Covenanters under Lord Balfour of Burleigh (1644), delivered the city to rapine. He worsted the Covenanters again after a stiff fight on 2 July 1645, at Alford, a village in the beautiful Howe of Alford. Peace was temporarily restored on the "engagement" of the Scots commissioners to assist Charles I.
Aberdeen Aberdeen (; sco, Aiberdeen, ; gd, Obar Dheathain ; la, Aberdonia) is a city in northeast Scotland. It is the List of towns and cities in Scotland by population, third most populous city in Scotland, one of Scotland's 32 Local government in ...

Aberdeen
welcomed Charles II of England, Charles II on his return from the Netherlands in 1650, but in little more than a year General George Monck entered the city at the head of the Cromwellian regiments. The English garrison remained till 1659, but the following year Aberdeenshire effusively hailed the English Restoration, Restoration, and prelacy once more went into the ascendant. Most of the Presbyterians conformed, but the Religious Society of Friends, Quakers, more numerous in the shire and the adjoining county of
Kincardineshire Kincardineshire, also known as the Mearns (from the Scottish Gaelic Scottish Gaelic ( gd, Gàidhlig ), also known as Scots Gaelic and Gaelic, is a Goidelic language The Goidelic or Gaelic languages ( ga, teangacha Gaelacha; gd, càn ...
than anywhere else in Scotland, suffered systematic persecution. After the Glorious Revolution (1688) episcopacy passed under a cloud, but the clergy, yielding to ''force majeure'', gradually accepted the inevitable, hoping, as long as Anne, Queen of Great Britain, Queen Anne lived, that prelacy might yet become the national form of Church government. Her death dissipated these dreams, and as George I of Great Britain, George I, her successor, was antipathetic to the clergy, it happened that Jacobitism and Scottish Episcopal Church, episcopalianism came to be regarded in the shire as identical, though the non-jurors as a body never countenanced rebellion. On 6 September 1715 John Erskine, Earl of Mar (1675–1732), the Earl of Mar raised the standard of revolt in Braemar; a fortnight later James Francis Edward Stuart was proclaimed at
Aberdeen Aberdeen (; sco, Aiberdeen, ; gd, Obar Dheathain ; la, Aberdonia) is a city in northeast Scotland. It is the List of towns and cities in Scotland by population, third most populous city in Scotland, one of Scotland's 32 Local government in ...

Aberdeen
cross; the Pretender landed at Peterhead on 22 December, and in February 1716 he was back again in France. The collapse of the first rising ruined many of the lairds, and when the second rebellion occurred thirty years afterwards the county in the main remained apathetic, though the insurgents held
Aberdeen Aberdeen (; sco, Aiberdeen, ; gd, Obar Dheathain ; la, Aberdonia) is a city in northeast Scotland. It is the List of towns and cities in Scotland by population, third most populous city in Scotland, one of Scotland's 32 Local government in ...

Aberdeen
for five months, and Lord Lewis Gordon won a trifling victory for Prince Charles Edward Stuart at Inverurie (23 December 1745). The Prince William, Duke of Cumberland, Duke of Cumberland relieved
Aberdeen Aberdeen (; sco, Aiberdeen, ; gd, Obar Dheathain ; la, Aberdonia) is a city in northeast Scotland. It is the List of towns and cities in Scotland by population, third most populous city in Scotland, one of Scotland's 32 Local government in ...

Aberdeen
at the end of February 1746, and by April the Charles Edward Stuart, Young Pretender had become a fugitive. Thereafter the people devoted themselves to agriculture, industry and commerce, which developed by leaps and bounds, and, along with equally remarkable progress in education, transformed the aspect of the shire and made the community as a whole one of the most prosperous in
Scotland Scotland ( sco, Scotland, gd, Alba Alba (Scottish Gaelic Scottish Gaelic ( gd, Gàidhlig or Scots Gaelic, sometimes referred to simply as Gaelic) is a Goidelic language (in the Celtic languages, Celtic branch of the Indo-European ...

Scotland
.


Towns and villages

*
Aberdeen Aberdeen (; sco, Aiberdeen, ; gd, Obar Dheathain ; la, Aberdonia) is a city in northeast Scotland. It is the List of towns and cities in Scotland by population, third most populous city in Scotland, one of Scotland's 32 Local government in ...

Aberdeen
*Aboyne *Alford, Aberdeenshire, Alford *Auchnagatt *
Ballater Ballater (, gd, Bealadair) is a burgh A burgh is an autonomous The federal subject in Russia">Federal subjects of Russia">federal subject in Russia, close to borders of Finland. Picture of Petrozavodsk, the capital of the Republic of ...
*Balmedie *Barthol Chapel *Belhevie *Bieldside *Blackburn, Aberdeenshire, Blackburn *Boddam, Aberdeenshire, Boddam *Boyndie *Braegarie *
Braemar Braemar is a village in Aberdeenshire, Scotland, around west of Aberdeen in the Scottish Highlands, Highlands. It is the closest significantly-sized settlement to the upper course of the River Dee, Aberdeenshire, River Dee sitting at an eleva ...

Braemar
*Braeside, Aberdeen, Braeside *Bridge of Alford *Bridge of Don *Broomhill, Aberdeen, Broomhill *Buchanhaven *Cabrach *Cairnbulg *Clatt *Collieston *Cornhill, Aberdeen, Cornhill *Craigiebuckler *Crimond *Cruden Bay *Crudie *Cults (town), Cults *Cuminestown *Cummings Park, Aberdeen, Cummings Park *Danestone *Daviot, Aberdeenshire, Daviot *Dinnet *Dunecht *Dyce *Echt, Aberdeenshire, Echt *Ellon, Scotland, Ellon *Ferryhill, Aberdeen, Ferrydee *Fetterangus *Finzean *Footdee *Foresterhill *Fraserburgh *Fyvie *Garthdee *
Gartly Gartly ( sco, Gairtlie, gd, Gartaidh) is an inland hamlet in Aberdeenshire Aberdeenshire ( sco, Aiberdeenshire; gd, Siorrachd Obar Dheathain) is one of the 32 council areas of Scotland For local government Local government is a ...
*Hatton, Aberdeenshire, Hatton *Hatton of Fintray *Hazlehead *Heugh Head *Hilton, Aberdeen, Hilton *Huntly, Scotland, Huntly *Insch *Inverallochy *Inverugie *Kaimhill *Keig *
Kemnay Kemnay (Scottish Gaelic language, Gaelic: ''Camnaidh'') is a village west of Aberdeen in Garioch, Aberdeenshire, Scotland. History The village name ''Kemnay'' is believed to originate from the Celtic words that mean "little crook in the river ...
*Kennethmont *Kincardine O'Neil *Kingseat *Kingswells *Kintore, Scotland, Kintore *Kirkton of Bourtie *Kirkton of Skene *Little Lynturk *Logie Coldstone *Longhaven *Longside *Lonmay *Lumphanan *Lumsden, Aberdeenshire, Lumsden *Lyne of Skene *Mannofield *Mastrick *Maud, Aberdeenshire, Maud *Memsie *Methlick *Midstocket *Milltimber *Mintlaw *Monymusk *Muir of Fowlis *New Blyth *Newburgh, Aberdeenshire, Newburgh *New Deer *New Leeds *New Pitsligo *Newmachar *Northfield, Aberdeen, Northfield *Old Deer *Oldmeldrum *Old Rayne *Peterculter *
Peterhead Peterhead (; gd, Ceann Phàdraig, sco, Peterheid ) is a town in Aberdeenshire Aberdeenshire ( sco, Aiberdeenshire; gd, Siorrachd Obar Dheathain) is one of the 32 council areas of Scotland For local government Local governmen ...
*Pitmedden *Pittulie *Port Elphinstone *Potterton *Rhynie, Aberdeenshire, Rhynie *Rosehearty *Rosemount, Aberdeen, Rosemount *Rothienorman *Rubislaw, Aberdeen, Rubislaw *Ruthven, Aberdeenshire, Ruthven *St. Comb's *St Fergus *Stoneywood, Aberdeen, Stoneywood *Strathdon *Strichen *Stuartfield *Tarland *Tarves *Tillydrone *Torphins *Turriff *Tyrie, Aberdeenshire, Tyrie *Udny Green *West End, Aberdeen, West End *Westhill, Aberdeenshire, Westhill *Whiteford, Aberdeenshire, Whiteford *Woodside, Aberdeen, Woodside


Places of interest


See also

*List of counties of Scotland 1890–1975 *Diocese of Aberdeen, Medieval Diocese of Aberdeen


Notes


References

* * Attribution *


External links


''Aberdeenshire'', A Topographical Dictionary of Scotland (1846), (British History Online)
{{coord, 57, 10, N, 2, 40, W, region:GB_type:adm1st_source:GNS-enwiki, display=title Counties of Scotland Lieutenancy areas of Scotland History of Aberdeenshire Counties of the United Kingdom (1801–1922)