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Membrane Trafficking
Membrane vesicle (biology and chemistry), vesicle trafficking in eukaryotic animal cells involves movement of biochemical signal molecules from synthesis-and-packaging locations in the Golgi_apparatus, Golgi body to specific release locations on the inside of the plasma Biological membrane, membrane of the secretory cell. It takes place in the form of Golgi membrane-bound micro-sized vesicles, termed membrane vesicles (MVs). In this process, the packed cellular products are released or secreted outside the cell, across its plasma membrane. On the other hand, the vesicular membrane is retained and recycled by the secretory cells. This phenomenon has a major role in synaptic neurotransmission, endocrine secretion, mucous secretion, granular-product secretion by neutrophils, and other phenomena. The scientists behind this discovery were awarded Nobel prize for the year 2013. In prokaryotic, gram-negative bacterial cells, membrane vesicle trafficking is mediated through bacterial outer ...
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Vesicle (biology And Chemistry)
In cell biology Cell biology (also cellular biology or cytology) is a branch of biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, ..., a vesicle is a structure within or outside Outside or Outsides may refer to: General * Wilderness Wilderness or wildlands (usually in the plural), are natural environments on Earth that have not been significantly modified by human activity or any nonurbanized land not under extensive ... a cell, consisting of liquid or cytoplasm enclosed by a lipid bilayer The lipid bilayer (or phospholipid bilayer) is a thin polar membrane A polarized membrane is a lipid bilayer, lipid membrane that has a positive electrical charge on one side and a negative charge on another side, which produces the resting pote .... Vesicles form naturally during the processes of secretion (exocytosis Image:Synapse diag1.svg, 300px, ...
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Exocytosis
Exocytosis () is a form of active transport In cellular biology Cell biology (also cellular biology or cytology) is a branch of biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processe ... and bulk transport Bulk cargo is commodity cargo In economics, the word cargo refers in particular to goods or produce being conveyed—generally for Commerce, commercial gain—by water, air or land. "Freight" is the money paid to carry cargo. ''Cargo' ... in which a cell transports molecules (e.g., neurotransmitters and proteins) out of the cell (''wikt:ex-#Prefix, exo-'' + ''cytosis''). As an active transport mechanism, exocytosis requires the use of energy to transport material. Exocytosis and its counterpart, endocytosis, are used by all cells because most chemical substances important to them are large chemical polarity, polar molecules that cannot pass through the hyd ...
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Microtubule
Microtubules are polymer A polymer (; Greek ''wikt:poly-, poly-'', "many" + ''wikt:-mer, -mer'', "part") is a Chemical substance, substance or material consisting of very large molecules, or macromolecules, composed of many Repeat unit, repeating subunits. Due to thei ...s of tubulin Tubulin in molecular biology can refer either to the tubulin protein superfamily of globular protein 300px, 3-dimensional structure of hemoglobin, a globular protein. Globular proteins or spheroproteins are spherical ("globe-like") protein ... that form part of the cytoskeleton Image:FluorescentCells.jpg, 300px, The eukaryotic cytoskeleton. Actin filaments are shown in red, and microtubules composed of beta tubulin are in green. The cytoskeleton is a complex, dynamic network of interlinking protein filaments present in t ... and provide structure and shape to eukaryotic cells Eukaryotes () are organism In biology, an organism (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ὀργανισμ ...
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Dynein
Dynein is a family of cytoskeletal 300px, The eukaryotic cytoskeleton. Actin filaments are shown in red, and microtubules composed of beta tubulin are in green. The cytoskeleton is a complex, dynamic network of interlinking protein filaments present in the cytoplasm of all Cell (b ... motor protein 300px, microtubule.html"_;"title="Kinesin_walking_on_a_microtubule">Kinesin_walking_on_a_microtubule_using_protein_dynamics_on_Nanoscopic_scale.html" "title="protein_dynamics.html" ;"title="microtubule.html" ;"title="Kinesin walking on a microtub ...s that move along microtubule Microtubules are polymers of tubulin that form part of the cytoskeleton and provide structure and shape to Eukaryote, eukaryotic cells. Microtubules can grow as long as 50 micrometres and are highly dynamic. The outer diameter of a microtubul ...s in cell Cell most often refers to: * Cell (biology), the functional basic unit of life Cell may also refer to: Closed spaces * Monastic cell, a small ro ...
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Kinesin
A kinesin is a protein belonging to a class of motor protein 300px, microtubule.html"_;"title="Kinesin_walking_on_a_microtubule">Kinesin_walking_on_a_microtubule_using_protein_dynamics_on_Nanoscopic_scale.html" "title="protein_dynamics.html" ;"title="microtubule.html" ;"title="Kinesin walking on a microtub ...s found in eukaryotic Eukaryotes () are organism In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interact ... cells. Kinesins move along microtubule Microtubules are polymer A polymer (; Greek ''wikt:poly-, poly-'', "many" + ''wikt:-mer, -mer'', "part") is a Chemical substance, substance or material consisting of very large molecules, or macromolecules, composed of many Repeat unit, rep ... (MT) filaments, and are powered by the hydrolysis of adenosine triphosphate Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a ...
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Myosin
Myosins () are a superfamily SUPERFAMILY is a database and search platform of structural and functional annotation for all proteins and genomes. It classifies amino acid sequences into known structural domains, especially into SCOP superfamilies. Domains are functional, str ... of motor protein 300px, microtubule.html"_;"title="Kinesin_walking_on_a_microtubule">Kinesin_walking_on_a_microtubule_using_protein_dynamics_on_Nanoscopic_scale.html" "title="protein_dynamics.html" ;"title="microtubule.html" ;"title="Kinesin walking on a microtub ...s best known for their roles in muscle contraction Muscle contraction is the activation of tension Tension may refer to: Science * Psychological stress * Tension (physics), a force related to the stretching of an object (the opposite of compression) * Tension (geology), a stress which stretches r ... and in a wide range of other motility Motility is the ability of an organism In biology, an organism () is any organic, life, ...
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COPII
COPII is a coatomer The coatomer is a protein complex that coats membrane-bound vesicle (biology)#Transport vesicles, transport vesicles. Two types of coatomers are known: *COPI (retrograde transport from Golgi apparatus, trans-Golgi network to Golgi apparatus, cis-Go ..., a type of vesicle Vesicle may refer to: ; In cellular biology or chemistry * Vesicle (biology and chemistry) In cell biology Cell biology (also cellular biology or cytology) is a branch of biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and liv ... coat protein that transports proteins from the rough endoplasmic reticulum The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is, in essence, the transportation system of the eukaryotic cell, and has many other important functions such as protein folding. It is a type of organelle made up of two subunits – rough endoplasmic reticulum ( ... to the Golgi apparatus The Golgi apparatus (), also known as the Golgi complex, Golgi body, or simply the Golgi, is ...
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COPI
Raúl Damonte Botana (November 20, 1939, Buenos Aires Buenos Aires ( or ; ), officially Autonomous City of Buenos Aires, is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or cap ...December 14, 1987, Paris Paris () is the Capital city, capital and List of communes in France with over 20,000 inhabitants, most populous city of France, with an estimated population of 2,175,601 residents , in an area of more than . Since the 17th century, Paris ha ...), better known by the nom de plume Copi (; from "copito de nieve", Spanish for "little snowflake"), was an Argentine Argentines (also known as Argentinians or Argentineans; es, Grammatical gender, masculine argentinos; Grammatical gender, feminine ') are people identified with the country of Argentina. This connection may be residential, legal, historical ... writer, cartoonist, and playwright who sp ...
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Clathrin
Clathrin is a protein Proteins are large biomolecule , showing alpha helices, represented by ribbons. This poten was the first to have its suckture solved by X-ray crystallography by Max Perutz and Sir John Cowdery Kendrew in 1958, for which they received a No ... that plays a major role in the formation of coated vesicles Vesicle may refer to: ; In cellular biology or chemistry * Vesicle (biology and chemistry), a supramolecular assembly of lipid molecules, like a cell membrane * Synaptic vesicle ; In human embryology * Vesicle (embryology), bulge-like features of .... Clathrin was first isolated and named by Barbara Pearse in 1976. It forms a triskelion shape composed of three clathrin heavy chains and three light chains. When the triskelia interact they form a polyhedron, polyhedral lattice that surrounds the vesicle, hence the protein's name, which is derived from the Latin ''clathrum'' meaning lattice. Coat-proteins, like clathrin, are used to build small vesi ...
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Coatomer
The coatomer is a protein complex that coats membrane-bound vesicle (biology)#Transport vesicles, transport vesicles. Two types of coatomers are known: *COPI (retrograde transport from Golgi apparatus, trans-Golgi network to Golgi apparatus, cis-Golgi network and endoplasmic reticulum) *COPII (anterograde transport from ER to the cis-Golgi) Coatomers are functionally analogous and evolutionarily homologous to clathrin adaptor proteins, also known as adaptins, which regulate endocytosis from the plasma membrane and transport from the trans-Golgi network to lysosomes. Structure The coatomer protein complex is made up of seven nonidentical protein subunits. These seven nonidentical protein subunits are part of two protein subcomplexes. The first subcomplex consists of Ret1(α-COP), Sec27(β’-COP), and Sec 28(ε-COP). The second subcomplex consists of Sec26 (β-COP), Sec21 (γ-COP), Ret2(δ-COP), and Ret3 (ζ-COP). COP I COPI is a coatomer that coats the Vesicle (biology and ch ...
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Lipid Bilayer Fusion
In membrane biology, fusion is the process by which two initially distinct lipid bilayers merge their hydrophobic cores, resulting in one interconnected structure. If this fusion proceeds completely through both leaflets of both bilayers, an aqueous bridge is formed and the internal contents of the two structures can mix. Alternatively, if only one leaflet from each bilayer is involved in the fusion process, the bilayers are said to be hemifused. In hemifusion, the lipid constituents of the outer leaflet of the two bilayers can mix, but the inner leaflets remain distinct. The aqueous contents enclosed by each bilayer also remain separated. Fusion is involved in many cellular processes, particularly in eukaryotes since the eukaryotic cell is extensively sub-divided by lipid bilayer membranes. Exocytosis, fertilization of an egg (biology), egg by sperm and transport of waste products to the lysosome are a few of the many eukaryotic processes that rely on some form of fusion. Fusion is ...
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Motor Protein
Motor proteins are a class of molecular motors is a biological machine that utilizes protein dynamics Molecular motors are natural (biological) or artificial molecular machines that are the essential agents of movement in living organisms. In general terms, a Engine, motor is a device that ... that can move along the cytoplasm In cell biology Cell biology (also cellular biology or cytology) is a branch of biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes ... of animal cells. They convert chemical energy into mechanical work by the hydrolysis Hydrolysis (; ) is any chemical reaction in which a molecule of water breaks one or more chemical bonds. The term is used broadly for substitution Substitution may refer to: Arts and media *Chord substitution, in music, swapping one chord fo ... of ATP ATP may refer to: Companies and organizations * Associatio ...
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