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Kazakh Alphabets
Three alphabets are used to write the Kazakh language: the Cyrillic, Latin and Arabic scripts. The Cyrillic script is used in Kazakhstan and Mongolia. An October 2017 Presidential Decree in Kazakhstan ordered that the transition from Cyrillic to a Latin script be completed by 2025. The Arabic script is used in parts of China, Iran and Afghanistan. Cyrillic script Kazakh Cyrillic alphabet The Kazakh Cyrillic alphabet is used in Kazakhstan and the Bayan-Ölgiy Province in Mongolia. It is also used by Kazakh populations in Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan, as well as diasporas in other countries of the former USSR. It was introduced during the Russian Empire period in the 1800s, and then adapted by the Soviet Union in 1940. In the nineteenth century, Ibrahim Altynsarin, a prominent Kazakh educator, first introduced a Cyrillic alphabet for transcribing Kazakh. Russian missionary activity, as well as Russian-sponsored schools, further encouraged the use of Cyrillic ...
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ALA-LC Romanization
ALA-LC (American Library AssociationLibrary of Congress) is a set of standards for romanization, the representation of text in other writing systems using the Latin script. Applications The system is used to represent bibliographic information by North American libraries and the British Library (for acquisitions since 1975)Searching for Cyrillic items in the catalogues of the British Library: guidelines and transliteration tables
and in publications throughout the English-speaking world. The require catalogers to romanize access points from t ...
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Egemen Qazaqstan
''Yegemen Qazaqstan'' ( kk, Егемен Қазақстан, , ''Sovereign Kazakhstan'') is a government owned Kazakh language newspaper published from Kazakhstan Kazakhstan, officially the Republic of Kazakhstan, is a transcontinental country located mainly in Central Asia and partly in Eastern Europe. It borders Russia to the north and west, China to the east, Kyrgyzstan to the southeast, Uzbeki .... It was first published on 17 December 1919. The newspaper was started by the ministry of information and public accord. See also * Mass media in Kazakhstan References External links Yegemen Qazaqstan Official SiteKazakhstan press and newspapers
1919 establishments in Russia
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Latinisation (USSR)
Latinisation or Latinization can refer to: * Latinisation of names, the practice of rendering a non-Latin name in a Latin style * Latinisation in the Soviet Union, the campaign in the USSR during the 1920s and 1930s to replace traditional writing systems for numerous languages with the Latin alphabet * Liturgical Latinisation, the adoption of practices from Latin Christianity by the non-Latin Christians * Re-latinization of Romanian, process by which the Latin features of the Romanian language were strengthened * Latinism, a word, idiom, or structure derived from, or suggestive of, the Latin language; an aspect of Latinisation * Romanization, the conversion of writing from a different writing system to the Roman (Latin) script ** Romanization of Arabic ** Romanization of Armenian ** Romanisation of Bengali ** Romanization of Burmese ** Romanization of Chinese ** Romanization of Cyrillic ** Romanization of Devanagari ** Romanization of Georgian ** Romanization of Greek ** Romani ...
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Yañalif
Jaꞑalif, Yangalif or Yañalif (Tatar: jaꞑa əlifba/yaña älifba → jaꞑalif/yañalif, , Cyrillic: Яңалиф, "new alphabet") is the first Latin alphabet used during the latinisation in the Soviet Union in the 1930s for the Turkic languages. It replaced the Yaña imlâ Arabic script-based alphabet in 1928, and was replaced by the Cyrillic alphabet in 1938–1940. After their respective independence in 1991, several former Soviet states in Central Asia switched back to Latin script, with slight modifications to the original Jaꞑalif. There are 33 letters in Jaꞑalif, nine of which are vowels. The apostrophe is used for the glottal stop (həmzə or hämzä) and is sometimes considered a letter for the purposes of alphabetic sorting. Other characters may also be used in spelling foreign names. The lowercase form of letter B is ʙ, to prevent confusion with Ь ь. Letter No. 33, similar to Zhuang Ƅ, is not currently available as a Latin character in Unicode, but it look ...
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Turkic Languages
The Turkic languages are a language family of over 35 documented languages, spoken by the Turkic peoples of Eurasia from Eastern Europe and Southern Europe to Central Asia, East Asia, North Asia ( Siberia), and Western Asia. The Turkic languages originated in a region of East Asia spanning from Mongolia to Northwest China, where Proto-Turkic is thought to have been spoken, from where they expanded to Central Asia and farther west during the first millennium. They are characterized as a dialect continuum. Turkic languages are spoken by some 200 million people. The Turkic language with the greatest number of speakers is Turkish, spoken mainly in Anatolia and the Balkans; its native speakers account for about 38% of all Turkic speakers. Characteristic features such as vowel harmony, agglutination, subject-object-verb order, and lack of grammatical gender, are almost universal within the Turkic family. There is a high degree of mutual intelligibility, upon moderate e ...
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Turkish Alphabet
The Turkish alphabet ( tr, ) is a Latin-script alphabet used for writing the Turkish language, consisting of 29 letters, seven of which ( Ç, Ğ, I, İ, Ö, Ş and Ü) have been modified from their Latin originals for the phonetic requirements of the language. This alphabet represents modern Turkish pronunciation with a high degree of accuracy and specificity. Mandated in 1928 as part of Atatürk's Reforms, it is the current official alphabet and the latest in a series of distinct alphabets used in different eras. The alphabet was created by Agop Dilâçar (Martayan) ( hy, ) a linguist of Armenian origin. The Turkish alphabet has been the model for the official Latinization of several Turkic languages formerly written in the Arabic or Cyrillic script like Azerbaijani (1991), Turkmen (1993), and recently Kazakh (2021). History Early reform proposals and alternate scripts The earliest known Turkic alphabet is the Orkhon script, also known as the Old Turkic alphabet, ...
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Keyboard KAZ
Keyboard may refer to: Text input * Keyboard, part of a typewriter * Computer keyboard ** Keyboard layout, the software control of computer keyboards and their mapping ** Keyboard technology, computer keyboard hardware and firmware Music * Musical keyboard, a set of adjacent keys or levers used to play a musical instrument ** Manual (music), a keyboard played with hands, as opposed to; ** Pedalboard or pedal keyboard, played with feet ** Enharmonic keyboard, one of several layouts that incorporate more than 12 tones per octave * Keyboard instrument, a musical instrument played using a keyboard ** Synthesizer, an electronic keyboard ** Electronic keyboard, a synthesizer See also * Input method * Keypad A keypad is a block or pad of buttons set with an arrangement of digits, symbols, or alphabetical letters. Pads mostly containing numbers and used with computers are numeric keypads. Keypads are found on devices which require mainly numeric in ...
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Keyboard Layout
A keyboard layout is any specific physical, visual or functional arrangement of the keys, legends, or key-meaning associations (respectively) of a computer keyboard, mobile phone, or other computer-controlled typographic keyboard. is the actual positioning of keys on a keyboard. is the arrangement of the legends (labels, markings, engravings) that appear on those keys. is the arrangement of the key-meaning association or keyboard mapping, determined in software, of all the keys of a keyboard; it is this (rather than the legends) that determines the actual response to a key press. Modern computer keyboards are designed to send a scancode to the operating system (OS) when a key is pressed or released: this code reports only the key's row and column, not the specific character engraved on that key. The OS converts the scancode into a specific binary character code using a "scancode to character" conversion table, called the keyboard mapping table. This means that a physical key ...
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Code Page
In computing, a code page is a character encoding and as such it is a specific association of a set of printable characters and control characters with unique numbers. Typically each number represents the binary value in a single byte. (In some contexts these terms are used more precisely; see .) The term "code page" originated from IBM's EBCDIC-based mainframe systems, but Microsoft, SAP, and Oracle Corporation are among the vendors that use this term. The majority of vendors identify their own character sets by a name. In the case when there is a plethora of character sets (like in IBM), identifying character sets through a number is a convenient way to distinguish them. Originally, the code page numbers referred to the ''page'' numbers in the IBM standard character set manual, a condition which has not held for a long time. Vendors that use a code page system allocate their own code page number to a character encoding, even if it is better known by another name; for example ...
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