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Zweibrücken
Zweibrücken
(German pronunciation: [ˈt͡svaɪˌbʁʏkn̩], French: Deux-Ponts [døpɔ̃], Palatinate German: Zweebrigge [ˈd͡sʋeːbʁɪgə]) is a town in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany, on the Schwarzbach river.

Contents

1 Name 2 History 3 Mayors and Lord Mayors 4 Economy 5 Zweibrücken
Zweibrücken
Air Base 6 Climate 7 Twin towns 8 Famous inhabitants 9 Personalities who have worked on site 10 See also 11 Notes 12 Further reading 13 External links

Name[edit] The name Zweibrücken
Zweibrücken
means 'two bridges'. Older forms of the name include Middle High German
Middle High German
Zweinbrücken, Latin
Latin
Geminus Pons and Bipontum, and French Deux-Ponts, all with the same meaning.[2] History[edit] The town was the capital of the former Imperial State
Imperial State
of Palatinate-Zweibrücken
Palatinate-Zweibrücken
owned by the House of Wittelsbach. The ducal castle is now occupied by the high court of the Palatinate (Oberlandesgericht).[2] There is a fine Gothic Protestant
Protestant
church, Alexander's church, founded in 1493 and rebuilt in 1955. From the end of the 12th century, Zweibrücken
Zweibrücken
was the seat of the County of Zweibrücken, the counts being descended from Henry I, youngest son of Simon I, Count of Saarbrücken
Simon I, Count of Saarbrücken
(d. 1182). The line became extinct on the death of Count Eberhard II (1394), who in 1385 had sold half his territory to the Count Palatine of the Rhine, and held the other half as his feudal domain. Louis (d. 1489), son of Stephen, founded the line of the counts palatine of Zweibrücken (Palatinate-Zweibrücken).[2] In 1533, the count palatine converted Palatinate-Zweibrücken
Palatinate-Zweibrücken
to the new Protestant
Protestant
faith. In 1559, a member of the line, Duke Wolfgang, founded the earliest grammar school in the town (Herzog-Wolfgang-Gymnasium), which lasted until 1987. When Charles X Gustav, the son of John Casimir, Count Palatine of Kleeburg, succeeded his cousin, Queen Christina of Sweden, on the Swedish throne, Palatinate-Zweibrücken
Palatinate-Zweibrücken
was in personal union with Sweden, a situation that lasted until 1718. Starting in 1680, Louis XIV's Chambers of Reunion awarded Zweibruecken and other localities to France, but under the 1697 Treaty of Rijswijk, "The Duchy of Zweibruecken was restored to the King of Sweden, as Count Palatine of the Rhine."[3] In 1731, Palatinate-Zweibrücken
Palatinate-Zweibrücken
passed to the Palatinate-Birkenfeld-Zweibrücken branch of the counts palatine, from where it came under the sway of Bavaria
Bavaria
in 1799. It was occupied by France
France
in 1793 and on 4 November 1797, Zweibrücken
Zweibrücken
became a canton centre in department of Mont Tonnerre. At the Peace of Lunéville
Peace of Lunéville
in 1801, the French annexation of Zweibrücken
Zweibrücken
was confirmed; on its reunion with Germany
Germany
in 1814 the greater part of the territory was given to Bavaria, the remainder to Oldenburg and Kingdom of Prussia.[2] The town of Zweibrücken
Zweibrücken
became part of the Palatine region of the Kingdom of Bavaria. At the ducal printing office at Zweibrücken
Zweibrücken
the fine series of the classical editions known as the Bipontine Editions was published (1779 sqq.).[2] The last prominent social event before the First World War was the inauguration of the Rosengarten (rose garden) by Princess Hildegard of Bavaria
Bavaria
in June 1914. As a consequence of the First World War, Zweibrücken
Zweibrücken
was occupied by French troops between 1918 and 1930. In the course of the Kristallnacht
Kristallnacht
in 1938, Zweibrücken's synagogue was destroyed. On the outbreak of the Second World War the town was evacuated in 1939-1940, as it lay in the ‘Red Zone’ on the fortified Siegfried Line. Shortly before the end of the war, on 14 March 1945, the town was nearly completely destroyed in an air raid by the Royal Canadian Air Force, with the loss of more than 200 lives. On 20 March, American ground troops reached Zweibrücken. The town became part of the new state of Rhineland-Palatinate
Rhineland-Palatinate
after the war. In 1993, the town underwent a major change. With the departure of the Americans, the military area became free, which corresponded altogether to a third of the entire urban area. Unemployment increased to approximately 21%, leading to a decrease in demand in the retail trade of approximately 25%. These events led to rapid, creative decisions on the part of the town, with the resultant changes becoming the model for other communities. Within the core of the town, a small pedestrian precinct was completed, which includes some restored historic buildings. Mayors and Lord Mayors[edit]

1895–1904 Wolff 1905–1905 Freudenberg 1905–1932 Roesinger 1932–1945 Karl Ernst Collofong (SDAP) 1945–1959 Ignaz Roth (1894-1972) (SPD) 1959–1969 Oskar Munzinger (1911-1983) (SPD) 1969–1979 Helmut Fichtner (SPD) 1980–1992 Werner von Blon (1929-2009) (SPD) 1993–1999 Hans Otto Streuber (born 1949) (SPD) 1999–2004 Jürgen Lambert (born 1936) (CDU) 2004–2012 Helmut Reichling (CDU) since 2012 Kurt Pirmann (born 1955) (SPD)

Economy[edit] Weaving, brewing and the manufacture of machinery, chicory, cigars, malt, boots, furniture and soap were the chief industries before World War II. Nowadays Terex cranes and bulldozers and John Deere
John Deere
harvesting equipment are the chief industries. The Hochschule Kaiserslautern
Kaiserslautern
[1], one of the largest universities in the Rhineland-Palatinate, with more than 6,000 students is also located in Zweibrücken.

Panorama of modern Zweibrücken

Zweibrücken
Zweibrücken
Air Base[edit] On the outskirts of the town, Zweibrücken Air Base
Zweibrücken Air Base
was for many years home to U.S. airmen and their families. Prior to being a USAFE
USAFE
base, the base was operated by the Royal Canadian Air Force. It was known as #3 Fighter Wing, part of #1 Canadian Air Division with headquarters in Metz, France. During the years 1953 to 1968, it was the home to 413, 427 and 434 Fighter Squadrons flying F-86 Sabre jets, and 440 Squadron, which flew the CF-100
CF-100
Canuck, then the CF-104 Starfighter. The RF-4C was stationed at Zweibruecken AB from the 1970s to 1991 under the 38th Tactical Reconnaissance Squadron
38th Tactical Reconnaissance Squadron
of the 26th Tactical Reconnaissance Wing. These were photo-reconnaissance aircraft with missions all over Europe and used in Desert Storm. The Short C-23 Sherpa, a small prop-driven transport plane, also flew out of the base in the 1980s under the 10th Military Airlift Squadron, a tenant Military Airlift Command unit. The squadron's mission was to deliver high-priority aircraft parts to bases in USAFE
USAFE
to ensure a maximum number of aircraft were combat-ready. Today Zweibrücken
Zweibrücken
Air Base has been transformed into the modern Zweibrücken Airport
Zweibrücken Airport
[2], an international airport with flights to Palma de Mallorca, Antalya, Gran Canaria, Teneriffe, Rhodos, Heraklion
Heraklion
and Fuerteventura
Fuerteventura
(TUIfly), Istanbul
Istanbul
(Pegasus Airlines) On the other side of the town was Kreuzberg Kaserne, home to various units of the United States
United States
Army. Only one combat unit was located there: Battery A, 2nd Battalion, 60th Air Defense Artillery, with its Headquarters and Headquarters Battery (HHB) at Ramstein Air Base. The 3d Battalion, 60th ADA was a subordinate unit of the 32nd Army Air Defense Command. Major tenants at Kreuzberg Kaserne were USAISEC-EUR (Information Systems Engineering Command - Europe) and the USA MATCOMEUR (Material Command, Europe), later renamed the US Army Material Management Agency, Europe. Climate[edit] Climate in this area has mild differences between highs and lows, and there is adequate rainfall year-round. The Köppen Climate Classification subtype for this climate is "Cfb" (Marine West Coast Climate/Oceanic climate).[4]

Climate data for Zweibrücken

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Average high °C (°F) 3 (37) 4 (39) 9 (48) 12 (53) 17 (63) 20 (68) 22 (72) 22 (72) 19 (66) 13 (56) 7 (45) 4 (39) 13 (55)

Average low °C (°F) −1 (31) −1 (30) 2 (36) 4 (40) 8 (47) 12 (53) 14 (57) 13 (56) 11 (51) 7 (45) 3 (37) 1 (33) 6 (43)

Average precipitation days 21 16 19 15 16 16 13 12 13 16 17 20 194

Source: Weatherbase [5]

Twin towns[edit]

Barrie, Ontario, Canada
Canada
since 1996 Boulogne-sur-Mer, France
France
since 1959 Nyakizu (formerly Runyinya), Rwanda
Rwanda
since 1982 Yorktown, Virginia, United States
United States
since 1978

Famous inhabitants[edit]

Hermann Dingler
Hermann Dingler
around 1910

Appert Nicolas 1841

Jonas Erikson Sundahl
Jonas Erikson Sundahl
(1678-1762), Swedish-born architect who designed Schloss Zweibrücken Georg Christian Crollius (1728–1790), historian and librarian Johan Ludvig Mansa
Johan Ludvig Mansa
(1740–1820), Danish gardener and castellan Friedrich Wilhelm Schultz (1804–1876), pharmacist and botanist Carl Heinrich Schultz (1805–1867), physician and botanist Philipp Ludwig von Seidel (1821–1896), mathematician and astronomer Eugene W. Hilgard
Eugene W. Hilgard
(1833–1916), soil scientist, geologist and agronomists Hermann Dingler
Hermann Dingler
(1846–1935), botanist Gustav Aschaffenburg
Gustav Aschaffenburg
(1866–1944), psychiatrist Maximilian Schuler (1882–1972), engineer, mechanical engineer and physicist Emil Oberholzer (1883–1958), Swiss psychiatrist and psychoanalyst Johann Fortner
Johann Fortner
(1884–1947), officer of the Armed Forces August Heinrich Bruinier (1897–1970), violinist Otto Bradfisch (1903–1994), economist, a lawyer and Obersturmbannführer
Obersturmbannführer
and commander of the state police and the SD in Litzmannstadt (Łódź) and Potsdam Otto Carius
Otto Carius
(1922–2015), pharmacist, Peter Fleischmann (born 1937), film director Charlotte Lehmann (de) (born 1938), concert singer and singing teacher Ron MacLean
Ron MacLean
(born 1960), Canadian sportswriter Rainer Schönborn (born 1962), ice dancer Larry Mitchell (born 1967), ice hockey player Nico Zimmermann (born 1985), football player Christin Hussong
Christin Hussong
(born 1994), javelin thrower

Personalities who have worked on site[edit]

Hieronymus Bock
Hieronymus Bock
(1498-1554), significant physician and botanist Pantaleon Candidus (1540-1608), reformed theologian, historian and author Nicolas Appert
Nicolas Appert
(1749-1841), confectioner and inventor Jakob Weis
Jakob Weis
(1879-1948) prison pastor in Zweibrücken
Zweibrücken
1909-1921, divisional chaplain in World War I, an author, 1925-1940 study professor at the secondary school or at school, 1940-1948 Emeritus in Zweibrücken, there he also died

See also[edit]

List of counts palatine of Zweibrücken

Notes[edit]

^ "Gemeinden in Deutschland mit Bevölkerung am 31. Dezember 2015" (PDF). Statistisches Bundesamt
Statistisches Bundesamt
(in German). 2016.  ^ a b c d e  One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Zweibrücken". Encyclopædia Britannica. 28 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 1060–1061.  ^ Crane Brinton, "France", in William L. Langer, ed., (1948), An Encyclopedia of World History, Rev. Edition, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, pp. 443-445. ^ Climate Summary for Zweibrücken ^ "Weatherbase.com". Weatherbase. 2013.  Retrieved on July 6, 2013.

Further reading[edit]

Ammerich, Hans, "Zweibrücken. Die alte Herzogsstadt in Geschichte und Gegenwart", Zweibrücken
Zweibrücken
1983 Bartz, Günther, "Zweibrücken. Frühe Kunde – Herzogliche Zeiten – heute", Speyer
Speyer
1960 Lehmann, Johann Georg, "Vollständige Geschichte des Herzogthums Zweibrücken
Zweibrücken
und seiner Fürsten, der Stamm- und Voreltern des k. bayer. Hauses", Munich, 1867 Molitor, Ludwig, "Vollständige Geschichte der ehemals pfalz-bayerischen Residenzstadt Zweibrücken
Zweibrücken
von ihren ältesten Zeiten bis zur Vereinigung des Herzogtums Zweibrücken
Zweibrücken
mit der Bayerischen Krone", Zweibrücken
Zweibrücken
1884

External links[edit]

(in German) Official website (in German) Page with Photos and Information (in English) Page about Outlets Zweibrücken (in German) Information Portal
Portal
about Zweibrücken

v t e

Urban and rural districts in the State of Rhineland-Palatinate
Rhineland-Palatinate
in Germany

Urban districts

Frankenthal Kaiserslautern Koblenz Landau Ludwigshafen Mainz Neustadt Pirmasens Speyer Trier Worms Zweibrücken

Rural districts

Ahrweiler Altenkirchen Alzey-Worms Bad Dürkheim Bad Kreuznach Bernkastel-Wittlich Birkenfeld Bitburg-Prüm Cochem-Zell Donnersbergkreis Germersheim Kaiserslautern Kusel Mainz-Bingen Mayen-Koblenz Neuwied Rhein-Hunsrück-Kreis Rhein-Lahn-Kreis Rhein-Pfalz-Kreis Südliche Weinstraße Südwestpfalz Trier-Saarburg Vulkaneifel Westerwaldkreis

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 167541758 LCCN: n86002812 GND: 4068199-3 BNF: cb1216

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