Zhuang people
   HOME

TheInfoList



The Zhuang () (; za, Bouxcuengh, italic=yes) are a Tai-speaking
ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people A people is any plurality of person A person (plural people or persons) is a being that has certain capacities or attributes such as reason, morality, consciousness or self-consciousn ...
who mostly live in the
Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region Guangxi (; alternately romanized as Kwanghsi; ; za, Gvangjsih), officially the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region (GZAR), is an autonomous region An autonomous administrative division (also referred to as an autonomous area, entity, unit ...

Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region
in
Southern China Northern China () and Southern China () are two approximate mega-regions within China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, world's ...
. Some also live in the
Yunnan Yunnan () is a landlocked Provinces of China, province in Southwest China, the southwest of the People's Republic of China. The province spans approximately and has a population of 48.3 million (as of 2018). The capital of the province is Kun ...

Yunnan
,
Guangdong Guangdong (, ), Chinese postal romanization, alternately romanized as Canton Province or Kwangtung, is a coastal Provinces of China, province in South China on the north shore of the South China Sea. The capital of the province is Guangzhou. W ...

Guangdong
,
Guizhou Guizhou (; alternately Kweichow) is a landlocked province in the southwest region of the People's Republic of China. Its capital and largest city is Guiyang, in the center of the province. Guizhou borders the autonomous region of Guangxi to t ...

Guizhou
and
Hunan provinces
Hunan provinces
. They form one of the 56
ethnic groups An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people who identify with each other on the basis of shared attributes that distinguish them from other groups such as a common set of traditions, ancestry, language, history, society, culture, nation ...
officially recognized by the
People's Republic of China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in East Asia. It is the world's List of countries and dependencies by population, most populous country, with a Population of China, population of more than 1.4 billio ...

People's Republic of China
. With the Buyi, TayNùng and other Northern Tai speakers, they are sometimes known as the Rau or Rao people. Their population, estimated at 18 million people, makes them the largest minority in China, followed by
Hui The Hui people ( zh, c=, p=Huízú, w=Hui2-tsu2, Xiao'erjing Xiao'erjing or Xiao'erjin or Xiaor jin or in its shortened form, Xiaojing, literally meaning "children's script" or "minor script" (cf. "original script" referring to the original ...
and
Manchu The Manchu (; ) are an officially recognized ethnic minority in China and the people from whom Manchuria Manchuria is an exonym and endonym, exonym for a historical and geographic region of Russia and China in Northeast Asia (mostly in N ...
.


Etymology

The
Chinese character Chinese characters, also called ''hanzi'' (), are logogram In a written language A written language is the representation of a spoken or gestural language by means of a writing system. Written language is an invention in that it ...
used for the Zhuang people has changed several times. Their
autonym Autonym may refer to: * Autonym, the name used by a person to refer to themselves or their language; see Exonym and endonym * Autonym (botany), an automatically created infrageneric or infraspecific name See also

* Nominotypical subspecies, in ...
, "Cuengh" in
Standard Zhuang Standard Zhuang (autonym Autonym may refer to: * Autonym, the name used by a person to refer to themselves or their language; see Exonym and endonym * Autonym (botany), an automatically created infrageneric or infraspecific name See also * ...
, was originally written with the graphic pejorative , (or ''tóng'', referring to a variety of wild dog).漢典.

. Chinese. Accessed 14 August 2011. 新华字典, via 中华昌龙网. 字典频道.

". Chinese. Accessed 14 August 2011.
Chinese characters typically combine a semantic element or
radical Radical may refer to: Arts and entertainment Music *Radical (mixtape), ''Radical'' (mixtape), by Odd Future, 2010 *Radical (Smack album), ''Radical'' (Smack album), 1988 *"Radicals", a song by Tyler, The Creator from the 2011 album ''Goblin (album ...
and a phonetic element.
John DeFrancis John DeFrancis (August 31, 1911January 2, 2009) was an American linguist Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (S ...
recorded was previously Tóng, , with " dog radical" and ''tóng'', phonetic, a list of ethnic slurs, slur, but also describes how the
People's Republic of China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in East Asia. It is the world's List of countries and dependencies by population, most populous country, with a Population of China, population of more than 1.4 billio ...

People's Republic of China
eventually removed it. In 1949, after the Chinese civil war, the logograph was officially replaced with a different graphic pejorative, (just ''tóng'', meaning "child; boy servant"), with the "Radical 9, human radical" with the same phonetic. Later, during the standardization of simplified Chinese characters, Tóng was changed to a different character , (meaning"strong; robust").


History

The Zhuang are the indigenous peoples of Guangxi, according to Huang Xianfan. The Zhuang's origins can be traced back to the paleolithic ancient human, as demonstrated by a large amount of contemporary archaeological evidence. The Zhuang trace their lineage to the Lạc Việt people through artworks such as the Zuojiang Huashan Rock Art, Rock Paintings of Hua Mountain, dating from to the Warring States period (475–221 BC). The Zhuang were mentioned in texts during the Song dynasty. One of the Zhuang leaders, Nong Zhigao, led a rebellion against the Lý dynasty of Đại Việt in 1042 and declared an independent state of Dali (not to be confused with the Dali Kingdom). He was defeated and later caused trouble in Song territory in 1052. His independent kingdom of Danan (Great South) was short-lived, however, and the Song general Di Qing defeated him. Nong Zhigao and his people fled to the Dali Kingdom, but Dali executed him to appease the Song. The Zhuang continued to cause trouble in the Ming dynasty, which used different groups against one another. One of the bloodiest battles in Zhuang history was that at Big Rattan Gorge against the Yao in 1465, where 20,000 deaths were reported. Parts of Guangxi were ruled by the powerful Cen (surname), Cen clan (岑). The Cen were of Zhuang ethnicity and were recognized as tusi or local ruler by the Ming and Qing. The Ming launched several campaigns to civilize the non-Han southwestern people, including the Zhuang, by setting up schools. While the Zhuang became more intimately familiar with Han culture, it did not pacify them, and they continued to cause rebellions into the Qing dynasty. Writing in the 19th century, a Qing dynasty official described the Zhuang thus: Later many Zhuang peasants took part in revolutionary movements such as the 1911 Revolution as part of the Tongmenghui. In the 1930s, the Kuomintang attempted to control the Zhuang people through force, causing indignation and resentment. In contrast, many Zhuang joined the communist army under the leadership of their Zhuang leader, Wei Baqun.


Customs and culture


Gender

The Zhuang system of gender was traditionally egalitarian and female shamans such as A Nong were respected. Families traced their lineage through both male and female members. Men engaged in child rearing and often moved into their wives' families rather than establish their own. Men believed that their wives regularly dosed them with an elixir called the ''Wugu'' that would kill them if they were unfaithful. Courting was carried out in a song festival where intended marriage partners responded to each other in rhyme and meter.


Languages

While Chinese scholarship continues to place the Kam–Tai languages, Zhuang–Dong languages among the Sino-Tibetan languages, Sino-Tibetan family, other linguists treat the Kra–Dai languages, Tai languages as a separate family. They have been linked with the Austronesian languages, which dispersed from Taiwan after a migration from the mainland. However, the Austro-Tai languages, Austro-Tai hypothesis uniting these families is now supported by only a few scholars. The Zhuang languages are a group of mutually unintelligible languages of the Tai languages, Tai family, heavily influenced by nearby Sinitic languages such as Cantonese. The
Standard Zhuang Standard Zhuang (autonym Autonym may refer to: * Autonym, the name used by a person to refer to themselves or their language; see Exonym and endonym * Autonym (botany), an automatically created infrageneric or infraspecific name See also * ...
language is based on a northern dialect, but it is closer to the Bouyei language than Southern Zhuang, so few people learn it. Due to mutually unintelligible languages or dialects, Zhuang people from different areas use Chinese to communicate with each other and Chinese was used as the ''lingua franca'' in areas of high Zhuang population such as the official
Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region Guangxi (; alternately romanized as Kwanghsi; ; za, Gvangjsih), officially the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region (GZAR), is an autonomous region An autonomous administrative division (also referred to as an autonomous area, entity, unit ...

Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region
. Whilst according to some semi-official sources "In Guangxi, compulsory education is bilingual in Zhuang and Chinese, with a focus on early Zhuang literacy," only a small percentage of schools teach written Zhuang. Zhuang has been written using logograms based on Chinese characters ("Sawndip") for over 1,000 years. Standard Zhuang, the official alphabetical script, was introduced in 1957 and in 1982 the Cyrillic script, Cyrillic letters were changed to Latin script, Latin letters. However, the traditional character-based script is more commonly used in less formal domains and in June 2017 just over one thousand of these characters were added in Unicode 10.0 . The Zhuang have their own scriptures written in poetic form such as the ''Baeu Rodo''.


Sawndip literature

The literate Zhuang had their own writing system, Sawndip (lit. "uncooked script"), recording folk songs, operas, poems, scriptures, letters, contracts and court documents. The works include both entirely indigenous works and translations from Chinese, fact and fiction, religious texts and secular texts.


Names

While most Zhuang people have adopted standard Han Chinese names, some have distinct surnames only found amongst those of Zhuang descent such as "" (), usually pronounced "Qín". When comes to places, some village names in China have the suffix "" (), which means ''"village"'' in Zhuang languages, Zhuang (e.g. , , , ).


Festivals

The Buluotuo Festival is a three-day event that occurs in April during which singing and chanting take place.


Religion

Most Zhuang follow a traditional animist faith known as Shigongism or Moism, which include elements of ancestor worship. The Mo have their own sutra and professional priests known as ''bumo'' or ''mogong'' who traditionally use chicken bones for divination. The bumo read scriptures, perform divination, and other rituals to drive away pestilence. Their sacred scroll is the ''Sanqing'' (three pure ones). In Chinese the bumo are known as wushi, spiritual mediums. The ''wupo'', in contrast to the bumo, are elderly women considered to be chosen by god, who sing traditional mountain songs. The role of the wupo is Zhuang religion has been minimized due to influence from Chinese religious traditions.


Deities

The Zhuang religion believes that the world is composed of three aspects: heaven, earth, and water. Earth is ruled by the creator god, Baeuqloxdoh (Buluotuo), water by the dragon god, Ngweg, and heaven by the thunder god, Gyaj. Baeuqloxdoh's wife, Meh Nangz, the mother goddess, is also worshiped. Mountains are worshiped in Zhuang culture. Between winter and spring, the Zhuang make a trip to the mountains to sing in the Zhuang style, called "hun gamj gok fwen".


Other religions

There are also a number of Buddhism, Buddhists, Taoism, Taoists and Christianity, Christians among the Zhuang.


Identity

Some ethnologists viewed the Zhuang ethnicity as a modern constructed ethnic identity. In the eyes of the ethnologists, the Zhuang culture was not sufficiently divergent from what the ethnologists considered "Han culture", to warrant recognition as a separate ethnic identity. One view is that Zhuang identity was created by the government to weaken Cantonese regional unity. In one instance, a Zhuang student said that he had previously regarded himself as Han Chinese before being taught that he was Zhuang. The Zhuang did not perceive themselves as marginalized or in need of promotion. Zhuang peasants displayed resistance to the ideal of a formal Romanized Zhuang script, noting that they had used Han script for centuries. Formal classification of the Zhuang also ignored historical similarities between northern Zhuang and the Bouyei people.


Genetics

Genetic evidence points out Zhuang possesses a very high frequency of Haplogroup O2 with most of them being subclade O2a making it the most dominant marker, one that they share with Austro-Asiatic. The other portion of O2 belongs to subclade O2a1. Zhuangs have prevalent frequencies of O1 which links them with Austronesian, but O1 is at much lower rate compared to O2a and only slightly higher than O2a1. Haplogroup O2 in Taiwan aborigines is almost completely non-existent, but they exhibit very high frequencies of O1. This suggests that in the event that the Austro-Tai hypothesis is correct, Tai-Kadai speakers would have assimilated mostly Austro-Asiatic people into their population after the separation of Tai and Austronesian.


Distribution


By county

(Only includes counties or county-equivalents containing >0.1% of China's Zhuang population.)


Notable Zhuang people

* A Nong ( 1005–1055), Zhuang shaman, matriarch and warrior; mother of Nong Zhigao. * Lady of Qiao Guo, heroine of the Zhuang people in Southern and Northern Dynasties. * Nong Zhigao, hero of the Zhuang people in Song Dynasty. * Shi Dakai, Yi King of the Taiping Rebellion. * Wei Changhui, North King of the Taiping Rebellion. * Huang Xianfan, Chinese historian and ethnologist, considered the founder of Zhuang studies. * Li Ning, Chinese gymnast and entrepreneur. * Shanye Huang, Well-known Chinese-American artist whose art is rooted in Zhuang culture. * Wei Wei (singer), a Mandopop singer and actress. * Tracy Wang :zh:汪小敏, 汪小敏 , a singer. * Zhang Xianzi, a Mandopop singer.


See also

*Zhuang languages *
Standard Zhuang Standard Zhuang (autonym Autonym may refer to: * Autonym, the name used by a person to refer to themselves or their language; see Exonym and endonym * Autonym (botany), an automatically created infrageneric or infraspecific name See also * ...
*Zhuang customs and culture *Dong Son culture *Mo (religion)


References


Citations


Sources

* * * * * Wang Mingfu, Eric Johnson (2008). ''Zhuang Cultural and Linguistic Heritage''. The Nationalities Publishing House of Yunnan. . A Senior City Police Officer Pursues His Roots in China, By Marvine Howe, ''The New York Times'', 14 November 1985.


Further reading

* *


External links


The Zhuang: A Longitudinal Study of Their History and Their Culture
by Jeffrey Barlow *
Map share of ethnic by county of China
{{DEFAULTSORT:Zhuang People Zhuang people, Tai peoples Tai history Ethnic groups officially recognized by China