The ZHUANG LANGUAGES (autonym : Vahcuengh (pre-1982: Vaƅcueŋƅ,
Tai languages are believed to have been originally spoken in what
is now southern China, with speakers of the Southwestern Tai languages
(which include Thai , Lao and Shan ) having emigrated in the face of
Chinese expansion. Noting that both the Zhuang and Thai peoples have
the same exonym for the Vietnamese, kɛɛuA1, from the Chinese
Jiaozhi in northern Vietnam,
Jerold A. Edmondson posited
that the split between Zhuang and the Southwestern Tai languages
happened no earlier than the founding of
Jiaozhi in 112 BC. He also
argues that the departure of the Thai from southern
* 1 Surveys
* 2 Varieties
* 2.1 Northern Zhuang * 2.2 Southern Zhuang
* 3 Writing systems * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 Bibliography * 7 External links
Sites surveyed in Zhang (1999), subgrouped according to Pittayaporn (2009): N, M, I, C, B, F, H, L, P
Zhāng Jūnrú's (张均如) Zhuàngyǔ Fāngyán Yánjiù (壮语方言研究 ) is the most detailed study of Zhuang dialectology published to date. It reports survey work carried out in the 1950s, and includes a 1465-word list covering 36 varieties of Zhuang. For the list of the 36 Zhuang variants below from Zhang (1999), the name of the region (usually county) is given first, followed by the specific village. The phylogenetic position of each variant follows that of Pittayaporn (2009) (see Tai languages#Pittayaporn (2009) ).
* Wuming – Shuāngqiáo 双桥 – Subgroup M
* Hengxian – Nàxù 那旭 – Subgroup N
* Yongning (North) – Wǔtáng 五塘 – Subgroup N
* Pingguo – Xīnxū 新圩 – Subgroup N
* Tiandong – Héhéng 合恒 – Subgroup N
* Tianlin – Lìzhōu 利周 – Subgroup N
* Lingyue – Sìchéng 泗城 – Subgroup N
* Guangnan (Shā people 沙族) – Zhěméng Township 者孟乡 –
* Qiubei – Gēhán Township 戈寒乡 – Subgroup N
* Liujiang – Bǎipéng 百朋 – Subgroup N
* Yishan – Luòdōng 洛东 – Subgroup N
* Huanjiang – Chéngguǎn 城管 – Subgroup N
* Rong\'an – Ānzì 安治 – Subgroup N
* Longsheng – Rìxīn 日新 – Subgroup N
Hechi – Sānqū 三区 – Subgroup N
* Nandan – Mémá 么麻 – Subgroup N
* Donglan – Chéngxiāng 城厢 – Subgroup N
* Du\'an – Liùlǐ 六里 – Subgroup N
* Shanglin – Dàfēng 大丰 – Subgroup N
Laibin – Sìjiǎo 寺脚 – Subgroup N
The Zhuang language (or language group) has been divided by Chinese linguists into northern and southern "dialects" (fangyan 方言 in Chinese), each of which has been divided into a number of vernacular varieties (known as tǔyǔ 土语 in Chinese) by Chinese linguists (Zhang Zhang 1999:29-30). The Wuming dialect of Yongbei Zhuang, classified within the "Northern Zhuang dialect," is considered to be the "standard " or prestige dialect of Zhuang, developed by the government for certain official usages. Although Southern Zhuang varieties have aspirated stops, Northern Zhuang varieties lack them. There are over 60 distinct tonal systems with 5–11 tones depending on the variety.
Zhang (1999) identified 13 Zhuang varieties. Later research by the Summer Institute of Linguistics has indicated that some of these are themselves multiple languages that are not mutually intelligible without previous exposure on the part of speakers, resulting in 16 separate ISO 639-3 codes.
Northern Zhuang comprises dialects north of the Yong River , with 8,572,200 speakers (ISO 639 ccx prior to 2007):
* GUIBEI 桂北 (1,290,000 speakers): Luocheng, Huanjiang, Rongshui,
Rong'an, Sanjiang, Yongfu, Longsheng, Hechi, Nandan, Tian'e, Donglan
(ISO 639 zgb)
* LIUJIANG 柳江 (1,297,000 speakers): Liujiang,
Yishan, Liucheng, Xincheng (ISO 639 zlj)
* HONGSHUI HE 红水河 (2,823,000 speakers):
Laibin South, Du'an,
Mashan, Shilong, Guixian, Luzhai, Lipu, Yangshuo. Castro and Hansen
(2010) distinguished three mutually unintelligible varieties: Central
Hongshuihe (ISO 639 zch), Eastern Hongshuihe (ISO 639 zeh) and Liuqian
(ISO 639 zlq).
* YONGBEI 邕北 (1,448,000 speakers): Yongning North, Wuming
(prestige dialect), Binyang, Hengxian, Pingguo (ISO 639 zyb)
* YOUJIANG 右江 (732,000 speakers): Tiandong, Tianyang, Baise;
Youjiang River basin area (ISO 639 zyj)
* GUIBIAN 桂边 (Yei ; 827,000 speakers): Fengshan, Lingyun,
Southern Zhuang dialects are spoken south of the Yong River, with 4,232,000 speakers (ISO 639 ccy prior to 2007):
* YONGNAN 邕南 (1,466,000 speakers): Yongning South, Fusui Central
and North, Long'an, Jinzhou, Shangse,
Johnson (2011) distinguishes four distinct
Pyang Zhuang and Myang Zhuang are recently described Central Tai languages spoken in Debao County , Guangxi, China.
There has also been the occasional use of pictographic proto-writing , such as in the example at right.
* ^ Mikael Parkvall, "Världens 100 största språk 2007" (The
World's 100 Largest Languages in 2007), in
* ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank,
Sebastian, eds. (2016). "Daic".
Glottolog 2.7 . Jena: Max Planck
Institute for the Science of Human History.
* ^ Bradley, David (2007). "East and Southeast Asia". In Moseley,
Christopher. Encyclopedia of the World's Engangered Languages.
Routledge. pp. 349–422. ISBN 978-1-135-79640-2 . p. 370.
* ^ A1 designates a tone.
* ^ Edmondson, Jerold A. (2007). "The power of language over the
past: Tai settlement and Tai linguistics in southern
* Zhuàng-Hàn cíhuì 壮汉词汇 (Nanning, Guǎngxī mínzú chūbǎnshè 广西民族出版社 1984). * Edmondson, Jerold A. and David B. Solnit, ed. Comparative Kadai: The Tai Branch. Dallas, TX: Summer Institute of Linguistics; : University of Texas at Arlington, 1997. * Johnson, Eric C. 2010. "A sociolinguistic introduction to the Central Taic languages of Wenshan Prefecture, China." SIL Electronic Survey Reports 2010-027: 114 p. http://www.sil.org/silesr/abstract.asp?ref=2010-027. * Luo Liming, Qin Yaowu, Lu Zhenyu, Chen Fulong (editors) (2004). Zhuang–Chinese–English Dictionary / Cuengh Gun Yingh Swzdenj. Nationality Press, 1882 pp. ISBN 7-105-07001-3 . * Tán Xiǎoháng 覃晓航: Xiàndài Zhuàngyǔ 现代壮语 (Beijing, Mínzú chūbǎnshè 民族出版社 1995). * Tán Guóshēng 覃国生: Zhuàngyǔ fāngyán gàilùn 壮语方言概论 (Nanning, Guǎngxī mínzú chūbǎnshè 广西民族出版社 1996). * Wang Mingfu, Eric Johnson (2008). Zhuang Cultural and Linguistic Heritage. The Nationalities Publishing House of Yunnan. ISBN 7-5367-4255-X . * Wéi Qìngwěn 韦庆稳, Tán Guóshēng 覃国生: Zhuàngyǔ jiǎnzhì 壮语简志 (Beijing, Mínzú chūbǎnshè 民族出版社 1980). * Zhang Junru 张均如, et al. 壮语方言研究 / Zhuang yu fang yan yan jiu . Chengdu: 四川民族出版社 / Sichuan min zu chu ban she, 1999. * Zhou, Minglang: Multilingualism in China: The Politics of Writing Reforms for Minority Languages, 1949–2002 (Walter de Gruyter 2003); ISBN 3-11-