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Zaragoza
Zaragoza
(/ˌzærəˈɡoʊzə, ˌsærəˈɡoʊsə, ˌθærəˈɡoʊθə/; Spanish: [θaɾaˈɣoθa]), also called Saragossa (/ˌsærəˈɡɒsə/)[2] in English,[3] is the capital city of the Zaragoza
Zaragoza
province and of the autonomous community of Aragon, Spain. It lies by the Ebro
Ebro
river and its tributaries, the Huerva and the Gállego, roughly in the center of both Aragon
Aragon
and the Ebro
Ebro
basin. On 1 September 2010 the population of the city of Zaragoza
Zaragoza
was 701,090,[4] within its administrative limits on a land area of 1,062.64 square kilometres (410.29 square miles), ranking fifth in Spain. It is the 32nd most populous municipality in the European Union. The population of the metropolitan area was estimated in 2006 at 783,763 inhabitants. The municipality is home to more than 50 percent of the Aragonese population. The city lies at an elevation of 199 metres (653 feet) above sea level. Zaragoza
Zaragoza
hosted Expo 2008
Expo 2008
in the summer of 2008, a world's fair on water and sustainable development. It was also a candidate for the European Capital of Culture
European Capital of Culture
in 2012. The city is famous for its folklore, local gastronomy, and landmarks such as the Basílica del Pilar, La Seo Cathedral
La Seo Cathedral
and the Aljafería Palace. Together with La Seo and the Aljafería, several other buildings form part of the Mudéjar Architecture of Aragon
Aragon
which is a UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site. The Fiestas del Pilar
Fiestas del Pilar
are among the most celebrated festivals in Spain.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History

2.1 Roman Caesaraugusta 2.2 Taifa
Taifa
of Zaragoza 2.3 Aragonese era 2.4 Modern history

3 Demographics

3.1 Immigration

4 Climate 5 Economy 6 Culture

6.1 Festivals

7 Education 8 Transportation

8.1 Roads 8.2 Buses 8.3 Bicycle 8.4 Tram 8.5 Railway 8.6 Airport 8.7 Public Transportation Statistics

9 Sports

9.1 Football 9.2 Basketball 9.3 Futsal 9.4 Other Sports

10 Main sights

10.1 Other sights

11 Twin towns and sister cities 12 Notable people 13 See also 14 References 15 Bibliography 16 External links

Etymology[edit] The city was called by the ancient Romans Caesaraugusta, from which the present name derives. The Iberian town that predated the Roman city was called Salduie.[5] History[edit] See also: Timeline of Zaragoza Roman Caesaraugusta[edit]

Roman theatre

The Sedetani, a tribe of ancient Iberians, populated a village called Salduie (Salduba in Roman sources). Later on, Augustus
Augustus
founded a city called Caesaraugusta[6] at the same location to settle army veterans from the Cantabrian wars. The foundation date of Caesaraugusta has not been set with exact precision, though it is known to lie between 25 BC and 11 BC. The city did not suffer any decline during the last centuries of the Roman empire and was captured peacefully by the Goths in the fifth century AD.

Aljafería
Aljafería
Palace, built in the 11th century.

Taifa
Taifa
of Zaragoza[edit] Main article: Taifa
Taifa
of Zaragoza

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From 1018 to 1118, Zaragoza
Zaragoza
was one of the taifa kingdoms, independent Muslim states which emerged in the eleventh century following the destruction of the Caliphate of Córdoba. During the first three decades of this period, 1018–1038, the city was ruled by the Banu Tujibi. In 1038 they were replaced by the Banu Hud, who had to deal with a complicated alliance with El Cid
El Cid
of Valencia
Valencia
and his Castilian masters against the Almoravids, who managed to bring the Taifas Emirates under their control. After the death of El Cid
El Cid
his kingdom was overrun by the Almoravids, who, by 1100, had managed to cross the Ebro
Ebro
into Barbastro, which brought Aragon
Aragon
into direct contact with them. The Banu Hud
Banu Hud
stubbornly resisted the Almoravids
Almoravids
and ruled until they were eventually defeated by them in May 1110.

La Seo Cathedral

Aragonese era[edit] On 18 December 1118, the Aragonese led by Alfonso I conquered the city from the Almoravids,[7] and made it the capital of the Kingdom of Aragon.[8] After Alfonso's death without heirs in 1134, Zaragoza
Zaragoza
was swiftly occupied by Alfonso VII of León and Castile. The city control was held by García Ramírez, king of Navarra, until 1136 when it was given to Ramiro II the Monk in the treaty signed at the betrothal of Ramiro's daughter Petronila and Alfonso's son Sancho. The wedding never happened, as Petronila ended up marrying Ramon Berenguer IV, Count of Barcelona.[citation needed] The marriage union was the origin of the Crown of Aragón.

Assault of the French army at Santa Engracia Monastery on 8 February 1809 during the Peninsular War. Oil on canvas, 1827

13th century Zaragoza
Zaragoza
was the scene of two controversial martyrdoms related with the Spanish Inquisition: those of Saint Dominguito del Val, a choirboy in the basilica, and Pedro de Arbués, head official of the inquisition. While the reality of the existence of Saint Dominguito del Val is questioned, his "murder" at the hands of "jealous Jews" was used as an excuse to murder or convert the Jewish population of Zaragoza.[9] Zaragoza
Zaragoza
suffered two famous sieges during the Peninsular War
Peninsular War
against the Napoleonic army: a first from June to August 1808; and a second from December 1808 to February 1809, surrendering only after some 50,000 defenders had died.[10] Modern history[edit] Despite a decline in the outlying rural economy, Zaragoza
Zaragoza
has continued to grow. The General Military Academy, a higher training center of the Spanish Army, was re-established on 27 September 1940, by Minister of the Army José Enrique Varela Iglesias. During the second half of the 20th century, Zaragoza's population boomed as a number of factories opened in the region.[11] In 1979, the Hotel Corona de Aragón fire
Hotel Corona de Aragón fire
killed at least 80. The armed Basque nationalist and separatist organization ETA has been blamed, but officially the fire is still regarded as accidental.[12] ETA carried out the 1987 Zaragoza Barracks bombing
1987 Zaragoza Barracks bombing
in the city which killed eleven people, including a number of children, leading to 250,000 people taking part in demonstrations in the city.[13] Demographics[edit] Population, in thousands, can be seen here:

Historical population of Zaragoza

Year 1991 1996 2001 2004 2005 2006 2008

Population 594 394 601 674 610 976 638 799 647 373 660 895 682 283

Historical Series of population: National Statistics Institute of Spain
Spain
(INE) Dates 2006 City council of Zaragoza.

Immigration[edit]

Foreign ethnicities in Zaragoza
Zaragoza
in 2013[14]

Position Ethnicity Inhabitants

1ª  Romania 32 958

2ª  Morocco 8 158

3ª  Ecuador 7 756

4ª  China 5 762

5ª  Colombia 5 346

6ª  Nicaragua 4 703

7ª  Bulgaria 3 701

8ª  Algeria 3 621

9ª  Senegal 3 004

10ª  Dominican Republic 1 982

11ª  Ghana 1 973

12ª  Gambia 1 878

In 2013 there were 107 864 foreign citizens in Zaragoza,[14] which represents 15% of the total population. From 2004 to 2013 immigration rose from 43 355 to 107 864 inhabitants. The district with the biggest number of immigrants was the district of Delicias, with 25 428 immigrant inhabitants, which represents 23% of the population of the district. The Old Town of Zaragoza
Zaragoza
registered 11 881 immigrants, which represents 25% of the population of the district.[citation needed] Climate[edit]

Zaragoza
Zaragoza
climate chart (Airport)

Zaragoza
Zaragoza
has a mild semi-arid climate (Köppen climate classification BSn),[15] as it lies in a wide basin entirely surrounded by mountains which block off moist air from the Atlantic and Mediterranean. The average annual precipitation is a scanty 322 millimetres (12.7 in) with abundant sunny days, and the most rainy seasons are spring (April–May) and autumn (September–November), with a relative drought in summer (July–August) and winter (December–March). Temperatures
Temperatures
are hot in summer reaching up to 44.5 °C (112.1 °F), and in winter are cool, either because of the fog (about twenty days from November to January[citation needed]) or a cold and dry wind blowing from the northwest, the Cierzo
Cierzo
(related to other northerly winds such as the Mistral in the SE of France) on clear days. Frost
Frost
is common and there is sporadic snowfall. The Cierzo can cause a 'wind chill factor' as low as −10 °C (14 °F) during cold spells.

Climate data for Zaragoza
Zaragoza
Airport, altitude 263m (1981-2010)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 20.6 (69.1) 22.5 (72.5) 28.3 (82.9) 32.4 (90.3) 36.5 (97.7) 41.0 (105.8) 44.5 (112.1) 42.8 (109) 39.2 (102.6) 32.0 (89.6) 28.4 (83.1) 22.0 (71.6) 44.5 (112.1)

Average high °C (°F) 10.5 (50.9) 13.1 (55.6) 17.3 (63.1) 19.6 (67.3) 24.1 (75.4) 29.3 (84.7) 32.4 (90.3) 31.7 (89.1) 27.1 (80.8) 21.4 (70.5) 14.8 (58.6) 10.8 (51.4) 21.0 (69.8)

Daily mean °C (°F) 6.6 (43.9) 8.2 (46.8) 11.6 (52.9) 13.8 (56.8) 18.0 (64.4) 22.6 (72.7) 25.3 (77.5) 25.0 (77) 21.2 (70.2) 16.2 (61.2) 10.6 (51.1) 7.0 (44.6) 15.5 (59.9)

Average low °C (°F) 2.7 (36.9) 3.3 (37.9) 5.8 (42.4) 7.9 (46.2) 11.8 (53.2) 15.8 (60.4) 18.3 (64.9) 18.3 (64.9) 15.2 (59.4) 11.0 (51.8) 6.3 (43.3) 3.2 (37.8) 10.0 (50)

Record low °C (°F) −15.2 (4.6) −11.4 (11.5) −6.3 (20.7) −2.4 (27.7) 0.5 (32.9) 1.6 (34.9) 8.0 (46.4) 8.4 (47.1) 4.8 (40.6) 0.6 (33.1) −5.6 (21.9) −9.5 (14.9) −15.2 (4.6)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 21.0 (0.827) 21.5 (0.846) 19.1 (0.752) 39.3 (1.547) 43.7 (1.72) 26.4 (1.039) 17.3 (0.681) 16.6 (0.654) 29.5 (1.161) 36.4 (1.433) 29.8 (1.173) 21.4 (0.843) 322.0 (12.677)

Average precipitation days (≥ 1 mm) 4.0 3.9 3.7 5.7 6.4 4.0 2.6 2.3 3.2 5.4 5.1 4.8 51.1

Average snowy days 0.7 0.4 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.5 1.8

Average relative humidity (%) 75 68 60 58 56 52 49 53 59 69 74 77 62

Mean monthly sunshine hours 131 165 217 226 275 307 348 315 243 195 148 124 2,694

Source: Agencia Estatal de Meteorología[16]

Economy[edit]

Pavilion of Aragon
Aragon
in the Expo 2008

Torre del Agua at the Expo 2008
Expo 2008
site

In addition to the advantageous geographic situation, an Opel
Opel
factory was opened in 1982 in Figueruelas, a small village nearby. The progressive decline of the agrarian economy turned Opel
Opel
into one of the main pillars of the regional economy[citation needed], along with Balay, which manufactures household appliances; CAF (Construcciones y Auxiliar de Ferrocarriles S.A.), which builds railway engines for both the national and international markets; SAICA and Torraspapel in the stationery sector; and various other local companies, such as Pikolin, Lacasa, and Imaginarium SA.[citation needed] The city's economy benefited from projects like the Expo 2008, the official World's Fair, whose theme was water and sustainable development, held between 14 June and 14 September 2008, Plataforma Logística de Zaragoza
Zaragoza
(PLAZA), and the Parque Tecnológico de Reciclado (PTR). Furthermore, since December 2003, it has been a city through which the AVE
AVE
high-speed rail travels. Currently, Zaragoza Airport is a major cargo hub in the Iberian Peninsula, behind only Madrid, Barcelona, and Lisbon. Zaragoza
Zaragoza
is home to a Spanish Air Force
Spanish Air Force
base, which was shared with the U.S. Air Force
U.S. Air Force
until 1994.[17] In English, the base was known as Zaragoza
Zaragoza
Air Base. The Spanish Air Force
Spanish Air Force
maintained an McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Hornet wing at the base. No American flying wings (with the exception of a few KC-135's) were permanently based there, but it served as a training base for American fighter squadrons across Europe. It is also the main headquarters for the Spanish Land Army, hosting the Academia General Militar, a number of brigades at San Gregorio, and other garrisons.[citation needed] Culture[edit]

View of Zaragoza
Zaragoza
(1647) by Juan Bautista Martínez del Mazo.

Christianity took root in Zaragoza
Zaragoza
at an early date.[18] According to legend, St. Mary appeared miraculously to Saint James the Great
Saint James the Great
in Zaragoza
Zaragoza
in the first century, standing on a pillar. This apparition is commemorated by a famous Catholic basilica called Nuestra Señora del Pilar ("Our Lady of the Pillar").[19]

Festivals[edit]

Offering of Fruits at the Fiestas del Pilar.

The annual Fiestas del Pilar
Fiestas del Pilar
last for nine days, with its main day on 12 October. Since this date coincided in 1492 with the first sighting by Christopher Columbus of the Americas, that day is also celebrated as El Día de la Hispanidad (Columbus Day) by Spanish-speaking people worldwide.[citation needed]

Holy Week in Zaragoza.

There are many activities during the festival, from the massively attended Pregon (opening speech) to the final fireworks display over the Ebro; they also include marching bands, dances such as "Jota aragonesa" (the most popular dance of folklore music genre), a procession of gigantes y cabezudos, concerts, exhibitions, vaquillas, bullfights, fairground amusements, and fireworks. Some of the most important events are the Ofrenda de Flores, or Flower Offering to St. Mary of the Pillar, on 12 October, when an enormous surface resembling a cloak for St. Mary is covered with flowers, and the Ofrenda de Frutos on 13 October, when all the autonomous communities of Spain offer their typical regional dishes to St. Mary and donate them to soup kitchens. Holy Week in Zaragoza, although not as elaborate an affair as its Andalusian or Bajo Aragón counterparts, has several processions passing through the city centre every day with dramatic sculptures, black-dressed praying women and hundreds of hooded people playing drums. It has been a Festival of International Tourist Interest since 2014.[20] Education[edit] The University of Zaragoza
University of Zaragoza
is based in the city. As one of the oldest universities in Spain
Spain
and a major research and development centre, this public university awards all the highest academic degrees in dozens of fields. Zaragoza
Zaragoza
is also home to the MIT-Zaragoza International Logistics Program, a unique partnership between MIT, the Government of Aragon
Aragon
and the University of Zaragoza. There is also a private university, Universidad San Jorge, which is located in Villanueva de Gállego. There is a French international primary and secondary school, Lycée Français Molière de Saragosse. Transportation[edit]

Zaragoza's Third Millennium Bridge spans the Ebro
Ebro
and is the world's largest concrete tied-arch bridge, with six traffic lanes, two bike lanes, and two glass-enclosed walkways for pedestrians.[21]

Roads[edit]

Zaragoza tram
Zaragoza tram
in Paseo de la Independencia

The city is connected by motorway with the main cities in central and northern Spain, including Madrid, Barcelona, Valencia, and Bilbao, all of which are located about 300 kilometres (200 miles) from Zaragoza. Buses[edit] The city has a network of buses which is controlled by the Urban Buses of Zaragoza
Zaragoza
(AUZSA). The network consists of 31 regular lines (two of them circle lines), two scheduled routes, six shuttle buses (one free), and seven night buses operating on Fridays, Saturdays and other festivities.[22] Zaragoza
Zaragoza
also has an interurban bus network operated by Transport Consortium Zaragoza
Zaragoza
Area (CTAZ) that operates 17 regular lines.[23] Bicycle[edit] Zaragoza's bicycle lanes facilitate non-motorized travel and help cyclists to avoid running into pedestrians and motor vehicles. The city council also has a public bicycle-hire scheme; the 'bizi zaragoza' - which consists in the payment of an annual charge. Tram[edit] The first line of the Zaragoza tram
Zaragoza tram
(Valdespartera-Parque Goya) is fully operational. Railway[edit] Zaragoza
Zaragoza
is a part of the Spanish high-speed railway operated by RENFE, AVE, which connects Madrid
Madrid
and Barcelona
Barcelona
via high-speed rail. Madrid
Madrid
can be reached in 75 minutes, and Barcelona
Barcelona
in approximately 90 minutes. The central station is "Intermodal Zaragoza
Zaragoza
Delicias Station", which serves both railway lines and coaches. In addition to long-distance railway lines and the high-speed trains, Zaragoza
Zaragoza
has a network of commuter trains operated by RENFE called cercanías.

Zaragoza
Zaragoza
Airport

Airport[edit] Zaragoza Airport
Zaragoza Airport
is located in the Garrapinillos neighborhood, 10 kilometers from the city center. It is a major commercial airport, its freight traffic surpassing that of Barcelona
Barcelona
El Prat in 2012,[24] and serves as the home of the Spanish Air Force's 15th Group. It was also used by NASA
NASA
as a contingency landing site for the Space Shuttle
Space Shuttle
in the case of a Transoceanic Abort Landing (TAL). Public Transportation Statistics[edit] The average amount of time people spend commuting with public transit in Zaragoza, for example to and from work, on a weekday is 48 min. 9% of public transit riders, ride for more than 2 hours every day. The average amount of time people wait at a stop or station for public transit is 11 min, while 12% of riders wait for over 20 minutes on average every day. The average distance people usually ride in a single trip with public transit is 4.2 km, while 5% travel for over 12 km in a single direction. [25] Sports[edit]

The 1995 Cup Winners' Cup in display in the club's trophy cabinet.

Nani Roma
Nani Roma
Baja España 2009

Torre del Agua in the Luis Buñuel Metropolitan Water Park, at the Expo 2008
Expo 2008
site

Football[edit] Zaragoza's main football team, Real Zaragoza, plays in the Segunda División. Founded on 18 March 1932, its home games are played at La Romareda, which seats 34,596 spectators. The club has spent the majority of its history in La Liga. One of the most remarkable events in the team's recent history is the winning of the former UEFA Cup Winners' Cup in 1995. The team has also won the Spanish National Cup "Copa del Rey" six times: 1965, 1966, 1986, 1994, 2001 and 2004 and an Inter-Cities Fairs Cup (1964). A government survey in 2007 found that 2.7% of the Spanish population support the club, making them the seventh-most supported in the country. Zaragoza's second football team is CD Ebro. Founded in 1942, it plays in Segunda División
Segunda División
B – Group 2, holding home games at Campo Municipal de Fútbol La Almozara, which has a capacity of 1,000 seats. Zaragoza CFF
Zaragoza CFF
is a Spanish women's football team from Zaragoza
Zaragoza
playing in Primera División Femenina. Basketball[edit] The main basketball team, Basket Zaragoza, known as Tecnyconta Zaragoza
Zaragoza
for sponsorship reasons, plays in the Liga ACB. They play their home games at the Pabellón Principe Felipe
Pabellón Principe Felipe
with a capacity of 10,744. Stadium Casablanca, a.k.a. Mann Filter for sponsorship reasons, is the Spanish women's basketball club from Zaragoza
Zaragoza
that plays in the Primera Division. Futsal[edit] The main futsal team, is Dlink Zaragoza, plays in the LNFS Primera División. They play at the Pabellón Siglo XXI with a capacity of 2,600. Other Sports[edit] Zaragoza's handball team, BM Aragón, plays in the Liga ASOBAL. The Spanish Baja or Baja Aragon
Aragon
is a Rally raid event held in the region of Aragon
Aragon
in northern Spain. This event was launched in 1983, and chose the desert of Monegros because of the scenery and availability of service infrastructure in Zaragoza. Zaragoza
Zaragoza
was strongly associated with Jaca
Jaca
in its failed bid for the 2014 Winter Olympics. There are three Rugby Union teams playing in the regional league:

Ibero Club de Rugby Zaragoza Fénix Club de Rugby Club Deportivo Universitario de Rugby

A permanent feature built for Expo 2008
Expo 2008
is the pump-powered artificial whitewater course "El Canal de Aguas Bravas." Main sights[edit]

Basilica
Basilica
of Our Lady of the Pillar

The Roman walls

Puente de Piedra

Santa María Magdalena church

Near the basilica on the banks of the Ebro
Ebro
are located the city hall, the Lonja (old currency exchange), La Seo (literally "the See" in the Aragonese language) or Cathedral of San Salvador, a church built over the main mosque (partially preserved in the 11th-century north wall of the Parroquieta), with Romanesque apses from the 12th century; inside, the imposing hallenkirche from the 15th to 16th centuries, the Baroque tower, and finally, with its famous Museum of Tapestries near the Roman ruins of forum and port city wall. Some distance from the centre of the old city is the Moorish castle (or palace) Aljafería, the most important Moorish buildings in northern Spain
Spain
and the setting for Giuseppe Verdi's opera Il trovatore (The Troubadour). The Aragonese parliament currently sits in the building. The churches of San Pablo, Santa María Magdalena and San Gil Abad were built in the 14th century, but the towers may be old minarets dating from the 11th century; San Miguel (14th century); Santiago (San Ildefonso) and the Fecetas monastery are Baroque with Mudéjar ceilings of the 17th century. All the churches are Mudéjar monuments that comprise a World Heritage Site.[26] Other important sights are the stately houses and palaces in the city, mainly of the 16th century: palaces of the count of Morata or Luna (Audiencia), Deán, Torrero (colegio de Arquitectos), Don Lope or Real Maestranza, count of Sástago, count of Argillo (today the Pablo Gargallo museum), archbishop, etc. On 14 June 2008, the site of Expo 2008
Expo 2008
opened its doors to the public. The exhibition ran until 14 September. Other sights[edit]

Labordeta Grand Park

Puente de Piedra San Ildefonso church Santa Engracia Monastery

Museums[27] in Zaragoza
Zaragoza
are:

Museum of Fine Arts Zaragoza, with paintings by early Aragonese artists, 15th century, and by El Greco, Ribera and Goya, and the Camón Aznar Museum, with paintings ranging from Rubens, Rembrandt, Van Dyck, Velazquez and Goya to Renoir, Manet and Sorolla.[28]

Twin towns and sister cities[edit] See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Spain Zaragoza
Zaragoza
is twinned with:[29]

Pau, France, 1960 Móstoles, Spain, 2005 Biarritz, France, 1977 Skopje, Macedonia, 2008[30] Coimbra, Portugal, 2005[31] Mdina, Malta, 2008 Atizapan, Mexico, 2009 Campinas, Brazil, 2012 Córdoba, Argentina, 2008 La Plata, Argentina, 1990

La Paz, Bolivia, 2008 León, Nicaragua, 2002 Ponce, Puerto Rico, United States, 1993 Cúcuta, Colombia, 2010 Tijuana, Mexico, 2005 Yoro, Honduras, 2012 Zaragoza, Guatemala, 1976 Zamboanga City, Philippines, 2008 Dalian, Liaoning, China, 2008 Yulin, Guangxi, China, 2008 Bethlehem, Palestinian Authority, 2003[32][33][34]

Zaragoza
Zaragoza
has special bilateral collaboration agreements with:[35]

Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegowina, 2001 Tirana, Albania, 2002[36][37] Ploiești, Romania, 2004 Toulouse, France, 2008 Milan, Italy, 2008 Zarate, Argentina, 1990 Puebla, Mexico, 2010 Yulin, Guangxi, China, 2004

Notable people[edit]

Sebastián Pozas (1876–1946), military officer Abraham Abulafia
Abraham Abulafia
(1240-1291), founder of the school of "Prophetic Kabbalah"

See also[edit]

Crown of Aragon Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Zaragoza

References[edit]

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Zaragoza
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Aragon
region, Spain". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2017-08-25.  ^ "Jewish Community of Zaragoza". Aragonguide.com. Retrieved 2011-04-10.  ^ "Napoleon's Total War". Historynet.com. 7 March 2007. Retrieved 2017-03-16.  ^ Marina Van Geenhuizen; Peter Nijkamp (1 April 2012). Creative Knowledge Cities: Myths, Visions and Realities. Edward Elgar Publishing. p. 58. ISBN 978-0-85793-285-3.  ^ "El incendio del Corona de Aragón, fue provocado, según "El Alcázar"". El País (in Spanish). PRISA. 20 November 1979. Archived from the original on 15 March 2016. Retrieved 25 July 2016. .  ^ Reuters (1987-12-12). "11 Killed by Bomb in Northern Spain". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2018-02-01.  ^ a b Zaragoza, Paula Figols. " Zaragoza
Zaragoza
sigue ganando población y perdiendo extranjeros". heraldo.es. Retrieved 13 March 2018.  ^ "Zaragoza, Spain
Spain
Köppen Climate Classification (Weatherbase)". Weatherbase. Retrieved 13 March 2018.  ^ "Standard Climate Values. Zaragoza
Zaragoza
Aeropuerto".  ^ John Pike. " Zaragoza
Zaragoza
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Zaragoza
supera al de Barcelona
Barcelona
en tráfico de mercancías". Heraldo. Zaragoza: Heraldo de Aragon
Aragon
Editora Digital. Tráfico aéreo. Archived from the original on 3 November 2012. Retrieved 30 June 2014.  ^ " Zaragoza
Zaragoza
Public Transportation Statistics". Global Public Transit Index by Moovit. Retrieved 19 June 2017.  Material was copied from this source, which is available under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. ^ Centre, UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage. "Mudejar Architecture of Aragon". whc.unesco.org. Retrieved 2017-08-24.  ^ "Municipal Museums and Exhibitions". www.zaragoza.es. Retrieved 13 March 2018.  ^ www.area25.es, Area25 IT -. "Provincial Museum of Fine Arts". InSpain. Retrieved 13 March 2018.  ^ " Zaragoza
Zaragoza
Internacional: Hermanamientos con Zaragoza" (official website) (in Spanish). Ayuntamiento de Zaragoza. Retrieved 2015-01-04.  ^ "Official portal of City of Skopje
Skopje
Skopje
Skopje
Sister Cities". © 2006-2009 City of Skopje. Retrieved 2009-07-14.  External link in publisher= (help) ^ "Acordos de Geminação" (in Portuguese). © 2009 Câmara Municipal de Coimbra
Coimbra
– Praça 8 de Maio – 3000-300 Coimbra. Retrieved 2009-06-25.  External link in publisher= (help) ^ " Bethlehem
Bethlehem
Municipality". www.bethlehem-city.org. Archived from the original on 24 July 2010. Retrieved 2009-10-10.  ^ "Twinning with Palestine". © 1998-2008 The Britain – Palestine Twinning Network. Retrieved 2008-11-29.  ^ The City of Bethlehem
Bethlehem
has signed a twinning agreements with the following cities Archived 28 December 2007 at the Wayback Machine. Bethlehem
Bethlehem
Municipality. ^ " Zaragoza
Zaragoza
Internacional: Firma de Protocolos de Colaboración" (official website) (in Spanish). Ayuntamiento de Zaragoza. Retrieved 2015-01-04.  ^ "Twinning Cities: International Relations" (PDF). Municipality
Municipality
of Tirana. www.tirana.gov.al. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 October 2011. Retrieved 2009-06-23.  ^ Twinning Cities: International Relations. Municipality
Municipality
of Tirana. www.tirana.gov.al. Retrieved on 2008-01-25.

Bibliography[edit] See also: Bibliography of the history of Zaragoza External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Zaragoza, Spain.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Zaragoza.

Council of Zaragoza Zaragoza
Zaragoza
Tourism Board Official Website Demographics in 2015: Zaragoza
Zaragoza
City council

Articles relating to Zaragoza

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Demolished landmarks in Zaragoza

Buildings

Leaning Tower of Zaragoza Abbey of Santa Engracia Franciscan Friary Convento de San José de los Carmelitas Descalzos

Gate Walls

Puerta de Toledo

Other

List of missing landmarks in Spain

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Municipalities of the province of Zaragoza

List of municipalities of Zaragoza

Abanto Acered Agón Aguarón Aguilón Ainzón Aladrén Alagón Alarba Alberite de San Juan Albeta Alborge Alcalá de Ebro Alcalá de Moncayo Alconchel de Ariza Aldehuela de Liestos Alfajarín Alfamén Alforque Alhama de Aragón Almochuel La Almolda Almonacid de la Cuba Almonacid de la Sierra La Almunia de Doña Godina Alpartir Ambel Anento Aniñón Añón de Moncayo Aranda de Moncayo Arándiga Ardisa Ariza Artieda Asín Atea Ateca Azuara Badules Bagüés Balconchán Bárboles Bardallur Belchite Belmonte de Gracián Berdejo Berrueco Biel Bijuesca Biota Bisimbre Boquiñeni Bordalba Borja Botorrita Brea de Aragón Bubierca Bujaraloz Bulbuente Bureta El Burgo de Ebro El Buste Cabañas de Ebro Cabolafuente Cadrete Calatayud Calatorao Calcena Calmarza Campillo de Aragón Carenas Cariñena Caspe Castejón de Alarba Castejón de las Armas Castejón de Valdejasa Castiliscar Cervera de la Cañada Cerveruela Cetina Chiprana Chodes Cimballa Cinco Olivas Clarés de Ribota Codo Codos Contamina Cosuenda Cuarte de Huerva Cubel Las Cuerlas Daroca Ejea de los Caballeros Embid de Ariza Encinacorba Épila Erla Escatrón Fabara Farlete Fayón Los Fayos Figueruelas Fombuena El Frago El Frasno Fréscano Fuendejalón Fuendetodos Fuentes de Ebro Fuentes de Jiloca Gallocanta Gallur Gelsa Godojos Gotor Grisel Grisén Herrera de los Navarros Ibdes Illueca Isuerre Jaraba Jarque Jaulín La Joyosa Lagata Langa del Castillo Layana Lécera Lechón Leciñena Letux Litago Lituénigo Lobera de Onsella Longares Longás Lucena de Jalón Luceni Luesia Luesma Lumpiaque Luna Maella Magallón Mainar Malanquilla Maleján Mallén Malón Maluenda Manchones Mara María de Huerva Marracos Mediana de Aragón Mequinenza Mesones de Isuela Mezalocha Mianos Miedes de Aragón Monegrillo Moneva Monreal de Ariza Monterde Montón Morata de Jalón Morata de Jiloca Morés Moros Moyuela Mozota Muel La Muela Munébrega Murero Murillo de Gállego Navardún Nigüella Nombrevilla Nonaspe Novallas Novillas Nuévalos Nuez de Ebro Olvés Orcajo Orera Orés Oseja Osera de Ebro Paniza Paracuellos de Jiloca Paracuellos de la Ribera Pastriz Pedrola Las Pedrosas Perdiguera Piedratajada Pina de Ebro Pinseque Los Pintanos Plasencia de Jalón Pleitas Plenas Pomer Pozuel de Ariza Pozuelo de Aragón Pradilla de Ebro Puebla
Puebla
de Albortón La Puebla
Puebla
de Alfindén Puendeluna Purujosa Quinto Remolinos Retascón Ricla Romanos Rueda de Jalón Ruesca Sabiñán Sádaba Salillas de Jalón Salvatierra de Esca Samper del Salz San Martín de la Virgen de Moncayo San Mateo de Gállego Santa Cruz de Grío Santa Cruz de Moncayo Santa Eulalia de Gállego Santed Sástago Sediles Sestrica Sierra de Luna Sigüés Sisamón Sobradiel Sos del Rey Católico Tabuenca Talamantes Tarazona Tauste Terrer Tierga Tobed Torralba de los Frailes Torralba de Ribota Torralbilla Torrehermosa Torrelapaja Torrellas Torres de Berrellén Torrijo de la Cañada Tosos Trasmoz Trasobares Uncastillo Undués de Lerda Urrea de Jalón Urriés Used Utebo Val de San Martín Valdehorna Valmadrid Valpalmas Valtorres Velilla de Ebro Velilla de Jiloca Vera de Moncayo Vierlas Villadoz Villafeliche Villafranca de Ebro Villalba de Perejil Villalengua Villanueva de Gállego Villanueva de Huerva Villanueva de Jiloca Villar de los Navarros Villarreal de Huerva Villarroya de la Sierra Villarroya del Campo La Vilueña Vistabella de Huerva La Zaida Zaragoza Zuera

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Capitals of provinces of Spain

A Coruña Albacete Alicante Almería Ávila Badajoz Barcelona Bilbao Burgos Cáceres Cádiz Castellón de la Plana Ciudad Real Córdoba Cuenca Donostia-San Sebastián Girona Granada Guadalajara Huelva Huesca Jaén Logroño Las Palmas León Lleida Lugo Madrid Málaga Murcia Ourense Oviedo Palencia Palma Pamplona Pontevedra Salamanca Santander Santa Cruz Segovia Seville Soria Tarragona Teruel Toledo Valencia Valladolid Vitoria-Gasteiz Zamora Zaragoza

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Capitals of autonomous communities of Spain

Seville
Seville
(Andalusia) Zaragoza
Zaragoza
(Aragon) Oviedo
Oviedo
(Asturias) Palma (Balearic Islands) Vitoria-Gasteiz
Vitoria-Gasteiz
(Basque Country) Santa Cruz & Las Palmas
Las Palmas
(Canary Islands) Santander (Cantabria)

Toledo (Castile–La Mancha) Valladolid
Valladolid
(de facto, Castile and León) Barcelona
Barcelona
(Catalonia) Mérida (Extremadura) Santiago de Compostela
Santiago de Compostela
(Galicia) Logroño
Logroño
(La Rioja)

Madrid
Madrid
(Community of Madrid) Murcia
Murcia
(Region of Murcia) Pamplona
Pamplona
(Navarre) Valencia
Valencia
(Valencian Community) Ceuta1 Melilla1

1 Autonomous cities.

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 148908108 LCCN: n79022947 GND: 40794

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