Zaragoza (/ˌzærəˈɡoʊzə, ˌsærəˈɡoʊsə,
ˌθærəˈɡoʊθə/; Spanish: [θaɾaˈɣoθa]), also called
Saragossa (/ˌsærəˈɡɒsə/) in English, is the capital city
Zaragoza province and of the autonomous community of Aragon,
Spain. It lies by the
Ebro river and its tributaries, the Huerva and
the Gállego, roughly in the center of both
Aragon and the
On 1 September 2010 the population of the city of
701,090, within its administrative limits on a land area of
1,062.64 square kilometres (410.29 square miles), ranking fifth in
Spain. It is the 32nd most populous municipality in the European
Union. The population of the metropolitan area was estimated in 2006
at 783,763 inhabitants. The municipality is home to more than 50
percent of the Aragonese population. The city lies at an elevation of
199 metres (653 feet) above sea level.
Expo 2008 in the summer of 2008, a world's fair on
water and sustainable development. It was also a candidate for the
European Capital of Culture
European Capital of Culture in 2012.
The city is famous for its folklore, local gastronomy, and landmarks
such as the Basílica del Pilar,
La Seo Cathedral
La Seo Cathedral and the Aljafería
Palace. Together with La Seo and the Aljafería, several other
buildings form part of the Mudéjar Architecture of
Aragon which is a
UNESCO World Heritage Site. The
Fiestas del Pilar
Fiestas del Pilar are among the most
celebrated festivals in Spain.
2.1 Roman Caesaraugusta
Taifa of Zaragoza
2.3 Aragonese era
2.4 Modern history
8.7 Public Transportation Statistics
9.4 Other Sports
10 Main sights
10.1 Other sights
11 Twin towns and sister cities
12 Notable people
13 See also
16 External links
The city was called by the ancient Romans Caesaraugusta, from which
the present name derives. The Iberian town that predated the Roman
city was called Salduie.
See also: Timeline of Zaragoza
The Sedetani, a tribe of ancient Iberians, populated a village called
Salduie (Salduba in Roman sources). Later on,
Augustus founded a city
called Caesaraugusta at the same location to settle army veterans
from the Cantabrian wars. The foundation date of Caesaraugusta has not
been set with exact precision, though it is known to lie between 25 BC
and 11 BC. The city did not suffer any decline during the last
centuries of the Roman empire and was captured peacefully by the Goths
in the fifth century AD.
Aljafería Palace, built in the 11th century.
Taifa of Zaragoza
Taifa of Zaragoza
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From 1018 to 1118,
Zaragoza was one of the taifa kingdoms, independent
Muslim states which emerged in the eleventh century following the
destruction of the Caliphate of Córdoba. During the first three
decades of this period, 1018–1038, the city was ruled by the Banu
Tujibi. In 1038 they were replaced by the Banu Hud, who had to deal
with a complicated alliance with
El Cid of
Valencia and his Castilian
masters against the Almoravids, who managed to bring the Taifas
Emirates under their control. After the death of
El Cid his kingdom
was overrun by the Almoravids, who, by 1100, had managed to cross the
Ebro into Barbastro, which brought
Aragon into direct contact with
Banu Hud stubbornly resisted the
Almoravids and ruled until
they were eventually defeated by them in May 1110.
La Seo Cathedral
On 18 December 1118, the Aragonese led by Alfonso I conquered the city
from the Almoravids, and made it the capital of the Kingdom of
Aragon. After Alfonso's death without heirs in 1134,
swiftly occupied by Alfonso VII of León and Castile. The city control
was held by García Ramírez, king of Navarra, until 1136 when it was
given to Ramiro II the Monk in the treaty signed at the betrothal of
Ramiro's daughter Petronila and Alfonso's son Sancho. The wedding
never happened, as Petronila ended up marrying Ramon Berenguer IV,
Count of Barcelona. The marriage union was the origin
of the Crown of Aragón.
Assault of the French army at Santa Engracia Monastery on 8 February
1809 during the Peninsular War. Oil on canvas, 1827
Zaragoza was the scene of two controversial martyrdoms
related with the Spanish Inquisition: those of Saint Dominguito del
Val, a choirboy in the basilica, and Pedro de Arbués, head official
of the inquisition. While the reality of the existence of Saint
Dominguito del Val is questioned, his "murder" at the hands of
"jealous Jews" was used as an excuse to murder or convert the Jewish
population of Zaragoza.
Zaragoza suffered two famous sieges during the
Peninsular War against
the Napoleonic army: a first from June to August 1808; and a second
from December 1808 to February 1809, surrendering only after some
50,000 defenders had died.
Despite a decline in the outlying rural economy,
continued to grow. The General Military Academy, a higher training
center of the Spanish Army, was re-established on 27 September 1940,
by Minister of the Army José Enrique Varela Iglesias. During the
second half of the 20th century, Zaragoza's population boomed as a
number of factories opened in the region.
In 1979, the
Hotel Corona de Aragón fire
Hotel Corona de Aragón fire killed at least 80. The
armed Basque nationalist and separatist organization ETA has been
blamed, but officially the fire is still regarded as accidental.
ETA carried out the
1987 Zaragoza Barracks bombing
1987 Zaragoza Barracks bombing in the city which
killed eleven people, including a number of children, leading to
250,000 people taking part in demonstrations in the city.
Population, in thousands, can be seen here:
Historical population of Zaragoza
Historical Series of population: National Statistics Institute of
Dates 2006 City council of Zaragoza.
Foreign ethnicities in
Zaragoza in 2013
In 2013 there were 107 864 foreign citizens in Zaragoza,
which represents 15% of the total population. From 2004 to 2013
immigration rose from 43 355 to 107 864 inhabitants. The
district with the biggest number of immigrants was the district of
Delicias, with 25 428 immigrant inhabitants, which represents 23%
of the population of the district. The Old Town of
11 881 immigrants, which represents 25% of the population of the
Zaragoza climate chart (Airport)
Zaragoza has a mild semi-arid climate (Köppen climate classification
BSn), as it lies in a wide basin entirely surrounded by mountains
which block off moist air from the Atlantic and Mediterranean. The
average annual precipitation is a scanty 322 millimetres
(12.7 in) with abundant sunny days, and the most rainy seasons
are spring (April–May) and autumn (September–November), with a
relative drought in summer (July–August) and winter
Temperatures are hot in summer reaching up to 44.5 °C
(112.1 °F), and in winter are cool, either because of the fog
(about twenty days from November to January) or a
cold and dry wind blowing from the northwest, the
Cierzo (related to
other northerly winds such as the Mistral in the SE of France) on
Frost is common and there is sporadic snowfall. The Cierzo
can cause a 'wind chill factor' as low as −10 °C (14 °F)
during cold spells.
Climate data for
Zaragoza Airport, altitude 263m (1981-2010)
Record high °C (°F)
Average high °C (°F)
Daily mean °C (°F)
Average low °C (°F)
Record low °C (°F)
Average precipitation mm (inches)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1 mm)
Average snowy days
Average relative humidity (%)
Mean monthly sunshine hours
Source: Agencia Estatal de Meteorología
Aragon in the Expo 2008
Torre del Agua at the
Expo 2008 site
In addition to the advantageous geographic situation, an
was opened in 1982 in Figueruelas, a small village nearby. The
progressive decline of the agrarian economy turned
Opel into one of
the main pillars of the regional economy, along with
Balay, which manufactures household appliances; CAF (Construcciones y
Auxiliar de Ferrocarriles S.A.), which builds railway engines for both
the national and international markets; SAICA and Torraspapel in the
stationery sector; and various other local companies, such as Pikolin,
Lacasa, and Imaginarium SA.
The city's economy benefited from projects like the Expo 2008, the
official World's Fair, whose theme was water and sustainable
development, held between 14 June and 14 September 2008, Plataforma
Zaragoza (PLAZA), and the Parque Tecnológico de
Reciclado (PTR). Furthermore, since December 2003, it has been a city
through which the
AVE high-speed rail travels. Currently, Zaragoza
Airport is a major cargo hub in the Iberian Peninsula, behind only
Madrid, Barcelona, and Lisbon.
Zaragoza is home to a
Spanish Air Force
Spanish Air Force base, which was shared with
U.S. Air Force
U.S. Air Force until 1994. In English, the base was known as
Zaragoza Air Base. The
Spanish Air Force
Spanish Air Force maintained an McDonnell
Douglas F/A-18 Hornet wing at the base. No American flying wings (with
the exception of a few KC-135's) were permanently based there, but it
served as a training base for American fighter squadrons across
Europe. It is also the main headquarters for the Spanish Land Army,
hosting the Academia General Militar, a number of brigades at San
Gregorio, and other garrisons.
Zaragoza (1647) by Juan Bautista Martínez del Mazo.
Christianity took root in
Zaragoza at an early date. According to
legend, St. Mary appeared miraculously to
Saint James the Great
Saint James the Great in
Zaragoza in the first century, standing on a pillar. This apparition
is commemorated by a famous Catholic basilica called Nuestra Señora
del Pilar ("Our Lady of the Pillar").
Offering of Fruits at the Fiestas del Pilar.
Fiestas del Pilar
Fiestas del Pilar last for nine days, with its main day on
12 October. Since this date coincided in 1492 with the first sighting
by Christopher Columbus of the Americas, that day is also celebrated
as El Día de la Hispanidad (Columbus Day) by Spanish-speaking people
Holy Week in Zaragoza.
There are many activities during the festival, from the massively
attended Pregon (opening speech) to the final fireworks display over
the Ebro; they also include marching bands, dances such as "Jota
aragonesa" (the most popular dance of folklore music genre), a
procession of gigantes y cabezudos, concerts, exhibitions, vaquillas,
bullfights, fairground amusements, and fireworks. Some of the most
important events are the Ofrenda de Flores, or Flower Offering to St.
Mary of the Pillar, on 12 October, when an enormous surface resembling
a cloak for St. Mary is covered with flowers, and the Ofrenda de
Frutos on 13 October, when all the autonomous communities of Spain
offer their typical regional dishes to St. Mary and donate them to
Holy Week in Zaragoza, although not as elaborate an affair as its
Andalusian or Bajo Aragón counterparts, has several processions
passing through the city centre every day with dramatic sculptures,
black-dressed praying women and hundreds of hooded people playing
drums. It has been a Festival of International Tourist Interest since
University of Zaragoza
University of Zaragoza is based in the city. As one of the oldest
Spain and a major research and development centre,
this public university awards all the highest academic degrees in
dozens of fields.
Zaragoza is also home to the MIT-Zaragoza
International Logistics Program, a unique partnership between MIT, the
Aragon and the University of Zaragoza.
There is also a private university, Universidad San Jorge, which is
located in Villanueva de Gállego.
There is a French international primary and secondary school, Lycée
Français Molière de Saragosse.
Zaragoza's Third Millennium Bridge spans the
Ebro and is the world's
largest concrete tied-arch bridge, with six traffic lanes, two bike
lanes, and two glass-enclosed walkways for pedestrians.
Zaragoza tram in Paseo de la Independencia
The city is connected by motorway with the main cities in central and
northern Spain, including Madrid, Barcelona, Valencia, and Bilbao, all
of which are located about 300 kilometres (200 miles) from Zaragoza.
The city has a network of buses which is controlled by the Urban Buses
Zaragoza (AUZSA). The network consists of 31 regular lines (two of
them circle lines), two scheduled routes, six shuttle buses (one
free), and seven night buses operating on Fridays, Saturdays and other
Zaragoza also has an interurban bus network operated
by Transport Consortium
Zaragoza Area (CTAZ) that operates 17 regular
Zaragoza's bicycle lanes facilitate non-motorized travel and help
cyclists to avoid running into pedestrians and motor vehicles. The
city council also has a public bicycle-hire scheme; the 'bizi
zaragoza' - which consists in the payment of an annual charge.
The first line of the
Zaragoza tram (Valdespartera-Parque Goya) is
Zaragoza is a part of the Spanish high-speed railway operated by
RENFE, AVE, which connects
Barcelona via high-speed rail.
Madrid can be reached in 75 minutes, and
approximately 90 minutes. The central station is "Intermodal
Zaragoza Delicias Station", which serves both railway lines and
coaches. In addition to long-distance railway lines and the high-speed
Zaragoza has a network of commuter trains operated by RENFE
Zaragoza Airport is located in the Garrapinillos neighborhood, 10
kilometers from the city center.
It is a major commercial airport, its freight traffic surpassing that
Barcelona El Prat in 2012, and serves as the home of the
Spanish Air Force's 15th Group. It was also used by
NASA as a
contingency landing site for the
Space Shuttle in the case of a
Transoceanic Abort Landing (TAL).
Public Transportation Statistics
The average amount of time people spend commuting with public transit
in Zaragoza, for example to and from work, on a weekday is 48 min. 9%
of public transit riders, ride for more than 2 hours every day. The
average amount of time people wait at a stop or station for public
transit is 11 min, while 12% of riders wait for over 20 minutes on
average every day. The average distance people usually ride in a
single trip with public transit is 4.2 km, while 5% travel for over 12
km in a single direction. 
The 1995 Cup Winners' Cup in display in the club's trophy cabinet.
Nani Roma Baja España 2009
Torre del Agua in the Luis Buñuel Metropolitan Water Park, at the
Expo 2008 site
Zaragoza's main football team, Real Zaragoza, plays in the Segunda
División. Founded on 18 March 1932, its home games are played at La
Romareda, which seats 34,596 spectators. The club has spent the
majority of its history in La Liga. One of the most remarkable events
in the team's recent history is the winning of the former UEFA Cup
Winners' Cup in 1995. The team has also won the Spanish National Cup
"Copa del Rey" six times: 1965, 1966, 1986, 1994, 2001 and 2004 and an
Inter-Cities Fairs Cup (1964). A government survey in 2007 found that
2.7% of the Spanish population support the club, making them the
seventh-most supported in the country.
Zaragoza's second football team is CD Ebro. Founded in 1942, it plays
Segunda División B – Group 2, holding home games at Campo
Municipal de Fútbol La Almozara, which has a capacity of 1,000 seats.
Zaragoza CFF is a Spanish women's football team from
in Primera División Femenina.
The main basketball team, Basket Zaragoza, known as Tecnyconta
Zaragoza for sponsorship reasons, plays in the Liga ACB. They play
their home games at the
Pabellón Principe Felipe
Pabellón Principe Felipe with a capacity of
Stadium Casablanca, a.k.a. Mann Filter for sponsorship reasons, is the
Spanish women's basketball club from
Zaragoza that plays in the
The main futsal team, is Dlink Zaragoza, plays in the LNFS Primera
División. They play at the Pabellón Siglo XXI with a capacity of
Zaragoza's handball team, BM Aragón, plays in the Liga ASOBAL.
Spanish Baja or Baja
Aragon is a Rally raid event held in the
Aragon in northern Spain. This event was launched in 1983,
and chose the desert of Monegros because of the scenery and
availability of service infrastructure in Zaragoza.
Zaragoza was strongly associated with
Jaca in its failed bid for the
2014 Winter Olympics.
There are three Rugby Union teams playing in the regional league:
Ibero Club de Rugby Zaragoza
Fénix Club de Rugby
Club Deportivo Universitario de Rugby
A permanent feature built for
Expo 2008 is the pump-powered artificial
whitewater course "El Canal de Aguas Bravas."
Basilica of Our Lady of the Pillar
The Roman walls
Puente de Piedra
Santa María Magdalena church
Near the basilica on the banks of the
Ebro are located the city hall,
the Lonja (old currency exchange), La Seo (literally "the See" in the
Aragonese language) or Cathedral of San Salvador, a church built over
the main mosque (partially preserved in the 11th-century north wall of
the Parroquieta), with Romanesque apses from the 12th century; inside,
the imposing hallenkirche from the 15th to 16th centuries, the Baroque
tower, and finally, with its famous Museum of Tapestries near the
Roman ruins of forum and port city wall.
Some distance from the centre of the old city is the Moorish castle
(or palace) Aljafería, the most important Moorish buildings in
Spain and the setting for Giuseppe Verdi's opera Il trovatore
(The Troubadour). The Aragonese parliament currently sits in the
The churches of San Pablo, Santa María Magdalena and San Gil Abad
were built in the 14th century, but the towers may be old minarets
dating from the 11th century; San Miguel (14th century); Santiago (San
Ildefonso) and the Fecetas monastery are Baroque with Mudéjar
ceilings of the 17th century. All the churches are Mudéjar monuments
that comprise a World Heritage Site.
Other important sights are the stately houses and palaces in the city,
mainly of the 16th century: palaces of the count of Morata or Luna
(Audiencia), Deán, Torrero (colegio de Arquitectos), Don Lope or Real
Maestranza, count of Sástago, count of Argillo (today the Pablo
Gargallo museum), archbishop, etc.
On 14 June 2008, the site of
Expo 2008 opened its doors to the public.
The exhibition ran until 14 September.
Labordeta Grand Park
Puente de Piedra
San Ildefonso church
Santa Engracia Monastery
Museum of Fine Arts Zaragoza, with paintings by early Aragonese
artists, 15th century, and by El Greco, Ribera and Goya, and the
Camón Aznar Museum, with paintings ranging from Rubens, Rembrandt,
Van Dyck, Velazquez and Goya to Renoir, Manet and Sorolla.
Twin towns and sister cities
See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Spain
Zaragoza is twinned with:
Pau, France, 1960
Móstoles, Spain, 2005
Biarritz, France, 1977
Skopje, Macedonia, 2008
Coimbra, Portugal, 2005
Mdina, Malta, 2008
Atizapan, Mexico, 2009
Campinas, Brazil, 2012
Córdoba, Argentina, 2008
La Plata, Argentina, 1990
La Paz, Bolivia, 2008
León, Nicaragua, 2002
Ponce, Puerto Rico, United States, 1993
Cúcuta, Colombia, 2010
Tijuana, Mexico, 2005
Yoro, Honduras, 2012
Zaragoza, Guatemala, 1976
Zamboanga City, Philippines, 2008
Dalian, Liaoning, China, 2008
Yulin, Guangxi, China, 2008
Bethlehem, Palestinian Authority, 2003
Zaragoza has special bilateral collaboration agreements with:
Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegowina, 2001
Tirana, Albania, 2002
Ploiești, Romania, 2004
Toulouse, France, 2008
Milan, Italy, 2008
Zarate, Argentina, 1990
Puebla, Mexico, 2010
Yulin, Guangxi, China, 2004
Sebastián Pozas (1876–1946), military officer
Abraham Abulafia (1240-1291), founder of the school of "Prophetic
Crown of Aragon
Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Zaragoza
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^ "Saragossa". Collins Dictionary. n.d. Retrieved 26 September
Zaragoza (conventional Saragossa)
Zaragoza supera los 700.000 habitantes". Heraldo.es. 2006-01-01.
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Multiple names: authors list (link)
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^ a b Zaragoza, Paula Figols. "
Zaragoza sigue ganando población y
perdiendo extranjeros". heraldo.es. Retrieved 13 March 2018.
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Weatherbase. Retrieved 13 March 2018.
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^ John Pike. "
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Zamora, Avil, & Zaragoza: An Historical & Descriptive Account.
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^ J. Gordon Melton (15 January 2014). Faiths Across Time: 5,000 Years
of Religious History. ABC-CLIO. p. 734.
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^ J. L. Gaona (13 September 2012). "El aeropuerto de
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Attribution 4.0 International License.
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whc.unesco.org. Retrieved 2017-08-24.
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website) (in Spanish). Ayuntamiento de Zaragoza. Retrieved
^ "Official portal of City of
Skopje Sister Cities". ©
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Twinning Network. Retrieved 2008-11-29.
^ The City of
Bethlehem has signed a twinning agreements with the
following cities Archived 28 December 2007 at the Wayback Machine.
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(official website) (in Spanish). Ayuntamiento de Zaragoza. Retrieved
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See also: Bibliography of the history of Zaragoza
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Zaragoza, Spain.
Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Zaragoza.
Council of Zaragoza
Zaragoza Tourism Board Official Website
Demographics in 2015:
Zaragoza City council
Articles relating to Zaragoza
Demolished landmarks in Zaragoza
Leaning Tower of Zaragoza
Abbey of Santa Engracia
Convento de San José de los Carmelitas Descalzos
Puerta de Toledo
List of missing landmarks in Spain
Municipalities of the province of Zaragoza
List of municipalities of Zaragoza
Alberite de San Juan
Alcalá de Ebro
Alcalá de Moncayo
Alconchel de Ariza
Aldehuela de Liestos
Alhama de Aragón
Almonacid de la Cuba
Almonacid de la Sierra
La Almunia de Doña Godina
Añón de Moncayo
Aranda de Moncayo
Belmonte de Gracián
Brea de Aragón
El Burgo de Ebro
Cabañas de Ebro
Campillo de Aragón
Castejón de Alarba
Castejón de las Armas
Castejón de Valdejasa
Cervera de la Cañada
Clarés de Ribota
Cuarte de Huerva
Ejea de los Caballeros
Embid de Ariza
Fuentes de Ebro
Fuentes de Jiloca
Herrera de los Navarros
Langa del Castillo
Lobera de Onsella
Lucena de Jalón
María de Huerva
Mediana de Aragón
Mesones de Isuela
Miedes de Aragón
Monreal de Ariza
Morata de Jalón
Morata de Jiloca
Murillo de Gállego
Nuez de Ebro
Osera de Ebro
Paracuellos de Jiloca
Paracuellos de la Ribera
Pina de Ebro
Plasencia de Jalón
Pozuel de Ariza
Pozuelo de Aragón
Pradilla de Ebro
Puebla de Albortón
Puebla de Alfindén
Rueda de Jalón
Salillas de Jalón
Salvatierra de Esca
Samper del Salz
San Martín de la Virgen de Moncayo
San Mateo de Gállego
Santa Cruz de Grío
Santa Cruz de Moncayo
Santa Eulalia de Gállego
Sierra de Luna
Sos del Rey Católico
Torralba de los Frailes
Torralba de Ribota
Torres de Berrellén
Torrijo de la Cañada
Undués de Lerda
Urrea de Jalón
Val de San Martín
Velilla de Ebro
Velilla de Jiloca
Vera de Moncayo
Villafranca de Ebro
Villalba de Perejil
Villanueva de Gállego
Villanueva de Huerva
Villanueva de Jiloca
Villar de los Navarros
Villarreal de Huerva
Villarroya de la Sierra
Villarroya del Campo
Vistabella de Huerva
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1 Autonomous cities.