HOME
The Info List - Yugoslav Wars


--- Advertisement ---



(i) (i) (i) (i) (i)

The YUGOSLAV WARS were a series of ethnically-based wars and insurgencies fought from 1991 to 1999/2001 in the former Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
. These wars accompanied and facilitated the breakup of the Yugoslav state , when its constituent republics declared independence, but the issues of ethnic minorities in the new countries (chiefly Serbs
Serbs
, Croats
Croats
and Albanians ) were still unresolved at the time the republics were recognized internationally. The wars are generally considered to be a series of separate but related military conflicts which occurred in, and affected, most of the former Yugoslav republics.

Most of the wars ended through peace accords, involving full international recognition of new states, but with massive economic damage to the region. Initially the Yugoslav People\'s Army (JNA) sought to preserve the unity of the whole of Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
by crushing the secessionist governments but it increasingly came under the influence of the Serbian government of Slobodan Milošević that evoked Serbian nationalist rhetoric and was willing to use the Yugoslav state to preserve the unity of Serbs
Serbs
in one state. As a result, the JNA began to lose Slovenes, Croats, Kosovar Albanians, Bosniaks, and ethnic Macedonians, and effectively became a Serb army. According to the 1994 United Nations
United Nations
report, the Serb side did not aim to restore Yugoslavia, but to create a " Greater Serbia " from parts of Croatia
Croatia
and Bosnia.

Other irredentist movements have also been brought into connection with the wars, such as " Greater Albania " and "Greater Croatia
Croatia
", however– unlike the Serbian irredentists – these were peacefully abandoned when the international diplomacy negotiated an end to the Croat-Bosniak conflict through Washington agreement and an end of Kosovo
Kosovo
's ambitions to unite with Albania
Albania
, respectively.

Often described as Europe's deadliest conflicts since World War
War
II , the wars were marked by many war crimes , including ethnic cleansing , crimes against humanity and rape . The Bosnian genocide was the first European crime since World War
War
II to be formally judged as genocidal in character and many key individual participants were subsequently charged with war crimes. The International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
(ICTY) was established by the UN to prosecute these crimes.

According to the International Center for Transitional Justice , the Yugoslav Wars
Yugoslav Wars
resulted in the death of 140,000 people. The Humanitarian Law Center estimates that in the conflicts in the former Yugoslav republics at least 130,000 people lost their lives.

CONTENTS

* 1 Terminology * 2 Background

* 3 The wars

* 3.1 Ten-Day War
Ten-Day War
(1991) * 3.2 Croatian War of Independence
Croatian War of Independence
(1991–95) * 3.3 Bosnian War (1992–95) * 3.4 Kosovo
Kosovo
War
War
(1998–99) * 3.5 Insurgency in the Preševo Valley (1999–2001) * 3.6 Insurgency
Insurgency
in the Republic of Macedonia
Republic of Macedonia
(2001) * 3.7 Arms embargo

* 4 War
War
crimes

* 4.1 Genocide * 4.2 Ethnic cleansing * 4.3 War
War
rape

* 5 Consequences

* 5.1 Casualties * 5.2 Internally displaced and refugees

* 6 Timeline of the Yugoslav Wars * 7 See also * 8 Notes * 9 References

* 10 Sources

* 10.1 Books * 10.2 Scientific journal articles * 10.3 Other sources

* 11 External links

TERMINOLOGY

The war(s) have alternatively been called:

* "Wars in the Balkans
Balkans
" (although the wars only affected the Western Balkans
Balkans
and areas often seen as belonging to Central Europe
Central Europe
) * "Wars/conflicts in the former Yugoslavia". * "Wars of Yugoslav Secession/Succession". * "Third Balkan War": a term suggested by British journalist Misha Glenny in the title of his book, alluding to the two previous Balkan Wars fought from 1912–13. In fact, this term has been applied by some contemporary historians to World War
War
I , because they see it as a direct sequel to the 1912–13 Balkan wars. * " Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
Civil War"/"Yugoslav Civil War"/"Yugoslavian Civil War"/"Civil War
War
in Yugoslavia".

BACKGROUND

Main articles: Creation of Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
and Breakup of Yugoslavia
Breakup of Yugoslavia
Map of the six Yugoslav republics and autonomous provinces of the time.

Clear ethnic conflict between the Yugoslav peoples only became prominent in the 20th century, beginning with tensions over the constitution of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes in the early 1920s and escalating into violence between Serbs
Serbs
and Croats
Croats
in the late 1920s after the assassination of Croatian politician Stjepan Radić . During World War
War
II the Croatian Ustaše committed genocide against Serbs, Jews and Roma , leading to later reprisals against Croats
Croats
and Bosniaks. The Yugoslav Partisan movement was able to appeal to all groups, including Serbs, Croats, and Bosniaks. In Serbia
Serbia
and Serb-dominated territories, violent confrontations occurred, particularly between nationalists and non-nationalists who criticized the Serbian government and the Serb political entities in Bosnia and Croatia. Serbs
Serbs
who publicly opposed the nationalist political climate during the Yugoslav wars were reportedly harassed, threatened, or killed.

The nation of Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
was created in the aftermath of World War
War
I , and it was mostly composed of South Slavic Christians, but the nation also had a substantial Muslim
Muslim
minority. This nation lasted from 1918 to 1941, when it was invaded by the Axis powers during World War II , which provided support to the Ustaše (founded in 1929), which conducted a genocidal campaign against Serbs, Jews and Roma inside its territory and the Chetniks who supported reinstating the Serbian royals. In 1945, the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
(SFRY) was established under Josip Broz Tito
Josip Broz Tito
, who maintained a strongly authoritarian leadership that suppressed nationalism . After Tito's death, in the 1980s relations among the six republics of the SFRY deteriorated. Slovenia
Slovenia
and Croatia
Croatia
desired greater autonomy within the Yugoslav confederation, while Serbia
Serbia
sought to strengthen federal authority. As it became clearer that there was no solution agreeable to all parties, Slovenia
Slovenia
and Croatia
Croatia
moved toward secession. Although tensions in Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
had been mounting since the early 1980s, it was 1990 that proved decisive. In the midst of economic hardship, Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
was facing rising nationalism among its various ethnic groups. By the early 1990s, there was no effective authority at the federal level. The Federal Presidency consisted of the representatives of the six republics, two provinces, and the Yugoslav People\'s Army (JNA). The communist leadership was divided along national lines. Serbian-held territories of Croatia
Croatia
and Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
during the Yugoslav wars. The War
War
Crimes Tribunal accused Slobodan Milošević of "attempting to create a Greater Serbia "', a Serbian state encompassing the Serb-populated areas of Croatia
Croatia
and Bosnia, and achieved by forcibly removing non- Serbs
Serbs
from large geographical areas through the commission of criminal activity.

The representatives of Vojvodina
Vojvodina
, Kosovo
Kosovo
and Montenegro
Montenegro
were replaced with loyalists of the President of Serbia, Slobodan Milošević . Serbia
Serbia
secured four out of eight federal presidency votes and was able to heavily influence decision-making at the federal level, since all the other Yugoslav republics only had one vote. While Slovenia
Slovenia
and Croatia
Croatia
wanted to allow a multi-party system, Serbia, led by Milošević, demanded an even more centralized federation and Serbia's dominant role in it. At the 14th Extraordinary Congress of the League of Communists of Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
in January 1990, the Serbian -dominated assembly agreed to abolish the single-party system; however, Slobodan Milošević, the head of the Serbian Party branch (League of Communists of Serbia
Serbia
) used his influence to block and vote-down all other proposals from the Croatian and Slovene party delegates. This prompted the Croatian and Slovene delegations to walk out and thus the break-up of the party, a symbolic event representing the end of "brotherhood and unity ".

Upon Croatia
Croatia
and Slovenia
Slovenia
declaring independence in 1991, the Yugoslav federal government attempted to forcibly halt the impending breakup of the country, with Yugoslav Prime Minister Ante Marković declaring the secessions of Slovenia
Slovenia
and Croatia
Croatia
to be illegal and contrary to the constitution of Yugoslavia, and declared support for the Yugoslav People's Army
Yugoslav People's Army
to secure the integral unity of Yugoslavia.

According to Stephen A. Hart, author of Partisans: War
War
in the Balkans 1941–1945, the ethnically mixed region of Dalmatia
Dalmatia
held close and amicable relations between the Croats
Croats
and Serbs
Serbs
who lived there in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Many early proponents of a united Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
came from this region, such Ante Trumbić , a Croat from Dalmatia. However, by the time of the outbreak of the Yugoslav Wars, any hospitable relations between Croats
Croats
and Serbs
Serbs
in Dalmatia
Dalmatia
had broken down, with Dalmatian Serbs
Serbs
fighting on the side of the Republic of Serbian Krajina .

Even though the policies throughout the entire socialist period of Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
seemed to have been the same (namely that all Serbs
Serbs
should live in one state), Dejan Guzina argues that "different contexts in each of the subperiods of socialist Serbia
Serbia
and Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
yielded entirely different results (e.g., in favor of Yugoslavia, or in favor of a Greater Serbia )". He assumes that the Serbian policy changed from conservative–socialist at the beginning to xenophobic nationalist in the late 1980s and 1990s.

THE WARS

Photo of ambushed JNA tanks near Nova Gorica
Nova Gorica
, on the border with Italy
Italy

TEN-DAY WAR (1991)

Main article: Ten-Day War
Ten-Day War

The first of these conflicts, known as the Ten-Day War, was initiated by the JNA (Yugoslav People's Army) on 26 June 1991 after the secession of Slovenia
Slovenia
from the federation on 25 June 1991.

Initially, the federal government ordered the Yugoslav People's Army to secure border crossings in Slovenia. Slovenian police and Slovenian Territorial Defence blockaded barracks and roads, leading to stand-offs and limited skirmishes around the republic. After several dozen casualties, the limited conflict was stopped through negotiation at Brioni on 7 July 1991, when Slovenia
Slovenia
and Croatia
Croatia
agreed to a three-month moratorium on secession. The Federal army completely withdrew from Slovenia
Slovenia
by 26 October 1991.

CROATIAN WAR OF INDEPENDENCE (1991–95)

Main article: Croatian War of Independence
Croatian War of Independence
Damage after the bombing of Dubrovnik
Dubrovnik
Destroyed Serbian house in Sunja , Croatia. Most Serbs
Serbs
fled during Operation Storm
Operation Storm
in 1995.

Fighting in this region had begun weeks prior to the Ten-Day War
Ten-Day War
in Slovenia. The Croatian War of Independence
Croatian War of Independence
began when Serbs
Serbs
in Croatia , who were opposed to Croatian independence , announced their secession from Croatia
Croatia
following Croatia's declaration of independence.

After the 1990 parliamentary elections , Franjo Tuđman came to power and became the first President of Croatia
Croatia
. He promoted nationalist policies and had a primary goal of the establishment of an independent Croatia. The new government proposed constitutional changes , removed Communist symbols and renamed many streets and squares. In an attempt to counter changes made to the constitution, local Serb politicians organized a referendum on "Serb sovereignty and autonomy" in August 1990. Their boycott escalated into an insurrection in areas populated by ethnic Serbs, mostly around Knin, known as the Log Revolution . Local police in Knin sided with the growing Serbian insurgency, while many government employees, mostly in police where commanding positions were mainly held by Serbs
Serbs
and Communists, lost their jobs. The new Croatian constitution was ratified in December 1990, when the Serb National Council proclaimed the SAO Krajina .

Ethnic tensions rose, fueled by propaganda in both Croatia
Croatia
and Serbia. On 2 May 1991 one of the first armed clashes between Serb paramilitaries and Croatian police occurred in the Battle of Borovo Selo . On 19 May an independence referendum was held, which was largely boycotted by Croatian Serbs
Serbs
, and the majority voted in favour of the independence of Croatia. Croatia
Croatia
declared independence and dissolved its association with Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
on 25 June 1991. Due to the Brioni Agreement , a three-month moratorium was placed on the implementation of the decision that ended on 8 October.

The armed incidents of early 1991 escalated into an all-out war over the summer, with fronts formed around the areas of the breakaway SAO Krajina. The JNA had disarmed the Territorial Units of Slovenia
Slovenia
and Croatia
Croatia
prior to the declaration of independence, at the behest of Serbian President Slobodan Milošević. This was aggravated further by an arms embargo, imposed by the UN on Yugoslavia. The JNA was ostensibly ideologically unitarian, but its officer corps was predominantly staffed by Serbs
Serbs
or Montenegrins (70 percent). As a result, the JNA opposed Croatian independence and sided with the Croatian Serb rebels. The Croatian Serb rebels were unaffected by the embargo as they had the support of and access to supplies of the JNA. By mid-July 1991, the JNA moved an estimated 70,000 troops to Croatia. The fighting rapidly escalated, eventually spanning hundreds of square kilometers from western Slavonia
Slavonia
through Banija to Dalmatia. A JNA M-84 tank disabled by a mine laid by Croat soldiers in Vukovar
Vukovar
in November 1991.

Border regions faced direct attacks from forces within Serbia
Serbia
and Montenegro. In August 1991, the Battle of Vukovar began, where fierce fighting took place with around 1,800 Croat fighters blocking JNA's advance into Slavonia. By the end of October, the town was almost completely devastated from land shelling and air bombardment. The Siege of Dubrovnik started in October with the shelling of UNESCO world heritage site Dubrovnik
Dubrovnik
, where the international press was criticised for focusing on the city's architectural heritage, instead of reporting the destruction of Vukovar
Vukovar
in which many civilians were killed. On 18 November 1991 the battle of Vukovar
Vukovar
ended after the city ran out of ammunition. The Ovčara massacre occurred shortly after Vukovar's capture by the JNA. Meanwhile, control over central Croatia
Croatia
was seized by Croatian Serb forces in conjunction with the JNA Corps from Bosnia and Herzegovina, under the leadership of Ratko Mladić .

In January 1992, the Vance Plan proclaimed UN controlled (UNPA) zones for Serbs
Serbs
in territory claimed by Serbian rebels as the Republic of Serbian Krajina (RSK) and brought an end to major military operations, though sporadic artillery attacks on Croatian cities and occasional intrusions of Croatian forces into UNPA zones continued until 1995. The fighting in Croatia
Croatia
ended in mid-1995, after Operation Flash
Operation Flash
and Operation Storm
Operation Storm
. At the end of these operations, Croatia
Croatia
had reclaimed all of its territory except the UNPA Sector East portion of Slavonia, bordering Serbia. Most of the Serb population in the reclaimed areas became refugees, and these operations led to war crimes trials by the ICTY
ICTY
against elements of the Croatian military leadership, some of whom were found guilty of "war crimes and crimes against humanity". The areas of "Sector East", unaffected by the Croatian military operations, came under UN administration ( UNTAES ), and were reintegrated to Croatia
Croatia
in 1998 under the terms of the Erdut Agreement .

In 2007, Milan Martić
Milan Martić
, former president of RSK, was sentenced to 35 years imprisonment as part of a joint criminal enterprise against the non-Serb population of Croatia. Milan Babić
Milan Babić
, the first President of RSK, pleaded guilty and was sentenced by the ICTY
ICTY
to 13 years in prison.

BOSNIAN WAR (1992–95)

Main article: Bosnian War People waiting in line to gather water during the Siege of Sarajevo
Sarajevo
, 1992

In 1992, conflict engulfed Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
. The war was predominantly a territorial conflict between the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Herzegovina
chiefly supported by Bosniaks , the self-proclaimed Bosnian Serb entity Republika Srpska
Republika Srpska
, and the self-proclaimed Herzeg-Bosnia , who were led and supplied by Serbia
Serbia
and Croatia respectively, reportedly with a goal of the partition of Bosnia .

The Yugoslav armed forces had disintegrated into a largely Serb-dominated military force. Opposed to the Bosnian-majority led government's agenda for independence, and along with other armed nationalist Serb militant forces, the JNA attempted to prevent Bosnian citizens from voting in the 1992 referendum on independence. This did not succeed in persuading people not to vote and instead the intimidating atmosphere combined with a Serb boycott of the vote resulted in a resounding 99% vote in support for independence. A Serb woman mourns at a grave at the Lion's cemetery in Sarajevo
Sarajevo
, 1992

On 19 June 1992, the war in Bosnia broke out, though the Siege of Sarajevo
Sarajevo
had already begun in April after Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
had declared independence. The conflict, typified by the years-long Sarajevo
Sarajevo
siege and Srebrenica , was by far the bloodiest and most widely covered of the Yugoslav wars. Bosnia's Serb faction led by ultra-nationalist Radovan Karadžić promised independence for all Serb areas of Bosnia from the majority-Bosniak government of Bosnia. To link the disjointed parts of territories populated by Serbs
Serbs
and areas claimed by Serbs, Karadžić pursued an agenda of systematic ethnic cleansing primarily against Bosnians through massacre and forced removal of Bosniak populations.

At the end of 1992, tensions between Bosnian Croats
Croats
and Bosniaks rose and their collaboration fell apart. In January 1993, the two former allies engaged in open conflict, resulting in the Croat–Bosniak War . In 1994 the US brokered peace between Croatian forces and the Bosnian Army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
with the Washington Agreement . After the successful Flash and Storm operations, the Croatian Army and the combined Bosnian and Croat forces of Bosnia and Herzegovina, conducted an operation codenamed Operation Mistral to push back Bosnian Serb military gains.

Together with NATO
NATO
air strikes on the Bosnian Serbs
Serbs
, the successes on the ground put pressure on the Serbs
Serbs
to come to the negotiating table. Pressure was put on all sides to stick to the cease-fire and negotiate an end to the war in Bosnia. The war ended with the signing of the Dayton Agreement
Dayton Agreement
on 14 December 1995, with the formation of Republika Srpska
Republika Srpska
as an entity within Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
being the resolution for Bosnian Serb demands.

The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) in the United States reported in April 1995 that 90 percent of all the atrocities in the Yugoslav wars up to that point had been committed by Serb militants. Most of these atrocities occurred in Bosnia. In 2004, the ICTY
ICTY
ruled that the Srebrenica massacre
Srebrenica massacre
constituted genocide. In May 2013, in a first-instance verdict, the ICTY
ICTY
convicted six Herzeg-Bosnia Officials for their participation in a joint criminal enterprise against Muslim population in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Radovan Karadžić, former president of Republika Srpska, and Ratko Mladić, former Chief of Staff of the Army of the Republika Srpska, are as of 2015 at trial by the ICTY.

KOSOVO WAR (1998–99)

Main article: Kosovo
Kosovo
War
War
A Tomahawk cruise missile launches from the aft missile deck of the USS Gonzalez on March 31, 1999 Post-strike bomb damage assessment photograph of the Kragujevac Armor and Motor Vehicle Plant Crvena Zastava, Serbia
Serbia
Smoke in Novi Sad , Serbia
Serbia
after NATO
NATO
bombardment in 1999

After its autonomy was quashed, Kosovo
Kosovo
was faced with state organized oppression: from the early 1990s, Albanian language radio and television were restricted and newspapers shut down. Kosovar Albanians were fired in large numbers from public enterprises and institutions, including banks, hospitals, the post office and schools. In June 1991 the University of Priština assembly and several faculty councils were dissolved and replaced by Serbs. Kosovar Albanian teachers were prevented from entering school premises for the new school year beginning in September 1991, forcing students to study at home.

Later, Kosovar Albanians started an insurgency against Belgrade
Belgrade
when the Kosovo
Kosovo
Liberation Army was founded in 1996. Armed clashes between the two sides broke out in early 1998. A NATO
NATO
-facilitated ceasefire was signed on 15 October, but both sides broke it two months later and fighting resumed. When the killing of 45 Kosovar Albanians in the Račak massacre was reported in January 1999, NATO
NATO
decided that the conflict could only be settled by introducing a military peacekeeping force to forcibly restrain the two sides. After the Rambouillet Accords broke down on 23 March with Yugoslav rejection of an external peacekeeping force, NATO
NATO
prepared to install the peacekeepers by force. The NATO
NATO
bombing of Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
followed, an intervention against Serbian forces with a mainly bombing campaign, under the command of General Wesley Clark
Wesley Clark
. Hostilities ended 2½ months later with the Kumanovo Agreement . Kosovo
Kosovo
was placed under the governmental control of the United Nations
United Nations
Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo and the military protection of Kosovo
Kosovo
Force (KFOR). The 15-month war had left thousands of civilians killed on both sides and over a million displaced.

INSURGENCY IN THE PREšEVO VALLEY (1999–2001)

Main article: Insurgency in the Preševo Valley

The Insurgency in the Preševo Valley was an armed conflict between the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
and the ethnic-Albanian insurgents of the Liberation Army of Preševo, Medveđa and Bujanovac (UÇPMB). There were instances during the conflict in which the Yugoslav government requested KFOR support in suppressing UÇPMB attacks since they could only use lightly armed military forces as part of the Kumanovo Treaty that ended the Kosovo
Kosovo
War
War
, which created a buffer zone so the bulk of the Yugoslav armed forces could not enter.

Yugoslav president Vojislav Koštunica warned that fresh fighting would erupt if KFOR units did not act to prevent the attacks that were coming from the UÇPMB.

INSURGENCY IN THE REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA (2001)

Main article: 2001 insurgency in the Republic of Macedonia

The insurgency in the Republic of Macedonia
Republic of Macedonia
was an armed conflict in Tetovo
Tetovo
which began when the ethnic Albanian National Liberation Army (NLA) militant group began attacking the security forces of the Republic of Macedonia
Republic of Macedonia
at the beginning of February 2001, and ended with the Ohrid Agreement . The goal of the NLA was to give greater rights and autonomy to the country's Albanian minority, who make up 25.2% (54.7% of the population in Tetovo) of the population of Macedonia. There were also claims that the group ultimately wished to see Albanian-majority areas secede from the country, although high-ranking NLA members have denied this.

ARMS EMBARGO

The United Nations
United Nations
Security Council had imposed an arms embargo in September 1991. Nevertheless, various states had been engaged in, or facilitated, arms sales to the warring factions: Bulgaria, North Korea, Poland, Ukraine, Romania and Russia were all export countries for weapons to the conflict; the headquarters for a huge logistics operation was in Vienna; financial transactions were executed by a Hungarian bank; arms smugglers used companies registered in the off-shore haven of Panama
Panama
; and the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
sent military equipment and provided loans for arms purchases, as did Germany. In 2012, Chile convicted nine people, including two retired generals, for their part in arms sales.

After the fighting ended, millions of weapons were left with civilians who held on to them in case violence should resurface. These weapons later turned up on the black arms market of Europe.

WAR CRIMES

Further information: Serbian war crimes in the Yugoslav Wars and Croatian war crimes in the Yugoslav Wars

GENOCIDE

Main articles: Bosnian genocide and Bosnian Genocide Case The skull of a victim of the July 1995 Srebrenica massacre
Srebrenica massacre
in an exhumed mass grave outside of Potočari , 2007

It is widely considered that mass murders against Bosniaks in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Herzegovina
escalated into genocide. On 18 December 1992, the United Nations
United Nations
General Assembly issued resolution 47/121 condeming "aggressive acts by the Serbian and Montenegrin forces to acquire more territories by force" and called such ethnic cleansing "a form of genocide ". In its report published on the 1 January 1993, Helsinki Watch was one of the first civil rights organisations that warned that "the extent of the violence and its selective nature along ethnic and religious lines suggest crimes of genocidal character against Muslim and, to a lesser extent, Croatian populations in Bosnia-Hercegovina".

A trial took place before the International Court of Justice
International Court of Justice
, following a 1993 suit by Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
against Serbia
Serbia
and Montenegro
Montenegro
alleging genocide . The ICJ ruling of 26 February 2007 indirectly determined the war's nature to be international, though clearing Serbia
Serbia
of direct responsibility for the genocide committed by the forces of Republika Srpska
Republika Srpska
. The ICJ concluded, however, that Serbia
Serbia
failed to prevent genocide committed by Serb forces and failed to punish those responsible, and bring them to justice. A telegram sent to the White House on 8 February 1994 and penned by U.S. Ambassador to Croatia, Peter W. Galbraith , stated that genocide was occurring. The telegram cited "constant and indiscriminate shelling and gunfire" of Sarajevo
Sarajevo
by Karadzic's Yugoslav People Army; the harassment of minority groups in Northern Bosnia "in an attempt to force them to leave"; and the use of detainees "to do dangerous work on the front lines" as evidence that genocide was being committed. In 2005, the United States Congress
United States Congress
passed a resolution declaring that "the Serbian policies of aggression and ethnic cleansing meet the terms defining genocide".

Despite the evidence of many kinds of war crimes conducted simultaneously by different Serb forces in different parts of Bosnia and Herzegovina, especially in Bijeljina , Sarajevo
Sarajevo
, Prijedor , Zvornik , Banja Luka
Banja Luka
, Višegrad and Foča , the judges ruled that the criteria for genocide with the specific intent (dolus specialis ) to destroy Bosnian Muslims were met only in Srebrenica or Eastern Bosnia in 1995. The court concluded that other crimes, outside Srebrenica, committed during the 1992–1995 war, may amount to crimes against humanity according to the international law, but that these acts did not, in themselves, constitute genocide per se.

The crime of genocide in the Srebrenica enclave was confirmed in several guilty verdicts handed down by the ICTY, most notably in the conviction of the Bosnian Serb leader Radovan Karadzic .

ETHNIC CLEANSING

Main article: Ethnic cleansing in the Bosnian War

Ethnic cleansing was a common phenomenon in the wars in Croatia, Kosovo
Kosovo
and Bosnia and Herzegovina. This entailed intimidation, forced expulsion , or killing of the unwanted ethnic group as well as the destruction of the places of worship, cemeteries and cultural and historical buildings of that ethnic group in order to alter the population composition of an area in the favour of another ethnic group which would become the majority. These examples of territorial nationalism and territorial aspirations are part of the goal of an ethnically pure nation-state.

According to numerous ICTY
ICTY
verdicts and indictments, Serb and Croat forces performed ethnic cleansing of their territories planned by their political leadership to create ethnically pure states ( Republika Srpska
Republika Srpska
and Republic of Serbian Krajina
Republic of Serbian Krajina
by the Serbs; and Herzeg-Bosnia by the Croats).

According to the ICTY, Serb forces deported at least 80–100,000 Croats
Croats
in Croatia
Croatia
in 1991–92 and at least 700,000 Albanians in Kosovo
Kosovo
in 1999. Further hundreds of thousands of Muslims were forced out of their homes by the Serb forces in Bosnia and Herzegovina. By one estimate, the Serb forces drove at least 700,000 Bosnian Muslims from the area of Bosnia under their control.

WAR RAPE

Detainees at the Trnopolje camp
Trnopolje camp
, near Prijedor (photograph provided courtesy of the ICTY
ICTY
) Main article: Rape in the Bosnian War
War

War
War
rape occurred as a matter of official orders as part of ethnic cleansing , to displace the targeted ethnic group. According to the Tresnjevka Women's Group, more than 35,000 women and children were held in such Serb-run "rape camps". Dragoljub Kunarac , Radomir Kovač , and Zoran Vuković were convicted of crimes against humanity for rape, torture, and enslavement committed during the Foča massacres .

The evidence of the magnitude of rape in Bosnia and Herzegovina prompted the ICTY
ICTY
to deal openly with these abuses. Reports of sexual violence during the Bosnian War (1992–1995) and Kosovo
Kosovo
War (1998–1999) perpetrated by the Serbian regular and irregular forces have been described as "especially alarming". The NATO-led Kosovo Force documented rapes of Albanian, Roma and Serbian women by both Serbs
Serbs
and members of the Kosovo
Kosovo
Liberation Army.

Others have estimated that during the Bosnian War between 20,000 and 50,000 women, mainly Muslim, were raped. There are few reports of rape and sexual assault between members of the same ethnic group.

War
War
rape in the Yugoslav Wars
Yugoslav Wars
has often been characterized as a crime against humanity . Rape perpetrated by Serb forces served to destroy cultural and social ties of the victims and their communities. Serbian policies allegedly urged soldiers to rape Bosnian women until they became pregnant as an attempt towards ethnic cleansing. Serbian soldiers hoped to force Bosnian women to carry Serbian children through repeated rape. Often Bosnian women were held in captivity for an extended period of time and only released slightly before the birth of a child conceived of rape. The systematic rape of Bosnian women may have carried further-reaching repercussions than the initial displacement of rape victims. Stress, caused by the trauma of rape, coupled with the lack of access to reproductive health care often experienced by displaced peoples, lead to serious health risks for victimized women.

During the Kosovo
Kosovo
War
War
thousands of Kosovo
Kosovo
Albanian women and girls became victims of sexual violence. War
War
rape was used as a weapon of war and an instrument of systematic ethnic cleansing ; rape was used to terrorize the civilian population, extort money from families, and force people to flee their homes. According to a report by the Human Rights Watch group in 2000, rape in the Kosovo
Kosovo
War
War
can generally be subdivided into three categories: rapes in women's homes, rapes during fighting, and rapes in detention. The majority of the perpetrators were Serbian paramilitaries, but also included Serbian special police or Yugoslav army soldiers. Virtually all of the sexual assaults Human Rights Watch documented were gang rapes involving at least two perpetrators. Since the end of the war, rapes of Serbian, Albanian, and Roma women by ethnic Albanians — sometimes by members of the Kosovo
Kosovo
Liberation Army (KLA) – have been documented. Rapes occurred frequently in the presence, and with the acquiescence, of military officers. Soldiers, police, and paramilitaries often raped their victims in the full view of numerous witnesses.

CONSEQUENCES

CASUALTIES

Some estimates put the number of killed in the Yugoslav Wars
Yugoslav Wars
at 140,000. The Humanitarian Law Center estimates that in the conflicts in former Yugoslav republics at least 130,000 people lost their lives. Slovenia
Slovenia
was the first one to get out of the conflicts, thus avoiding higher casualties, and around 70 people were killed in its ten-day conflict. The War
War
in Croatia
Croatia
left an estimated 20,000 people dead. Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
suffered the heaviest burden of the fighting: around 100,000 people were killed in the war. In the Kosovo
Kosovo
conflict, around 13,500 were killed. Overall, no less than 133,000 people were killed in the post-Yugoslav conflicts in the 90s. The highest death toll was in Sarajevo
Sarajevo
: with around 14,000 killed during the siege, the city lost almost as many people as the entire war in Kosovo.

In relative and absolute numbers, Bosniaks suffered the heaviest losses: 64,036 people of their nationality were killed, which represents a death toll of over 3 % of their entire nation. They experienced the worst plight in the Srebrenica massacre, where the mortality rate of the Bosniak men (irrespective of their age or civilian status) reached 33% in July 1995.

INTERNALLY DISPLACED AND REFUGEES

Bosnian refugees in 1993 Kosovo
Kosovo
Albanian refugees in 1999 Kosovo
Kosovo
Serb refugees in 1999

It is estimated that the wars in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
and Kosovo
Kosovo
produced about 2.4 million refugees and an additional 2 million internally displaced persons.

The war in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
caused 2.2 million refugees or displaced, of which over half were Bosniaks. Up until 2001, there were still 650,000 displaced Bosniaks, while 200,000 left the country permanently.

The Kosovo
Kosovo
War
War
caused 862,979 Albanian refugees which were either expulsed from the Serb forces or fled from the battle front. In addition, several hundreds of thousands were internally displaced , which means that, according the OSCE
OSCE
, almost 90 % of all Albanians were displaced from their homes in Kosovo
Kosovo
by June 1999. After the end of the war, Albanians returned, but over 200,000 Serbs, Romani and other non- Albanians fled Kosovo. By the end of 2000, Serbia
Serbia
thus became the host of 700,000 Serb refugees or internally displaced from Kosovo, Croatia
Croatia
and Bosnia.

From the perspective of asylum for internally displaced or refugees, Croatia
Croatia
took the brunt of the crisis. According to some sources, in 1992 Croatia
Croatia
was the host to almost 750,000 refugees or internally displaced, which represents a quota of almost 16 % of its population of 4.7 million inhabitants: these figures included 420 to 450,000 Bosnian refugees, 35,000 refugees from Serbia
Serbia
(mostly from Vojvodina and Kosovo) while a further 265,000 persons from other parts of Croatia
Croatia
itself were internally displaced. This would be equivalent of Germany being a host to 10 million displaced people or France to 8 million people. Official UNHCR data indicate that Croatia
Croatia
was the host to 287,000 refugees and 344,000 internally displaced in 1993. This is a ratio of 64.7 refugees per 1000 inhabitants. In its 1992 report, UNHCR placed Croatia
Croatia
#7 on its list of 50 most refugee burdened countries: it registered 316 thousand refugees, which is a ratio of 15:1 relative to its total population. Together with those internally displaced, Croatia
Croatia
was the host to at least 648,000 people in need of an accommodation in 1992. In comparison, Macedonia had 10.5 refugees per 1000 inhabitants in 1999. Slovenia
Slovenia
was the host to 45,000 refugees in 1993, which is 22.7 refugees per 1000 inhabitants. Serbia
Serbia
and Montenegro
Montenegro
were the host to 479,111 refugees in 1993, which is a ratio of 45.5 refugees per 1000 inhabitants. By 1998 this grew to 502,037 refugees (or 47.7 refugees per 1000 inhabitants). By 2000 the number of refugees fell to 484,391 persons, but the number of internally displaced grew to 267,500, or a combined total of 751,891 persons who were displaced and in need of an accommodation.

NUMBER OF REFUGEES OR INTERNALLY DISPLACED IN 1991—2000 COUNTRY, REGION ALBANIANS BOSNIAKS CROATS SERBS OTHERS (HUNGARIANS , GORANI , ROMANI )

CROATIA — — 247,000 300,000 —

BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA — 1,270,000 490,000 540,000 —

KOSOVO 1,200,000 — 1,450,000 — — 143,000 67,000

VOJVODINA, SANDžAK — 30,000— 40,000 35,000 — 40.000 — 60.000

TOTAL ~1,200,000— 1,450,000 ~1,300,000— 1,310,000 ~772,000— 777,000 ~983,000 ~127,000

TIMELINE OF THE YUGOSLAV WARS

Main article: Timeline of the Yugoslav Wars A shelled Croatian hotel resort of the Dalmatian coastline in Kupari near Dubrovnik (1991)

1990

* Log Revolution . SAO Krajina is proclaimed over an indefinite area of Croatia.

1991

* Slovenia
Slovenia
and Croatia
Croatia
declare independence in June, Macedonia in September. War
War
in Slovenia
Slovenia
lasts ten days, and results in 63 fatalities. The Yugoslav army leaves Slovenia
Slovenia
defeated, but supports rebel Serb forces in Croatia. The Croatian War of Independence
Croatian War of Independence
begins in Croatia. Serb areas in Croatia
Croatia
declare independence, but are recognized only by Belgrade. * Vukovar
Vukovar
is devastated by bombardments and shelling, and other cities such as Dubrovnik
Dubrovnik
, Karlovac
Karlovac
and Osijek
Osijek
sustain extensive damage. Refugees
Refugees
from war zones overwhelm Croatia, while Europe is slow to accept refugees. * In Croatia, about 250,000 Croats
Croats
and other non- Serbs
Serbs
forced from their homes or fled the violence.

1992 Sarajevo
Sarajevo
. Besieged residents collect firewood in the bitter winter of 1992.

* Vance Plan signed, creating four United Nations
United Nations
Protection Force zones for Serbs
Serbs
and ending large-scale fighting in Croatia. * Bosnia declares independence. Bosnian war begins with Serbs
Serbs
trying to create a new, separate Serb state, Republika Srpska
Republika Srpska
, that would swallow as much of Bosnia as possible. * Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
proclaimed, consisting of Serbia and Montenegro
Montenegro
, the two remaining republics. * United Nations
United Nations
impose sanctions against FR Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
for its support of the unrecognized Republic of Serbian Krajina
Republic of Serbian Krajina
in Croatia
Croatia
and Republika Srpska
Republika Srpska
in Bosnia. In May 1992, Slovenia, Croatia
Croatia
and Bosnia become UN members. FR Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
claims being sole legal heir to SFRY, which is disputed by other republics. UN envoys agree that Yugoslavia had 'dissolved into constituent republics'. * The Yugoslav army retreats from Bosnia, but leaves its weapons to the army of Republika Srpska, which attacks poorly armed Bosnian cities of Zvornik, Kotor Varoš, Prijedor, Foča, Višegrad , Doboj. Prijedor ethnic cleansing and siege of Sarajevo
Sarajevo
start. Hundreds of thousands of non-Serbian refugees. * Bosniak-Croat conflict begins in Bosnia.

Two Croatian Defense Council (HVO) T-55 Main Battle Tanks pull into firing position during a three-day exercise held at the Barbara Range in Glamoč , Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
.

1993

* Fighting begins in the Bihać region between Bosnian Government forces loyal to Alija Izetbegović , and Bosniaks loyal to Fikret Abdić , also supported by the Serbs. * Sanctions in FR Yugoslavia, now isolated, create hyperinflation of 300 million percent of the Yugoslav dinar. Almost 1 million workers lost their jobs while the gross domestic product has fallen 55 percent since 1989. * Ahmići massacre
Ahmići massacre
: the Croat forces kill over a hundred Bosnian Muslims. * Battle of Mostar
Mostar
. The Stari Most
Stari Most
(The Old Bridge) in Mostar
Mostar
, built in 1566, was destroyed by Croatian HVO forces. It was rebuilt in 2003.

1994

* Markale market shelling in Sarajevo. * Peace treaty between Bosniaks and Croats
Croats
arbitrated by the United States, Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
formed. * FR Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
starts slowly suspending its financial and military support for Republika Srpska.

1995 Srebrenica Genocide Memorial Stone at Potočari .

* Srebrenica massacre
Srebrenica massacre
reported. 8,000 Bosniaks killed by Serb forces. * Croatia
Croatia
launches Operation Flash
Operation Flash
, recapturing a part of its territory, but tens of thousands of Serb civilians flee from the area. The RSK responds with the Zagreb rocket attack . * Croatia
Croatia
launches Operation Storm
Operation Storm
, reclaiming all UNPA zones except Eastern Slavonia, and resulting in exodus of 150,000–200,000 Serbs
Serbs
from the zones. Yugoslav forces do not intervene. War
War
in Croatia ends.

A boy at a grave during the 2006 funeral of Srebrenica victims

* NATO
NATO
launches a series of air strikes on Bosnian Serb artillery and other military targets. Croatian and Bosnian army start a joint offensive against Republika Srpska
Republika Srpska
. * Dayton Agreement
Dayton Agreement
signed in Paris. War
War
in Bosnia and Herzegovina ends. Aftermath of war is over 100,000 killed and missing and two million people internally displaced or refugees.

1996

* FR Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
recognizes Croatia
Croatia
and Bosnia "> Yugoslav Ministry of Defence building in Belgrade
Belgrade
destroyed during the 1999 NATO
NATO
bombing .

1999

* Račak massacre , Rambouillet talks fail. NATO
NATO
starts a military campaign in Kosovo
Kosovo
and bombards FR Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
in Operation Allied Force . * Following Milošević's signing of an agreement, control of Kosovo is handed to the United Nations, but still remains a part of Yugoslavia's federation. After losing wars in Croatia, Bosnia and Kosovo, numerous Serbs
Serbs
leave those regions to find refuge in remainder of Serbia. In 1999, Serbia
Serbia
was host to some 700,000 Serb refugees or internally displaced. * Fresh fighting erupts between Albanians and Yugoslav security forces in Albanian populated areas outside of Kosovo, with the intent of joining three municipalities to Kosovo. * Franjo Tuđman dies. Shortly after, his party loses the elections.

2000

* Slobodan Milošević is voted out of office, and Vojislav Koštunica becomes the new president of Yugoslavia. With Milošević ousted and a new government in place, FR Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
restores ties with the west. The political and economic sanctions are suspended in total, and FRY is reinstated in many political and economic organizations, as well as becoming a candidate for other collaborative efforts.

SEE ALSO

* Balkanization
Balkanization
* Dissolution of Czechoslovakia * Dissolution of the Soviet Union
Dissolution of the Soviet Union
* Serbian historiography * This War
War
Of Mine

* Europe portal * War
War
portal * 1990s portal

NOTES

* ^ Some historians only narrow the conflicts to Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
and Kosovo
Kosovo
in the 1990s. Others also include the Preševo Valley Conflict and Insurgency
Insurgency
in Macedonia (2001) .

REFERENCES

* ^ A B C D "Transitional Justice in the Former Yugoslavia". International Center for Transitional Justice. 1 January 2009. Retrieved 8 September 2009. * ^ A B C "About us". Humanitarian Law Center. Archived from the original on 22 May 2011. Retrieved 17 November 2010. * ^ "Transitional Justice in the Former Yugoslavia". ICJT. International Center for Transitional Justice. 1 January 2009. * ^ Shaw 2013 , p. 132. * ^ A B C Judah, Tim (17 February 2011). "Yugoslavia: 1918–2003". BBC. Retrieved 1 April 2012. * ^ Finlan (2004) , p. 8 * ^ Naimark (2003) , p. xvii. * ^ Armatta, Judith (2010), Twilight of Impunity: The War
War
Crimes Trial of Slobodan Milosević, Duke University Press, p. 121 * ^ Annex IV – II. The politics of creating a Greater Serbia: nationalism, fear and repression * ^ Jannsens, Jelle (5 February 2015). "State-building in Kosovo. A plural policing perspective". Maklu. p. 53. ISBN 978-90-466-0749-7 . * ^ Totten, Samuel; Bartrop, Paul R. (2008). "Dictionary of Genocide". with contributions by Steven Leonard Jacobs. Greenwood Publishing Group . p. 249. ISBN 978-0-313-32967-8 . * ^ Sullivan, Colleen (14 September 2014). " Kosovo
Kosovo
Liberation Army (KLA)". Encyclopædia Britannica . * ^ Karon, Tony (9 March 2001). "Albanian Insurgents Keep NATO Forces Busy". TIME . * ^ Phillips, David L. (2012). "Liberating Kosovo: Coercive Diplomacy and U.S. Intervention". in cooperation with the Future of Diplomacy Project, Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs . The MIT Press. p. 69. * ^ International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
(29 May 2013). "Prlic et al. judgement vol.6 2013" (PDF). United Nations. p. 383. * ^ Gow, James (2003). "The Serbian Project and Its Adversaries: A Strategy of War
War
Crimes". C. Hurst & Co. p. 229. ISBN 9781850654995 . * ^ van Meurs, Wim, ed. (11 November 2013). "Prospects and Risks Beyond EU Enlargement: Southeastern Europe: Weak States and Strong International Support". Springer Science & Business Media. p. 168. * ^ Thomas, Raju G. C., ed. (2003). " Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
Unraveled: Sovereignty, Self-Determination, Intervention". Lexington Books. p. 10. * ^ Mahmutćehajić, Rusmir (1 February 2012). " Sarajevo
Sarajevo
Essays: Politics, Ideology, and Tradition". State University of New York Press. p. 120. * ^ Economist (18 January 2007). "What happened to Greater Albania?". The Economist. * ^ Bosnia Genocide, United Human Rights Council, retrieved 13 April 2015 * ^ United Nations
United Nations
Security Council Resolution 827. S/RES/827(1993) 25 May 1993. * ^ Tabeau, Ewa (15 January 2009). "Casualties of the 1990s wars in the former Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
(1991–1999)" (PDF). Helsinki Committee for Human Rights in Serbia. * ^ Glenny (1996) , p. 250 * ^ Bideleux & Jeffries (2007) , p. 429 * ^ " Serbia
Serbia
and Kosovo
Kosovo
reach EU-brokered landmark accord". BBC. 19 April 2013. Retrieved 13 December 2014. * ^ Hart, Stephen A. (17 February 2011). "Partisans: War
War
in the Balkans
Balkans
1941–1945". BBC History. Retrieved 11 July 2012. * ^ A B Gagnon (2004) , p. 5 * ^ Annex III – The Balkan wars and the world wars * ^ A B Annex IV – Prelude to the breakup * ^ Decision of the ICTY
ICTY
Appeals Chamber; 18 April 2002; Reasons for the Decision on Prosecution Interlocutory Appeal from Refusal to Order Joinder; Paragraph 8 * ^ Brown & Karim (1995) , p. 116 * ^ "Milosevic\'s Yugoslavia: Communism
Communism
Crumbles". Milosevic's Yugoslavia. BBC News. * ^ Cohen ">(PDF) (in Slovenian). Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Ljubljana. Retrieved 3 February 2011. * ^ Prunk, Janko (2001). "Path to Slovene State". Public Relations and Media Office, Government of the Republic of Slovenia. Retrieved 3 February 2011. * ^ Tanner 2001 , p. 229. * ^ Tanner 2001 , p. 233. * ^ Ramet 2010 , p. 262. * ^ A B Goldstein 1999 , p. 222. * ^ Ramet 2010 , p. 119. * ^ Sudetic, Chuck (20 May 1991). " Croatia
Croatia
Votes for Sovereignty and Confederation". The New York Times
The New York Times
. Retrieved 12 December 2010. * ^ Goldstein 1999 , p. 226. * ^ Glaurdić, Josip (2011). The Hour of Europe: Western Powers and the Breakup of Yugoslavia. Yale University Press. p. 57. ISBN 978-0-300-16645-3 . * ^ Annex III – The Conflict in Slovenia
Slovenia
* ^ Annex III – General structure of the Yugoslav armed forces * ^ Annex III – Forces operating in Croatia
Croatia
* ^ Tanner 2001 , p. 256. * ^ Pearson, Joseph (2010). "Dubrovnik\'s Artistic Patrimony, and its Role in War
War
Reporting (1991)". European History Quarterly. 40 (2): 197–216. * ^ Ramet 2010 , p. 263. * ^ "Profile: Ratko Mladic, Bosnian Serb army chief". BBC News. 31 July 2012. Retrieved 11 July 2012. * ^ "Judgement Summary for Gotovina et al." (PDF). The Hague: International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia. 15 April 2011. Retrieved 15 April 2011. * ^ "The Erdut Agreement" (PDF). United States Institute of Peace
United States Institute of Peace
. 12 November 1995. Retrieved 17 January 2011. * ^ " Milan Martić
Milan Martić
sentenced to 35 years for crimes against humanity and war crimes". International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia. 12 June 2007. Retrieved 24 August 2010. * ^ "Milan Babić". International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia. Retrieved 19 July 2015. * ^ A B Meštrović (1996) , p. 36. * ^ Meštrović (1996) , pg. 7. * ^ "Prosecutor v. Rasim Delić Judgement" (PDF). International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia. 15 September 2008. p. 24.

* ^ CIA 2002 , p. 379. * ^ Meštrović (1996) , p. 8. * ^ " ICTY
ICTY
"Prosecutor v. Krstic"" (PDF). United Nations. 5 March 2007. Retrieved 11 July 2012. * ^ "Six Senior Herceg-Bosna Officials Convicted" (Press release). The Hague: International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia. 29 May 2013. Retrieved 13 April 2015. * ^ A B The Prosecutor vs Milan Milutinović et al. – Judgement, 26 February 2009 , pp. 88–89 * ^ The Prosecutor vs Milan Milutinović et al. – Judgement, 26 February 2009 , p. 416. * ^ Perritt, Henry H., Jr. (July 18, 2008). Kosovo
Kosovo
Liberation Army: The Inside Story of an Insurgency. University of Illinois Press. ISBN 978-0252033421 . * ^ Morton, Jeffrey S.; Bianchini, Stefano; Nation, Craig; Forage, Paul, eds. (17 January 2004). Reflections on the Balkan Wars: Ten Years After the Break-up of Yugoslavia. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-1403963321 . * ^ Nation, R. Craig (8 July 2014). War
War
in the Balkans, 1991–2002. contributions by Strategic Studies Institute. lulu.com. ISBN 978-1312339750 . * ^ Morton, Jeffrey S. (2004). Reflections on the Balkan Wars. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 57. ISBN 1-4039-6332-0 . * ^ "Renewed clashes near Kosovo
Kosovo
border". BBC News. 28 January 2001. Retrieved 23 April 2015. * ^ "Kostunica warns of fresh fighting". BBC News. January 29, 2001. * ^ A B Wood, Paul (20 March 2001). "Who are the rebels?". BBC News. * ^ "Census of Population, Households and Dwellings in the Republic of Macedonia, 2002 – Book XIII" (PDF). Skopje: State Statistical Office of the Republic of Macedonia. May 2005. * ^ "Macedonia\'s \'Liberation\' Army: A Learner\'s Lexicon". World Press Review. Zurich. 48 (9). September 2001. Retrieved 18 April 2012.

* ^ "UN arms embargo on Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
(FRY)". Stockholm International Peace Research Institute. Retrieved 28 December 2015. * ^ Blaz Zgaga; Matej Surc (2 December 2011). " Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
and the profits of doom". EUobserver. Retrieved 4 December 2011. * ^ "Chile generals convicted over 1991 Croatia
Croatia
arms deal". BBC News. 20 January 2012. Retrieved 21 January 2012. * ^ "Paris terror attack: Why getting hold of a Kalashnikov is so easy". The Independent
The Independent
. 23 November 2015. Retrieved 28 November 2015.

* ^ "Resolution 47/121, 91st plenary meeting, The situation in Bosnia and Herzegovina". United Nations
United Nations
General Assembly . 18 December 1992. Retrieved 23 April 2011. * ^ " Human Rights Watch
Human Rights Watch
World Report 1993 - The former Yugoslav Republics". Helsinki Watch. 1 January 1993. Retrieved 10 July 2017. * ^ A B Marlise Simons (27 February 2007). "Court Declares Bosnia Killings Were Genocide". The New York Times. Retrieved 10 July 2017. * ^ Peter W. Galbraith. "Galbraith telegram" (PDF). United States Department of State . * ^ A resolution expressing the sense of the Senate regarding the massacre at Srebrenica in July 1995, thomas.loc.gov; accessed 25 April 2015. * ^ "Sense Tribunal: SERBIA FOUND GUILTY OF FAILURE TO PREVENT AND PUNISH GENOCIDE". Archived from the original on 30 July 2009. Retrieved 25 April 2015. * ^ A B Alexandra Sims (24 March 2016). " Radovan Karadzic guilty of genocide over Srebrenica massacre
Srebrenica massacre
in Bosnia". The Independent. Retrieved 10 July 2017. * ^ Wood 2001 , p. 57–75. * ^ "Prosecutor v. Vujadin Popovic, Ljubisa Beara, Drago Nikolic, Ljubomir Borovcanin, Radivoje Miletic, Milan Gvero, and Vinko Pandurevic" (PDF). In the Motion, the Prosecution submits that both the existence and implementation of the plan to create an ethnically pure Bosnian Serb state by Bosnian Serb political and military leaders are facts of common knowledge and have been held to be historical and accurate in a wide range of sources. * ^ "ICTY: Radoslav Brđanin judgement". Archived from the original on 14 April 2009. * ^ "Tadic Case: The Verdict". Importantly, the objectives remained the same: to create an ethnically pure Serb State by uniting Serbs
Serbs
in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
and extending that State from the FRY to the Croatian Krajina along the important logistics and supply line that went through opstina Prijedor, thereby necessitating the expulsion of the non-Serb population of the opstina. * ^ "Prosecuter v. Jadranko Prlic, Bruno Stojic, Slobodan Praljak, Milivoj Petkovic, Valentin Coric and Berislav Pusic" (PDF). Significantly, the Trial Chamber held that a reasonable Trial Chamber, could make a finding beyond any reasonable doubt that all of these acts were committed to carry out a plan aimed at changing the ethnic balance of the areas that formed Herceg-Bosna and mainly to deport the Muslim
Muslim
population and other non-Croat population out of Herceg-Bosna to create an ethnically pure Croatian territory within Herceg-Bosna. * ^ "Judgement Summary for Jovica Stanišić and Franko Simatović" (PDF). ICTY. 30 May 2013. p. 2. Retrieved 10 July 2017. * ^ "Five Senior Serb Officials Convicted of Kosovo
Kosovo
Crimes, One Acquitted". ICTY. 26 February 2009. Retrieved 10 July 2017. * ^ Campbell 2001 , p. 58. * ^ Geldenhuys 2004 , p. 34. * ^ A B de Brouwer (2005) , p. 10 * ^ A B de Brouwer (2005) , pp. 9–10 * ^ Robson, Angela (June 1993). "Rape: Weapon of War". New Internationalist (244). * ^ Netherlands Institute for War
War
Documentation Archived September 29, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
. Part 1 Chapter 9 * ^ "Bosnia: Landmark Verdicts for Rape, Torture, and Sexual Enslavement - Criminal Tribunal Convicts Bosnian Serbs
Serbs
for Crimes Against Humanity". Human Rights Watch. Human Rights Watch. 22 February 2001. * ^ Simons, Marlise (June 1996). "For first time, Court Defines Rape as War
War
Crime". The New York Times. * ^ de Brouwer (2005) , p. 11 * ^ Salzman 1998 , p. 348–378. * ^ Vesna Peric Zimonjic (20 February 2006). "Film award forces Serbs
Serbs
to face spectre of Bosnia\'s rape babies". The Independent. Belgrade. Archived from the original on September 24, 2009. Retrieved 26 June 2009. * ^ " United Nations
United Nations
Commission on Breaches of Geneva Law in Former Yugoslavia", The International Fight Against Gender Inequality, 1997, archived from the original on 8 August 2009, retrieved 14 April 2014 * ^ Card 1996 , p. 5–18. * ^ Allen (1996) , p. 77 * ^ McGinn 2000 , p. 174–180. * ^ A B C "Serb Gang-Rapes in Kosovo
Kosovo
Exposed". Human Rights Watch. Human Rights Watch. March 20, 2000. * ^ A B C Kosovo: Rape as a Weapon of "Ethnic Cleansing", Human Rights Watch, retrieved 14 April 2015 * ^ A B Egan , p. 171. * ^ Toal & Dahlman 2011 , p. 136–137. * ^ Brunborg, Lyngstad & Urdal 2003 , p. 229–248. * ^ Watkins 2003 , p. 10. * ^ A B UNHCR 2003 . * ^ Human Rights Watch
Human Rights Watch
2001 . * ^ A B OSCE
OSCE
1999 , p. 13. * ^ A B Rowland, Jacky (22 March 2000). "Bleak outlook for Serb refugees". Belgrade: BBC News. Retrieved 4 July 2012. * ^ A B Council of Europe 1993 , p. 9. * ^ UNHCR 2002 , p. 1 * ^ UNHCR 1993 , p. 11. * ^ UNHCR 1993 , p. 8. * ^ UNHCR 2000 , p 319 * ^ UNHCR 2002 , p. 1 * ^ UNHCR 2002 , p. 1 * ^ US Department of State (1994). "CROATIA HUMAN RIGHTS PRACTICES, 1993". * ^ UNHCR 1997 . * ^ A B C Friedman 2013 , p. 78. * ^ Krieger 2001 , p. 90. * ^ A B Human Rights Watch
Human Rights Watch
(2001). "Under Orders: War
War
Crimes in Kosovo". * ^ Siblesz 1998 , p. 10. * ^ A B Human Rights Watch
Human Rights Watch
1994 , p. 7. * ^ Zaknic 1992 , p. 115–124. * ^ "Milosevic: Important New Charges on Croatia". Human Rights Watch. The Hague: Human Rights Watch
Human Rights Watch
. 21 October 2001. Retrieved 29 October 2010. * ^ Stanley Meisler and Carol J. Williams (31 May 1992). "Angry U.N. Votes Harsh Sanctions on Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
: Balkans: The Security Council, infuriated by bloody attacks in Bosnia-Herzegovina, imposes an oil embargo and other curbs. China, Zimbabwe abstain in 13-0 vote". LA Times. Retrieved 7 August 2017. * ^ Erik Kirschbaum (July 13, 1995). "YUGOSLAV ECONOMY FORECAST TO GROW ONCE EMBARGO ENDS INFLATION WHIPPED, CENTRAL BANKER SAYS". JOC Group . Retrieved 7 August 2017. * ^ Block, Robert; Bellamy, Christopher (10 November 1993). "Croats destroy Mostar\'s historic bridge". The Independent. * ^ Carol J. Williams (5 August 1994). " Serbia
Serbia
Cuts Off Bosnian Rebels : Balkans: Belgrade, under international pressure, says it is denying supplies of fuel and arms to forces it has supported. Washington cautiously welcomes move". LA Times. Retrieved 7 July 2017.

* ^ "Returns to Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
reach 1 million: This is a summary of what was said by UNHCR spokesperson Ron Redmond – to whom quoted text may be attributed – at today\'s press briefing at the Palais des Nations in Geneva.". UNHCR, The UN Refugee Agency. United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. 21 September 2004. Retrieved 11 August 2012. * ^ "20,000 Attend a Protest
Protest
Against Serbian Leader". The New York Times. 10 March 1996. Retrieved 7 July 2017. * ^ " NATO
NATO
attack on Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
begins". CNN. 24 March 1999. Retrieved 7 July 2017.

SOURCES

BOOKS

* Allen, Beverly (1996). Rape Warfare: The Hidden Genocide in Bosnia- Herzegovina
Herzegovina
and Croatia. University of Minnesota Press. ISBN 978-0-8166-2818-6 . * Bideleux, Robert; Jeffries, Ian (2007). A history of Eastern Europe: crisis and change (2nd ed.). Taylor & Francis. ISBN 0-415-36627-5 . Retrieved 22 April 2012. * Brown, Cynthia; Karim, Farhad (1995). Playing the "Communal Card": Communal Violence and Human Rights. New York: Human Rights Watch
Human Rights Watch
. ISBN 978-1-56432-152-7 . * Brouwer, Anne-Marie de (2005). Supranational Criminal Prosecution of Sexual Violence. Intersentia. ISBN 90-5095-533-9 . * Campbell, Kenneth (2001). Genocide and the Global Village. Springer. ISBN 0312299281 . * Cohen, Leonard J.; Dragović-Soso, Jasna, eds. (2008). State Collapse in South-Eastern Europe: New Perspectives on Yugoslavia's Disintegration. Purdue University Press. p. 323. ISBN 9781557534606 . * Egan, James. 1000 Facts About Countries. 2. Lulu.com. p. 171. ISBN 9781326776725 . * Finlan, Alastair (2004). The Collapse of Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
1991–1999. Essential Histories. Oxford, UK: Osprey. ISBN 978-1-84176-805-2 . * Friedman, Francine (2013). Bosnia and Herzegovina: A Polity on the Brink. Routledge
Routledge
. ISBN 9781134527540 . * Gagnon, Valère Philip (2004). The Myth of Ethnic War: Serbia
Serbia
and Croatia
Croatia
in the 1990s. Cornell University Press. ISBN 978-0-8014-7291-6 . * Geldenhuys, Dean (2004). Deviant Conduct in World Politics. Springer. p. 34. ISBN 0230000711 . * Glenny, Misha (1996). The fall of Yugoslavia: the third Balkan war. London: Penguin. ISBN 0-14-026101-X . * Goldstein, Ivo (1999). Croatia: A History. C. Hurst & Co. ISBN 1-85065-525-1 . * Krieger, Heike (2001). Heike Krieger, ed. The Kosovo
Kosovo
Conflict and International Law: An Analytical Documentation 1974-1999. Cambridge University Press . p. 90. ISBN 9780521800716 . * Meštrović, Stjepan Gabriel (1996). Genocide After Emotion: The Postemotional Balkan War. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-12294-5 . * Naimark, Norman; Case, Holly M. (2003). Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
and Its Historians: Understanding the Balkan Wars of the 1990s. Stanford University Press. ISBN 0-8047-4594-3 . Retrieved 22 April 2012. * Ramet, Sabrina P. (2010). Central and Southeast European Politics Since 1989. Cambridge
Cambridge
, England: Cambridge
Cambridge
University Press. ISBN 978-1-139-48750-4 . * Rogel, Carole (2004). The Breakup of Yugoslavia
Breakup of Yugoslavia
and Its Aftermath. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 0-313-32357-7 . Retrieved 22 April 2012. * Shaw, Martin (2013). Genocide and International Relations: Changing Patterns in the Transitions of the Late Modern World. Cambridge
Cambridge
University Press. ISBN 1107469104 . * Tanner, Marcus (2001). Croatia
Croatia
: a nation forged in war (2nd ed.). New Haven; London: Yale University Press
Yale University Press
. ISBN 0-300-09125-7 . * Toal, Gerard; Dahlman, Carl T. (2011). Bosnia Remade: Ethnic Cleansing and its Reversal. Oxford University Press. p. 136, 137. ISBN 9780190207908 . * Watkins, Clem S. (2003). The Balkans. Nova Publishers. p. 10. ISBN 9781590335253 . * Aleksandar, Bosković; Dević, Ana; Gavrilović, Darko; Hašimbegović, Elma; Ljubojević, Ana; Perica, Vjekoslav; Velikonja, Mitja, eds. (2011). Political Myths in the Former Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
and Successor States: A Shared Narrative. Institute for Historical Justice and Reconciliation. ISBN 90-8979-067-5 . * Central Intelligence Agency , Office of Russian and European Analysis (2002). Balkan Battlegrounds: A Military History of the Yugoslav Conflict, 1990–1995. Washington, D.C.: Central Intelligence Agency. ISBN 978-0-16-066472-4 . * Council of Europe (1993). Documents (working Papers) 1993. p. 9. ISBN 9789287123329 .

SCIENTIFIC JOURNAL ARTICLES

* Brunborg, Helge; Lyngstad, Torkild Hovde; Urdal, Henrik (2003). "Accounting for Genocide: How Many Were Killed in Srebrenica?". European Journal of Population / Revue européenne de Démographie. 19 (3): 229–248. JSTOR
JSTOR
20164231 . doi :10.1023/A:1024949307841 . * Card, Claudia (1996). "Rape as a Weapon of War". Hypatia. 11 (4): 5–18. ISSN 0887-5367 . JSTOR
JSTOR
3810388 . doi :10.1111/j.1527-2001.1996.tb01031.x . access-date= requires url= (help ) * Guzina, Dejan (2003). "Socialist Serbia\'s Narratives: From Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
to a Greater Serbia". International Journal of Politics, Culture, and Society. 17 (1): 91–111. doi :10.1023/A:102534101 . * McGinn, Therese (2000). "Reproductive Health of War-Affected Populations: What Do We Know?". International Family Planning Perspectives. 26 (4): 174–180. ISSN 0190-3187 . JSTOR
JSTOR
2648255 . doi :10.2307/2648255 . access-date= requires url= (help ) * Salzman, Todd A. (1998). "Rape Camps as a Means of Ethnic Cleansing: Religious, Cultural, and Ethical Responses to Rape Victims in the Former Yugoslavia". Human Rights Quarterly. 20 (2): 348–378. doi :10.1353/hrq.1998.0019 . * Wood, William B. (2001). "Geographic Aspects of Genocide: A Comparison of Bosnia and Rwanda". Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers. 26 (1): 57-75. JSTOR
JSTOR
623145 . * Zaknic, Ivan (1992). "The Pain of Ruins: Croatian Architecture under Siege". Journal of Architectural Education. 46 (2): 115–124. doi :10.1080/10464883.1992.10734547 .

OTHER SOURCES

* Bassiouni, M. Cherif (28 December 1994). "Final report of the United Nations
United Nations
Commission of Experts established pursuant to security council resolution 780 (1992), Annex III – The military structure, strategy and tactics of the warring factions". United Nations. Archived from the original on July 28, 2012. Retrieved 11 July 2012. * Bassiouni, M. Cherif (28 December 1994). "Final report of the United Nations
United Nations
Commission of Experts established pursuant to security council resolution 780 (1992), Annex IV – The policy of ethnic cleansing". United Nations. Archived from the original on May 4, 2012. Retrieved 11 July 2012. * Ferguson, Kate. An investigation into the irregular military dynamics in Yugoslavia, 1992-1995. Diss. University of East Anglia, 2015. * Siblesz, H.H. (1998). "History of Sandzak" (pdf). Refworld. p. 10.

* "The Prosecutor vs Milan Milutinovic et al – Judgement" (PDF). International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia. 26 February 2009. * Human Rights Watch
Human Rights Watch
(1994). "Human Rights Abuses of Non- Serbs
Serbs
In Kosovo, Sandñak and Vojvodina" (PDF). * Human Rights Watch
Human Rights Watch
(2001). "Kosovo: Under Orders". * Human Rights Watch
Human Rights Watch
(2001). "Milosevic: Important New Charges on Croatia". * OSCE
OSCE
(1999). "KOSOVO / KOSOVA: As Seen, As Told". p. 13. * UNHCR (1993). "The State of the World\'s Refugees
Refugees
1993" (PDF). * UNHCR (1997). "U.S. Committee for Refugees
Refugees
World Refugee Survey 1997 – Yugoslavia". * "2002 UNHCR Statistical Yearbook: Croatia" (pdf). UNHCR . 2002. * "2002 UNHCR Statistical Yearbook: Macedonia". UNHCR. 2000. * "2002 UNHCR Statistical Yearbook: Slovenia" (pdf). UNHCR. 2002. * "2002 UNHCR Statistical Yearbook: Serbia" (pdf). UNHCR. 2002. * UNHCR (2003). "Bosnian refugees in Australia: identity, community and labour market integration" (PDF).

EXTERNAL LINKS

* Video on the Conflict in the Former Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
from the Dean Peter Krogh Foreign Affairs Digital Archives * Information and links on the Third Balkan War
War
(1991–2001) * Nation, R. Craig. " War
War
in the Balkans
Balkans
1991–2002" *

.