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The Yugoslav Wars
Yugoslav Wars
were a series of ethnically-based wars and insurgencies fought from 1991 to 1999/2001[Note 1] in the former Yugoslavia. These wars accompanied and facilitated the breakup of the Yugoslav state, when its constituent republics declared independence, but the issues of ethnic minorities in the new countries (chiefly Serbs, Croats
Croats
and Albanians) were still unresolved at the time the republics were recognized internationally. The wars are generally considered to be a series of separate but related military conflicts which occurred in, and affected, most of the former Yugoslav republics.[5][6][7] Most wars ended through peace accords, involving full international recognition of new states, but with massive economic damage to the region. Initially the Yugoslav People's Army
Yugoslav People's Army
(JNA) sought to preserve the unity of the whole of Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
by crushing the secessionist governments but it increasingly came under the influence of the Serbian government of Slobodan Milošević
Slobodan Milošević
that evoked Serbian nationalist rhetoric and was willing to use the Yugoslav cause to preserve the unity of Serbs
Serbs
in one state. As a result, the JNA began to lose Slovenes, Croats, Kosovar Albanians, Bosniaks, and ethnic Macedonians, and effectively became a Serb army.[8] According to the 1994 United Nations
United Nations
report, the Serb side did not aim to restore Yugoslavia, but to create a "Greater Serbia" from parts of Croatia
Croatia
and Bosnia.[9] Other irredentist movements have also been brought into connection with the wars, such as "Greater Albania"[10][11][12][13][14] and "Greater Croatia".[15][16][17][18][19] Often described as Europe's deadliest conflicts since World War
War
II, the wars were marked by many war crimes, including ethnic cleansing, crimes against humanity and rape. The Bosnian genocide
Bosnian genocide
was the first European crime since World War
War
II to be formally judged as genocidal in character and many key individual participants were subsequently charged with war crimes.[20] The International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
(ICTY) was established by the UN to prosecute these crimes.[21] According to the International Center for Transitional Justice, the Yugoslav Wars
Yugoslav Wars
resulted in the death of 140,000 people.[1] The Humanitarian Law Center estimates that in the conflicts in the former Yugoslav republics at least 130,000 people were killed.[2]

Contents

1 Naming 2 Background 3 Wars

3.1 Ten-Day War
Ten-Day War
(1991) 3.2 Croatian War of Independence
Croatian War of Independence
(1991–1995) 3.3 Bosnian War
Bosnian War
(1992–1995) 3.4 Kosovo
Kosovo
War
War
(1998–1999) 3.5 Insurgency in the Preševo Valley
Insurgency in the Preševo Valley
(1999–2001) 3.6 Insurgency
Insurgency
in the Republic of Macedonia
Republic of Macedonia
(2001) 3.7 Arms embargo

4 War
War
crimes

4.1 Genocide 4.2 Ethnic cleansing 4.3 War
War
rape

5 Consequences

5.1 Casualties 5.2 Internally displaced
Internally displaced
and refugees 5.3 Material damage

6 Timeline of the Yugoslav Wars 7 See also 8 Notes 9 References 10 Sources

10.1 Books 10.2 Scientific journal articles 10.3 Other sources

11 External links

Naming[edit] The war(s) have alternatively been called:

"Wars in the Balkans" (although the wars only affected the west side of the Balkans
Balkans
as well as areas outside it (within Central Europe) "Wars/conflicts in the former Yugoslavia".[1][22] "Wars of Yugoslav Secession/Succession". "Third Balkan War": a term suggested by British journalist Misha Glenny in the title of his book, alluding to the two previous Balkan Wars fought from 1912–13.[23] In fact, this term has been applied by some contemporary historians to World War
War
I, because they see it as a direct sequel to the 1912–13 Balkan wars.[24] " Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
Civil War"/"Yugoslav Civil War"/"Yugoslavian Civil War"/"Civil War
War
in Yugoslavia".

Background[edit] Main articles: Creation of Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
and Breakup of Yugoslavia

Map of the six Yugoslav republics and autonomous provinces of the time.[25]

Clear ethnic conflict between the Yugoslav peoples only became prominent in the 20th century, beginning with tensions over the constitution of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes
Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes
in the early 1920s and escalating into violence between Serbs
Serbs
and Croats
Croats
in the late 1920s after the assassination of Croatian politician Stjepan Radić. During World War
War
II the Croatian Ustaše
Ustaše
committed genocide against Serbs, Jews and Roma, leading to later reprisals against Croats
Croats
and Bosniaks. The Yugoslav Partisan movement was able to appeal to all groups, including Serbs, Croats, and Bosniaks.[5][26] In Serbia and Serb-dominated territories, violent confrontations occurred, particularly between nationalists and non-nationalists who criticized the Serbian government and the Serb political entities in Bosnia and Croatia.[27] Serbs
Serbs
who publicly opposed the nationalist political climate during the Yugoslav wars were reportedly harassed, threatened, or killed.[27] The nation of Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
was created in the aftermath of World War
War
I, and it was mostly composed of South Slavic Christians, but the nation also had a substantial Muslim
Muslim
minority. This nation lasted from 1918 to 1941, when it was invaded by the Axis powers during World War
War
II, which provided support to the Ustaše
Ustaše
(founded in 1929), which conducted a genocidal campaign against Serbs, Jews and Roma inside its territory and the Chetniks
Chetniks
who supported reinstating the Serbian royals. In 1945, the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
(SFRY) was established under Josip Broz Tito,[5] who maintained a strongly authoritarian leadership that suppressed nationalism.[28] After Tito's death, in the 1980s relations among the six republics of the SFRY deteriorated. Slovenia
Slovenia
and Croatia
Croatia
desired greater autonomy within the Yugoslav confederation, while Serbia
Serbia
sought to strengthen federal authority. As it became clearer that there was no solution agreeable to all parties, Slovenia
Slovenia
and Croatia
Croatia
moved toward secession. Although tensions in Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
had been mounting since the early 1980s, it was 1990 that proved decisive. In the midst of economic hardship, Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
was facing rising nationalism among its various ethnic groups. By the early 1990s, there was no effective authority at the federal level. The Federal Presidency consisted of the representatives of the six republics, two provinces, and the Yugoslav People's Army (JNA). The communist leadership was divided along national lines.[29]

Serbian-held territories of Croatia
Croatia
and Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
during the Yugoslav wars. The War
War
Crimes Tribunal accused Slobodan Milošević of "attempting to create a Greater Serbia"', a Serbian state encompassing the Serb-populated areas of Croatia
Croatia
and Bosnia, and achieved by forcibly removing non- Serbs
Serbs
from large geographical areas through the commission of criminal activity.[30]

The representatives of Vojvodina, Kosovo
Kosovo
and Montenegro
Montenegro
were replaced with loyalists of the President of Serbia, Slobodan Milošević. Serbia
Serbia
secured four out of eight federal presidency votes[31] and was able to heavily influence decision-making at the federal level, since all the other Yugoslav republics only had one vote. While Slovenia
Slovenia
and Croatia
Croatia
wanted to allow a multi-party system, Serbia, led by Milošević, demanded an even more centralized federation and Serbia's dominant role in it.[29] At the 14th Extraordinary Congress of the League of Communists of Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
in January 1990, the Serbian-dominated assembly agreed to abolish the single-party system; however, Slobodan Milošević, the head of the Serbian Party branch (League of Communists of Serbia) used his influence to block and vote-down all other proposals from the Croatian and Slovene party delegates. This prompted the Croatian and Slovene delegations to walk out and thus the break-up of the party,[32] a symbolic event representing the end of "brotherhood and unity". Upon Croatia
Croatia
and Slovenia
Slovenia
declaring independence in 1991, the Yugoslav federal government attempted to forcibly halt the impending breakup of the country, with Yugoslav Prime Minister Ante Marković declaring the secessions of Slovenia
Slovenia
and Croatia
Croatia
to be illegal and contrary to the constitution of Yugoslavia, and declared support for the Yugoslav People's Army to secure the integral unity of Yugoslavia.[33] According to Stephen A. Hart, author of Partisans: War
War
in the Balkans 1941–1945, the ethnically mixed region of Dalmatia
Dalmatia
held close and amicable relations between the Croats
Croats
and Serbs
Serbs
who lived there in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Many early proponents of a united Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
came from this region, such as Ante Trumbić, a Croat from Dalmatia. However, by the time of the outbreak of the Yugoslav Wars, any hospitable relations between Croats
Croats
and Serbs
Serbs
in Dalmatia
Dalmatia
had broken down, with Dalmatian Serbs
Serbs
fighting on the side of the Republic of Serbian Krajina. Even though the policies throughout the entire socialist period of Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
seemed to have been the same (namely that all Serbs
Serbs
should live in one state), Dejan Guzina argues that "different contexts in each of the subperiods of socialist Serbia
Serbia
and Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
yielded entirely different results (e.g., in favor of Yugoslavia, or in favor of a Greater Serbia)". He assumes that the Serbian policy changed from conservative–socialist at the beginning to xenophobic nationalist in the late 1980s and 1990s.[34] Wars[edit]

Photo of ambushed JNA tanks near Nova Gorica, on the border with Italy

Ten-Day War
Ten-Day War
(1991)[edit] Main article: Ten-Day War The first of the conflicts, known as the Ten-Day War, was initiated by the JNA (Yugoslav People's Army) on 26 June 1991 after the secession of Slovenia
Slovenia
from the federation on 25 June 1991.[35][36] Initially, the federal government ordered the Yugoslav People's Army to secure border crossings in Slovenia. Slovenian police
Slovenian police
and Slovenian Territorial Defence blockaded barracks and roads, leading to stand-offs and limited skirmishes around the republic. After several dozen casualties, the limited conflict was stopped through negotiation at Brioni on 7 July 1991, when Slovenia
Slovenia
and Croatia
Croatia
agreed to a three-month moratorium on secession. The Federal army completely withdrew from Slovenia
Slovenia
by 26 October 1991.

Croatian War of Independence
Croatian War of Independence
(1991–1995)[edit] Main article: Croatian War
War
of Independence

Damage after the bombing of Dubrovnik

Destroyed Serbian house in Sunja, Croatia. Most Serbs
Serbs
fled during Operation Storm
Operation Storm
in 1995.

Fighting in Croatia
Croatia
had begun weeks prior to the Ten-Day War
Ten-Day War
in Slovenia. The Croatian War of Independence
Croatian War of Independence
began when Serbs
Serbs
in Croatia, who were opposed to Croatian independence, announced their secession from Croatia
Croatia
following Croatia's declaration of independence. After the 1990 parliamentary elections in Croatia, Franjo Tuđman
Franjo Tuđman
came to power and became the first President of Croatia. He promoted nationalist policies and had a primary goal of the establishment of an independent Croatia. The new government proposed constitutional changes, removed Communist symbols and renamed many streets and squares.[37] In an attempt to counter changes made to the constitution, local Serb politicians organized a referendum on "Serb sovereignty and autonomy" in August 1990. Their boycott escalated into an insurrection in areas populated by ethnic Serbs, mostly around Knin, known as the Log Revolution.[38] Local police in Knin sided with the growing Serbian insurgency, while many government employees, mostly in police where commanding positions were mainly held by Serbs and Communists, lost their jobs.[39] The new Croatian constitution was ratified in December 1990, when the Serb National Council proclaimed the SAO Krajina.[40] Ethnic tensions rose, fueled by propaganda in both Croatia
Croatia
and Serbia. On 2 May 1991, one of the first armed clashes between Serb paramilitaries and Croatian police occurred in the Battle of Borovo Selo.[41] On 19 May an independence referendum was held, which was largely boycotted by Croatian Serbs, and the majority voted in favour of the independence of Croatia.[42][40] Croatia
Croatia
declared independence and dissolved its association with Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
on 25 June 1991. Due to the Brioni Agreement, a three-month moratorium was placed on the implementation of the decision that ended on 8 October.[43] The armed incidents of early 1991 escalated into an all-out war over the summer, with fronts formed around the areas of the breakaway SAO Krajina. The JNA had disarmed the Territorial Units of Slovenia
Slovenia
and Croatia
Croatia
prior to the declaration of independence, at the behest of Serbian President Slobodan Milošević.[44][45] This was aggravated further by an arms embargo, imposed by the UN on Yugoslavia. The JNA was ostensibly ideologically unitarian, but its officer corps was predominantly staffed by Serbs
Serbs
or Montenegrins (70 percent).[46] As a result, the JNA opposed Croatian independence and sided with the Croatian Serb rebels. The Croatian Serb rebels were unaffected by the embargo as they had the support of and access to supplies of the JNA. By mid-July 1991, the JNA moved an estimated 70,000 troops to Croatia. The fighting rapidly escalated, eventually spanning hundreds of square kilometers from western Slavonia
Slavonia
through Banija
Banija
to Dalmatia.[47]

A JNA M-84
M-84
tank disabled by a mine laid by Croat soldiers in Vukovar in November 1991.

Border regions faced direct attacks from forces within Serbia
Serbia
and Montenegro. In August 1991, the Battle of Vukovar
Battle of Vukovar
began, where fierce fighting took place with around 1,800 Croat fighters blocking JNA's advance into Slavonia. By the end of October, the town was almost completely devastated from land shelling and air bombardment.[48] The Siege of Dubrovnik
Siege of Dubrovnik
started in October with the shelling of UNESCO world heritage site Dubrovnik, where the international press was criticised for focusing on the city's architectural heritage, instead of reporting the destruction of Vukovar
Vukovar
in which many civilians were killed.[49] On 18 November 1991 the battle of Vukovar
Vukovar
ended after the city ran out of ammunition. The Ovčara massacre occurred shortly after Vukovar's capture by the JNA.[50] Meanwhile, control over central Croatia
Croatia
was seized by Croatian Serb forces in conjunction with the JNA Corps from Bosnia and Herzegovina, under the leadership of Ratko Mladić.[51] In January 1992, the Vance Plan proclaimed UN controlled (UNPA) zones for Serbs
Serbs
in territory claimed by Serbian rebels as the Republic of Serbian Krajina (RSK) and brought an end to major military operations, though sporadic artillery attacks on Croatian cities and occasional intrusions of Croatian forces into UNPA zones continued until 1995. The fighting in Croatia
Croatia
ended in mid-1995, after Operation Flash
Operation Flash
and Operation Storm. At the end of these operations, Croatia
Croatia
had reclaimed all of its territory except the UNPA Sector East portion of Slavonia, bordering Serbia. Most of the Serb population in the reclaimed areas became refugees, and these operations led to war crimes trials by the ICTY
ICTY
against elements of the Croatian military leadership, some of whom were found guilty of "war crimes and crimes against humanity".[52] The areas of "Sector East", unaffected by the Croatian military operations, came under UN administration (UNTAES), and were reintegrated to Croatia
Croatia
in 1998 under the terms of the Erdut Agreement.[53] In 2007, Milan Martić, former president of RSK, was sentenced to 35 years imprisonment as part of a joint criminal enterprise against the non-Serb population of Croatia.[54] Milan Babić, the first President of RSK, pleaded guilty and was sentenced by the ICTY
ICTY
to 13 years in prison.[55] Bosnian War
Bosnian War
(1992–1995)[edit] Main article: Bosnian War

People waiting in line to gather water during the Siege of Sarajevo, 1992

In 1992, conflict engulfed Bosnia and Herzegovina. The war was predominantly a territorial conflict between the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Herzegovina
chiefly supported by Bosniaks, the self-proclaimed Bosnian Serb entity Republika Srpska, and the self-proclaimed Herzeg-Bosnia, who were led and supplied by Serbia
Serbia
and Croatia respectively, reportedly with a goal of the partition of Bosnia.[citation needed] The Yugoslav armed forces had disintegrated into a largely Serb-dominated military force. Opposed to the Bosnian-majority led government's agenda for independence, and along with other armed nationalist Serb militant forces, the JNA attempted to prevent Bosnian citizens from voting in the 1992 referendum on independence.[56] This did not succeed in persuading people not to vote and instead the intimidating atmosphere combined with a Serb boycott of the vote resulted in a resounding 99% vote in support for independence.[56]

A Serb woman mourns at a grave at the Lion's cemetery in Sarajevo, 1992

On 19 June 1992, the war in Bosnia broke out, though the Siege of Sarajevo
Sarajevo
had already begun in April after Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
had declared independence. The conflict, typified by the years-long Sarajevo
Sarajevo
siege and Srebrenica, was by far the bloodiest and most widely covered of the Yugoslav wars. Bosnia's Serb faction led by ultra-nationalist Radovan Karadžić
Radovan Karadžić
promised independence for all Serb areas of Bosnia from the majority-Bosniak government of Bosnia. To link the disjointed parts of territories populated by Serbs
Serbs
and areas claimed by Serbs, Karadžić pursued an agenda of systematic ethnic cleansing primarily against Bosnians through massacre and forced removal of Bosniak populations.[57] At the end of 1992, tensions between Bosnian Croats
Croats
and Bosniaks
Bosniaks
rose and their collaboration fell apart. In January 1993, the two former allies engaged in open conflict, resulting in the Croat–Bosniak War.[58] In 1994 the US brokered peace between Croatian forces and the Bosnian Army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
with the Washington Agreement. After the successful Flash and Storm operations, the Croatian Army and the combined Bosnian and Croat forces of Bosnia and Herzegovina, conducted an operation codenamed Operation Mistral to push back Bosnian Serb military gains.[59] Together with NATO
NATO
air strikes on the Bosnian Serbs, the successes on the ground put pressure on the Serbs
Serbs
to come to the negotiating table. Pressure was put on all sides to stick to the cease-fire and negotiate an end to the war in Bosnia. The war ended with the signing of the Dayton Agreement
Dayton Agreement
on 14 December 1995, with the formation of Republika Srpska as an entity within Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
being the resolution for Bosnian Serb demands.[citation needed] The Central Intelligence Agency
Central Intelligence Agency
(CIA) in the United States reported in April 1995 that 90 percent of all the atrocities in the Yugoslav wars up to that point had been committed by Serb militants.[60] Most of these atrocities occurred in Bosnia. In 2004, the ICTY
ICTY
ruled that the Srebrenica massacre
Srebrenica massacre
constituted genocide.[61] In May 2013, in a first-instance verdict, the ICTY
ICTY
convicted six Herzeg-Bosnia
Herzeg-Bosnia
Officials for their participation in a joint criminal enterprise against Muslim population in Bosnia and Herzegovina.[62] On 24 March 2016, Radovan Karadžić, former president of Republika Srpska, was found guilty of genocide in Srebrenica, war crimes and crimes against humanity and sentenced to 40 years' imprisonment. On 22 November 2017, Ratko Mladić, former Chief of Staff of the Army of the Republika Srpska, was sentenced to life in prison by ICTY
ICTY
for 10 charges, one of genocide, five of crimes against humanity and four of violations of the laws or customs of war. Kosovo
Kosovo
War
War
(1998–1999)[edit] Main article: Kosovo
Kosovo
War

A Tomahawk cruise missile
Tomahawk cruise missile
launches from the aft missile deck of the USS Gonzalez on March 31, 1999

Post-strike bomb damage assessment photograph of the Kragujevac
Kragujevac
Armor and Motor Vehicle Plant Crvena Zastava, Serbia

Smoke in Novi Sad, Serbia
Serbia
after NATO
NATO
bombardment in 1999

After September 1990 when the 1974 Yugoslav Constitution
1974 Yugoslav Constitution
had been unilaterally repealed by the Socialist Republic of Serbia, Kosovo's autonomy suffered and so the region was faced with state organized oppression: from the early 1990s, Albanian language radio and television were restricted and newspapers shut down. Kosovar Albanians were fired in large numbers from public enterprises and institutions, including banks, hospitals, the post office and schools.[63] In June 1991 the University of Priština
University of Priština
assembly and several faculty councils were dissolved and replaced by Serbs. Kosovar Albanian teachers were prevented from entering school premises for the new school year beginning in September 1991, forcing students to study at home.[63] Later, Kosovar Albanians
Albanians
started an insurgency against Belgrade
Belgrade
when the Kosovo
Kosovo
Liberation Army was founded in 1996. Armed clashes between the two sides broke out in early 1998. A NATO-facilitated ceasefire was signed on 15 October, but both sides broke it two months later and fighting resumed. When the killing of 45 Kosovar Albanians
Albanians
in the Račak massacre
Račak massacre
was reported in January 1999, NATO
NATO
decided that the conflict could only be settled by introducing a military peacekeeping force to forcibly restrain the two sides. After the Rambouillet Accords broke down on 23 March with Yugoslav rejection of an external peacekeeping force, NATO
NATO
prepared to install the peacekeepers by force. The NATO
NATO
bombing of Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
followed, an intervention against Serbian forces with a mainly bombing campaign, under the command of General Wesley Clark. Hostilities ended 2½ months later with the Kumanovo Agreement. Kosovo
Kosovo
was placed under the governmental control of the United Nations
United Nations
Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo and the military protection of Kosovo
Kosovo
Force (KFOR). The 15-month war had left thousands of civilians killed on both sides and over a million displaced.[64] Insurgency in the Preševo Valley
Insurgency in the Preševo Valley
(1999–2001)[edit] Main article: Insurgency
Insurgency
in the Preševo Valley The Insurgency in the Preševo Valley
Insurgency in the Preševo Valley
was an armed conflict between the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
and the ethnic-Albanian insurgents[65][66][67] of the Liberation Army of Preševo, Medveđa and Bujanovac (UÇPMB).[68] There were instances during the conflict in which the Yugoslav government requested KFOR support in suppressing UÇPMB attacks since they could only use lightly armed military forces as part of the Kumanovo Treaty that ended the Kosovo
Kosovo
War, which created a buffer zone so the bulk of the Yugoslav armed forces could not enter.[69] Yugoslav president Vojislav Koštunica
Vojislav Koštunica
warned that fresh fighting would erupt if KFOR units did not act to prevent the attacks that were coming from the UÇPMB.[70] Insurgency
Insurgency
in the Republic of Macedonia
Republic of Macedonia
(2001)[edit] Main article: 2001 insurgency in the Republic of Macedonia The insurgency in the Republic of Macedonia
Republic of Macedonia
was an armed conflict in Tetovo
Tetovo
which began when the ethnic Albanian National Liberation Army (NLA) militant group began attacking the security forces of the Republic of Macedonia
Republic of Macedonia
at the beginning of February 2001, and ended with the Ohrid Agreement. The goal of the NLA was to give greater rights and autonomy to the country's Albanian minority, who make up 25.2% (54.7% of the population in Tetovo) of the population of Macedonia.[71][72] There were also claims that the group ultimately wished to see Albanian-majority areas secede from the country,[73] although high-ranking NLA members have denied this.[71] Arms embargo[edit] The United Nations
United Nations
Security Council had imposed an arms embargo in September 1991.[74] Nevertheless, various states had been engaged in, or facilitated, arms sales to the warring factions: Bulgaria, North Korea, Poland, Ukraine, Romania and Russia were all export countries for weapons to the conflict; the headquarters for a huge logistics operation was in Vienna; financial transactions were executed by a Hungarian bank; arms smugglers used companies registered in the off-shore haven of Panama; and the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
sent military equipment and provided loans for arms purchases, as did Germany.[75] In 2012, Chile convicted nine people, including two retired generals, for their part in arms sales.[76] After the fighting ended, millions of weapons were left with civilians who held on to them in case violence should resurface. These weapons later turned up on the black arms market of Europe.[77] War
War
crimes[edit] Further information: Serbian war crimes in the Yugoslav Wars
Serbian war crimes in the Yugoslav Wars
and Croatian war crimes in the Yugoslav Wars Genocide[edit] Main articles: Bosnian genocide
Bosnian genocide
and Bosnian Genocide
Genocide
Case

The skull of a victim of the July 1995 Srebrenica massacre
Srebrenica massacre
in an exhumed mass grave outside of Potočari, 2007

It is widely considered that mass murders against Bosniaks
Bosniaks
in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Herzegovina
escalated into genocide. On 18 December 1992, the United Nations
United Nations
General Assembly issued resolution 47/121 condemning "aggressive acts by the Serbian and Montenegrin forces to acquire more territories by force" and called such ethnic cleansing "a form of genocide".[78] In its report published on the 1 January 1993, Helsinki Watch was one of the first civil rights organisations that warned that "the extent of the violence and its selective nature along ethnic and religious lines suggest crimes of genocidal character against Muslim and, to a lesser extent, Croatian populations in Bosnia-Hercegovina".[79] A trial took place before the International Court of Justice, following a 1993 suit by Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
against Serbia
Serbia
and Montenegro
Montenegro
alleging genocide. The ICJ ruling of 26 February 2007 indirectly determined the war's nature to be international, though clearing Serbia
Serbia
of direct responsibility for the genocide committed by the forces of Republika Srpska. The ICJ concluded, however, that Serbia
Serbia
failed to prevent genocide committed by Serb forces and failed to punish those responsible, and bring them to justice.[80] A telegram sent to the White House on 8 February 1994 and penned by U.S. Ambassador to Croatia, Peter W. Galbraith, stated that genocide was occurring. The telegram cited "constant and indiscriminate shelling and gunfire" of Sarajevo
Sarajevo
by Karadzic's Yugoslav People Army; the harassment of minority groups in Northern Bosnia "in an attempt to force them to leave"; and the use of detainees "to do dangerous work on the front lines" as evidence that genocide was being committed.[81] In 2005, the United States Congress
United States Congress
passed a resolution declaring that "the Serbian policies of aggression and ethnic cleansing meet the terms defining genocide".[82] Despite the evidence of many kinds of war crimes conducted simultaneously by different Serb forces in different parts of Bosnia and Herzegovina, especially in Bijeljina, Sarajevo, Prijedor, Zvornik, Banja Luka, Višegrad and Foča, the judges ruled that the criteria for genocide with the specific intent (dolus specialis) to destroy Bosnian Muslims were met only in Srebrenica or Eastern Bosnia in 1995.[80] The court concluded that other crimes, outside Srebrenica, committed during the 1992–1995 war, may amount to crimes against humanity according to the international law, but that these acts did not, in themselves, constitute genocide per se.[83] The crime of genocide in the Srebrenica enclave was confirmed in several guilty verdicts handed down by the ICTY, most notably in the conviction of the Bosnian Serb leader Radovan Karadzic.[84] Ethnic cleansing[edit] Main article: Ethnic cleansing
Ethnic cleansing
in the Bosnian War Ethnic cleansing
Ethnic cleansing
was a common phenomenon in the wars in Croatia, Kosovo
Kosovo
and Bosnia and Herzegovina. This entailed intimidation, forced expulsion, or killing of the unwanted ethnic group as well as the destruction of the places of worship, cemeteries and cultural and historical buildings of that ethnic group in order to alter the population composition of an area in the favour of another ethnic group which would become the majority. These examples of territorial nationalism and territorial aspirations are part of the goal of an ethnically pure nation-state.[85] According to numerous ICTY
ICTY
verdicts and indictments, Serb[86][87][88] and Croat[89] forces performed ethnic cleansing of their territories planned by their political leadership to create ethnically pure states ( Republika Srpska
Republika Srpska
and Republic of Serbian Krajina
Republic of Serbian Krajina
by the Serbs; and Herzeg-Bosnia
Herzeg-Bosnia
by the Croats). According to the ICTY, Serb forces deported at least 80–100,000 Croats
Croats
in Croatia
Croatia
in 1991–92[90] and at least 700,000 Albanians
Albanians
in Kosovo
Kosovo
in 1999.[91] Further hundreds of thousands of Muslims were forced out of their homes by the Serb forces in Bosnia and Herzegovina.[92] By one estimate, the Serb forces drove at least 700,000 Bosnian Muslims from the area of Bosnia under their control.[93] War
War
rape[edit]

Detainees at the Trnopolje camp, near Prijedor
Prijedor
(photograph provided courtesy of the ICTY)

Main article: Rape in the Bosnian War War
War
rape occurred as a matter of official orders as part of ethnic cleansing, to displace the targeted ethnic group.[94] According to the Tresnjevka Women's Group, more than 35,000 women and children were held in such Serb-run "rape camps".[95][96][97] Dragoljub Kunarac, Radomir Kovač, and Zoran Vuković were convicted of crimes against humanity for rape, torture, and enslavement committed during the Foča massacres.[98] The evidence of the magnitude of rape in Bosnia and Herzegovina prompted the ICTY
ICTY
to deal openly with these abuses.[99] Reports of sexual violence during the Bosnian War
Bosnian War
(1992–1995) and Kosovo
Kosovo
War (1998–1999) perpetrated by the Serbian regular and irregular forces have been described as "especially alarming".[95] The NATO-led Kosovo Force documented rapes of Albanian, Roma and Serbian women by both Serbs
Serbs
and members of the Kosovo
Kosovo
Liberation Army.[100] Others have estimated that during the Bosnian War
Bosnian War
between 20,000 and 50,000 women, mainly Muslim, were raped.[101][102] There are few reports of rape and sexual assault between members of the same ethnic group.[103] War
War
rape in the Yugoslav Wars
Yugoslav Wars
has often been characterized as a crime against humanity. Rape perpetrated by Serb forces served to destroy cultural and social ties of the victims and their communities.[104] Serbian policies allegedly urged soldiers to rape Bosnian women until they became pregnant as an attempt towards ethnic cleansing. Serbian soldiers hoped to force Bosnian women to carry Serbian children through repeated rape.[105] Often Bosnian women were held in captivity for an extended period of time and only released slightly before the birth of a child conceived of rape. The systematic rape of Bosnian women may have carried further-reaching repercussions than the initial displacement of rape victims. Stress, caused by the trauma of rape, coupled with the lack of access to reproductive health care often experienced by displaced peoples, lead to serious health risks for victimized women.[106] During the Kosovo
Kosovo
War
War
thousands of Kosovo
Kosovo
Albanian women and girls became victims of sexual violence. War
War
rape was used as a weapon of war and an instrument of systematic ethnic cleansing; rape was used to terrorize the civilian population, extort money from families, and force people to flee their homes. According to a report by the Human Rights Watch group in 2000, rape in the Kosovo
Kosovo
War
War
can generally be subdivided into three categories: rapes in women's homes, rapes during flight, and rapes in detention.[107][108] The majority of the perpetrators were Serbian paramilitaries, but also included Serbian special police or Yugoslav army soldiers. Virtually all of the sexual assaults Human Rights Watch
Human Rights Watch
documented were gang rapes involving at least two perpetrators.[107][108] Since the end of the war, rapes of Serbian, Albanian, and Roma women by ethnic Albanians
Albanians
— sometimes by members of the Kosovo
Kosovo
Liberation Army (KLA) – have been documented.[107][108] Rapes occurred frequently in the presence, and with the acquiescence, of military officers. Soldiers, police, and paramilitaries often raped their victims in the full view of numerous witnesses.[94] Consequences[edit] Casualties[edit] Some estimates put the number of killed in the Yugoslav Wars
Yugoslav Wars
at 140,000.[1] The Humanitarian Law Center estimates that in the conflicts in former Yugoslav republics at least 130,000 people lost their lives.[2] Slovenia's involvement in the conflicts was brief, thus avoiding higher casualties, and around 70 people were killed in its ten-day conflict. The War
War
in Croatia
Croatia
left an estimated 20,000 people dead. Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
suffered the heaviest burden of the fighting: around 100,000 people were killed in the war. In the Kosovo
Kosovo
conflict, around 13,500 were killed. Overall, no less than 133,000 people were killed in the post-Yugoslav conflicts in the 90s.[109] The highest death toll was in Sarajevo: with around 14,000 killed during the siege,[109] the city lost almost as many people as the entire war in Kosovo. In relative and absolute numbers, Bosniaks
Bosniaks
suffered the heaviest losses: 64,036 people of their nationality were killed, which represents a death toll of over 3% of their entire nation.[110] They experienced the worst plight in the Srebrenica massacre, where the mortality rate of the Bosniak men (irrespective of their age or civilian status) reached 33% in July 1995.[111] Internally displaced
Internally displaced
and refugees[edit]

Bosnian refugees in 1993

Kosovo
Kosovo
Albanian refugees in 1999

Kosovo
Kosovo
Serb refugees in 1999

It is estimated that the wars in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
and Kosovo
Kosovo
produced about 2.4 million refugees and an additional 2 million internally displaced persons.[112] The war in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
caused 2.2 million refugees or displaced, of which over half were Bosniaks.[113] Up until 2001, there were still 650,000 displaced Bosniaks, while 200,000 left the country permanently.[113] The Kosovo
Kosovo
War
War
caused 862,979 Albanian refugees which were either expulsed from the Serb forces or fled from the battle front.[114] In addition, several hundreds of thousands were internally displaced, which means that, according the OSCE, almost 90% of all Albanians
Albanians
were displaced from their homes in Kosovo
Kosovo
by June 1999.[115] After the end of the war, Albanians
Albanians
returned, but over 200,000 Serbs, Romani and other non- Albanians
Albanians
fled Kosovo. By the end of 2000, Serbia
Serbia
thus became the host of 700,000 Serb refugees or internally displaced from Kosovo, Croatia
Croatia
and Bosnia.[116] From the perspective of asylum for internally displaced or refugees, Croatia
Croatia
took the brunt of the crisis. According to some sources, in 1992 Croatia
Croatia
was the host to almost 750,000 refugees or internally displaced, which represents a quota of almost 16% of its population of 4.7 million inhabitants: these figures included 420 to 450,000 Bosnian refugees, 35,000 refugees from Serbia
Serbia
(mostly from Vojvodina
Vojvodina
and Kosovo) while a further 265,000 persons from other parts of Croatia itself were internally displaced. This would be equivalent of Germany being a host to 10 million displaced people or France to 8 million people. [117] Official UNHCR
UNHCR
data indicate that Croatia
Croatia
was the host to 287,000 refugees and 344,000 internally displaced in 1993. This is a ratio of 64.7 refugees per 1000 inhabitants.[118] In its 1992 report, UNHCR
UNHCR
placed Croatia
Croatia
#7 on its list of 50 most refugee burdened countries: it registered 316 thousand refugees, which is a ratio of 15:1 relative to its total population.[119] Together with those internally displaced, Croatia
Croatia
was the host to at least 648,000 people in need of an accommodation in 1992.[120] In comparison, Macedonia had 10.5 refugees per 1000 inhabitants in 1999.[121] Slovenia
Slovenia
was the host to 45,000 refugees in 1993, which is 22.7 refugees per 1000 inhabitants.[122] Serbia
Serbia
and Montenegro
Montenegro
were the host to 479,111 refugees in 1993, which is a ratio of 45.5 refugees per 1000 inhabitants. By 1998 this grew to 502,037 refugees (or 47.7 refugees per 1000 inhabitants). By 2000 the number of refugees fell to 484,391 persons, but the number of internally displaced grew to 267,500, or a combined total of 751,891 persons who were displaced and in need of an accommodation.[123]

Number of refugees or internally displaced in 1991—2000

Country, region Albanians Bosniaks Croats Serbs Others (Hungarians, Gorani, Romani)

Croatia — — 247,000[124] 300,000[125] —

Bosnia and Herzegovina — 1,270,000[126] 490,000[126] 540,000[126] —

Kosovo 1,200,000[127]— 1,450,000[115] — — 143,000[128] 67,000[128]

Vojvodina, Sandžak — 30,000— 40,000[129] 35,000[117]— 40.000[130] — 60.000[130]

Total ~1,200,000— 1,450,000 ~1,300,000— 1,310,000 ~772,000— 777,000 ~983,000 ~127,000

Material damage[edit]

War
War
damage on the Sarajevo
Sarajevo
buildings

Material and economic damages brought by the conflicts were catastrophic. Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
had a GDP
GDP
of between $8–9 billion before the war. The government estimated the overall war damages at $50–$70 billion. It also registered a GDP
GDP
decline of 75% after the war.[131] Some 60% of the housing in the country has been either damaged or destroyed, which proved a problem when trying to bring all the refugees back home.[132] Bosnia also became the most landmine contaminated country of Europe: 1820 km2 of its territory were contaminated with these explosives, which represent 3.6% of its land surface. Between 3 and 6 million landmines were scattered throughout Bosnia. 5,000 people died from them, of which 1,520 after the war.[133] In 1999, the Croatian Parliament
Croatian Parliament
passed a bill estimating war damages of the country at $37 billion.[134] The government alleges that between 1991 and April 1993 an estimated total of 210,000 buildings in Croatia
Croatia
(including schools, hospitals and refugee camps) were either damaged or destroyed from shelling by the Republic of Serbian Krajina and the JNA forces. Cities affected by the shelling were Karlovac, Gospić, Ogulin, Zadar, Biograd
Biograd
and others.[135] The Croatian government also acknowledged that 7,489 buildings belonging to Croatian Serbs
Serbs
were damaged or destroyed by explosives, arson or other deliberate means by the end of 1992. From January to March 1993 another 220 buildings were also damaged or destroyed. Criminal charges were brought against 126 Croats
Croats
for such acts.[136] Sanctions against FR Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
createad a hyperinflation of 300 million percent of the Yugoslav dinar. By 1995, almost 1 million workers lost their jobs while the gross domestic product has fallen 55 percent since 1989.[137] The 1999 NATO
NATO
bombing of Serbia resulted in additional damages. One of the most severe was the bombing of the Pančevo
Pančevo
petrochemical factory, which caused the release of 80,000 tonnes of burning fuel into the environment.[138] Approximately 31,000 rounds of depleted Uranium ammuniton was used during this bombing.[139] Timeline of the Yugoslav Wars[edit] Main article: Timeline of the Yugoslav Wars

A shelled Croatian hotel resort of the Dalmatian coastline in Kupari near Dubrovnik
Dubrovnik
(1991)

1990

Log Revolution. SAO Krajina
SAO Krajina
is proclaimed over an indefinite area of Croatia.

1991

Slovenia
Slovenia
and Croatia
Croatia
declare independence in June, Macedonia in September. War
War
in Slovenia
Slovenia
lasts ten days, and results in dozens of fatalities. The Yugoslav army leaves Slovenia
Slovenia
defeated, but supports rebel Serb forces in Croatia. The Croatian War of Independence
Croatian War of Independence
begins in Croatia. Serb areas in Croatia
Croatia
declare independence, but are recognized only by Belgrade. Vukovar
Vukovar
is devastated by bombardments and shelling, and other cities such as Dubrovnik, Karlovac
Karlovac
and Osijek
Osijek
sustain extensive damage.[140] Refugees
Refugees
from war zones overwhelm Croatia, while Europe is slow to accept refugees. In Croatia, about 250,000 Croats
Croats
and other non- Serbs
Serbs
forced from their homes or fled the violence.[141]

1992

Sarajevo. Besieged residents collect firewood in the bitter winter of 1992.

Vance Plan signed, creating four United Nations
United Nations
Protection Force zones for Serbs
Serbs
and ending large-scale fighting in Croatia. Bosnia declares independence. Bosnian war
Bosnian war
begins with the Bosnian Serb military leadership, most notably Ratko Mladić, trying to create a new, separate Serb state, Republika Srpska, through which they would conquer as much of Bosnia as possible for the vision of a Greater Serbia.[142] Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
proclaimed, consisting of Serbia
Serbia
and Montenegro, the two remaining republics. United Nations
United Nations
impose sanctions against FR Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
for its support of the unrecognized Republic of Serbian Krajina
Republic of Serbian Krajina
in Croatia
Croatia
and Republika Srpska
Republika Srpska
in Bosnia.[143] In May 1992, Slovenia, Croatia
Croatia
and Bosnia become UN members. FR Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
claims being sole legal heir to SFRY, which is disputed by other republics. UN envoys agree that Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
had 'dissolved into constituent republics'. The Yugoslav army retreats from Bosnia, but leaves its weapons to the army of Republika Srpska, which attacks poorly armed Bosnian cities of Zvornik, Kotor Varoš, Prijedor, Foča, Višegrad, Doboj. Prijedor ethnic cleansing and siege of Sarajevo
Sarajevo
start. Hundreds of thousands of non-Serbian refugees. Bosniak-Croat conflict begins in Bosnia.

Two Croatian Defense Council
Croatian Defense Council
(HVO) T-55 Main Battle Tanks pull into firing position during a three-day exercise held at the Barbara Range in Glamoč, Bosnia and Herzegovina.

1993

Fighting begins in the Bihać region between Bosnian Government forces loyal to Alija Izetbegović, and Bosniaks
Bosniaks
loyal to Fikret Abdić, also supported by the Serbs. Sanctions in FR Yugoslavia, now isolated, create hyperinflation of 300 million percent of the Yugoslav dinar.[137] Ahmići massacre: the Croat forces kill over a hundred Bosnian Muslims. Battle of Mostar. The Stari Most
Stari Most
(The Old Bridge) in Mostar, built in 1566, was destroyed by Croatian HVO forces.[144] It was rebuilt in 2003.

1994

Markale market shelling in Sarajevo. Peace treaty between Bosniaks
Bosniaks
and Croats
Croats
arbitrated by the United States, Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
formed. FR Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
starts slowly suspending its financial and military support for Republika Srpska.[145]

1995

Srebrenica Genocide
Genocide
Memorial Stone at Potočari.

Srebrenica massacre
Srebrenica massacre
reported. 8,000 Bosniaks
Bosniaks
killed by Serb forces.[84] Croatia
Croatia
launches Operation Flash, recapturing a part of its territory, but tens of thousands of Serb civilians flee from the area. The RSK responds with the Zagreb rocket attack. Croatia
Croatia
launches Operation Storm, reclaiming all UNPA zones except Eastern Slavonia, and resulting in exodus of 150,000–200,000 Serbs from the zones. Yugoslav forces do not intervene. War
War
in Croatia
Croatia
ends.

A boy at a grave during the 2006 funeral of Srebrenica victims

NATO
NATO
launches a series of air strikes on Bosnian Serb artillery and other military targets. Croatian and Bosnian army start a joint offensive against Republika Srpska. Dayton Agreement
Dayton Agreement
signed in Paris. War
War
in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
ends. Aftermath of war is over 100,000 killed and missing and two million people internally displaced or refugees.[146]

1996

FR Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
recognizes Croatia
Croatia
and Bosnia & Herzegovina. Fighting breaks out in Kosovo
Kosovo
between Albanians
Albanians
rebels and FR Yugoslav authorities. Following allegations of fraud in local elections, tens of thousands of Serbs
Serbs
demonstrate in Belgrade
Belgrade
against the Milošević government for three months.[147]

1998

Eastern Slavonia
Slavonia
peacefully reintegrated into Croatia, following a gradual three-year handover of power. Fighting in Kosovo
Kosovo
gradually escalates between Albanians
Albanians
demanding independence and the state.

Yugoslav Ministry of Defence
Yugoslav Ministry of Defence
building in Belgrade
Belgrade
destroyed during the 1999 NATO
NATO
bombing.

1999

Račak massacre, Rambouillet talks fail. NATO
NATO
starts a military campaign in Kosovo
Kosovo
and bombards FR Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
in Operation Allied Force.[148] Following Milošević's signing of an agreement, control of Kosovo
Kosovo
is handed to the United Nations, but still remains a part of Yugoslavia's federation. After losing wars in Croatia, Bosnia and Kosovo, numerous Serbs
Serbs
leave those regions to find refuge in remainder of Serbia. In 1999, Serbia
Serbia
was host to some 700,000 Serb refugees or internally displaced.[116] Fresh fighting erupts between Albanians
Albanians
and Yugoslav security forces in Albanian populated areas outside of Kosovo, with the intent of joining three municipalities to Kosovo. Franjo Tuđman
Franjo Tuđman
dies. Shortly after, his party loses the elections.

2000

Slobodan Milošević
Slobodan Milošević
is voted out of office, and Vojislav Koštunica becomes the new president of Yugoslavia. With Milošević ousted and a new government in place, FR Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
restores ties with the west. The political and economic sanctions are suspended in total, and FRY is reinstated in many political and economic organizations, as well as becoming a candidate for other collaborative efforts.

See also[edit]

Balkanization Dissolution of Czechoslovakia Dissolution of the Soviet Union Serbian historiography This War
War
Of Mine

Europe portal War
War
portal 1990s portal

Notes[edit]

^ Some historians only narrow the conflicts to Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
and Kosovo
Kosovo
in the 1990s.[4] Others also include the Preševo Valley Conflict and Insurgency
Insurgency
in Macedonia (2001).

References[edit]

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2003. ^ Human Rights Watch
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2001. ^ a b OSCE
OSCE
1999, p. 13. ^ a b Rowland, Jacky (22 March 2000). "Bleak outlook for Serb refugees". Belgrade: BBC News. Retrieved 4 July 2012.  ^ a b Council of Europe 1993, p. 9. ^ UNHCR
UNHCR
2002, p. 1 ^ UNHCR
UNHCR
1993, p. 11. ^ UNHCR
UNHCR
1993, p. 8. ^ UNHCR
UNHCR
2000, p 319 ^ UNHCR
UNHCR
2002, p. 1 ^ UNHCR
UNHCR
2002, p. 1 ^ US Department of State (1994). "CROATIA HUMAN RIGHTS PRACTICES, 1993".  ^ UNHCR
UNHCR
1997. ^ a b c Friedman 2013, p. 80. ^ Krieger 2001, p. 90. ^ a b Human Rights Watch
Human Rights Watch
(2001). "Under Orders: War
War
Crimes in Kosovo".  ^ Siblesz 1998, p. 10. ^ a b Human Rights Watch
Human Rights Watch
1994, p. 7. ^ World Bank 1996, p. 10. ^ Meyers 2004, p. 136. ^ Jha 2014, p. 68. ^ Bicanic 2008, p. 158–173. ^ OHCHR 1993, p. 23. ^ OHCHR 1993, p. 19. ^ a b Erik Kirschbaum (July 13, 1995). "YUGOSLAV ECONOMY FORECAST TO GROW ONCE EMBARGO ENDS INFLATION WHIPPED, CENTRAL BANKER SAYS". JOC Group. Retrieved 7 August 2017.  ^ Jha 2014, p. 69. ^ Jha 2014, p. 72. ^ Zaknic 1992, p. 115–124. ^ "Milosevic: Important New Charges on Croatia". Human Rights Watch. The Hague: Human Rights Watch. 21 October 2001. Retrieved 29 October 2010.  ^ Off 2010, p. 218. ^ Stanley Meisler and Carol J. Williams (31 May 1992). "Angry U.N. Votes Harsh Sanctions on Yugoslavia : Balkans: The Security Council, infuriated by bloody attacks in Bosnia-Herzegovina, imposes an oil embargo and other curbs. China, Zimbabwe abstain in 13-0 vote". LA Times. Retrieved 7 August 2017.  ^ Block, Robert; Bellamy, Christopher (10 November 1993). "Croats destroy Mostar's historic bridge". The Independent.  ^ Carol J. Williams (5 August 1994). " Serbia
Serbia
Cuts Off Bosnian Rebels : Balkans: Belgrade, under international pressure, says it is denying supplies of fuel and arms to forces it has supported. Washington cautiously welcomes move". LA Times. Retrieved 7 July 2017.  ^ "Returns to Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
reach 1 million: This is a summary of what was said by UNHCR
UNHCR
spokesperson Ron Redmond – to whom quoted text may be attributed – at today's press briefing at the Palais des Nations in Geneva". UNHCR, The UN Refugee Agency. United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. 21 September 2004. Retrieved 11 August 2012.  ^ "20,000 Attend a Protest
Protest
Against Serbian Leader". The New York Times. 10 March 1996. Retrieved 7 July 2017.  ^ " NATO
NATO
attack on Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
begins". CNN. 24 March 1999. Retrieved 7 July 2017. 

Sources[edit]

Books[edit]

Allen, Beverly (1996). Rape Warfare: The Hidden Genocide
Genocide
in Bosnia- Herzegovina
Herzegovina
and Croatia. University of Minnesota Press. ISBN 978-0-8166-2818-6.  Baker, Catherine (2015). The Yugoslav Wars
Yugoslav Wars
of the 1990s. Macmillan International Higher Education. ISBN 978-1-137-39899-4.  Bideleux, Robert; Jeffries, Ian (2007). A history of Eastern Europe: crisis and change (2nd ed.). Taylor & Francis. ISBN 0-415-36627-5. Retrieved 22 April 2012.  Brown, Cynthia; Karim, Farhad (1995). Playing the "Communal Card": Communal Violence and Human Rights. New York: Human Rights Watch. ISBN 978-1-56432-152-7.  Brouwer, Anne-Marie de (2005). Supranational Criminal Prosecution of Sexual Violence. Intersentia. ISBN 90-5095-533-9.  Campbell, Kenneth (2001). Genocide
Genocide
and the Global Village. Springer. ISBN 0312299281.  Cohen, Leonard J.; Dragović-Soso, Jasna, eds. (2008). State Collapse in South-Eastern Europe: New Perspectives on Yugoslavia's Disintegration. Purdue University Press. p. 323. ISBN 9781557534606.  Egan, James. 1000 Facts About Countries. 2. Lulu.com. p. 171. ISBN 9781326776725.  Finlan, Alastair (2004). The Collapse of Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
1991–1999. Essential Histories. Oxford, UK: Osprey. ISBN 978-1-84176-805-2.  Friedman, Francine (2013). Bosnia and Herzegovina: A Polity on the Brink. Routledge. ISBN 9781134527540.  Gagnon, Valère Philip (2004). The Myth of Ethnic War: Serbia
Serbia
and Croatia
Croatia
in the 1990s. Cornell University Press. ISBN 978-0-8014-7291-6.  Geldenhuys, Dean (2004). Deviant Conduct in World Politics. Springer. ISBN 0230000711.  Glenny, Misha (1996). The fall of Yugoslavia: the third Balkan war. London: Penguin. ISBN 0-14-026101-X.  Goldstein, Ivo (1999). Croatia: A History. C. Hurst & Co. ISBN 1-85065-525-1.  Ingrao, Charles; Emmert, Thomas A., eds. (2003). Confronting the Yugoslav Controversies: A Scholars' Initiative (2nd ed.). Purdue University Press. ISBN 978-1-55753-617-4.  Jha, U. C. (2014). Armed Conflict and Environmental Damage. Vij Books India Pvt Ltd. ISBN 9382652817.  Krieger, Heike (2001). Heike Krieger, ed. The Kosovo
Kosovo
Conflict and International Law: An Analytical Documentation 1974-1999. Cambridge University Press. p. 90. ISBN 9780521800716.  Meštrović, Stjepan Gabriel (1996). Genocide
Genocide
After Emotion: The Postemotional Balkan War. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-12294-5.  Meyers, Eytan (2004). International Immigration Policy: A Theoretical and Comparative Analysis. Springer. ISBN 1403978379.  Naimark, Norman; Case, Holly M. (2003). Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
and Its Historians: Understanding the Balkan Wars
Balkan Wars
of the 1990s. Stanford University Press. ISBN 0-8047-4594-3. Retrieved 22 April 2012.  Off, Carol (2010). The Lion, the Fox and the Eagle. Random House of Canada. p. 218. ISBN 0307370771.  Ramet, Sabrina P. (2010). Central and Southeast European Politics Since 1989. Cambridge, England: Cambridge
Cambridge
University Press. ISBN 978-1-139-48750-4.  Rogel, Carole (2004). The Breakup of Yugoslavia
Breakup of Yugoslavia
and Its Aftermath. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 0-313-32357-7. Retrieved 22 April 2012.  Shaw, Martin (2013). Genocide
Genocide
and International Relations: Changing Patterns in the Transitions of the Late Modern World. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 1107469104.  Tanner, Marcus (2001). Croatia : a nation forged in war (2nd ed.). New Haven; London: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-09125-7.  Toal, Gerard; Dahlman, Carl T. (2011). Bosnia Remade: Ethnic Cleansing and its Reversal. Oxford University Press. pp. 136, 137. ISBN 9780190207908.  Watkins, Clem S. (2003). The Balkans. Nova Publishers. p. 10. ISBN 9781590335253.  Aleksandar, Bosković; Dević, Ana; Gavrilović, Darko; Hašimbegović, Elma; Ljubojević, Ana; Perica, Vjekoslav; Velikonja, Mitja, eds. (2011). Political Myths in the Former Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
and Successor States: A Shared Narrative. Institute for Historical Justice and Reconciliation. ISBN 90-8979-067-5.  Central Intelligence Agency, Office of Russian and European Analysis (2002). Balkan Battlegrounds: A Military History of the Yugoslav Conflict, 1990–1995. Washington, D.C.: Central Intelligence Agency. ISBN 978-0-16-066472-4.  Council of Europe (1993). Documents (working Papers) 1993. p. 9. ISBN 9789287123329.  Ullman, Richard Henry (1996). The World and Yugoslavia's Wars. Council on Foreign Relations. ISBN 978-0-87609-191-3.  World Bank (1996). Bosnia and Herzegovina: Toward Economic Recovery. World Bank Publications. p. 10. ISBN 0821336738. 

Scientific journal articles[edit]

Bicanic, Ivo (2008). "Croatia". Southeast European and Black Sea Studies. 1 (1): 158–173. doi:10.1080/14683850108454628.  Brunborg, Helge; Lyngstad, Torkild Hovde; Urdal, Henrik (2003). "Accounting for Genocide: How Many Were Killed in Srebrenica?". European Journal of Population / Revue européenne de Démographie. 19 (3): 229–248. doi:10.1023/A:1024949307841. JSTOR 20164231.  Card, Claudia (1996). "Rape as a Weapon of War". Hypatia. 11 (4): 5–18. doi:10.1111/j.1527-2001.1996.tb01031.x. ISSN 0887-5367. JSTOR 3810388.  Guzina, Dejan (2003). "Socialist Serbia's Narratives: From Yugoslavia to a Greater Serbia". International Journal of Politics, Culture, and Society. 17 (1): 91–111. doi:10.1023/A:102534101.  McGinn, Therese (2000). "Reproductive Health of War-Affected Populations: What Do We Know?". International Family Planning Perspectives. 26 (4): 174–180. doi:10.2307/2648255. ISSN 0190-3187. JSTOR 2648255.  Salzman, Todd A. (1998). "Rape Camps as a Means of Ethnic Cleansing: Religious, Cultural, and Ethical Responses to Rape Victims in the Former Yugoslavia". Human Rights Quarterly. 20 (2): 348–378. doi:10.1353/hrq.1998.0019.  Wood, William B. (2001). "Geographic Aspects of Genocide: A Comparison of Bosnia and Rwanda". Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers. 26 (1): 57–75. doi:10.1111/1475-5661.00006. JSTOR 623145.  Zaknic, Ivan (1992). "The Pain of Ruins: Croatian Architecture under Siege". Journal of Architectural Education. 46 (2): 115–124. doi:10.1080/10464883.1992.10734547. 

Other sources[edit]

Bassiouni, M. Cherif (28 December 1994). "Final report of the United Nations Commission of Experts established pursuant to security council resolution 780 (1992), Annex III – The military structure, strategy and tactics of the warring factions". United Nations. Archived from the original on July 28, 2012. Retrieved 11 July 2012.  Bassiouni, M. Cherif (28 December 1994). "Final report of the United Nations Commission of Experts established pursuant to security council resolution 780 (1992), Annex IV – The policy of ethnic cleansing". United Nations. Archived from the original on May 4, 2012. Retrieved 11 July 2012.  Ferguson, Kate. An investigation into the irregular military dynamics in Yugoslavia, 1992-1995. Diss. University of East Anglia, 2015. Siblesz, H.H. (1998). "History of Sandzak" (pdf). Refworld. p. 10.  "The Prosecutor vs Milan Milutinovic et al – Judgement" (PDF). International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia. 26 February 2009.  Human Rights Watch
Human Rights Watch
(1994). "Human Rights Abuses of Non- Serbs
Serbs
In Kosovo, Sandñak and Vojvodina" (PDF).  Human Rights Watch
Human Rights Watch
(2001). "Kosovo: Under Orders".  Human Rights Watch
Human Rights Watch
(2001). "Milosevic: Important New Charges on Croatia".  OHCHR (1993). "Fifth periodic report on the situation of human rights in the territory of the former Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
submitted by Mr. Tadeusz Mazowiecki". Retrieved 19 August 2017.  OSCE
OSCE
(1999). "KOSOVO / KOSOVA: As Seen, As Told". p. 13.  UNHCR
UNHCR
(1993). "The State of the World's Refugees
Refugees
1993" (PDF).  UNHCR
UNHCR
(1997). "U.S. Committee for Refugees
Refugees
World Refugee Survey 1997 – Yugoslavia".  "2002 UNHCR
UNHCR
Statistical Yearbook: Croatia" (pdf). UNHCR. 2002.  "2002 UNHCR
UNHCR
Statistical Yearbook: Macedonia". UNHCR. 2000.  "2002 UNHCR
UNHCR
Statistical Yearbook: Slovenia" (pdf). UNHCR. 2002.  "2002 UNHCR
UNHCR
Statistical Yearbook: Serbia" (pdf). UNHCR. 2002.  UNHCR
UNHCR
(2003). "Bosnian refugees in Australia: identity, community and labour market integration" (PDF). 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Yugoslav Wars.

Video on the Conflict in the Former Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
from the Dean Peter Krogh Foreign Affairs Digital Archives Information and links on the Third Balkan War
War
(1991–2001) Nation, R. Craig. " War
War
in the Balkans
Balkans
1991–2002" Radović, Bora, Jugoslovenski ratovi 1991–1999 i neke od njihovih društvenih posledica (PDF) (in Serbian), RS: IAN  Wiebes, Cees. Intelligence and the War
War
in Bosnia 1992–1995, Publisher: Lit Verlag, 2003 Yugoslav wars at Curlie (based on DMOZ) List of Yugoslav wars movies Archive about the wars

v t e

Yugoslav Wars

Overview Participants People

Wars and conflicts

Slovenian War
War
of Independence (1991) Croatian War of Independence
Croatian War of Independence
(1991–95) Bosnian War
Bosnian War
(1992–95)

Croat–Bosniak War
Croat–Bosniak War
(1992–94)

Kosovo
Kosovo
War
War
(1998–99) Insurgency in the Preševo Valley
Insurgency in the Preševo Valley
(1999–2001) 2001 insurgency in the Republic of Macedonia
Republic of Macedonia
(2001)

Background:

Timeline of Yugoslav breakup Josip Broz Tito Brotherhood and unity League of Communists of Yugoslavia Croatian Spring SANU Memorandum Contributions for the Slovenian National Program Anti-bureaucratic revolution JBTZ-trial Gazimestan speech RAM Plan Breakup of Yugoslavia Karađorđevo agreement Graz agreement Joint Criminal Enterprise Role of the media in the Yugoslav wars

Consequences:

Brioni Agreement Dayton Agreement Agreement on Sub-Regional Arms Control International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
(ICTY)

List of ICTY
ICTY
indictees

Human rights in Croatia Human rights in Serbia

Articles on nationalism:

Ethnic cleansing Greater Albania Greater Croatia United Macedonia Greater Serbia United Slovenia Anti-Serbian sentiment Islamophobia Albanian nationalism Bosnianism Croatian nationalism Macedonian nationalism Montenegrin nationalism Serbian nationalism Serbian–Montenegrin unionism Slovenian nationalism Yugoslavism

Ex-Yugoslav republics:

  Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
(SFRY)

 Croatia  Slovenia  Bosnia and Herzegovina  Macedonia   Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
(FRY)

Unrecognized entities:

  Republic of Serbian Krajina
Republic of Serbian Krajina
(RSK)

SAO Eastern Slavonia, Baranja and Western Syrmia SAO Krajina SAO Western Slavonia

  Republika Srpska
Republika Srpska
(RS)

SAO Bosanska Krajina SAO Herzegovina SAO North-Eastern Bosnia SAO Romanija

 Croatian Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia
Herzeg-Bosnia
(HRHB) Autonomous Province of Western Bosnia (APZB)

United Nations
United Nations
protectorate:

United Nations
United Nations
Transitional Authority for Eastern Slavonia, Baranja and Western Sirmium (UNTAES) United Nations
United Nations
Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo
Kosovo
(UNMIK)

Armies:

Yugoslav People's Army
Yugoslav People's Army
(JNA) Yugoslav Territorial Defence (TO) Slovenian Territorial Defence
Slovenian Territorial Defence
(TORS) Yugoslav Army (VJ) Croatian Army (HV) BiH Territorial Defence (TORBIH) Army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
(ARBiH) Army of Republika Srpska
Republika Srpska
(VRS) Army of the Republic of Serb Krajina
Army of the Republic of Serb Krajina
(SVK) Croatian Defence Council
Croatian Defence Council
(HVO)

Military formations and volunteers:

Croatian Defence Forces
Croatian Defence Forces
(HOS) White Eagles Serb Guard (SG) Serb Volunteer Guard
Serb Volunteer Guard
(SDG) Scorpions Yellow Wasps Greek Volunteer Guard Wolves of Vučjak

External factors:

NATO United Nations
United Nations
(UN)

United Nations
United Nations
Protection Force (UNPROFOR) United Nations
United Nations
Confidence Restoration Operation (UNCRO)

Politicians:

Ante Marković Borisav Jović Slobodan Milošević Momir Bulatović Milo Đukanović Vuk Drašković Milan Kučan Lojze Peterle Janez Janša Franjo Tuđman Stjepan Mesić Ante Paradžik
Ante Paradžik
† Dobroslav Paraga Alija Izetbegović Mate Boban Fikret Abdić Radovan Karadžić Biljana Plavšić Momčilo Krajišnik Mirko Jović Jovan Rašković
Jovan Rašković
† Milan Babić Goran Hadžić Milan Martić Vojislav Šešelj

Top military commanders:

Veljko Kadijević Života Panić Momčilo Perišić Janko Bobetko Martin Špegelj Gojko Šušak Mile Novaković Mile Mrkšić Ratko Mladić Rasim Delić Sefer Halilović Atif Dudaković Dragoljub Ojdanić Nebojša Pavković Vladimir Lazarević

Other notable commanders:

Blago Zadro
Blago Zadro
 † Blaž Kraljević
Blaž Kraljević
† Ante Gotovina Jovan Divjak Naser Orić Veselin Šljivančanin Milan Tepić
Milan Tepić
 † Đorđe Božović  † Vukašin Šoškoćanin
Vukašin Šoškoćanin
Veljko Milanković
Veljko Milanković
† Ljubiša Savić Dragan Vasiljković Željko Ražnatović Milorad Ulemek

Key foreign figures:

Lord Carrington Cyrus Vance Lord Owen Richard Holbrooke Robert Badinter

v t e

Croatian War
War
of Independence

Part of the Yugoslav Wars

Prelude

Log Revolution SAO Krajina

1991

Pakrac clash Plitvice Lakes incident 1991 siege of Kijevo Battle of Borovo Selo 1991 riot in Zadar 1991 protest in Split SAO Eastern Slavonia, Baranja and Western Syrmia Operation Stinger Dalj massacre Operation Labrador SAO Western Slavonia Battle of Vukovar Battle of Osijek Battle of Gospić Battle of Kusonje Battle of the Barracks Siege of Varaždin Barracks Siege of Bjelovar Barracks Battle of Zadar Battle of Šibenik 1991 Yugoslav campaign in Croatia Siege of Dubrovnik Bombing of Banski dvori Široka Kula massacre Lovas massacre Gospić
Gospić
massacre Baćin massacre Saborsko massacre Operation Otkos 10 Battle of Logorište Erdut massacre Battle of the Dalmatian channels Kostrići massacre Škabrnja massacre Vukovar
Vukovar
massacre Vance plan Operation Whirlwind Paulin Dvor massacre Gornje Jame massacre Operation Orkan 91 Voćin massacre Joševica massacre Operation Devil's Beam Bruška massacre

1992

Sarajevo
Sarajevo
Agreement 1992 European Community Monitor Mission helicopter downing Operation Baranja Operation Jackal Battle of the Miljevci Plateau Operation Tiger (1992) Operation Liberated Land Battle of Konavle Operation Vlaštica

1993–94

Operation Maslenica Daruvar Agreement Operation Backstop Operation Medak Pocket Z-4 Plan Operation Winter '94

1995

Operation Leap 1 Operation Flash Zagreb rocket attack Operation Leap 2 Operation Summer '95 Operation Storm Operation Maestral 2 Varivode massacre

Timeline of the Croatian War
War
of Independence

Internment camps

Begejci camp Bučje camp Knin camp Lora prison camp Ovčara camp Sremska Mitrovica prison camp Stajićevo camp Velepromet camp

Other

Independence of Croatia Persecution of Croats
Croats
in Serbia
Serbia
during the war in Croatia

Category Commons

v t e

Bosnian War

Part of the Yugoslav Wars

Belligerents

Bosnian side

Army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina

1st Corps 2nd Corps 3rd Corps 4th Corps 5th Corps 6th Corps 7th Corps

Paramilitary

Patriotic League Green Berets Black Swans Mujahideen Croatian Defence Forces

Croat side

Croatian Defence Council

1OZ 2OZ 3OZ 4OZ

Paramilitary

Croatian Defence Forces Knights

Serb side

Army of Republika Srpska

1st Krajina Corps 2nd Krajina Corps 3rd Corps East Bosnia Corps Herzegovina
Herzegovina
Corps Sarajevo-Romanija Corps Drina Corps

Paramilitary

Wolves of Vučjak White Eagles Serb Volunteer Guard Scorpions Yellow Wasps

Prelude

Karađorđevo meeting Zulfikarpašić–Karadžić agreement RAM Plan Serb Autonomous Regions

Bosanska Krajina Herzegovina North-East Bosnia Romanija

Establishment of Republika Srpska Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
independence referendum Sarajevo
Sarajevo
wedding shooting Declaration of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina Battle of Bosanski Brod Sijekovac killings Bijeljina massacre 1992 anti-war protests in Sarajevo

1992

Battle of Kupres Siege of Sarajevo Foča massacres Siege of Srebrenica Zvornik massacre Doboj Snagovo massacre Prijedor
Prijedor
ethnic cleansing Sarajevo
Sarajevo
column incident Siege of Goražde Graz agreement Glogova massacre Lašva Valley ethnic cleansing Tuzla column incident Zaklopača massacre Vilina Vlas Siege of Doboj Bijeli Potok massacre Pionirska Street fire Operation Jackal Višegrad massacres

Bosanska Jagodina Paklenik Barimo Sjeverin

Čemerno massacre Siege of Bihać Ahatovići massacre Croat–Bosniak War Operation Vrbas '92 Operation Corridor 92  Croatian Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia Agreement on Friendship and Cooperation between Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia Korićani Cliffs massacre

1993

Kravica attack Duša killings Skelani massacre Štrpci Siege of Mostar Srebrenica shelling Ahmići massacre Trusina killings Sovići and Doljani massacres Vranica case Dobrinja mortar attack Battle of Žepče

Operation Irma Operation Neretva '93 Grabovica massacre Mokronoge massacre Stupni Do massacre Autonomous Province of Western Bosnia Operation Deny Flight Križančevo Selo killings

1994

Operation Tvigi 94 First Markale massacre Banja Luka
Banja Luka
incident Washington Agreement  Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina Operation Bøllebank Attack on Spin magazine journalists Operation Tiger Battle of Kupres Operation Amanda Operation Spider Operation Winter '94

1995

Operation Leap 1 Battle of Orašje Operation Leap 2 Split Agreement Operation Summer '95 Pale air strikes Tuzla shelling Battle of Vrbanja Bridge Srebrenica massacre

Kravica

Battle for Vozuća Operation Miracle Operation Storm Second Markale massacre NATO
NATO
bombing campaign Operation Mistral 2 Operation Sana Operation Una Operation Southern Move Exodus of Sarajevo
Sarajevo
Serbs Dayton Agreement  Bosnia and Herzegovina

Internment camps

Silos Manjača Liplje Luka Omarska Keraterm Trnopolje Sušica Čelebići Batković Dretelj Uzamnica Heliodrom Gabela Vojno

Aspects

Ethnic cleansing
Ethnic cleansing
and massacres

Bosnian genocide

Internment camps Rape Peace plans NATO
NATO
intervention Foreign support Foreign fighters

Timeline of the Bosnian War
Bosnian War
(Timeline of the Croat–Bosniak War)

Category Commons

Category Commons

v t e

Yugoslavia articles

History

Timeline Creation Kingdom

6 January Dictatorship

World War
War
II

Invasion Partisans Chetniks Belgrade
Belgrade
Offensive

SFR Yugoslavia

Tito–Stalin Split Balkan Pact

Yugoslavism

Yugoslavs

in Serbia

Yugoslav irredentism Yugoslav Committee

Breakup

Yugoslav Wars
Yugoslav Wars
(1991–1999) Croatian independence

War
War
(1991–1995)

Slovenian independence ( Ten-Day War
Ten-Day War
(June–July 1991) Brijuni
Brijuni
Agreement) Macedonian independence (1991) Bosnian independence ( War
War
(1992–1995) Dayton Agreement) Serbia
Serbia
and Montenegro
Montenegro
(1992–2006)

Politics

Administrative divisions

Kingdom

Constitution

1921 1931 1946 1953 1963 1974

Elections Federal Executive Council

Prime Minister

Foreign relations ( Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
and NAM) Governments Heads of state Human rights

LGBT

Parliament

Titoism Đilasism Rankovićism

Political parties

League of Communists

Presidency Security

counterintelligence

Military

History Army (1918–1945 1945–1992 ranks (Marshal)) Navy (1918–1945 1945–1992) Air Force (1918–1945 1945–1992) Territorial Defense

Economy

Agriculture Computer systems (SFRY) Dinar (currency) Energy Industry Krone (currency) Mining National Bank

governors

Services Stock Exchange Telecommunications

Internet domain

Tourism Transport

Society

Demographics (SFRY) Education (SFRY) Healthcare Minorities Postal codes Public holidays Yugoslavs

list

Languages

Macedonian Serbo-Croatian

Bosnian Croatian Montenegrin Serbian

Slovene (Slovenian)

Culture

Academy Architecture Art Cinema

films

Drama Encyclopedia of Yugoslavia Folklore Music

composers

National costume Philosophy Religion Sport

football

Yugoslav Radio Television

Cuisine

Bosnian Croatian

wine

Macedonian

wine

Montenegrin

wine

Serbian

wine

Slovenian

wine

Literature

Bosnian Croatian Macedonian Montenegrin Serbian Slovene Poets

Symbols

Anthem (1918–1945 1945–1992) Coat of arms Flag of Yugoslavia

List

Motto Orders, decorations, and medals of SFR Yugoslavia

Category

v t e

Timeline of Yugoslav statehood

Pre-1918 1918–1929 1929–1945 1941–1945 1945–1946 1946–1963 1963–1992 1992–2003 2003–2006 2006–2008 2008–

Slovenia

Part of Austria-Hungary including the Bay of Kotor See also Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia 1868–1918 Kingdom of Dalmatia 1815–1918 Condominium of Bosnia and Herzegovina 1878–1918

Kingdom of Serbs, Croats
Croats
and Slovenes (1918–1929)

Kingdom of Yugoslavia (1929–1945) See also State of Slovenes, Croats
Croats
and Serbs 1918 Republic of Prekmurje 1919 Banat, Bačka and Baranja 1918–1919 Free State of Fiume 1920–1924 1924–1945 Italian province of Zadar 1920–1947

Annexed bya Fascist Italy
Italy
and Nazi Germany Democratic Federal Yugoslavia 1945–1946

Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia 1946–1963

Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia 1963–1992 Consisted of the Socialist Republics of Slovenia
Slovenia
(1945–1991) Croatia
Croatia
(1945–1991) Bosnia and Herzegovina
Herzegovina
(1945–1992) Serbia
Serbia
(1945–1992) (included the autonomous provinces of Vojvodina
Vojvodina
and Kosovo) Montenegro
Montenegro
(1945–1992) Macedonia (1945–1991) See also Free Territory of Trieste
Free Territory of Trieste
(1947–1954) j

 Republic of Slovenia Ten-Day War

Dalmatia

Independent State of Croatia 1941–1945 Puppet state of Nazi Germany. Parts annexed by Fascist Italy. Međimurje
Međimurje
and Baranja annexed by Hungary.

 Republic of Croatiab Croatian War
War
of Independence

Slavonia

Croatia

Bosnia  Bosnia and Herzegovinac Bosnian War Consists of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
(1995–present), Republika Srpska
Republika Srpska
(1995–present) and Brčko District (2000–present).

Herzegovina

Vojvodina Part of the Délvidék region of Hungary Autonomous Banatd (part of the German Territory of the Military Commander in Serbia)

Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Consisted of the Republic of Serbia
Serbia
(1990–2006) and Republic of Montenegro
Montenegro
(1992–2006)

State Union of Serbia
Serbia
and Montenegro Republic of Serbia Included the autonomous provinces of Vojvodina
Vojvodina
and, under UN administration, Kosovo
Kosovo
and Metohija

Republic of Serbia Includes the autonomous province of Vojvodina

Serbia Kingdom of Serbia 1882–1918 Territory of the Military Commander in Serbia 1941–1944 e

Kosovo Part of the Kingdom of Serbia 1912–1918 Mostly annexed by Albania 1941–1944 along with western Macedonia and south-eastern Montenegro

Republic of Kosovog

Metohija Kingdom of Montenegro 1910–1918 Metohija
Metohija
controlled by Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
1915–1918

Montenegro Protectorate of Montenegrof 1941–1944  Montenegro

Macedonia Part of the Kingdom of Serbia 1912–1918 Annexed by the Kingdom of Bulgaria 1941–1944  Republic of Macedoniah

a Prekmurje
Prekmurje
annexed by Hungary. b See also SAO Kninska Krajina
SAO Kninska Krajina
(1990) → SAO Krajina (1990–1991); and SAO Eastern Slavonia, Baranja and Western Syrmia (1990–1991), SAO Western Slavonia (1990–1991) and the Republic of Serbian Krajina (1990–1995), all replaced by the UN Transitional Administration for Eastern Slavonia, Baranja and Western Sirmium (1996–1998). c See also Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina; Croatian Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia; and the Serbian Autonomous Oblasts
Serbian Autonomous Oblasts
(SAOs) of Bosanska Krajina, North-Eastern Bosnia, Romanija and Herzegovina
Herzegovina
(1991–1992), which all combined to form the Serbian Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Herzegovina
(1992–1995). d Bačka
Bačka
was reannexed by Hungary (1941–1944), while Syrmia
Syrmia
was annexed by the Independent State of Croatia
Croatia
(1941–1944). e See also Republic of Užice. f Annexed by Fascist Italy
Italy
(1941–1943) and Nazi Germany (1943–1944). Smaller part annexed by the Independent State of Croatia
Croatia
(1941–1944).

g Kosovo
Kosovo
is the subject of a territorial dispute between the Republic of Kosovo
Kosovo
and the Republic of Serbia. The Republic of Kosovo unilaterally declared independence on 17 February 2008, but Serbia continues to claim it as part of its own sovereign territory. The two governments began to normalise relations in 2013, as part of the Brussels Agreement. Kosovo
Kosovo
has received formal recognition as an independent state from 113 out of 193 United Nations
United Nations
member states. h Macedonia is known in the United Nations
United Nations
as The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
Republic of Macedonia
because of a naming dispute with Greece. j Free Territory was established in 1947. Its administration was divided into two areas (Zone A) and (Zone B). Free Territory was de facto taken over by Italy
Italy
and SFRY in 1954.

v t e

Revolutions of 1989

Internal background

Era of Stagnation Communism Anti-communism Criticism of communist party rule Eastern Bloc Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
economies Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
politics Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
media and propaganda Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
emigration and defection KGB Nomenklatura Shortage economy Totalitarianism Eastern European anti-Communist insurgencies

International background

Active measures Cold War List of socialist states People Power Revolution Predictions of the dissolution of the Soviet Union Reagan Doctrine Soviet Empire Terrorism and the Soviet Union Vatican Opposition Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia

Reforms

Uskoreniye Perestroika

Democratization in the Soviet Union Khozraschyot 500 Days Sinatra Doctrine

Glasnost Socialism with Chinese characteristics Đổi mới

Government leaders

Ramiz Alia Nicolae Ceaușescu Mikhail Gorbachev Károly Grósz Erich Honecker János Kádár Miloš Jakeš Egon Krenz Wojciech Jaruzelski Slobodan Milošević Mathieu Kérékou Mengistu Haile Mariam Ne Win Denis Sassou Nguesso Heng Samrin Deng Xiaoping Todor Zhivkov Siad Barre

Opposition methods

Civil resistance Demonstrations Human chains Magnitizdat Polish underground press Protests Samizdat Strike action

Opposition leaders

Lech Wałęsa Václav Havel Alexander Dubček Ion Iliescu Liu Gang Wu'erkaixi Chai Ling Wang Dan Feng Congde Tank Man Joachim Gauck Sali Berisha Sanjaasürengiin Zorig Vladimir Bukovsky Boris Yeltsin Viacheslav Chornovil Vytautas Landsbergis Zianon Pazniak Zhelyu Zhelev Aung San Suu Kyi Meles Zenawi Isaias Afwerki Ronald Reagan George H. W. Bush Pope John Paul II

Opposition movements

Beijing Students' Autonomous Federation Charter 77 New Forum Civic Forum Democratic Party of Albania Democratic Russia Initiative for Peace and Human Rights Sąjūdis Peaceful Revolution People's Movement of Ukraine Solidarity Popular Front of Latvia Popular Front of Estonia Public Against Violence Belarusian Popular Front National League for Democracy National Salvation Front Unification Church political activities Union of Democratic Forces

Events by location

Central and Eastern Europe

Albania Bulgaria Czechoslovakia East Germany Hungary Poland Romania Soviet Union Yugoslavia

Soviet Union

Armenia Azerbaijan Belarus Chechnya Estonia Georgia Latvia Lithuania Kazakhstan Kyrgyzstan Moldova Russia Tajikstan Turkmenistan Ukraine Uzbekistan

Elsewhere

Afghanistan Angola Benin Burma Cambodia China Congo-Brazzaville Ethiopia Mongolia Mozambique Somalia South Yemen

Individual events

1988 Polish strikes April 9 tragedy Black January Baltic Way 1987–89 Tibetan unrest Tiananmen Square protests of 1989 Removal of Hungary's border fence with Austria Polish Round Table Agreement Hungarian Round Table Talks Pan-European Picnic Monday Demonstrations Alexanderplatz demonstration Malta Summit German reunification January Events in Lithuania January Events in Latvia 1991 protests in Belgrade August Coup Dissolution of the Soviet Union

Later events

Colour revolution Decommunization Lustration Democratization Economic liberalization Post-Soviet conflicts Neo-Sovietism Neo-Stalinism Post-communism Yugoslav Wars

v t e

Post–Cold War
War
European conflicts

Eastern Europe

Transnistria War
War
(1992) Russian constitutional crisis (1993) Moldova civil unrest (2009) Ukrainian revolution (2013-14) Russian military intervention in Ukraine
Russian military intervention in Ukraine
(2014–)

Annexation of Crimea (2014) War
War
in Donbas (2014-)

Western Europe

Basque conflict
Basque conflict
(1959–2011) The Troubles
The Troubles
(1968–1998) Dissident Irish Republican Campaign (1998–present) France-ISIL conflict (2014–present)

Yugoslav Wars

Ten-Day War
Ten-Day War
(1991) Croatian War of Independence
Croatian War of Independence
(1991–95) Bosnian War
Bosnian War
(1992–95)

Croat–Bosniak War
Croat–Bosniak War
(1992–94)

Southeastern Europe (after Yugoslav Wars)

Albanian Rebellion (1997) Kosovo
Kosovo
War
War
(1998–99) Albania–Yugoslav border incident (April 1999) Insurgency in the Preševo Valley
Insurgency in the Preševo Valley
(1999–2001) Insurgency
Insurgency
in the Republic of Macedonia
Republic of Macedonia
(2001) 2004 unrest in Kosovo Macedonian inter-ethnic violence (2012)

North Caucasus

East Prigorodny Conflict
East Prigorodny Conflict
(1992) Chechen–Russian conflict
Chechen–Russian conflict
(1785–2017)

First Chechen War
War
(1994–96) War
War
of Dagestan (1999) Second Chechen War
War
(1999–2009)

War
War
in Ingushetia (2007–2015) Insurgency
Insurgency
in the North Caucasus
North Caucasus
(2009–2017)

South Caucasus

South Ossetia War
War
(1991–92) Georgian Civil War
War
(1991–93) Abkhaz–Georgian conflict
Abkhaz–Georgian conflict
(1989–present)

Wars in Abkhazia

1992–93 1998

Pankisi Gorge crisis
Pankisi Gorge crisis
(2002–04) Russia–Georgia War
War
(2008) Nagorno-Karabakh conflict
Nagorno-Karabakh conflict
(1988–present)

Nagorno-Karabakh War
War
(1988–94) 2016 clashes

Abkhazian Revolution (2014)

Related topics

Colour revolutions War
War
on Terror

Asian conflicts African conflicts Conflic

.