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Yleisradio Oy (Finnish), also known as Rundradion (Swedish) or the Finnish Broadcasting Company (English), abbreviated to Yle
Yle
(pronounced /yle/; previously stylised as YLE before the 2012 corporate rebrand), is Finland's national public broadcasting company, founded in 1926. It is a public limited company which is 99.98% owned by the Finnish state, and employs around 3,200 people in Finland. Yle
Yle
shares many of its organizational characteristics with its UK counterpart, the BBC, on which it was largely modelled. For the greater part of Yle's existence the company was funded by the revenues obtained from a broadcast receiving licence fee payable by the owners of radio sets (1927–1976) and television sets (1958–2012), as well as receiving a portion of the broadcasting licence fees payable by private television broadcasters. Since the beginning of 2013 the licence fee has been replaced by a public broadcasting tax (known as the Yle
Yle
tax), which is collected annually from private individuals and corporations together with their other taxes. By far the largest part of the Yle tax is collected from individual taxpayers, with payments being assessed on a sliding scale. Minors, as well as persons with an annual income of less than €7,813 are exempt. At the lower limit the tax payable by individuals amounts to €50 per annum and the maximum (payable by an individual with a yearly income of €20,588 or more) is set at €140.[4] The rationale for the abolition of the previous television licence fee was the development of other means of delivering Yle's services, such as the Internet, and the consequent impracticality of continuing to tie the fee to the ownership of a specific device. Yle
Yle
receives no advertising revenues as all channels are advertisement-free. Yle
Yle
has a status that could be described as that of a non-departmental public body. It is governed by a parliamentary governing council. Yle's turnover in 2010 was €398.4 million.[5] Yle
Yle
operates four national television channels, 13 radio channels and services, and 25 regional radio stations. As Finland
Finland
is constitutionally bilingual — around 5.5% of the population speaks Swedish as their mother-tongue — Yle
Yle
provides radio and TV programming in Swedish through its Swedish-language department, Svenska Yle. As is customary in Finnish television and cinemas, foreign films and shows are generally subtitled on Yle's channels. Dubbing is used in cartoons intended for young children who have not yet learned to read, as well as many nature and history documentaries ("to avoid spoiling beautiful pictures").[citation needed] In the field of international broadcasting, one of Yle's best known services is Nuntii Latini, the news in Latin, which is broadcast worldwide and made available over the Internet. Yle
Yle
was one of 23 founding broadcasting organisations of the European Broadcasting Union in 1950. Yle
Yle
hosted the Eurovision Song Contest 2007 in Helsinki.

Contents

1 History 2 Television 3 Radio 4 Yle
Yle
tax 5 Controversies

5.1 Decision to close shortwave

5.1.1 Parliamentary question about shortwave

6 List of Yle's managing directors 7 Notable news anchors 8 See also 9 References 10 External links

10.1 Streaming video and audio

History[edit]

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Yle's headquarters, known as Iso Paja ("the big workshop"), in Pasila, Helsinki

Suomen Yleisradio (~ Finland's General Radio) was founded in Helsinki on 29 May, 1926. The first radio programme was transmitted on 9 September in that year, and this is the date generally considered to be the birthday of regular broadcasting activities in Finland. However, it was not until 1928 that Yle's broadcasts became available throughout the country. After this the broadcasting network was developed and by the beginning of the 1930s, 100,000 households were able to listen to Yle
Yle
programmes. In 1957, Yle
Yle
made its first television broadcast tests, and the following year regular TV programming was started under the name Suomen Televisio (Finland's Television), which was later renamed Yle TV1.. The popularity of television in the country grew rapidly. In 1964, Yle
Yle
obtained TES-TV and Tamvisio, which were merged to Yle
Yle
TV2. Colour television broadcasts began in 1969, and all television programmes were broadcast in colour within the following ten years. In the 2000s, Yle
Yle
has founded a number of new radio and television channels. In 2007 there was a digital television switchover. A completely new digital channel, Yle Teema
Yle Teema
(~ Yle
Yle
Theme) was introduced, and the Swedish-language FST (Finlands Svenska Television, ~ Finland's Swedish Television) was moved from reserved analogue channel time to its own digital channel YLE FST5, which was later renamed to Yle
Yle
Fem. In addition to these four channels (TV1, TV2, Teema, and Fem), a fifth channel, called YLE24, was launched in 2001 for 24-hour news programming. However, this channel was replaced by YLE Extra, a channel attempting to cater to the youth, which was in turn decommissioned in 2007.[6] Until 4 August, 2008, the fifth channel was used to broadcast Yle TV1
Yle TV1
with Finnish subtitles broadcast on programmes in foreign languages (without having to enable the digital set-top box's subtitle function). Television[edit]

Yle
Yle
TV1

TV1 is the oldest of Yle's channels and also the flagship TV channel of the institution. It serves as the main news, current affairs and factual journalism outlet for Yle, and is also used to broadcast a number of documentaries, drama, cultural, and educational programmes. Satirical entertainment, cinema, and shows of British production are also included in its programming.

Yle
Yle
TV2

TV2, founded in 1964, is the main channel for sports programmes and children's and teenagers' broadcasting. The channel is also used to broadcast drama, entertainment, and factual programmes. Emphasis in current affairs output is on domestic items, regional content and citizen journalism. TV2 is allocated for the broadcasting of the Eurovision Song Contest
Eurovision Song Contest
in Finland.

Yle Teema
Yle Teema
& Fem

Yle Teema
Yle Teema
& Fem (~ Yle
Yle
Theme & Five) combines the operations of the previously separate Teema and Fem channels. Teema & Fem is Yle's channel for culture, education, and science. It focuses on recordings of performing arts, classical music, art, and history documentaries, films, and theme broadcasts. The channel also broadcasts Swedish-language full service channel broadcasting news, factual and children's programmes and entertainment. It also shows many Nordic films and series and Sami-language Ođđasat. Finnish subtitles are available for most programmes, they can be enabled using the digital set-top box. Outside prime time, Teema & Fem shows selected broadcasts from Sveriges Television, Sweden's equivalent of Yle.

TV Finland

TV Finland
Finland
is Digital satellite channel showing a selection of Yle's programmes in Sweden.

Yle
Yle
Text-TV

Yle
Yle
Text-TV (Finnish: Yle
Yle
Teksti-tv) shows news, sport and programme information round the clock. Theme pages on the weather, traffic, work and leisure.[7]

As of January 2014, all of Yle's TV-channels except TV Finland
Finland
are available in high definition.[citation needed] Radio[edit]

Yle
Yle
Radio
Radio
1: A radio channel for culture, in-depth current affairs, and other speech-based programmes. Classical music (concerts by the Finnish Radio
Radio
Symphony Orchestra), jazz, folk, world music, and religious music also feature. YleX: A fast-tempo programme-flow channel featuring new music and in tune with popular culture, targeted at 17- to 27-year-olds. The percentage of music is 70%. New domestic and foreign pop and rock and several special music programmes. Yle
Yle
Radio
Radio
Suomi: The national and regional news, service and contact channel, also sport and entertainment. Musical fare comprising domestic and foreign hits, adult and nostalgic pop. Yle
Yle
Puhe (formerly Yle
Yle
Radio
Radio
Peili): The news and current affairs channel presenting talk programmes from Yle's other radio and television channels. Classical jazz. Also broadcast on digital television. Yle
Yle
X3M: The Swedish-language youth channel for current affairs debate and popular culture, broadcasting also news. New pop and rock and special music programmes. Yle
Yle
Vega: News, current affairs and culture in Swedish for all audience groups, also offering culture and regional programmes. Adult pop, jazz and classical music. Yle
Yle
Sámi Radio: A Sami-language network covering most of Lapland. Produced in co-operation with SVT and NRK.

Digital services

Yle
Yle
phased out DAB broadcasts by the end of 2005. Three channels continued to be available as DVB audio services. DVB audio services were shutdown on 30th of June 2016

Yle
Yle
Klassinen: The 24-hour digital supplementary service of classical music also broadcast on digital television.

International services

Yle
Yle
Mondo: Broadcasts in English and other languages, mostly compiled from international radio services. Yle
Yle
Mondo is available on FM in Helsinki
Helsinki
and throughout the country as an audio attached to Digital TV.

Yle
Yle
tax[edit] Main article: Yle
Yle
tax Until the end of 2012, Finnish citizens paid Yle
Yle
a license fee for the use of a television, set at 252 euros per year in 2012. The license fee was per location, which could hold several sets (e.g. in a living room as well as a bedroom). The public broadcasting tax, also known as the Yle
Yle
tax, replaced the license fee in 2013. The tax ranges from 50 euros to 140 euros per person and per year, depending on income. Minors and persons with low income are exempt from the tax.[8] Controversies[edit]

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In radio, Yle
Yle
was a legal monopoly until 1985, when local radio stations were permitted, and maintained a national monopoly until 1995, when national radio networks were allowed. In the past, Yle
Yle
has been seen in Finland
Finland
as a "red" or leftist medium. This was true especially in 1965–1969, during the term of Director-General Eino S. Repo, who got the position with the backing of the Agrarian League and President Kekkonen
Kekkonen
(who was a member of the Agrarian Party), as he was Kekkonen's personal friend. He was accused of favouring leftist student radicalism and young left leaning reporters with programs critical of capitalism that demanded reforms to bring Finland
Finland
closer to the Soviet Union, and Yle
Yle
was given the nickname "Reporadio". After his resigning, he was demoted to the position of director of radio broadcasting, on the communist-led People's Democratic League mandate. Repo resigned in 1969, but according to Yle,[9] the "political mandate" remained, as Erkki Raatikainen was named director directly from the Social Democratic Party office. Subsequently, all directors after him until 2010 were Social Democrats. This was ended by appointment of the right-wing National Coalition Party's Lauri Kivinen as director in 2010. During Finlandization
Finlandization
and the leftist radicalization of the 1970s, Yle contributed to Kekkonen's policy of "neutrality" by broadcasting the programme Näin naapurissa about the Soviet Union. This programme was produced in cooperation with the Soviets and as such, supported Soviet propaganda without criticism.[10] The appointment of Lauri Kivinen
Lauri Kivinen
in 2010 excited much adverse comment as he was previously head of the Nokia Siemens group which had sold monitoring equipment to the Iranian Secret Service, allowing them to arrest political dissidents throughout the unrest in the fall of 2009.[11] English-language newscaster Kimmo Wilska
Kimmo Wilska
was fired on 13 August 2010[12] - after pretending to be caught drinking on-camera following an alcohol-related news story on Yle
Yle
News. Wilska's stunt was not well received by Yle
Yle
management who fired him that same day. Wilska received a lot of support after his termination. Yle
Yle
has been criticized for buying lots of HBO
HBO
series. Yle
Yle
has responded to criticism emphasizing suitability of series to channels with no ad breaks, quality and low price of HBO
HBO
programming and stating that American programs even with HBO
HBO
form only 7% of Yle programming.[13] Decision to close shortwave[edit] The broadcasts on shortwave from Yle
Yle
were closed at the end of 2006. Expatriate organisations had been campaigning for a continued service, but their efforts did not succeed in maintaining the service or even in slowing the process. The decision also affected a high-powered medium wave on 963 kHz (312m). A smaller medium wave covering the Gulf of Finland
Finland
region (558 kHz, 538m) remained on air for a few more years. Parliamentary question about shortwave[edit] In November 2005, MP Pertti Hemmilä (N) submitted a question in Parliament about the plans of Yle
Yle
to end its availability on international shortwave bands. In his question, Hemmilä took up the low cost of the world band radio to the consumer travelling or living abroad. In her response the Minister of Transport and Communications, Susanna Huovinen (S) noted that Yle
Yle
would now be available via other means, such as satellites and the Internet. She also underlined the fact that Yle
Yle
is not under government control, but under indirect parliamentary supervision. [14] List of Yle's managing directors[edit]

J. V. Vakio (until 1935 Hj. W. Walldén) 1927–1945 Hella Wuolijoki
Hella Wuolijoki
1945–1949 Einar Sundström 1950–1964 Eino S. Repo
Eino S. Repo
1965–1969 Erkki Raatikainen 1970–1979 Sakari Kiuru 1980–1989 Reino Paasilinna
Reino Paasilinna
1990–1994 Arne Wessberg 1994–2005 Mikael Jungner
Mikael Jungner
2005–2010 Lauri Kivinen
Lauri Kivinen
2010– Incumbent

Notable news anchors[edit]

Marjo Rein Matti Rönkä Tommy Franti Jussi-Pekka Rantanen Arto Nurmi Juuso Pekkinen

See also[edit]

List of radio stations in Finland Television
Television
in Finland Media of Finland

References[edit]

^ "Results From The TV Audience Measurement". Finnpanel. Retrieved 23 December 2011.  ^ " Radio
Radio
Listening In Finland
Finland
2010" (PDF). Finnpanel. 2011-02-03. p. 18. Retrieved 23 December 2011.  ^ https://yle.fi/aihe/artikkeli/2015/01/11/ylen-historia ^ " Yle tax in force next year". Retrieved 6 February 2013.  ^ "Yleisradio - yle.fi".  ^ " Yle
Yle
lopettaa yhden tv-kanavan". mtv.fi (in Finnish). Retrieved 2018-03-21.  ^ " Yle
Yle
Teksti-tv". Yle. Retrieved 10 August 2015.  ^ "New YLE tax law causes mixed feelings". Helsinki
Helsinki
Times. 4 July 2012. Retrieved 29 June 2014.  ^ "Elävä arkisto - yle.fi".  ^ Jukka Lindfors. "Näin naapurissa".  ^ http://www.hs.fi/english/article/Nokia+network+company+sold+comprehensive+spy+network+to+Iran/1135253349691 ^ Petra Himberg. "Kohuankkuri Kimmo Wilska".  ^ "Why public service company wastes money on HBO
HBO
programs? (in Finnish)". Yle. Retrieved 6 February 2013.  ^ Recollections of international radio from Finland
Finland
"Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2009-04-23. Retrieved 2008-04-19. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Yleisradio.

Official website (in Finnish) Svenska.yle.fi – Svenska Yle. Official site in Swedish Yle
Yle
News – News in English Yle
Yle
Sápmi – News in Sámi (Lappish) Yle
Yle
Novosti – News in Russian Nuntii Latini – News in Latin

Streaming video and audio[edit]

Yle
Yle
Areena – in Finnish Yle
Yle
Arenan – in Swedish Yle
Yle
Elävä arkisto – the Living Archive in Finnish Yle
Yle
Arkivet – the Archive in Swedish

v t e

Yle

Television

Yle TV1
Yle TV1
(HD) Yle TV2
Yle TV2
(HD) Yle Teema
Yle Teema
& Fem (HD) TV Finland

Radio

Yle
Yle
Radio
Radio
1 Yle
Yle
Radio
Radio
Suomi YleX Yle
Yle
Puhe Yle
Yle
Vega Yle
Yle
X3M Yle
Yle
Mondo Yle
Yle
Klassinen Yle
Yle
Sámi Radio

v t e

Nordvision

Members

NRK DR RÚV SVT Yle

Associate members

KNR Kringvarp Føroya Sveriges Radio Sveriges Utbildningsradio

v t e

Members of the European Broadcasting Union

Active members

Current

ARD ARMR ARMTV BBC BHRT BNR BNT BTRC C1R Canal+ CLT/RTL COPE ČRo ČT CyBC DR E1 ENRS ENTV ERR ERSL ERT ERTT ERTU France 24 FTV GPB HRT İTV JRTV LNC LR LRT LTV M6 MCD MRT FI/MTV MTVA NPO NRK NTU ORF PBS PR Radio
Radio
France RAI RDO RFI RMC ROR RTBF RTCG RTÉ RTP RTS RTSH RTVA RTVE RTVS RTVSLO RÚV SER SMTV SNRT SR SRG SSR SVT TDA TF1 TG4 TL TMC (French) TRM TV2 (DK) TV2 (NO) TV4 TVP TVR TRT UA:PBC UKIB UR VGTRK VR VRT Yle ZDF

Applicants

1FLTV 2M TV IPBC KRTC QR RTK

Former

IBA JRT LJBC MR MTV NERIT SRo STV TMC (Italian) UJRT

Associate members and approved participants

Associate

ABC (Australia) ABC (United States) All India Radio APM Bayrak Canal 13 (Chile) CBC/SRC CBS CCTV Fuji TV/JOCX-DTV ICRT IRIB JBA KA KBS La7 MBC Mediaset NBAB NBC NHK NPR ORTAS PARTSO RB RNZ RTHK RTM SABC SBS TBS/JORX-DTV TEME TFM/JOAU-FM TVC/FPA TVM (Mauritania) TVNZ WFMT WGBH WNYC-FM/NYPR

Approved

3sat Arte Abertis
Abertis
Telecom CAT Euronews JPMRD RTRN TV5Monde

v t e

Members of the World Radio
Radio
Network

Akashvani (All India Radio) Banns Radio
Radio
International Channel Africa China Radio
Radio
International Democracy Now! Deutsche Welle Israel Radio
Radio
International Kantor Berita Radio
Radio
68H KBS World Radio NPR PCJ Radio Polish Radio
Radio
External Service Radio
Radio
Algeria International Radio
Radio
Australia Radio
Radio
Damascus Radio
Radio
Exterior de España Radio
Radio
France Internationale Radio
Radio
Guangdong Radio
Radio
Havana Cuba Radio
Radio
Japan Radio
Radio
Kuwait Radio
Radio
New Zealand International Radio
Radio
Pakistan Radio
Radio
Prague Radio
Radio
Romania International Radio
Radio
Slovakia International Radio
Radio
Sputnik Radio
Radio
Sweden Radio
Radio
Taiwan International Radio
Radio
Thailand World Service Radio
Radio
Tunis International Radiodifusión Argentina al Exterior RTÉ swissinfo United Nations Radio Vatican Radio Voice of Korea Voice of the Islamic Republic of Iran Voice of the Strait Voice of Turkey World of Radio

Coordinates: 60°12′11″N 24°55′32″E / 60.203135°N 24.92549°E / 60.203135; 24.92549 (Iso Paja)

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 134725199 LCCN: n79063279 ISNI: 0000 0004 0487 0599 GND: 251694-9 SELIBR: 234833 SUDOC: 03268567X BNF: cb123667655 (data) BIBSYS: 90407739 NLA: 35805486 NKC: kn20050511

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