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YLEISRADIO OY (Finnish ), also known as RUNDRADION (Swedish ) or the FINNISH BROADCASTING COMPANY (English ), abbreviated to YLE (pronounced /yle/ ; previously stylised as YLE before March 2012 corporate rebrand), is Finland
Finland
's national public-broadcasting company, founded in 1926. It is a public limited company which is 99.98% owned by the Finnish state, and employs around 3,200 people in Finland. Yle
Yle
shares many of its organizational characteristics with its UK counterpart, the BBC
BBC
, on which it was largely modelled.

For the greater part of Yle's existence the company was funded by the revenues obtained from a broadcast receiving licence fee payable by the owners of radio sets (1927-1976) and television sets (1958-2012), as well as receiving a portion of the broadcasting licence fees payable by private television broadcasters. Since the beginning of 2013 the licence fee has been replaced by a public broadcasting tax (known as the " Yle
Yle
tax"), which is collected annually from private individuals together with their other taxes, and also from corporations.

By far the major part of the Yle
Yle
tax is collected from individual taxpayers, with payments being assessed on a sliding scale. Minors, as well as persons with an annual income of less than € 7,813 are exempt. At the lower limit the tax payable by individuals amounts to €50 per annum and the maximum (payable by an individual with a yearly income of €20,588 or more) is set at €140. The rationale for the abolition of the previous television licence fee was the development of other means of delivering Yle's services, such as the Internet
Internet
, and the consequent impracticality of continuing to tie the fee to the ownership of a specific device. Yle
Yle
receives no advertising revenues as all channels are advertisement-free.

Yle
Yle
has a status that could be described as that of a non-departmental public body . It is governed by a parliamentary governing council. Yle's turnover in 2010 was €398.4 million.

Yle
Yle
operates four national television channels, 13 radio channels and services, and 25 regional radio stations. Finland
Finland
being an officially bilingual country — around 5.5% of the population have Swedish as their mother-tongue — Yle
Yle
provides radio and TV programming in Swedish through a department called Svenska Yle. As is customary in Finnish television and cinemas, foreign films and shows are generally subtitled on Yle's channels. Dubbing is used in cartoons intended for young children who have not yet learned to read, as well as many nature and history documentaries ("to avoid spoiling beautiful pictures").

In the field of international broadcasting, one of Yle's best known services is Nuntii Latini , the news in Latin
Latin
, which is broadcast worldwide and made available over the Internet
Internet
. Yle
Yle
was also one of 23 founding broadcasting organisations of the European Broadcasting Union in 1950. Yle
Yle
hosted the Eurovision Song Contest 2007
Eurovision Song Contest 2007
in Helsinki , Finland.

CONTENTS

* 1 History * 2 Television
Television
* 3 Radio
Radio
* 4 Yle
Yle
tax

* 5 Controversies

* 5.1 Decision to close shortwave

* 5.1.1 Parliamentary question about shortwave

* 6 List of Yle
Yle
managing directors * 7 Notable Anchors * 8 See also * 9 References

* 10 External links

* 10.1 Streaming video and audio

HISTORY

THIS SECTION NEEDS EXPANSION. You can help by adding to it . (August 2017)

Yle's headquarters, known as Iso Paja ("the big workshop"), in Pasila , Helsinki
Helsinki

Yleisradio was founded in Helsinki
Helsinki
on 29 May 1926. The first radio programme was transmitted on 9 September in that year, and this is the date generally considered to be the birthday of regular broadcasting activities in Finland. However, it was not until 1928 that Yle's broadcasts became available throughout the country. After this the broadcasting network was developed and by the beginning of the 1930s, 100,000 households were able to listen Yle's programmes.

In 1957 Yle
Yle
made its first television broadcast tests, and the following year regular TV programming was started under the name Suomen Televisio (Finnish Television). The popularity of television in the country grew rapidly and in 1964, Yle
Yle
obtained TES-TV and Tamvisio , which were merged to Yle
Yle
TV2. Colour television broadcasts began in 1969 and broadcasts were fully in colour within ten years. During the past few years, Yle
Yle
has founded a number of new radio and television channels and in 2007 there was a digital television switchover. A completely new digital channel Yle
Yle
Teema was introduced, and the Swedish-language FST (Finlands Svenska Television
Television
) was moved from reserved analogue channel time to its own digital channel YLE FST5 (now Yle
Yle
Fem). Five channels were reserved, where the fifth channel was initially used for 24-hour news (YLE24). However, this channel was decommissioned, and the replacement, YLE Extra, was also decommissioned in 2007. Until 4 August 2008 the fifth channel was used to broadcast Yle TV1
Yle TV1
with Finnish subtitles broadcast on programmes in foreign languages (without having to enable the digital set-top box's subtitle function).

TELEVISION

YLE TV1

* TV1 is the oldest of Yle's channels and also the flagship of Yle. It services as the main news, current affairs and factual journalism channel of Yle
Yle
with also a number of documentaries, drama, cultural and educational programmes being shown. Satirical entertainment, cinema and shows of British production are also included in its programming.

YLE TV2

* TV2 founded in 1964 is the main channel for sports, children's and teenagers' programmes though it also shows drama, entertainment and factual programmes. Emphasis in current affairs output is on domestic items, regional content and citizens' journalism. It broadcasts Eurovision Song Contest
Eurovision Song Contest
for Finland.

YLE TEEMA & FEM

* Yle Teema & Fem (English: Theme and Five) combines the operations of the previously separate Teema and Fem channels. Teema & Fem is the channel for culture, education and science. It focuses on recordings of performing arts, classical music, art and history documentaries, films and theme broadcasts. The channel also broadcasts Swedish-language full service channel broadcasting news, factual and children's programmes and entertainment. It also shows many Nordic films and series and Sami-language Ođđasat
Ođđasat
. Finnish subtitles are available for most programmes, they can be enabled using the digital set-top box. Outside prime time , Teema "> member of parliament Mr Pertti Hemmilä submitted in November 2005 a question in parliament about the plans of Yle
Yle
to end its availability on international shortwave bands. In his question MP Hemmilä took up the low cost of the world band radio to the consumer travelling or living abroad. In her response the minister for communication and transport, Mrs Susanna Huovinen (sdp) noted that Yle
Yle
would now be available via other means such as satellites and the Internet. She also underlined the fact that Yle
Yle
is not under government control, but under direct parliamentary supervision. (The link above leads to texts of the question and the response in Finnish and Swedish at www.eduskunta.fi)

LIST OF YLE MANAGING DIRECTORS

* J. V. Vakio (until 1935 Hj. W. Walldén) 1927–1945 * Hella Wuolijoki 1945–1949 * Einar Sundström 1950–1964 * Eino S. Repo
Eino S. Repo
1965–1969 * Erkki Raatikainen 1970–1979 * Sakari Kiuru 1980–1989 * Reino Paasilinna
Reino Paasilinna
1990–1994 * Arne Wessberg 1994–2005 * Mikael Jungner 2005–2010 * Lauri Kivinen
Lauri Kivinen
2010– Incumbent

NOTABLE ANCHORS

* Marjo Rein * Matti Rönkä * Tommy Franti * Jussi-Pekka Rantanen * Arto Nurmi * Juuso Pekkinen

SEE ALSO

* List of documentary channels * List of radio stations in Finland
Finland
* Television
Television
in Finland
Finland
* Yle FSR

REFERENCES

* ^ "Results From The TV Audience Measurement". Finnpanel. Retrieved 23 December 2011. * ^ " Radio
Radio
Listening In Finland
Finland
2010" (PDF). Finnpanel. 2011-02-03. p. 18. Retrieved 23 December 2011. * ^ " Yle
Yle
tax in force next year". Retrieved 6 February 2013. * ^ "Yleisradio - yle.fi". * ^ "