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YLEISRADIO OY (Finnish ), also known as RUNDRADION (Swedish ) or the FINNISH BROADCASTING COMPANY (English ), abbreviated to YLE (pronounced /yle/ ; previously stylised as YLE before March 2012 corporate rebrand), is Finland
Finland
's national public-broadcasting company, founded in 1926. It is a public limited company which is 99.98% owned by the Finnish state, and employs around 3,200 people in Finland. Yle
Yle
shares many of its organizational characteristics with its UK counterpart, the BBC
BBC
, on which it was largely modelled.

For the greater part of Yle's existence the company was funded by the revenues obtained from a broadcast receiving licence fee payable by the owners of radio sets (1927-1976) and television sets (1958-2012), as well as receiving a portion of the broadcasting licence fees payable by private television broadcasters. Since the beginning of 2013 the licence fee has been replaced by a public broadcasting tax (known as the " Yle
Yle
tax"), which is collected annually from private individuals together with their other taxes, and also from corporations.

By far the major part of the Yle
Yle
tax is collected from individual taxpayers, with payments being assessed on a sliding scale. Minors, as well as persons with an annual income of less than € 7,813 are exempt. At the lower limit the tax payable by individuals amounts to €50 per annum and the maximum (payable by an individual with a yearly income of €20,588 or more) is set at €140. The rationale for the abolition of the previous television licence fee was the development of other means of delivering Yle's services, such as the Internet
Internet
, and the consequent impracticality of continuing to tie the fee to the ownership of a specific device. Yle
Yle
receives no advertising revenues as all channels are advertisement-free.

Yle
Yle
has a status that could be described as that of a non-departmental public body . It is governed by a parliamentary governing council. Yle's turnover in 2010 was €398.4 million.

Yle
Yle
operates four national television channels, 13 radio channels and services, and 25 regional radio stations. Finland
Finland
being an officially bilingual country — around 5.5% of the population have Swedish as their mother-tongue — Yle
Yle
provides radio and TV programming in Swedish through a department called Svenska Yle. As is customary in Finnish television and cinemas, foreign films and shows are generally subtitled on Yle's channels. Dubbing is used in cartoons intended for young children who have not yet learned to read, as well as many nature and history documentaries ("to avoid spoiling beautiful pictures").

In the field of international broadcasting, one of Yle's best known services is Nuntii Latini, the news in Latin
Latin
, which is broadcast worldwide and made available over the Internet
Internet
. Yle
Yle
was also one of 23 founding broadcasting organisations of the European Broadcasting Union in 1950. Yle
Yle
hosted the Eurovision Song Contest 2007in Helsinki , Finland.

CONTENTS

* 1 History * 2 Television
Television
* 3 Radio
Radio
* 4 Yle
Yle
tax

* 5 Controversies

* 5.1 Decision to close shortwave

* 5.1.1 Parliamentary question about shortwave

* 6 List of Yle
Yle
managing directors * 7 Notable Anchors * 8 See also * 9 References

* 10 External links

* 10.1 Streaming video and audio

HISTORY

Yle's headquarters, known as Iso Paja ("the big workshop"), in Pasila, Helsinki
Helsinki

Yleisradio was founded in Helsinki
Helsinki
on 29 May 1926. The first radio programme was transmitted on 9 September in that year, and this is the date generally considered to be the birthday of regular broadcasting activities in Finland. However, it was not until 1928 that Yle's broadcasts became available throughout the country. After this the broadcasting network was developed and by the beginning of the 1930s, 100,000 households were able to listen Yle's programmes.

In 1957 Yle
Yle
made its first television broadcast tests, and the following year regular TV programming was started under the name _Suomen Televisio_ (Finnish Television). The popularity of television in the country grew rapidly and in 1964, Yle
Yle
obtained TES-TV and Tamvisio , which were merged to Yle
Yle
TV2. Colour television broadcasts began in 1969 and broadcasts were fully in colour within ten years. During the past few years, Yle
Yle
has founded a number of new radio and television channels and in 2007 there was a digital television switchover. A completely new digital channel _ Yle
Yle
Teema_ was introduced, and the Swedish-language FST (_Finlands Svenska Television _) was moved from reserved analogue channel time to its own digital channel YLE FST5 (now Yle
Yle
Fem). Five channels were reserved, where the fifth channel was initially used for 24-hour news (YLE24). However, this channel was decommissioned, and the replacement, YLE Extra, was also decommissioned in 2007. Until 4 August 2008 the fifth channel was used to broadcast Yle TV1with Finnish subtitles broadcast on programmes in foreign languages (without having to enable the digital set-top box's subtitle function).

TELEVISION

YLE TV1

* TV1 is the oldest of Yle's channels and also the flagship of Yle. It services as the main news, current affairs and factual journalism channel of Yle
Yle
with also a number of documentaries, drama, cultural and educational programmes being shown. Satirical entertainment, cinema and shows of British production are also included in its programming.

YLE TV2

* TV2 founded in 1964 is the main channel for sports, children's and teenagers' programmes though it also shows drama, entertainment and factual programmes. Emphasis in current affairs output is on domestic items, regional content and citizens' journalism. It broadcasts Eurovision Song Contest
Eurovision Song Contest
for Finland.

YLE TEEMA

* Yle Teema(English: Theme) is the channel for culture, education and science. It focuses on recordings of performing arts, classical music, art and history documentaries, films and theme broadcasts.

YLE FEM

* Yle Fem
Yle Fem
(English: Five) is the Swedish-language full service channel broadcasting news, factual and children's programmes and entertainment. It also shows many Nordic films and series and Sami-language Ođđasat. Finnish subtitles are available for most programmes, they can be enabled using the digital set-top box. Outside prime time , Fem shows selected broadcasts from Sweden's Sveriges Television
Television
.

TV FINLAND

* TV Finland
Finland
is Digital satellite channel showing a selection of Yle's programmes in Sweden.

YLE TEXT-TV

* Yle
Yle
Text-TV (Finnish : _ Yle
Yle
Teksti-tv_) shows news, sport and programme information round the clock. Theme pages on the weather, traffic, work and leisure.

As of January 2014 all Yle's TV-channels except TV Finland
Finland
are available in HD.

RADIO

* Yle
Yle
Radio
Radio
1 : A radio channel for culture, in-depth current affairs, and other speech-based programmes. Classical music (concerts by the Finnish Radio
Radio
Symphony Orchestra), jazz, folk, world music, and religious music also feature. * YleX: A fast-tempo programme-flow channel featuring new music and in tune with popular culture, targeted at 17- to 27-year-olds. The percentage of music is 70%. New domestic and foreign pop and rock and several special music programmes. * Yle
Yle
Radio
Radio
Suomi : The national and regional news, service and contact channel, also sport and entertainment. Musical fare comprising domestic and foreign hits, adult and nostalgic pop. * Yle
Yle
Puhe (formerly Yle
Yle
Radio
Radio
Peili): The news and current affairs channel presenting talk programmes from Yle's other radio and television channels. Classical jazz. Also broadcast on digital television. * Yle X3M: The Swedish-language youth channel for current affairs debate and popular culture, broadcasting also news. New pop and rock and special music programmes. * Yle Vega: News, current affairs and culture in Swedish for all audience groups, also offering culture and regional programmes. Adult pop, jazz and classical music. * Yle
Yle
Sámi Radio
Radio
: A Sami-language network covering most of Lapland . Produced in co-operation with SVT and NRK.

Digital services

Yle
Yle
phased out DAB broadcasts by the end of 2005. Three channels continued to be available as DVB audio services.

* Yle
Yle
Klassinen : The 24-hour digital supplementary service of classical music also broadcast on digital television.

International services

* Yle
Yle
Mondo Broadcasts in English and other languages, mostly compiled from international radio services. Yle
Yle
Mondo is available on FM in Helsinki
Helsinki
and throughout the country as an audio attached to Digital TV.

YLE TAX

Until the end of 2012, citizens paid Yle
Yle
a license fee for the use of a television, set at 252 euros per year in 2012. The license fee was per location, which could hold several sets (e.g. in a living room as well as a bedroom). The public broadcasting tax, also known as the Yle tax, replaced the license fee in 2013. The tax ranges from 50 euros to 140 euros per person and per year, depending on income. Minors and persons with low income are exempt from the tax.

CONTROVERSIES

_ This article NEEDS ADDITIONAL CITATIONS FOR VERIFICATION . Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (July 2011)_ _(Learn how and when to remove this template message )_

In radio, Yle
Yle
was a legal monopoly until 1985, when local radio stations were permitted, and maintained a national monopoly until 1995, when national radio networks were allowed.

In the past, Yle
Yle
has been seen in Finland
Finland
as a "red" or leftist medium. This was true especially in 1965–1969, during the term of Director-General Eino S. Repo, who got the position with the backing of the Agrarian League and President Kekkonen(who was a member of the Agrarian Party), as he was Kekkonen's personal friend. He was accused of favouring leftist student radicalism and young left leaning reporters with programs critical of capitalism that demanded reforms to bring Finland
Finland
closer to the Soviet Union, and Yle
Yle
was given the nickname "Reporadio". After his resigning, he was demoted to the position of director of radio broadcasting, on the communist -led People\'s Democratic League mandate.

Repo resigned in 1969, but according to Yle, the "political mandate" remained, as Erkki Raatikainen was named director directly from the Social Democratic Party office. Subsequently, all directors after him until 2010 were Social Democrats. This was ended by appointment of the right-wing National Coalition Party's Lauri Kivinenas director in 2010.

During Finlandizationand the leftist radicalization of the 1970s, Yle
Yle
contributed to Kekkonen's policy of "neutrality" by broadcasting the programme _Näin naapurissa_ about the Soviet Union. This programme was produced in cooperation with the Soviets and as such, supported Soviet propaganda without criticism.

The appointment of Lauri Kivinenin 2010 excited much adverse comment as he was previously head of the Nokia Siemens group which had sold monitoring equipment to the Iranian Secret Service, allowing them to arrest political dissidents throughout the unrest in the fall of 2009.

English-language newscaster Kimmo Wilskawas fired on 13 August 2010 - after pretending to be caught drinking on-camera following an alcohol-related news story on _ Yle
Yle
News_. Wilska's stunt was not well received by Yle
Yle
management who fired him that same day. Wilska received a lot of support after his termination.

Yle
Yle
has been criticized for buying lots of HBO
HBO
series as wasting taxpayers money on them. Yle
Yle
has responded to criticism emphasizing suitability of series to channels with no ad breaks, quality and low price of HBO
HBO
programming and stating that American programs even with HBO
HBO
form only 7% of Yle
Yle
programming.

DECISION TO CLOSE SHORTWAVE

The broadcasts on shortwave from Yle
Yle
were closed at the end of 2006. Expatriate organisations had been campaigning for a continued service, but their efforts did not succeed in maintaining the service or even in slowing the process. The decision also affected a high-powered medium wave on 963 kHz (312m). A smaller medium wave covering the Gulf of Finland
Finland
region (558 kHz, 538m) remained on air for a few more years.

Parliamentary Question About Shortwave

Conservative member of parliament Mr Pertti Hemmilä submitted in November 2005 a question in parliament about the plans of Yle
Yle
to end its availability on international shortwave bands. In his question MP Hemmilä took up the low cost of the world band radio to the consumer travelling or living abroad. In her response the minister for communication and transport, Mrs Susanna Huovinen (sdp) noted that Yle would now be available via other means such as satellites and the Internet. She also underlined the fact that Yle
Yle
is not under government control, but under direct parliamentary supervision. (The link above leads to texts of the question and the response in Finnish and Swedish at www.eduskunta.fi)

LIST OF YLE MANAGING DIRECTORS

* J. V. Vakio (until 1935 Hj. W. Walldén) 1927–1945 * Hella Wuolijoki1945–1949 * Einar Sundström 1950–1964 * Eino S. Repo1965–1969 * Erkki Raatikainen 1970–1979 * Sakari Kiuru 1980–1989 * Reino Paasilinna1990–1994 * Arne Wessberg 1994–2005 * Mikael Jungner2005–2010 * Lauri Kivinen2010– Incumbent

NOTABLE ANCHORS

* Marjo Rein * Matti Rönkä * Tommy Franti * Jussi-Pekka Rantanen * Arto Nurmi * Juuso Pekkinen

SEE ALSO

* List of documentary channels * List of radio stations in Finland
Finland
* Television
Television
in Finland
Finland

REFERENCES

* ^ "Results From The TV Audience Measurement". Finnpanel. Retrieved 23 December 2011. * ^ " Radio
Radio
Listening In Finland
Finland
2010" (PDF). Finnpanel. 2011-02-03. p. 18. Retrieved 23 December 2011. * ^ " Yle
Yle
tax in force next year". Retrieved 6 February 2013. * ^ "Yleisradio - yle.fi". * ^ " Yle
Yle
Teksti-tv". Yle. Retrieved 10 August 2015. * ^ "New YLE tax law causes mixed feelings". Helsinki
Helsinki
Times. 4 July 2012. Retrieved 29 June 2014. * ^ "Elävä arkisto - yle.fi". * ^ Jukka Lindfors. "Näin naapurissa". * ^ http://www.hs.fi/english/article/Nokia+network+company+sold+comprehensive+spy+network+to+Iran/1135253349691 * ^ Petra Himberg. "Kohuankkuri Kimmo Wilska". * ^ "Why public service company wastes money on HBO
HBO
programs? (in Finnish)". Yle. Retrieved 6 February 2013. * ^ Recollections of international radio from Finland http://www.ulkomaanmedia.net/engl1.shtml

EXTERNAL LINKS

_ Wikimedia Commons has

.