YLEISRADIO OY (Finnish ), also known as RUNDRADION (Swedish ) or the
FINNISH BROADCASTING COMPANY (English ), abbreviated to YLE
(pronounced /yle/ ; previously stylised as YLE before March 2012
corporate rebrand), is
Finland 's national public-broadcasting
company, founded in 1926. It is a public limited company which is
99.98% owned by the Finnish state, and employs around 3,200 people in
Yle shares many of its organizational characteristics with
its UK counterpart, the
BBC , on which it was largely modelled.
For the greater part of Yle's existence the company was funded by the
revenues obtained from a broadcast receiving licence fee payable by
the owners of radio sets (1927-1976) and television sets (1958-2012),
as well as receiving a portion of the broadcasting licence fees
payable by private television broadcasters. Since the beginning of
2013 the licence fee has been replaced by a public broadcasting tax
(known as the "
Yle tax"), which is collected annually from private
individuals together with their other taxes, and also from
By far the major part of the
Yle tax is collected from individual
taxpayers, with payments being assessed on a sliding scale. Minors, as
well as persons with an annual income of less than € 7,813 are
exempt. At the lower limit the tax payable by individuals amounts to
€50 per annum and the maximum (payable by an individual with a
yearly income of €20,588 or more) is set at €140. The rationale
for the abolition of the previous television licence fee was the
development of other means of delivering Yle's services, such as the
Internet , and the consequent impracticality of continuing to tie the
fee to the ownership of a specific device.
Yle receives no advertising
revenues as all channels are advertisement-free.
Yle has a status that could be described as that of a
non-departmental public body . It is governed by a parliamentary
governing council. Yle's turnover in 2010 was €398.4 million.
Yle operates four national television channels, 13 radio channels and
services, and 25 regional radio stations.
Finland being an officially
bilingual country — around 5.5% of the population have Swedish as
their mother-tongue —
Yle provides radio and TV programming in
Swedish through a department called Svenska Yle. As is customary in
Finnish television and cinemas, foreign films and shows are generally
subtitled on Yle's channels. Dubbing is used in cartoons intended for
young children who have not yet learned to read, as well as many
nature and history documentaries ("to avoid spoiling beautiful
In the field of international broadcasting, one of Yle's best known
Nuntii Latini , the news in
Latin , which is broadcast
worldwide and made available over the
Yle was also one of
23 founding broadcasting organisations of the European Broadcasting
Union in 1950.
Yle hosted the
Eurovision Song Contest 2007
Eurovision Song Contest 2007 in Helsinki
* 1 History
* 5 Controversies
* 5.1 Decision to close shortwave
* 5.1.1 Parliamentary question about shortwave
* 6 List of
Yle managing directors
* 7 Notable Anchors
* 8 See also
* 9 References
* 10 External links
* 10.1 Streaming video and audio
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Yle's headquarters, known as Iso Paja ("the big workshop"), in
Yleisradio was founded in
Helsinki on 29 May 1926. The first radio
programme was transmitted on 9 September in that year, and this is the
date generally considered to be the birthday of regular broadcasting
activities in Finland. However, it was not until 1928 that Yle's
broadcasts became available throughout the country. After this the
broadcasting network was developed and by the beginning of the 1930s,
100,000 households were able to listen Yle's programmes.
Yle made its first television broadcast tests, and the
following year regular TV programming was started under the name
Suomen Televisio (Finnish Television). The popularity of television in
the country grew rapidly and in 1964,
Yle obtained TES-TV and Tamvisio
, which were merged to
Yle TV2. Colour television broadcasts began in
1969 and broadcasts were fully in colour within ten years. During the
past few years,
Yle has founded a number of new radio and television
channels and in 2007 there was a digital television switchover. A
completely new digital channel
Yle Teema was introduced, and the
Swedish-language FST (Finlands Svenska
Television ) was moved from
reserved analogue channel time to its own digital channel YLE FST5
Yle Fem). Five channels were reserved, where the fifth channel
was initially used for 24-hour news (YLE24). However, this channel was
decommissioned, and the replacement, YLE Extra, was also
decommissioned in 2007. Until 4 August 2008 the fifth channel was used
Yle TV1 with Finnish subtitles broadcast on programmes in
foreign languages (without having to enable the digital set-top box's
* TV1 is the oldest of Yle's channels and also the flagship of Yle.
It services as the main news, current affairs and factual journalism
Yle with also a number of documentaries, drama, cultural
and educational programmes being shown. Satirical entertainment,
cinema and shows of British production are also included in its
* TV2 founded in 1964 is the main channel for sports, children's and
teenagers' programmes though it also shows drama, entertainment and
factual programmes. Emphasis in current affairs output is on domestic
items, regional content and citizens' journalism. It broadcasts
Eurovision Song Contest
Eurovision Song Contest for Finland.
Yle Teema (English: Theme) is the channel for culture, education
and science. It focuses on recordings of performing arts, classical
music, art and history documentaries, films and theme broadcasts.
Yle Fem (English: Five) is the Swedish-language full service
channel broadcasting news, factual and children's programmes and
entertainment. It also shows many Nordic films and series and
Ođđasat . Finnish subtitles are available for most
programmes, they can be enabled using the digital set-top box. Outside
prime time , Fem shows selected broadcasts from Sweden's Sveriges
Finland is Digital satellite channel showing a selection of
Yle's programmes in Sweden.
Yle Text-TV (Finnish :
Yle Teksti-tv) shows news, sport and
programme information round the clock. Theme pages on the weather,
traffic, work and leisure.
As of January 2014 all Yle's TV-channels except TV
available in HD.
Radio 1 : A radio channel for culture, in-depth current
affairs, and other speech-based programmes. Classical music (concerts
by the Finnish
Radio Symphony Orchestra), jazz, folk, world music, and
religious music also feature.
YleX : A fast-tempo programme-flow channel featuring new music and
in tune with popular culture, targeted at 17- to 27-year-olds. The
percentage of music is 70%. New domestic and foreign pop and rock and
several special music programmes.
Radio Suomi : The national and regional news, service and
contact channel, also sport and entertainment. Musical fare comprising
domestic and foreign hits, adult and nostalgic pop.
Yle Puhe (formerly
Radio Peili): The news and current affairs
channel presenting talk programmes from Yle's other radio and
television channels. Classical jazz. Also broadcast on digital
Yle X3M : The Swedish-language youth channel for current affairs
debate and popular culture, broadcasting also news. New pop and rock
and special music programmes.
Yle Vega : News, current affairs and culture in Swedish for all
audience groups, also offering culture and regional programmes. Adult
pop, jazz and classical music.
Radio : A Sami-language network covering most of Lapland
. Produced in co-operation with SVT and
Yle phased out DAB broadcasts by the end of 2005. Three channels
continued to be available as DVB audio services.
Yle Klassinen : The 24-hour digital supplementary service of
classical music also broadcast on digital television.
Yle Mondo Broadcasts in English and other languages, mostly
compiled from international radio services.
Yle Mondo is available on
Helsinki and throughout the country as an audio attached to
Until the end of 2012, citizens paid
Yle a license fee for the use of
a television, set at 252 euros per year in 2012. The license fee was
per location, which could hold several sets (e.g. in a living room as
well as a bedroom). The public broadcasting tax, also known as the Yle
tax, replaced the license fee in 2013. The tax ranges from 50 euros to
140 euros per person and per year, depending on income. Minors and
persons with low income are exempt from the tax.
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Yle was a legal monopoly until 1985, when local radio
stations were permitted, and maintained a national monopoly until
1995, when national radio networks were allowed.
In the past,
Yle has been seen in
Finland as a "red" or leftist
medium. This was true especially in 1965–1969, during the term of
Eino S. Repo , who got the position with the backing
of the Agrarian League and President
Kekkonen (who was a member of the
Agrarian Party), as he was Kekkonen's personal friend. He was accused
of favouring leftist student radicalism and young left leaning
reporters with programs critical of capitalism that demanded reforms
Finland closer to the Soviet Union, and
Yle was given the
nickname "Reporadio". After his resigning, he was demoted to the
position of director of radio broadcasting, on the communist -led
People\'s Democratic League mandate.
Repo resigned in 1969, but according to Yle, the "political mandate"
remained, as Erkki Raatikainen was named director directly from the
Social Democratic Party office. Subsequently, all directors after him
until 2010 were Social Democrats. This was ended by appointment of the
right-wing National Coalition Party's
Lauri Kivinen as director in
Finlandization and the leftist radicalization of the 1970s,
Yle contributed to Kekkonen's policy of "neutrality" by broadcasting
the programme Näin naapurissa about the Soviet Union. This programme
was produced in cooperation with the Soviets and as such, supported
Soviet propaganda without criticism.
The appointment of
Lauri Kivinen in 2010 excited much adverse comment
as he was previously head of the Nokia Siemens group which had sold
monitoring equipment to the Iranian Secret Service, allowing them to
arrest political dissidents throughout the unrest in the fall of 2009.
Kimmo Wilska was fired on 13 August 2010
- after pretending to be caught drinking on-camera following an
alcohol-related news story on
Yle News. Wilska's stunt was not well
Yle management who fired him that same day. Wilska
received a lot of support after his termination.
Yle has been criticized for buying lots of
HBO series as wasting
taxpayers money on them.
Yle has responded to criticism emphasizing
suitability of series to channels with no ad breaks, quality and low
HBO programming and stating that American programs even with
HBO form only 7% of
DECISION TO CLOSE SHORTWAVE
The broadcasts on shortwave from
Yle were closed at the end of 2006.
Expatriate organisations had been campaigning for a continued service,
but their efforts did not succeed in maintaining the service or even
in slowing the process. The decision also affected a high-powered
medium wave on 963 kHz (312m). A smaller medium wave covering the Gulf
Finland region (558 kHz, 538m) remained on air for a few more
Parliamentary Question About Shortwave
Conservative member of parliament Mr Pertti Hemmilä submitted in
November 2005 a question in parliament about the plans of
Yle to end
its availability on international shortwave bands. In his question MP
Hemmilä took up the low cost of the world band radio to the consumer
travelling or living abroad. In her response the minister for
communication and transport, Mrs Susanna Huovinen (sdp) noted that Yle
would now be available via other means such as satellites and the
Internet. She also underlined the fact that
Yle is not under
government control, but under direct parliamentary supervision. (The
link above leads to texts of the question and the response in Finnish
and Swedish at www.eduskunta.fi)
LIST OF YLE MANAGING DIRECTORS
* J. V. Vakio (until 1935 Hj. W. Walldén) 1927–1945
Hella Wuolijoki 1945–1949
* Einar Sundström 1950–1964
Eino S. Repo 1965–1969
* Erkki Raatikainen 1970–1979
* Sakari Kiuru 1980–1989
Reino Paasilinna 1990–1994
* Arne Wessberg 1994–2005
Mikael Jungner 2005–2010
Lauri Kivinen 2010– Incumbent
* Marjo Rein
* Tommy Franti
* Jussi-Pekka Rantanen
* Arto Nurmi
* Juuso Pekkinen
List of documentary channels
* List of radio stations in
* ^ "Results From The TV Audience Measurement". Finnpanel.
Retrieved 23 December 2011.
* ^ "
Radio Listening In
Finland 2010" (PDF). Finnpanel. 2011-02-03.
p. 18. Retrieved 23 December 2011.
* ^ "
Yle tax in force next year". Retrieved 6 February 2013.
* ^ "Yleisradio - yle.fi".
* ^ "
Yle Teksti-tv". Yle. Retrieved 10 August 2015.
* ^ "New YLE tax law causes mixed feelings".
Helsinki Times. 4 July
2012. Retrieved 29 June 2014.
* ^ "Elävä arkisto - yle.fi".
* ^ Jukka Lindfors. "Näin naapurissa".
* ^ Petra Himberg. "Kohuankkuri Kimmo Wilska".
* ^ "Why public service company wastes money on
HBO programs? (in
Finnish)". Yle. Retrieved 6 February 2013.
* ^ Recollections of international radio from Finland
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