YLEISRADIO OY (Finnish ), also known as RUNDRADION (Swedish ) or the
FINNISH BROADCASTING COMPANY (English ), abbreviated to YLE
(pronounced /yle/ ; previously stylised as YLE before March 2012
corporate rebrand), is
Finland 's national public-broadcasting
company, founded in 1926. It is a public limited company which is
99.98% owned by the Finnish state, and employs around 3,200 people in
Yle shares many of its organizational characteristics with
its UK counterpart, the
BBC , on which it was largely modelled.
For the greater part of Yle's existence the company was funded by the
revenues obtained from a broadcast receiving licence fee payable by
the owners of radio sets (1927-1976) and television sets (1958-2012),
as well as receiving a portion of the broadcasting licence fees
payable by private television broadcasters. Since the beginning of
2013 the licence fee has been replaced by a public broadcasting tax
(known as the "
Yle tax"), which is collected annually from private
individuals together with their other taxes, and also from
By far the major part of the
Yle tax is collected from individual
taxpayers, with payments being assessed on a sliding scale. Minors, as
well as persons with an annual income of less than € 7,813 are
exempt. At the lower limit the tax payable by individuals amounts to
€50 per annum and the maximum (payable by an individual with a
yearly income of €20,588 or more) is set at €140. The rationale
for the abolition of the previous television licence fee was the
development of other means of delivering Yle's services, such as the
Internet , and the consequent impracticality of continuing to tie the
fee to the ownership of a specific device.
Yle receives no advertising
revenues as all channels are advertisement-free.
Yle has a status that could be described as that of a
non-departmental public body . It is governed by a parliamentary
governing council. Yle's turnover in 2010 was €398.4 million.
Yle operates four national television channels, 13 radio channels and
services, and 25 regional radio stations.
Finland being an officially
bilingual country — around 5.5% of the population have Swedish as
their mother-tongue —
Yle provides radio and TV programming in
Swedish through a department called Svenska Yle. As is customary in
Finnish television and cinemas, foreign films and shows are generally
subtitled on Yle's channels. Dubbing is used in cartoons intended for
young children who have not yet learned to read, as well as many
nature and history documentaries ("to avoid spoiling beautiful
In the field of international broadcasting, one of Yle's best known
Nuntii Latini , the news in
Latin , which is broadcast
worldwide and made available over the
Yle was also one of
23 founding broadcasting organisations of the European Broadcasting
Union in 1950.
Yle hosted the
Eurovision Song Contest 2007
Eurovision Song Contest 2007 in Helsinki
* 1 History
* 5 Controversies
* 5.1 Decision to close shortwave
* 5.1.1 Parliamentary question about shortwave
* 6 List of
Yle managing directors
* 7 Notable Anchors
* 8 See also
* 9 References
* 10 External links
* 10.1 Streaming video and audio
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Yle's headquarters, known as Iso Paja ("the big workshop"), in
Yleisradio was founded in
Helsinki on 29 May 1926. The first radio
programme was transmitted on 9 September in that year, and this is the
date generally considered to be the birthday of regular broadcasting
activities in Finland. However, it was not until 1928 that Yle's
broadcasts became available throughout the country. After this the
broadcasting network was developed and by the beginning of the 1930s,
100,000 households were able to listen Yle's programmes.
Yle made its first television broadcast tests, and the
following year regular TV programming was started under the name
Suomen Televisio (Finnish Television). The popularity of television in
the country grew rapidly and in 1964,
Yle obtained TES-TV and Tamvisio
, which were merged to
Yle TV2. Colour television broadcasts began in
1969 and broadcasts were fully in colour within ten years. During the
past few years,
Yle has founded a number of new radio and television
channels and in 2007 there was a digital television switchover. A
completely new digital channel
Yle Teema was introduced, and the
Swedish-language FST (Finlands Svenska
Television ) was moved from
reserved analogue channel time to its own digital channel YLE FST5
Yle Fem). Five channels were reserved, where the fifth channel
was initially used for 24-hour news (YLE24). However, this channel was
decommissioned, and the replacement, YLE Extra, was also
decommissioned in 2007. Until 4 August 2008 the fifth channel was used
Yle TV1 with Finnish subtitles broadcast on programmes in
foreign languages (without having to enable the digital set-top box's
* TV1 is the oldest of Yle's channels and also the flagship of Yle.
It services as the main news, current affairs and factual journalism
Yle with also a number of documentaries, drama, cultural
and educational programmes being shown. Satirical entertainment,
cinema and shows of British production are also included in its
* TV2 founded in 1964 is the main channel for sports, children's and
teenagers' programmes though it also shows drama, entertainment and
factual programmes. Emphasis in current affairs output is on domestic
items, regional content and citizens' journalism. It broadcasts
Eurovision Song Contest
Eurovision Song Contest for Finland.
YLE TEEMA & FEM
Yle Teema & Fem (English: Theme and Five) combines the operations
of the previously separate Teema and Fem channels. Teema & Fem is the
channel for culture, education and science. It focuses on recordings
of performing arts, classical music, art and history documentaries,
films and theme broadcasts. The channel also broadcasts
Swedish-language full service channel broadcasting news, factual and
children's programmes and entertainment. It also shows many Nordic
films and series and Sami-language
Ođđasat . Finnish subtitles are
available for most programmes, they can be enabled using the digital
set-top box. Outside prime time , Teema "> member of parliament Mr
Pertti Hemmilä submitted in November 2005 a question in parliament
about the plans of
Yle to end its availability on international
shortwave bands. In his question MP Hemmilä took up the low cost of
the world band radio to the consumer travelling or living abroad. In
her response the minister for communication and transport, Mrs Susanna
Huovinen (sdp) noted that
Yle would now be available via other means
such as satellites and the Internet. She also underlined the fact that
Yle is not under government control, but under direct parliamentary
supervision. (The link above leads to texts of the question and the
response in Finnish and Swedish at www.eduskunta.fi)
LIST OF YLE MANAGING DIRECTORS
* J. V. Vakio (until 1935 Hj. W. Walldén) 1927–1945
Hella Wuolijoki 1945–1949
* Einar Sundström 1950–1964
Eino S. Repo
Eino S. Repo 1965–1969
* Erkki Raatikainen 1970–1979
* Sakari Kiuru 1980–1989
Reino Paasilinna 1990–1994
* Arne Wessberg 1994–2005
Mikael Jungner 2005–2010
Lauri Kivinen 2010– Incumbent
* Marjo Rein
* Tommy Franti
* Jussi-Pekka Rantanen
* Arto Nurmi
* Juuso Pekkinen
List of documentary channels
* List of radio stations in
* ^ "Results From The TV Audience Measurement". Finnpanel.
Retrieved 23 December 2011.
* ^ "
Radio Listening In
Finland 2010" (PDF). Finnpanel. 2011-02-03.
p. 18. Retrieved 23 December 2011.
* ^ "
Yle tax in force next year". Retrieved 6 February 2013.
* ^ "Yleisradio - yle.fi".
* ^ "