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Xiamen, formerly romanized as Amoy, is a sub-provincial city in southeastern Fujian, China, beside the Taiwan
Taiwan
Strait. It is divided into six districts: Huli, Siming, Jimei, Tong'an, Haicang, and Xiang'an. Altogether, these cover an area of 1,699.39 square kilometers (656.14 sq mi) with a population of 3,531,347 as of 2010. The urbanized area of the city has spread from its original island to include parts of all six of its districts, with a total population of 1,861,289. This area connects to Quanzhou
Quanzhou
in the north and Zhangzhou
Zhangzhou
in the west, making up a metropolis of more than five million people. The Jinmen
Jinmen
or Kinmen
Kinmen
Islands administered by the Republic of China
China
lie less than 6 kilometers (4 mi) away. Xiamen Island
Xiamen Island
was considered to possess one of the world's great natural harbors in Yundang Bay, but Fujian's international trade was long restricted to Quanzhou
Quanzhou
or to Guangzhou
Guangzhou
in Guangdong. Due to the siltification of Quanzhou's harbor, the British insisted that Xiamen be opened to foreign trade in the treaty that ended the First Opium War in 1842. Under the Qing, both before and after the war, there was a large-scale emigration of Chinese from southern Fujian
Fujian
who spread Hokkien-speaking communities to Singapore, Malaysia
Malaysia
(especially in Penang), Indonesia
Indonesia
( Medan
Medan
and Riau Province) and the Philippines. The overseas Chinese continue to support Xiamen's educational and cultural institutions. As part of China's Opening Up Policy
Opening Up Policy
under Deng Xiaoping, Xiamen
Xiamen
became one of the original four special economic zones opened to foreign investment and trade in the early 1980s. Its former harbor was enclosed using land excavated during the city's expansion. The city is known for its mild climate, Hokkien
Hokkien
culture and Gulangyu Island, as well as its relatively low pollution. In 2006, Xiamen
Xiamen
was ranked as China's 2nd-"most suitable city for living", as well as China's "most romantic leisure city" in 2011.

Contents

1 Name 2 Geography

2.1 Climate

3 History 4 Demographics

4.1 Languages 4.2 Religion

5 Administration 6 Economy

6.1 Financial services 6.2 Industrial zones

7 Transportation

7.1 Local transportation 7.2 Road 7.3 Railways 7.4 Air 7.5 Sea

7.5.1 Ferries 7.5.2 Port

8 Tourism 9 Culture

9.1 Cuisine 9.2 Music 9.3 Art 9.4 Media

10 Colleges and universities

10.1 National 10.2 Public 10.3 Private 10.4 Vocational College

11 Military 12 Notable people 13 International relations

13.1 Consulates 13.2 Sister cities

14 Notes 15 References 16 Further reading 17 External links

Name[edit]

The statue of Koxinga
Koxinga
(Zheng Chenggong) on Gulangyu
Gulangyu
Island.

The area around Xiamen Bay
Xiamen Bay
appears as Tong'an
Tong'an
in some Han records. Xiamen Island
Xiamen Island
was described as Jiahe Islet c. 976. It received its present name from the Xiamen
Xiamen
Castle erected on the island by Zhou Dexing in 1387 during the Ming.[5] The name was formerly written using the Chinese characters
Chinese characters
meaning "Lower Gate". When its port prospered under the Qing, the name was considered unrefined and changed to homophonous characters meaning "Mansion Gate". Xiamen
Xiamen
is the atonal pinyin romanization of the characters' pronunciation in Mandarin. It has also been romanized as Hiamen.[6] The former English name "Amoy" was based on the same name's pronunciation in the Zhangzhou
Zhangzhou
dialect of Hokkien, Ē-mûi. Xiamen
Xiamen
was also named Siming ("Remembering the Ming") for a few years (1656–c. 1661) during its occupation by the loyalist Southern Ming forces of Koxinga. The Qing restored the former name upon their conquest of the area, but Koxinga's name was in turn restored after the Xinhai Revolution
Xinhai Revolution
that inaugurated the republic in 1912. The name Xiamen
Xiamen
was later restored again[when?] but Siming continues to be used as the name of one of its districts. Geography[edit]

Xiamen
Xiamen
Island, looking south. The Gaoji Causeway
Gaoji Causeway
lies at the bottom and the old Yundang Harbor—now an inclosed lake—lies to the right. The Kinmen
Kinmen
Islands controlled by the Republic of China
China
are visible to the upper left.

Main articles: Xiamen Island
Xiamen Island
and Xiamen
Xiamen
Bay Xiamen
Xiamen
is a sub-provincial city in southeastern Fujian
Fujian
whose urban core grew up from the port of Xiamen
Xiamen
on southern Xiamen
Xiamen
Island, now located within Siming District. It now also includes Gulangyu
Gulangyu
Island and the rugged coast of the mainland from the northeast bank of the Jiulong River in the west to the islands of Xiang'an
Xiang'an
in the east. Xiamen Island
Xiamen Island
lies about one degree north of the Tropic of Cancer.[7] It is divided between Huli District
Huli District
in the north and Siming District in the south. Siming also includes Gulangyu. Its mainland territory is divided among Haicang, Jimei, Tong'an, and Xiang'an
Xiang'an
districts. In the 19th century, Xiamen's harbor on Yundang Bay was considered one of the world's great natural harbors. Land reclamation
Land reclamation
has since been used to fill in the mouth of this inlet, turning it into Siming District's Yundang Lake. The municipal government is located on other reclaimed land beside it. The nearest point of Liehyu in the Kinmen
Kinmen
Islands, still controlled by the Republic of China
China
from Taiwan, lies only 6 kilometers (4 mi) off Xiamen
Xiamen
Island.[8] Climate[edit] Xiamen
Xiamen
has a monsoonal humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cfa), characterised by long, hot and humid summers (but moderate compared to much of the rest of the province) and short, mild and dry winters. The warmest month is July, with a 24-hour average of 27.8 °C (82.0 °F), and the coolest month is January, averaging 12.8 °C (55.0 °F); the annual mean is 20.7 °C (69.3 °F). Extremes since 1951 have ranged from 1.5 °C (35 °F) on 29 December 1991 to 39.2 °C (103 °F) on 20 July 2007.[9] Spring, both by humidity and percentage of sunshine, is the dampest season but typhoons in late summer and early autumn can make the latter period wetter overall. Summer and autumn are marked by comparatively sunny conditions, while autumn is warm and dry. The annual rainfall is 1,350 millimeters (53 in). With monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 24% in March to 56% in July, the city receives 1,853 hours of bright sunshine annually. Frost occurs very rarely, and the last snowfall in the city took place in January 1893, when snow also fell at Guangzhou, Macau, in the inland parts of Hong Kong
Hong Kong
and in the hills of Taipei. The area is known within China
China
for its relatively low pollution.[10]

Climate data for Xiamen
Xiamen
(1981−2010)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 28.4 (83.1) 28.4 (83.1) 29.6 (85.3) 33.6 (92.5) 35.4 (95.7) 36.1 (97) 39.2 (102.6) 39.0 (102.2) 35.4 (95.7) 36.0 (96.8) 31.4 (88.5) 27.9 (82.2) 39.2 (102.6)

Average high °C (°F) 17.3 (63.1) 17.5 (63.5) 19.5 (67.1) 23.5 (74.3) 27.0 (80.6) 29.7 (85.5) 32.2 (90) 32.0 (89.6) 30.4 (86.7) 27.5 (81.5) 23.8 (74.8) 19.4 (66.9) 24.98 (76.97)

Daily mean °C (°F) 12.8 (55) 13.1 (55.6) 15.0 (59) 19.1 (66.4) 22.9 (73.2) 26.0 (78.8) 28.0 (82.4) 27.8 (82) 26.3 (79.3) 23.2 (73.8) 19.3 (66.7) 14.9 (58.8) 20.7 (69.25)

Average low °C (°F) 10.0 (50) 10.4 (50.7) 12.1 (53.8) 16.2 (61.2) 20.3 (68.5) 23.5 (74.3) 25.2 (77.4) 25.1 (77.2) 23.6 (74.5) 20.5 (68.9) 16.5 (61.7) 12.0 (53.6) 17.95 (64.32)

Record low °C (°F) 2.0 (35.6) 2.6 (36.7) 2.5 (36.5) 6.4 (43.5) 12.2 (54) 16.3 (61.3) 20.7 (69.3) 21.4 (70.5) 16.7 (62.1) 13.3 (55.9) 7.5 (45.5) 1.5 (34.7) 1.5 (34.7)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 35.1 (1.382) 83.1 (3.272) 111.6 (4.394) 147.0 (5.787) 171.7 (6.76) 198.8 (7.827) 129.5 (5.098) 207.1 (8.154) 148.6 (5.85) 42.6 (1.677) 29.3 (1.154) 28.0 (1.102) 1,332.4 (52.457)

Average rainy days (≥ 0.1 mm) 7.1 12.0 15.4 14.6 15.2 14.8 9.9 10.9 9.0 3.2 4.0 4.9 121.0

Average relative humidity (%) 74 78 80 80 82 85 81 81 77 69 69 70 77.2

Mean monthly sunshine hours 133.3 88.3 89.6 105.6 132.6 163.8 234.6 211.6 178.9 188.4 163.0 163.5 1,853.2

Percent possible sunshine 40 28 24 28 32 40 56 53 49 52 50 50 41.8

Source #1: China
China
Meteorological Data Service Center

Source #2: China
China
Meteorological Administration(precipitation days, sunshine hours 1971–2000)

History[edit]

The first flag in the second row was a flag of Amoy as recorded in a map published in 1787

"Amoy" and "Kolang-soo" in 1844[11]

"Amoy" Town and Harbor from "Kalangsu" in 1874.

Lai Afong's c. 1870 photograph of "Amoy" from "Koolansoo".

A Krupp
Krupp
gun at the Hulishan Battery, installed to protect Xiamen during the late Qing era.

"Hsia-men" and "Ku-lang Hsü" in a 1945 American map.

Large characters saying "Peaceful Reunification" and "One Country, Two Systems" on Xiamen
Xiamen
Island's west coast, facing the nearby Taiwanese-controlled Jinmen
Jinmen
Islands. Similar propaganda on Jinmen
Jinmen
face Xiamen, reading " Three Principles of the People
Three Principles of the People
Unite China".

Gulangyu
Gulangyu
(foreground) and Xiamen
Xiamen
(background).

The area of Xiamen
Xiamen
was largely bypassed by the Qin and Han conquests and colonization of Guangdong, which passed west of Fujian
Fujian
down the Lingqu Canal
Lingqu Canal
between the Xiang and Li rivers. It was first organized as Tong'an
Tong'an
County in AD 282 under the Jin, but it lost this status soon afterwards. Tong'an
Tong'an
County was again established in 933 under the Later Tang. The settlement on the southeastern shore of Xiamen
Xiamen
Island[12] (now part of Siming District) developed as a seaport under the Song, although legal foreign trade was restricted to nearby Quanzhou, which administered the area. In 1387, attacks by the "Japanese" or "dwarf" pirates—many of them actually disaffected Chinese—prompted the Ming to protect the harbor with the fortress that gave Xiamen
Xiamen
its name. The Portuguese first reached Xiamen
Xiamen
in 1541. After the fall of the Ming to the Qing in 1644, Southern Ming
Southern Ming
loyalists including Koxinga
Koxinga
used Xiamen
Xiamen
as a base from which to launch attacks against the invading Manchus
Manchus
from 1650 to 1660.[13] In 1661, Koxinga
Koxinga
drove the Dutch from Taiwan
Taiwan
and moved his operations there. His base on Xiamen fell to a combined Qing and Dutch invasion in 1663.[14] The East India Company traded extensively with the port, constructing a factory there in 1678.[14][a] It was raised to the status of a subprefecture in 1680,[citation needed] but the taxes and other restrictions placed on traders compelled the British to relocate to Canton and Fuzhou
Fuzhou
the next year.[14] Trade resumed in 1685[15] and continued until the imposition of the Canton System. By the 19th century, the city walls had a circumference of around 9 miles (14 km), with an inner and outer city divided by an inner wall and a ridge of hills surmounted by a well-built fort.[12] The inner harbor on Yundang Bay was also well fortified[12] and these defenses were further strengthened upon the outbreak of the First Opium War.[15] Nonetheless, Xiamen
Xiamen
was captured in 1841 between Guangzhou
Guangzhou
and Zhoushan. Rear Adm. Parker bombarded the Qing position to little effect, but the assault by the men under Lt. Gen. Gough caused the Chinese to flee their positions without a fight.[15][16] The city was abandoned during the night[11] and fell the next day on 27 August.[17] The Chinese had spirited out the entire treasury of sycee bullion under the nose of the British by disguising it inside hollow logs.[11] Xiamen
Xiamen
being too large to garrison, a small force was left to hold Gulangyu.[18] The next year, the Treaty of Nanjing
Treaty of Nanjing
made Xiamen
Xiamen
one of the first five ports opened to British trade, which had previously been legally restricted to Guangzhou. Subsequent treaties opened the port to other international powers. As the primary international port for Fujian, particularly Zhangzhou and its hinterland,[12] Xiamen
Xiamen
became a center of China's tea trade, with hundreds of thousands of tons shipped yearly to Europe and the Americas.[19] Its local dialect influenced a variety of translations of Chinese terms. Its principal exports during the period were tea, porcelain, and paper;[b] it imported sugar, rice, cotton, and opium, as well as some manufactured goods.[12][c] Xiamen
Xiamen
was also a center of Protestant missionaries in China;[20][21] the missions operated the city's two hospitals.[22] The merchants of Xiamen
Xiamen
were thought among the richest and most entrepreneurial[12] and industrious[23] in China, but the city was widely accounted the dirtiest city in China.[12][6][22] Owing to local belief in feng shui, the streets were "as crooked as ram's horns"[22] and averaged about 4 feet (1 m) in width to keep out sunlight and control public disturbances.[24] Its population was estimated at 250,000 in the 1870s;[12][d] by that point the island was largely barren and full of roughly 140 villages, with a total population around 400,000.[25] European settlement in the port was concentrated on Gulangyu Island
Gulangyu Island
off Xiamen
Xiamen
proper; it remains known for its colonial architecture.[citation needed]

A scene in Amoy painted by a passing traveler in 1899

Xiamen's paifang c. 1843[26]

An 1869 stereogram of laborers in Xiamen. The first coolies left Xiamen
Xiamen
for Havana in 1847

"Plan of the Country around Amoy", 1870[27]

A stereogram of houses in Xiamen
Xiamen
c. 1870

Nanputuo Temple
Nanputuo Temple
c. 1870[28]

A 1915 map of the "Environs of Amoy",[29] showing the city and island before the massive land reclamation projects of the 20th century.

By the 20th century, the local export economy had collapsed due to the success of British tea plantations in India.[6] During the Qing and the early 20th century, many southern Fujianese emigrated to Southeast Asia and Taiwan, spreading Hokkien
Hokkien
language and culture overseas. Some 350,000 overseas Chinese currently trace their ancestry to Xiamen.[30] Some of this diaspora later returned: an estimated 220,000 Xiamen residents are returning overseas Chinese and their kin.[30] Others continue to help fund universities and cultural institutions in Xiamen. At the time of the Xinhai Revolution, the native population of the city was estimated at 300,000 and the foreign settlement at 280.[6] After the establishment of the Republic of China, the area around Xiamen
Xiamen
was renamed Siming County. Xiamen's trade during the period was largely conducted through Taiwan,[6] which had been seized by Japan during the First Sino-Japanese War. The Japanese subsequently claimed Fujian
Fujian
as their sphere of influence during the colonial squabbling over China.[6] Japan
Japan
occupied Xiamen Island
Xiamen Island
from May 1938 to September 1945 during World War II. In the late phases of the Chinese Civil War that followed, the Communists captured Xiamen
Xiamen
and Gulangyu
Gulangyu
in October 1949 but failed to capture Jinmen. The same year, Xiamen
Xiamen
became a provincially-administered city (省辖市). In 1955 and 1958, mainland China
China
escalated Cold War
Cold War
political tensions by shelling nearby islands from Xiamen
Xiamen
in what became known as the First and Second Taiwan Strait
Taiwan Strait
Crisis. The Nationalists responded by reïnforcing Jinmen
Jinmen
and shelling Xiamen. The Gaoji Causeway
Gaoji Causeway
built from 1955–57 notionally transformed Xiamen Island
Xiamen Island
into a peninsula, and so it was termed in the heady propaganda of the time. Due to political tensions, the eastern half of Xiamen Island
Xiamen Island
and much of the Fujian Coast facing the offshore islands remained undeveloped in the 1960s and 1970s. The Water Police and Post-Office were situated directly across the water from the American embassy.

Siming District, looking north from the southern shore of Yundang Lake

When Deng Xiaoping
Deng Xiaoping
initiated his Opening Up Policy, Xiamen
Xiamen
was made one of the first four special economic zones in 1980, with special investment and trade regulations attracting foreign investment, particularly from overseas Chinese.[31] The city grew and prospered. On 18 April 1988, Xiamen
Xiamen
was promoted to sub-provincial status and began to be specially considered in China's state planning. In 2001, the governments of mainland China
China
and Taiwan
Taiwan
agreed to initiate the "Three Mini-Links" and restored ferry, commercial, and mail links between the mainland and offshore islands. Trade and travel between Xiamen
Xiamen
and Jinmen
Jinmen
was restored and later expanded to include direct air travel to Taiwan
Taiwan
Island. In 2010, travelers between Xiamen
Xiamen
and Jinmen
Jinmen
made 1.31 million trips.[32] In 1999, the largest corruption scandal in China's history was uncovered in Xiamen, implicating up to 200 government officials. Lai Changxing is alleged to have run an enormous smuggling operation, which financed the city's football team, film studios, largest construction project and a vast brothel rented to him by the local Public Security Bureau. According to Time, "locals used to joke that Xiamen
Xiamen
should change its name to Yuanhua, the name of Lai's company." They subsequently claimed that potential investors were discouraged by the taint of corruption.[33] In 2006, Xiamen
Xiamen
was ranked as China's 2nd-"most suitable city for living",[34] as well as China's "most romantic leisure city" in 2011.[35] Demographics[edit] According to the 2010 Census, Xiamen
Xiamen
has a population of 3,531,347 inhabitants, almost 1.8 times the population counted for the last census in 2000 (which was of 2,053,070 inhabitants). The annual average population growth was of 5.57% for the period 2000–2010.[36] However, this masks the population explosion in Jimei District, which quadrupled since the prior census; Huli District's population more than doubled.[37] The resident population was 1,967,800 in 2013 yearend, and with a population of 3.73 million (those residing at least half a year).[38] The total resident population is said to be 4,255,000 in December 2014, without specifying what counts as a resident.[39]

Languages[edit] The local variety is Xiamenese (also known as Amoynese), a dialect of Hokkien
Hokkien
which is part of the Southern Min
Southern Min
languages. Amoy dialect
Amoy dialect
is widely used and understood across the southern part of Fujian
Fujian
province as well as overseas. While it is widely spoken in and around Xiamen, especially by its native speakers, the Amoy dialect
Amoy dialect
has no official status. The official language of all government and political business is Mandarin, although the locals do not use much of it in their everyday lives. The English words "Amoy", "tea" (茶; tê), "cumshaw" (感謝; kám-siā), "pekoe" (白毫; pe̍h-hô), kowtow (磕頭; khàu-thâu), "ketchup" (茄汁; kiô-chap) originated from Amoy dialect. Religion[edit] In the 19th century, Xiamen
Xiamen
proper had two Dutch Reformed[e] and two LMS churches.[20] Xiamen Island
Xiamen Island
was home to three Dutch Reformed missions at "Kang-thau", "Kio-than", and "Chhan-chhu-oa".[25] Administration[edit] Xiamen
Xiamen
is a sub-provincial city[40] of Fujian
Fujian
with direct jurisdiction over 6 districts.

Map Name Simplified Chinese Pinyin Population (2010 census) Area (km2) Density (/km2)

Huli Siming Haicang Jimei Tong'an Xiang'an

Huli District 湖里区 Húlǐ Qū 931,291 73.77 14,782

Siming District 思明区 Sīmíng Qū 929,998 83.99 12,740

Haicang District 海沧区 Hǎicāng Qū 288,739 186.46 1,863

Jimei District 集美区 Jíměi Qū 580,857 274.29 2,105

Tong'an
Tong'an
District 同安区 Tóng'ān Qū 496,129 669.36 754

Xiang'an
Xiang'an
District 翔安区 Xiáng'ān Qū 304,333 411.50 865

In May 2003, Gulangyu
Gulangyu
and Kaiyuan districts were merged into Siming District; Xinglin District (杏林区) was merged into Jimei District; and Xiang'an
Xiang'an
District was created out of a section of Tong'an District. Economy[edit]

Xiamen International Bank
Xiamen International Bank
Building

China
China
Construction Bank Building, Xiamen

Zuanshi Hai'an (钻石海岸, lit. "Diamond Coast") Building on Lujiang Road

Sheraton Hotel, Xiamen

Xiamen
Xiamen
has a diverse and well-developed economy. The Siming and Huli districts form its Special
Special
Economic Zone. Important industries are fishing, shipbuilding, food processing, tanning, textiles, machine tool manufacturing, chemical industries, telecommunications and financial services. The city has economic and trade relations with 162 countries[citation needed] and regions worldwide, and benefits from foreign investment, particularly capital from Hong Kong, Macau
Macau
and Taiwan. In 2008, a total of 356 projects with foreign direct investment had been approved in the city, with a contractual foreign investment amount of US$1.896 billion and an actual foreign investment amount of US$2.042 billion.[41] In 1992, Xiamen
Xiamen
was ranked among the top 10 Chinese cities in relation to comprehensive strengths with its GDP increasing by an average of over 20% annually. In 2008, Xiamen's GDP amounted to 156 billion Yuan, an increase of 11.1% over the previous year; and the per-capita GDP was 62,651 yuan (US$9,017). Further economic reforms were introduced, and this brought the total volume of imports and exports in 2008 to US$45.4 billion, while that of exports totalled US$29.4 billion.[41] Xiamen
Xiamen
is also the host of the China
China
International Fair for Investment and Trade held annually in early September to attract foreign direct investment into the Chinese mainland. Xiamen
Xiamen
also hold Straits Forum annually. Xiamen
Xiamen
has excellent road, rail, air and port infrastructure. In the last few years, Xiamen
Xiamen
has invested more than RMB30 billion in infrastructure construction. Financial services[edit] Xiamen
Xiamen
has highly developed banking services. The biggest bank is the state-owned commercial bank, Sino-foreign joint venture Xiamen International Bank, solely foreign-funded Xiamen
Xiamen
Bank, and Xiamen Rural Commercial Bank. Various foreign banks that have established representative offices in Xiamen. There are more than 600 financial institutions in operation in Xiamen.[citation needed] Industrial zones[edit] The Xiamen
Xiamen
Export Processing Zone is located in the south part of Haicang Development Zone only 1.5 kilometers (1 mi) from the Haicang Port Area, 10 kilometers (6 mi) from Gaoqi International Airport and 3 kilometers (2 mi) from Haicang railway station. It has a favorable geographical location and well-developed transportation network, especially sea transportation. It has a total planned area of 2.4 square kilometers (1 sq mi) with 1.46 square kilometers (0.56 sq mi) for the first phase. Industries encouraged in the zone include Biotechnology/Pharmaceuticals, Chemicals Production and Processing, Heavy Industry, Instruments & Industrial Equipment Production, Medical Equipment and Supplies, Research and Development, Shipping/Warehousing/Logistics, Telecommunications Equipment, Trading and Distribution.[42] Xiamen
Xiamen
Haicang Taiwanese Investment Zone is situated to the southeast of Xiamen
Xiamen
Island, at the tip of the Xiamen-Zhangzhou- Quanzhou
Quanzhou
Delta in South Fujian
Fujian
bordering Zhangzhou
Zhangzhou
City to the west, Jimei District
Jimei District
to the north, and overlooking Xiamen Island
Xiamen Island
across the narrow water. The 100-square-kilometer Haicang Taiwanese Investment Zone is the largest national Taiwanese investment zone authorized by the State Council in 1989. It is situated close to Xiamen
Xiamen
Port.[43] Xinglin Taiwan
Taiwan
Merchants Development Zone was approved to be established on 20 May 1989 by the State Council. The planned area is 19.36 square kilometers (7.47 sq mi) and the current area is 12.5 square kilometers (5 sq mi). The zone is located in Jimei, Xiamen. The main industries set up in the zone are chemistry, machinery, textile and electronics. The zone is 8 kilometers (5 mi) from the Xiamen Gaoqi International Airport
Xiamen Gaoqi International Airport
and 3 kilometers (2 mi) from the 319 National Highway.[44] Torch Hi-tech Industrial Development Zone was approved by the State Council as one of China's national level high-tech industrial development zones in March 1999. In 2001, the zone became the first to achieve 10 billion yuan per square kilometer target output level. It is located close to Xiamen
Xiamen
Gaoqi International Airport.[45] In 1992, Xiamen
Xiamen
Xiangyu Free Trade Zone is established and approved by The State Council. The overall planning area is 0.63 square kilometers (0.24 sq mi). In 2008, there are 1100 enterprises in this park. Industries encouraged in the zone include Electronics Assembly & Manufacturing, Garment and Textiles Production, Trading and Distribution, Research and Development, Shipping/Warehousing/Logistics.[46] Transportation[edit] Local transportation[edit]

The Haicang Bridge
Haicang Bridge
in 2007

The Xiamen BRT
Xiamen BRT
beside the main railway station. Its expressways and elevated roads form a closed network accessible only to the system's busses.

The Gaoji Causeway, five main road bridges (the Jimei, Xiamen, Xiang'an, Xinglin, and Haicang Bridges), and two undersea tunnel ( Xiang'an
Xiang'an
Tunnel and Haicang Tunnel) link Xiamen Island
Xiamen Island
with the mainland. The main forms of public transportation in Xiamen
Xiamen
are bus and bus rapid transit (BRT) and the subway. Xiamen's BRT system features a dedicated bus-only closed road system with stations and ticketing system similar to light rail. Most of the 115-kilometer (71 mi) BRT network consist of bus lanes along expressways and elevated BRT viaducts on Xiamen
Xiamen
Island. BRT routes have no traffic lights and travel speed is limited by design to 60 kilometers per hour (37 mph). Five BRT routes are currently in service: BRT-1 Route, BRT-2 Route, Huandao Avenue BRT Route, Chenggong Avenue BRT Route and Connecting BRT Route. The fare is 0.6 RMB per km for the air-conditioned busses. The BRT is supplemented by 20 shuttle bus services that connect nearby places to the BRT stations. The shuttle bus service has a flat rate of 0.5 RMB. Fare discount is available when pre-paid e-card is used.[citation needed] Taxis can be easily hailed in most areas of the city. Bicycles are commonly used by residents, especially on Xiamen
Xiamen
Island. Unlike many Chinese cities, motorcycles, mopeds, tricycles, and wooden handcarts are not permitted in Xiamen. The city has upheld the ban on these vehicles since the 1990s. Electric bikes are permitted with proper licensing and obedience of traffic laws.[47] On the small island of Gulangyu
Gulangyu
off Xiamen
Xiamen
Island, automobiles are also banned. Xiamen Metro
Xiamen Metro
has been under construction since 13 November 2013 and the first line began operation on 31 December 2017. A system of five lines has been approved so far, with plans to eventually expand to eleven lines including service to surrounding suburban areas. Road[edit] The Fuzhou- Xiamen
Xiamen
and Zhangzhou- Xiamen
Xiamen
Express Highways link Xiamen with the highway network of Fujian
Fujian
and the neighboring provinces of Guangdong, Jiangxi
Jiangxi
and Zhejiang. There are also container freight services available between Xiamen
Xiamen
and Shenzhen
Shenzhen
and Hong Kong.[48] Railways[edit]

Xiamen
Xiamen
Railway Station's south entrance.

Xiamen
Xiamen
is served by the Yingtan– Xiamen
Xiamen
railway, Fuzhou–Xiamen railway, Longyan–Xiamen railway and the Xiamen– Shenzhen
Shenzhen
railway, which are connected to China's national railway network. Direct passenger trains are available from Xiamen
Xiamen
to Shanghai, Nanjing, Hefei, Fuzhou, Nanchang
Nanchang
and Yingtan. The completion of the Xingguo–Yong’an– Quanzhou
Quanzhou
railway, Fuzhou– Xiamen
Xiamen
High-Speed railway, Nanchang– Xiamen
Xiamen
High-Speed railway, Longyan–Xiamen High-Speed railway, Xiamen– Shantou
Shantou
High-Speed railway in late 2020 expanded train services to destinations to the west and southwest. The Xiamen Railway Station
Xiamen Railway Station
on the island of Xiamen
Xiamen
is connected to the mainland by a railway bridge. The Xiamen North Railway Station
Xiamen North Railway Station
is located in Jimei District. The Xiamen
Xiamen
East Railway Station will be located in Xiang'an District.[49] Air[edit]

A Boeing 737 bearing the egret livery of XiamenAir
XiamenAir
at Xiamen
Xiamen
Airport.

The Xiamen Gaoqi International Airport
Xiamen Gaoqi International Airport
in northeastern Xiamen
Xiamen
Island is a main air hub in East China
China
with flights to over 90 domestic and international destinations. Among airports in China, Xiamen
Xiamen
ranked among the top 11 for passenger traffic, top 8 for cargo traffic and top 10 for air traffic. It can handle 27 million passengers annually. The airport is the headquarters hub of Xiamen
Xiamen
Airlines. Xiamen
Xiamen
has direct flights to most cities in China, Hong Kong, Macao, Taiwan, and major cities in east Asia like Tokyo, Osaka, Seoul. Intercontinental flights to Amsterdam, Sydney, Melbourne, Vancouver, Seattle(stopover Shenzhen), Los Angeles
Los Angeles
have been started from 2011. Xiamen
Xiamen
also hold a strong network to southeast Asia cities like, Bangkok, Kuala Lumpur, Manila, Jakarta, Cebu
Cebu
and Singapore, to server the large communities of southern Fujian's overseas diaspora and the increasing tourism flows. Sea[edit] Ferries[edit] Xiamen
Xiamen
has passenger ferry service to cities along the coast of China as well as the neighbouring island of Kinmen
Kinmen
(Jinmen) to the east, which is administered by the Republic of China
China
on Taiwan. These ferries are all served from the Wutong Ferry Terminal
Wutong Ferry Terminal
to Shuitou Pier, Kinmen
Kinmen
on the north-east side of the Xiamen Island
Xiamen Island
(quite distant from downtown Xiamen), ferries to Jinmen
Jinmen
take 60 minutes. There are facilities in both directions allowing for quick transfers between Xiamen
Xiamen
Gaoqi Airport (for Mainland destinations) and Kinmen
Kinmen
Airport (for Taiwanese destinations), which is very popular with large tour groups. The Heping Wharf Ferry Terminal on the south-west side of Xiamen Island offers short 5 minute boat rides to the island of Gulangyu however this is only accessible by Xiamen
Xiamen
residents. Tourists and non-locals must now take a longer 20 minute ferry ride from the main International Ferry Terminal, also called the Dongdu International Terminal, on the south-west side of Xiamen
Xiamen
Island., as of 20 October 2014 with a fare increase from 8RMB to 35RMB. This has been in order to reduce tourist numbers accessing the island in an effort to conserve it. This terminal used to have ferries, taking 90 minutes, to Kinmen
Kinmen
Island but were ceased in 2014. Port[edit]

The headquarters of the Xiamen Port
Xiamen Port
administration.

Main article: Port of Xiamen The historic port of Xiamen
Xiamen
in Yundang Bay on the southwest side of Xiamen Island
Xiamen Island
has been converted into a lake by land reclamation projects. The present-day Port of Xiamen
Port of Xiamen
lies on the northwestern shore of Xiamen
Xiamen
Island, opposite its airport, and at eleven other sites around Xiamen Bay
Xiamen Bay
and along the Jiulong estuary, including the neighboring jurisdiction of Zhangzhou. The port facilities are interconnected by ship, road, and rail. The port has been one of the busiest in China since the early 1980s[49] and is serviced by all of the 20 largest shipping lines in the world. In 2016, Xiamen
Xiamen
ranked among the top 15 ports in the world for container freight. The natural coastline in the port area is 64.5 kilometers (40 mi) while the water is over 12 meters (39 ft) in depth. There are 81 berths, including 16 deep-water berths, of which 6 operate containers of over 10,000 tonnes. Among other cargoes handled, Xiamen
Xiamen
is the world's largest supply base for raw tungsten materials[48] and sunglasses, exporting 120 million pairs each year.[48] Xiamen
Xiamen
is also an important base in Fujian
Fujian
province for making medium-sized and large container vessels and yachts.[48] Tourism[edit]

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Walkway on Gulangyu

A local store on Gulangyu

Buddhist library, Nanputuo Temple

Painted roofs at Nanputuo Temple

Xiamen
Xiamen
local handicraft, gold plated lacquer ware

Xiamen
Xiamen
and its surrounding countryside is known for its scenery and tree-lined beaches.[citation needed] Gulangyu, a former treaty port enclave, is a popular weekend getaway[citation needed] with views of the city and features many Victorian-style buildings. Xiamen's Botanical Garden is a nature lover's paradise. The Buddhist Nanputuo Temple, dating back to the Tang Dynasty, is a national treasure. Xiamen
Xiamen
is also well known as a continuing frontline in the Chinese Civil War, with the nearby Jinmen
Jinmen
Islands remaining under Taiwanese control. Water Garden Expo Park has a total area of about 6.76 km2 (2.61 sq mi), with a land area of 3.03 km2 or 1.17 sq mi consisting of five exhibition park islands, four ecological landscapes islands and two peninsulas, including the main pavilion, Chinese Education Park, Marine Culture Island, Spa Island, and other functional areas and related facilities. Culture[edit] Xiamen
Xiamen
is famed for its music, puppet shows, Gezi Opera, and temple celebration events. Cuisine[edit] Main article: Chinese cuisine As with much of southern China, the staple foods of Xiamen
Xiamen
have long been rice, seafood, pork, sweet potatoes, various pickled vegetables, and bok choy.[50] Its traditional dishes form a branch of southern Fujianese cuisine, with Taiwanese influence. It is particularly well known within China
China
for its street food and snacks. A local specialty is worm jelly (t 土笋凍, s 土笋冻, tǔsǔndòng), a gelatin made from a kind of marine peanut worm. Music[edit] Many famous Chinese musicians hail from Xiamen
Xiamen
and Gulangyu
Gulangyu
Island, including Huang Yujun, Yin Chengzong, Jing Yang, and Xu Feiping. It has a major symphony orchestra, the Xiamen
Xiamen
Philharmonic Orchestra. Every May there's an international music festival, and piano competitions and music festivals are also frequently held. On Gulangyu, on Huangyan Road on the way to Sunlight Rock is the Gulangyu Concert Hall, where classical concerts are regularly held on weekends. Art[edit]

Wushipu Oil Painting Village, Xiamen

Xiamen
Xiamen
Wushipu oil painting village has been named as “the second of the world oil painting industry base” and the second batch of national cultural (art) industry base” by the China
China
artist association and the culture property department of Culture Ministry.[citation needed] Xiamen
Xiamen
has strong industry advantage in hand-done oil painting, which has two main manufacturing bases here, Xiamen
Xiamen
Wushipu Oil Painting Village and Xiamen
Xiamen
Haicang Oil Painting Village. 80% market shares in European and American market is taken up by products exported from Xiamen. As the main manufacturing base of hand painted oil painting in China, Xiamen
Xiamen
Wushipu Oil Painting Village has more than 5,000 artists. It has the ability to produce all kinds of oil paintings with different specifications and styles. With the support of Xiamen Municipal Government, it has formed a powerful industrial chain, provided related accessories such as frames, brushes and paint colors and formed stable target customers composed by hotels, villas, high-class departments, galleries and so on. As another mail manufacturing base of oil painting, Xiamen
Xiamen
Haicang Oil Painting Village has more than 3,000 painters. The scale of Xiamen
Xiamen
Haicang Oil Painting Village has developed rapidly in recent years, which is from originally 28 enterprises to more than 250 enterprises at the moment. The combination of manufacturing, sales and distribution makes it become industrial base of commercial oil painting.[citation needed] Media[edit] Xiamen
Xiamen
is served by Xiamen
Xiamen
Media Group, which broadcasts news and entertainment such as movies and television series by AM/FM radio, close circuit television and satellite television. Media in Xiamen were temporarily blocked by the Government in June 2007 when about 10,000 people participated in protests against the building of a paraxylene factory by Tenglong Aromatic PX (Xiamen) Co. Ltd., which is owned by Taiwanese businessman Chen Yu-hao.[51] The incident, however, was solved smoothly later that year. Colleges and universities[edit]

A view of the Xiamen University
Xiamen University
campus

A view of the Xiamen
Xiamen
University

Jiannan Auditorium at Xiamen
Xiamen
University

National[edit] The first two universities below were founded by Tan Kah Kee.

Xiamen University
Xiamen University
(厦门大学) (founded 1921, Project 985, Project 211) Jimei University
Jimei University
(集美大学) Huaqiao University
Huaqiao University
(华侨大学)

Public[edit]

University of Chinese Academy of Sciences Xiamen
Xiamen
Microelectronics Engineering College (中国科学院大学厦门微电子工程学院) Xiamen
Xiamen
academy of arts and design, Fuzhou
Fuzhou
University (福州大学厦门工艺美术学院) Chinese Language and Culture College of Huaqiao University (华侨大学华文学院) Xiamen University
Xiamen University
of Technology (厦门理工学院) Xiamen
Xiamen
Medical College (厦门医学院) Xiamen University
Xiamen University
Tan Kah Kee
Tan Kah Kee
College (厦门大学嘉庚学院) Jimei University
Jimei University
Chengyi College (集美大学诚毅学院)

Private[edit]

Xiamen
Xiamen
Institute of Technology (厦门工学院) Xiamen
Xiamen
Huaxia University (厦门华夏学院) Xiamen
Xiamen
Nanyang University (厦门南洋学院)

Vocational College[edit]

Xiamen
Xiamen
City University (厦门城市职业学院) Xiamen
Xiamen
Ocean Vocational College (厦门海洋职业技术学院) The Xiamen
Xiamen
Academy For Performing Arts (厦门演艺职业学院) Xiamen
Xiamen
Institute of Software Technology (厦门软件职业技术学院) Xiamen
Xiamen
Huatian International Vocational Institute (厦门华天涉外职业技术学院) Xiamen
Xiamen
Xingcai Vocational & Technical College (厦门兴才职业技术学院) Xiamen
Xiamen
Donghai Institute (厦门东海职业技术学院) Xiamen
Xiamen
Security Science And Technology College (厦门安防科技职业学院)

Military[edit] Xiamen
Xiamen
is headquarters of the 73rd Group Army of the People's Liberation Army, one of the three group armies under the Nanjing Military Region, which is responsible for the defense of the eastern China, including any military action in the Taiwan
Taiwan
Strait.[citation needed] Notable people[edit]

Shen Kuo
Shen Kuo
(1031–1095), scientist and statesman, spent some of his youth in Xiamen Koxinga, a Ming loyalist Lai Changxing, businessman Raymond Lam, TVB actor and singer Yin Chengzong, pianist Henry Sy, Sr., businessman, founder of SM Group and chairman of SM Prime Holdings Tan Kah Kee, businessman, community leader, and philanthropist in colonial Singapore, and a Communist leader in the People's Republic of China. Lin Qiaozhi, a Chinese physician Walter Houser Brattain, American inventor of the transistor; co-recipient of 1956 Nobel Prize in Physics. Han Kuo-Huang, ethnomusicologist

International relations[edit] Consulates[edit] Singapore, Philippines
Philippines
and Thailand
Thailand
have the consulates in Xiamen.[52] Sister cities[edit] See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in China

Cardiff, Wales, UK (1983.3.31) Sasebo, Japan
Japan
(1983.10.28) Cebu, Philippines
Philippines
(1984.10.26) Baltimore, US (1985.11.7) Wellington, New Zealand
New Zealand
(1987.6.23) George Town, Penang, Malaysia
Malaysia
(1993.11.10) Sunshine Coast, Australia
Australia
(1999.9.28) Kaunas, Lithuania
Lithuania
(2001.3.11) Guadalajara, Mexico
Mexico
(2003.8.15) Zoetermeer, Netherlands
Netherlands
(2005.7.14) Surabaya, Indonesia
Indonesia
(2006.6.24) Mokpo, South Korea
South Korea
(2007.7.25) Sarasota, US (2007.11.9)(Sister City of Siming District) Marathon, Greece
Greece
(2009.1.4) Trier, Germany
Germany
(2010.11.11) Richmond, Canada
Canada
(2012.4.27) Dushanbe, Tajikistan
Tajikistan
(2013.6.20) Nice, France
France
(2014.5.22) Phuket, Thailand
Thailand
(2017.5.11) Izmir, Turkey
Turkey
(2018.1.18)

Notes[edit]

^ The factory represented an investment of $30,000 in bullion and $20,000 in goods.[14] ^ For 1870, 314 British and 240 other foreign ships cleared the port with £1,144,046 of exports, apart from the domestic traders.[12] This had fallen to £384,494 by 1904.[6] ^ For 1870, 315 British and 245 other foreign vessels entered the port with £1,915,427 of imports, apart from the domestic traders.[12] For 1904, the figure was £2,081,494.[6] ^ The estimate is very rough. Pitcher, writing a little later, placed the town's population at 60–100,000.[20] ^ The churches bore the names "Sin-Koe-a" and "Tek-Chhiu-Kha".[20]

^ "Communiqué of the National Bureau of Statistics of People's Republic of China
China
on Major Figures of the 2010 Population Census (No. 1)". National Bureau of Statistics of China. 28 April 2011. Archived from the original on 8 November 2013. Retrieved 12 February 2014.  ^ 2010 census ^ "Amoy". Oxford English Dictionary
Oxford English Dictionary
(3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. September 2005.  (Subscription or UK public library membership required.) ^ Formerly "Lower Gate" (下門); see Name section. ^ Zhongguo Gujin Diming Da Cidian 中国古今地名大词典, 2855. ^ a b c d e f g h EB (1911). ^ Pitcher (1893), p. 26. ^ 《环球时报》2002-04-22. .china.com.cn. Retrieved on 28 August 2011. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 18 March 2013. Retrieved 18 February 2013.  ^ Wile, Rob. "These 10 Cities Are Your Best Bet At Escaping China's Epic Pollution Problem". Retrieved 17 July 2016. . ^ a b c Ouchterlony (1844), p. 175 ^ a b c d e f g h i j EB (1878). ^ Struve, Lynn A. (1984), The Southern Ming
Southern Ming
1644–1662, New Haven: Yale University Press, p. 181 . ^ a b c d Pitcher (1893), p. 31. ^ a b c Pitcher (1893), p. 32. ^ Ouchterlony (1844), pp. 173 ff. ^ Pitcher (1893), p. 33. ^ Ouchterlony (1844), p. 176. ^ Pitcher (1893), p. 30. ^ a b c d Pitcher (1893), p. 27. ^ Cheung, David Yiqiang (2004), Christianity in Modern China: The Making of the First Native Protestant Church, Leiden, pp. 205 ff . ^ a b c Pitcher (1893), p. 28. ^ Pitcher (1893), p. 34. ^ Pitcher (1893), p. 29. ^ a b Pitcher (1893), p. 25. ^ Wright, G.N. (1843), China, in a Series of Views, Displaying the Scenery, Architecture, and Social Habits of That Ancient Empire, Vol. II, Fisher, Son, & Co., p. 69 , illustrated by Thomas Allom. ^ Morrison, George Ernest (c. 1870), Album of Hongkong, Canton, Macao, Amoy, Foochow, p. 50 . ^ Thomson, John (1898), Through China
China
with a Camera, Westminster: A. Constable & Co., p. 96 . ^ An Official Guide to Eastern Asia, Vol. IV: China, Tokyo: Imperial Japanese Gov't Railways, 1915 . ^ a b (Chinese) "侨乡厦门" 厦门市华侨博物院 Archived 12 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine. Accessed 11 June 2011 ^ Brown, Bill & Brown, Sue, URL=http://www.amoymagic.com/bhistory.htm,[permanent dead link] History of Xiamen ^ (Chinese) "厦门港为赴台自由行开通夜航 拉动厦漳泉旅游资源整合" 厦门商报 2 June 2011 ^ Beech, Hannah (28 July 2014). "Smuggler's Blues". Retrieved 28 July 2014.  ^ Jing Fu (3 January 2006). " Beijing
Beijing
drops out of top 10 'best city' list". China
China
Daily. Retrieved 25 April 2012.  ^ Daily, Xiamen
Xiamen
(4 November 2011). " Xiamen
Xiamen
dubbed 'Most Romantic Leisure City'". Xiamen
Xiamen
Daily. Retrieved 22 June 2012.  ^ (in Chinese) Compilation by LianXin website. Data from the Sixth National Population Census of the People's Republic of China
China
Archived 25 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine. ^ http://www.citypopulation.de/php/china-fujian-admin.php ^ http://www.whatsonxiamen.com/news36687.html ^ http://www.whatsonxiamen.com/news37938.html ^ "中央机构编制委员会印发《关于副省级市若干问题的意见》的通知. 中编发[1995]5号". 豆丁网. 19 February 1995. Archived from the original on 29 May 2014. Retrieved 28 May 2014.  ^ a b [1] Archived 26 April 2006 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Xiamen
Xiamen
Export Processing Zone China
China
Industrial Space. Rightsite.asia. Retrieved on 28 August 2011. ^ Xiamen
Xiamen
Haicang Taiwanese Investment Zone. RightSite.asia. Retrieved on 28 August 2011. ^ Xinglin Taiwan
Taiwan
Merchants Development Zone. RightSite.asia (20 May 1989). Retrieved on 28 August 2011. ^ Xiamen
Xiamen
Torch Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone. RightSite.asia. Retrieved on 28 August 2011. ^ Xiamen
Xiamen
Xiangyu Free Trade Zone. RightSite.asia. Retrieved on 28 August 2011. ^ " Xiamen
Xiamen
cracks down on electric bicycle traffic violations – What's On Xiamen". www.whatsonxiamen.com. Retrieved 31 August 2016.  ^ a b c d " China
China
Expat city Guide Xiamen". China
China
Expat. 2008. Retrieved 8 February 2009.  ^ a b " China
China
Briefing Business Reports". Asia Briefing. 2009. Archived from the original on 18 February 2009. Retrieved 8 February 2009.  ^ Pitcher (1893), p. 38. ^ Text Messages Giving Voice to Chinese Washington Post ^ 厦门领事馆区大楼封顶.

References[edit]

 Baynes, T.S., ed. (1878), "Amoy", Encyclopædia Britannica, 1 (9th ed.), New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, p. 748 .  Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911), "Amoy", Encyclopædia Britannica, 1 (11th ed.), Cambridge University Press, p. 878 . Ouchterlony, John (1844), The Chinese War, London: Saunders & Otley . Pitcher, Philip Wilson (1893), Fifty Years in Amoy or A History of the Amoy Mission, China, New York: Reformed Church in America, ISBN 9785871498194 .

Further reading[edit]

Ng, Chin-Keong (1983). Trade and Society, the Amoy Network on the China
China
Coast, 1683–1735. NUS Press. ISBN 9971690691. Retrieved 24 April 2014. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Xiamen.

Xiamen
Xiamen
Government website What's On Xiamen Xiamen
Xiamen
City Guide Amoy Magic – English Guide to Xiamen
Xiamen
& Fujian Xiamen
Xiamen
travel guide from Wikivoyage Historic maps

US Army map of Xiamen, 1945 Japanese Government Railways map of Xiamen
Xiamen
and surrounds, 1915

v t e

Xiamen

Xiamen
Xiamen
Special
Special
Economic Zone

Districts

Haicang Huli Jimei Siming Tong'an Xiang'an

Education

Xiamen
Xiamen
University Huaqiao University Jimei University Xiamen
Xiamen
academy of arts and design, Fuzhou
Fuzhou
University Chinese Language and Culture College of Huaqiao University Xiamen University
Xiamen University
of Technology Xiamen
Xiamen
Medical College Xiamen University
Xiamen University
Tan Kah Kee
Tan Kah Kee
College Jimei University
Jimei University
Chengyi College Xiamen
Xiamen
Institute of Technology Xiamen
Xiamen
Huaxia College Xiamen
Xiamen
Nanyang College Xiamen
Xiamen
Shuangshi High School Xiamen
Xiamen
Foreign Language School Xiamen
Xiamen
No.1 Middle School Xiamen
Xiamen
International School

Attractions and tourism

SM City Xiamen SM Lifestyle Center South Putuo Temple Gulangyu
Gulangyu
Island Millennium Harbourview Hotel Xiamen China
China
International Fair for Investment and Trade Straits Forum

Culture and sports

Xiamen
Xiamen
International Marathon Xiamen
Xiamen
Media Group Amoy dialect Xiamen
Xiamen
Stadium

Transport

Xiamen
Xiamen
Gaoqi International Airport Xiamen
Xiamen
Xiang'an
Xiang'an
International Airport XiamenAir Port of Xiamen Xiamen
Xiamen
Railway Station Xiamen
Xiamen
North Railway Station Xiamen
Xiamen
East Railway Station Xiamen Metro
Xiamen Metro
(AMTR) Xiamen
Xiamen
BRT Gaoji Causeway Xiamen
Xiamen
Bridge Haicang Bridge Jimei Bridge Xinglin Bridge Xiang'an
Xiang'an
Tunnel Haicang Tunnel Xiang'an
Xiang'an
Bridge

See also: Fujian

v t e

Fujian
Fujian
topics

Fuzhou
Fuzhou
(PRC capital) Jincheng
Jincheng
(ROC capital)

General

History Politics Economy

Geography

Cities Jiulong River Min River Wuyi Mountains East China
China
Sea South China
China
Sea Taiwan
Taiwan
Strait Haitan Island Jin River

Education

Huaqiao University Xiamen
Xiamen
University Jimei University Xiamen University
Xiamen University
of Technology Longyan
Longyan
University Putian
Putian
University

Culture

Hokkien
Hokkien
culture Hoklo people Min Chinese
Min Chinese
language Written Hokkien Hokkien
Hokkien
architecture Hokkien
Hokkien
earthen buildings Dehua porcelain Jian ware Shoushan stone carvings Music Glove puppetry Koa-á books Tale of the Lychee Mirror Gongfu tea ceremony Fujian
Fujian
White Crane Dog Kung Fu Mazu Baosheng Dadi Hui'an maidens Narcissus Turtle-back tombs Hakka people Hakka architecture

Cuisine

Fujian
Fujian
cuisine Hokkien
Hokkien
mee Bak kut teh Banmian Buddha jumps over the wall Oolong tea

Visitor attractions

Anping Bridge Fujian
Fujian
Tulou Guanghua Temple Nanshan Temple Matsu pilgrimage Kaiyuan Temple South Putuo Temple

Category Commons

v t e

County-level divisions of Fujian
Fujian
Province

Fuzhou
Fuzhou
(capital)

Sub-provincial city

Xiamen

Siming District Haicang District

Fujian
Fujian
Free-Trade Zone

Huli District

Fujian
Fujian
Free-Trade Zone

Jimei District Tong'an
Tong'an
District Xiang'an
Xiang'an
District

Prefecture-level cities

Fuzhou

Gulou District Taijiang District Cangshan District Mawei District

Fujian
Fujian
Free-Trade Zone

Jin'an District Changle
Changle
District Fuqing
Fuqing
City Minhou County Lianjiang County Luoyuan County Minqing County Yongtai County Pingtan County

Fujian
Fujian
Free-Trade Zone

Putian

Chengxiang District Hanjiang District Licheng District Xiuyu District Xianyou County

Sanming

Meilie District Sanyuan District Yong'an
Yong'an
City Mingxi County Qingliu County Ninghua County Datian County Youxi County Sha County Jiangle County Taining County Jianning County

Quanzhou

Licheng District Fengze District Luojiang District Quangang District Shishi City Jinjiang City Nan'an City Hui'an County Anxi County Yongchun County Dehua County Jinmen
Jinmen
County¹

Zhangzhou

Xiangcheng District Longwen District Longhai City Yunxiao County Zhangpu County Zhao'an County Changtai County Dongshan County Nanjing
Nanjing
County Pinghe County Hua'an County

Nanping

Jianyang District Yanping District Shaowu
Shaowu
City Wuyishan City Jian'ou
Jian'ou
City Shunchang County Pucheng County Guangze County Songxi County Zhenghe County

Longyan

Xinluo District Yongding District Zhangping
Zhangping
City Changting County Shanghang County Wuping County Liancheng County

Ningde

Jiaocheng District Fu'an
Fu'an
City Fuding
Fuding
City Shouning County Xiapu County Zherong County Pingnan County Gutian County Zhouning County

¹ — Jinmen
Jinmen
(Kinmen/Quemoy) is administered as a county by the Republic of China, but claimed by the PRC.

v t e

Metropolitan cities of China

Major Metropolitan regions

Jingjinji
Jingjinji
(JJJ) Pearl River Delta
Pearl River Delta
(PRD) / Yuegang'ao Greater Bay Area Yangtze River Delta
Yangtze River Delta
(YRD)

Central Plain (Zhongyuan) Chengyu Cross-Strait Western Coast Guanzhong Mid-Southern Liaoning Shandong
Shandong
Peninsula Yangtze River Mid-Reaches (Yangtze River Valley)

Major Cities

National Central Cities

Beijinga Chongqinga Guangzhoub2 Shanghaia2 Tianjina2

Special
Special
Administrative Regions

Hong Kong Macau

Regional Central Cities

Chengdub Nanjingb Shenyangb Shenzhenc1 Wuhanb Xi'anb

Sub-provincial cities

Changchunb Chengdub Dalianc2 Guangzhoub2 Hangzhoub Harbinb Jinanb Nanjingb Ningboc2 Qingdaoc2 Shenyangb Shenzhenc1 Wuhanb Xi'anb Xiamenc1

Provincial capitals (Prefecture-level)

Changsha Fuzhou2 Guiyang Haikou Hefei Kunming Lanzhou Nanchang Shijiazhuang Taiyuan Xining Zhengzhou Taibei5

Autonomous regional capitals

Hohhot Lhasa Nanning Ürümqi Yinchuan

Comparatively large cities

Anshan Baotou Benxi Datong Fushun Handan Huainan Jilin Luoyang Suzhou Tangshan Qiqihar Wuxi Xuzhou Zibo

Prefecture-level cities
Prefecture-level cities
by Province

Hebei

Shijiazhuang* Tangshan* Qinhuangdao2 Handan* Xingtai Baoding Zhangjiakou Chengde Cangzhou Langfang Hengshui

Shanxi

Taiyuan* Datong* Yangquan Changzhi Jincheng Shuozhou Jinzhong Yuncheng Xinzhou Linfen Lüliang

Inner Mongolia

Hohhot* Baotou* Wuhai Chifeng Tongliao Ordos Hulunbuir Bayannur Ulanqab

Liaoning

Shenyang* Dalian* Anshan* Fushun* Benxi* Dandong Jinzhou Yingkou Fuxin Liaoyang Panjin Tieling Chaoyang Huludao

Jilin

Changchun* Jilin Siping Liaoyuan Tonghua Baishan Songyuan Baicheng

Heilongjiang

Harbin* Qiqihar* Jixi Hegang Shuangyashan Daqing Yīchun Jiamusi Qitaihe Mudanjiang Heihe Suihua

Jiangsu

Nanjing* Wuxi* Xuzhou* Changzhou Suzhou* Nantong Lianyungang2 Huai'an Yancheng Yangzhou Zhenjiang Tàizhou Suqian

Zhejiang

Hangzhou* Ningbo* Wenzhou2 Jiaxing Huzhou Shaoxing Jinhua Quzhou Zhoushan Tāizhou Lìshui

Anhui

Hefei* Wuhu Bengbu Huainan* Ma'anshan Huaibei Tongling Anqing Huangshan Chuzhou Fùyang Sùzhou Lu'an Bozhou Chizhou Xuancheng

Fujian

Fúzhou* Xiamen* Putian Sanming Quanzhou Zhangzhou Nanping Longyan Ningde

Jiangxi

Nanchang* Jingdezhen Píngxiang Jiujiang Xinyu Yingtan Ganzhou Jí'ān Yíchun Fǔzhou Shangrao

Shandong

Jinan* Qingdao* Zibo* Zaozhuang Dongying Yantai2 Weifang Jĭning Tai'an Weihai Rizhao Laiwu Linyi Dezhou Liaocheng Binzhou Heze

Henan

Zhengzhou* Kaifeng Luoyang* Pingdingshan Anyang Hebi Xinxiang Jiaozuo Puyang Xuchang Luohe Sanmenxia Nanyang Shangqiu Xinyang Zhoukou Zhumadian

Hubei

Wuhan* Huangshi Shiyan Yichang Xiangyang Ezhou Jingmen Xiaogan Jinzhou Huanggang Xianning Suizhou

Hunan

Changsha* Zhuzhou Xiangtan Hengyang Shaoyang Yueyang Changde Zhangjiajie Yiyang Chenzhou Yongzhou Huaihua Loudi

Guangdong

Guangzhou* Shaoguan Shenzhen* Zhuhai1 Shantou1 Foshan Jiangmen Zhanjiang2 Maoming Zhaoqing Huizhou Meizhou Shanwei Heyuan Yangjiang Qingyuan Dongguan Zhongshan Chaozhou Jieyang Yunfu

Guangxi

Nanning* Liuzhou Guilin Wuzhou Beihai2 Fangchenggang Qinzhou Guigang Yùlin Baise Hezhou Hechi Laibin Chongzuo

Hainan1

Haikou* Sanya Sansha4 Danzhou

Sichuan

Chengdu* Zigong Panzhihua Luzhou Deyang Mianyang Guangyuan Suining Neijiang Leshan Nanchong Meishan Yibin Guang'an Dazhou Ya'an Bazhong Ziyang

Guizhou

Guiyang* Liupanshui Zunyi Anshun Bijie Tongren

Yunnan

Kunming* Qujing Yuxi Baoshan Zhaotong Lìjiang Pu'er Lincang

Tibet

Lhasa* Shigatse Chamdo Nyingchi Shannan

Shaanxi

Xi'an* Tongchuan Baoji Xianyang Weinan Yan'an Hanzhong Yúlin Ankang Shangluo

Gansu

Lanzhou* Jiayuguan Jinchang Baiyin Tianshui Wuwei Zhangye Pingliang Jiuquan Qingyang Dingxi Longnan

Qinghai

Xining* Haidong

Ningxia

Yinchuan* Shizuishan Wuzhong Guyuan Zhongwei

Xinjiang

Ürümqi* Karamay Turpan Hami

Taiwan5

(none)

Other cities (partly shown below)

Prefecture-level capitals (County-level)

(Inner Mongolia: Ulanhot Xilinhot) Jiagedaqi3, Heilongjiang Enshi, Hubei Jishou, Hunan (Sichuan:Xichang Kangding Barkam) (Guizhou: Xingyi Kaili Duyun) (Yunnan: Chuxiong Mengzi Wenshan Jinghong Dali Mangshi Shangri-La Lushui) (Gansu: Linxia Hezuo) (Qinghai: Yushu Delingha) (Xinjiang: Changji Bole Korla Yining Artux Aksu Kashgar1 Hotan Tacheng Altay)

Province-governed cities (Sub-prefecture-level)

Jiyuan, Henan (Hubei: Xiantao Qiánjiang Tianmen Shennongjia) (Hainan1: Wuzhishan Qionghai Wenchang Wanning Dongfang) ( Xinjiang
Xinjiang
- XPCC(Bingtuan) cities: Shihezi Aral Tumxuk Wujiaqu Beitun Tiemenguan Shuanghe Kokdala Kunyu)

Former Prefecture-level cities

Chaohu, Anhui Yumen,Gansu Dongchuan, Yunnan Shashi, Hubei (Sichuan: Fuling Wanxian) (Jilin: Meihekou Gongzhuling)

Sub-prefecture-level cities (Prefecture-governed)

Qian'an, Hebei Manzhouli, Inner Mongolia Erenhot, Inner Mongolia Golmud, Qinghai

County-level cities
County-level cities
by Province

Hebei

Xinji Jinzhou Xinle Zunhua Qian'an* Wu'an Nangong Shahe Zhuozhou Dingzhou Anguo Gaobeidian Botou Renqiu Huanghua Hejian Bazhou Sanhe Shenzhou

Shanxi

Gujiao Lucheng Gaoping Jiexiu Yongji Hejin Yuanping Houma Huozhou Xiaoyi Fenyang

Inner Mongolia

Holingol Manzhouli* Yakeshi Zhalantun Ergun Genhe Fengzhen Ulanhot* Arxan Erenhot* Xilinhot*

Liaoning

Xinmin Wafangdian Zhuanghe Haicheng Donggang Fengcheng Linghai Beizhen Gaizhou Dashiqiao Dengta Diaobingshan Kaiyuan Beipiao Lingyuan Xingcheng

Jilin

Yushu Dehui Jiaohe Huadian Shulan Panshi Gongzhuling Shuangliao Meihekou Ji'an Linjiang Fuyu Taonan Da'an Yanji Tumen Dunhua Hunchun Longjing Helong

Heilongjiang

Shangzhi Wuchang Nehe Hulin Mishan Tieli Tongjiang Fujin Fuyuan Suifenhe Hailin Ning'an Muling Dongning Bei'an Wudalianchi Anda Zhaodong Hailun

Jiangsu

Jiangyin Yixing Xinyi Pizhou Liyang Changshu Zhangjiagang Kunshan Taicang Qidong Rugao Haimen Dongtai Yizheng Gaoyou Danyang Yangzhong Jurong Jingjiang Taixing Xinghua

Zhejiang

Jiande Lin'an Yuyao Cixi Fenghua Rui'an Yueqing Haining Pinghu Tongxiang Zhuji Shengzhou Lanxi Yiwu Dongyang Yongkang Jiangshan Wenling Linhai Longquan

Anhui

Chaohu Jieshou Tongcheng Tianchang Mingguang Ningguo

Fujian

Fuqing Changle Yong'an Shishi Jinjiang Nan'an Longhai Shaowu Wuyishan Jian'ou Zhangping Fu'an Fuding

Jiangxi

Leping Ruichang Gongqingcheng Lushan Guixi Ruijin Jinggangshan Fengcheng Zhangshu Gao'an Dexing

Shandong

Zhangqiu Jiaozhou Jimo Pingdu Laixi Tengzhou Longkou Laiyang Laizhou Penglai Zhaoyuan Qixia Haiyang Qingzhou Zhucheng Shouguang Anqiu Gaomi Changyi Qufu Zoucheng Xintai Feicheng Rongcheng Rushan Laoling Yucheng Linqing

Henan

Gongyi Xingyang Xinmi Xinzheng Dengfeng Yanshi Wugang Ruzhou Linzhou Weihui Huixian Qinyang Mengzhou Yuzhou Changge Yima Lingbao Dengzhou Yongcheng Xiangcheng Jiyuan*

Hubei

Daye Danjiangkou Yidu Dangyang Zhijiang Laohekou Zaoyang Yicheng Zhongxiang Yingcheng Anlu Hanchuan Shishou Honghu Songzi Macheng Wuxue Chibi Guangshui Enshi* Lichuan Xiantao* Qianjiang* Tianmen*

Hunan

Liuyang Liling Xiangxiang Shaoshan Leiyang Changning Wugang Miluo Linxiang Jinshi Yuanjiang Zixing Hongjiang Lengshuijiang Lianyuan Jishou*

Guangdong

Lechang Nanxiong Taishan Kaiping Heshan Enping Lianjiang Leizhou Wuchuan Gaozhou Huazhou Xinyi Sihui Xingning Lufeng Yangchun Yingde Lianzhou Puning Luoding

Guangxi

Cenxi Dongxing Guiping Beiliu Jingxi Yizhou Heshan Pingxiang

Hainan

Wuzhishan* Qionghai* Wenchang* Wanning* Dongfang*

Sichuan

Dujiangyan Pengzhou Qionglai Chongzhou Jianyang Guanghan Shifang Mianzhu Jiangyou Emeishan Langzhong Huaying Wanyuan Barkam* Kangding* Xichang*

Guizhou

Qingzhen Chishui Renhuai Xingyi* Kaili* Duyun* Fuquan

Yunnan

Anning Xuanwei Tengchong Chuxiong* Mengzi* Gejiu Kaiyuan Mile Wenshan* Jinghong* Dali* Ruili Mangshi* Lushui* Shangri-La*

Tibet

(none)

Shaanxi

Xingping Hancheng Huayin

Gansu

Yumen Dunhuang Linxia* Hezuo*

Qinghai

Yushu* Golmud* Delingha*

Ningxia

Lingwu Qingtongxia

Xinjiang

Changji* Fukang Bole* Alashankou Korla* Aksu* Artux* Kashgar* Hotan* Yining* Kuytun Korgas Tacheng* Wusu Altay* Shihezi* Aral* Tumxuk* Wujiaqu* Beitun* Tiemenguan* Shuanghe* Kokdala* Kunyu*

Taiwan5

(none)

Notes

* Indicates this city has already occurred above. aDirect-controlled Municipalities. bSub-provincial cities as provincial capitals. cSeparate state-planning cities. 1Special Economic Zone Cities. 2Coastal development cities. 3Prefecture capital status established by Heilongjiang
Heilongjiang
Province and not recognized by Ministry of Civil Affairs. Disputed by Oroqen Autonomous Banner, Hulunbuir, Inner Mongolia
Inner Mongolia
as part of it. 4Only administers islands and waters in South China
China
Sea and have no urban core comparable to typical cities in China. 5The claimed province of Taiwan
Taiwan
no longer have any internal division announced by Ministry of Civil Affairs of PRC, due to lack of actual jurisdiction. See Template:Administrative divisions of the Republic of China
China
instead. All provincial capitals are listed first in prefecture-level cities by province.

v t e

Economic Development Zones of China

Special
Special
Economic Zones

Shenzhen Zhuhai Shantou Xiamen Kashgar Hainan
Hainan
Province

New open development zones

Dalian Qingdao Qinhuangdao Lianyungang Pudong Yantai Zhanjiang Ningbo Wenzhou Nantong Fuzhou Guangzhou Beihai Shuyang

v t e

European and American trade in Qing China

Topics

Canton System Cohong East India Company

James Flint

Old China
China
Trade Thirteen Factories

Chinese Hongs

Ewo Hong

Howqua

Foreign Hongs

Augustine Heard and Company

Augustine Heard Albert Heard

Dent & Co.

Lancelot Dent John Dent

Dodwell & Co.

Gibb, Livingston & Co.

Hugh Bold Gibb

Jardine, Matheson & Co.

William Jardine James Matheson John Abel Smith

Magniac & Co.

Daniel Beale Thomas Beale Thomas Chaye Beale Hollingworth Magniac

Olyphant & Co.

David Olyphant Robert Morrison Olyphant

Russell & Company

Robert Bennet Forbes John Cleve Green Abiel Abbot Low William Henry Low Samuel Russell Russell Sturgis

Shewan, Tomes & Co.

Robert Shewan

David Sassoon
David Sassoon
& Co.

David Sassoon

Chinese Officials

Lin Zexu

Key Locations

Amoy Canton Foochow Hong K

.