XIAMEN, formerly romanized as AMOY, is a sub-provincial city in
China , beside the
Xiamen Island was considered to possess one of the world's great
natural harbors in Yundang Bay, but Fujian's international trade was
long restricted to
The city is known for its mild climate, Hokkien culture and colonial architecture , as well as its relatively low pollution. In 2006, Xiamen was ranked as China's 2nd-"most suitable city for living", as well as China's "most romantic leisure city" in 2011.
* 1 Name
* 2 Geography
* 2.1 Climate
* 3 History
* 4 Demographics
* 4.1 Languages * 4.2 Religion
* 5 Administration
* 6 Economy
* 6.1 Financial services * 6.2 Industrial zones
* 7 Transportation
* 7.1 Local transportation * 7.2 Road * 7.3 Railways * 7.4 Air
* 7.5 Sea
* 7.5.1 Ferries * 7.5.2 Port
* 8 Tourism
* 9 Culture
* 9.1 Cuisine * 9.2 Music * 9.3 Art * 9.4 Media
* 10 Colleges and universities
* 10.1 National * 10.2 Public * 10.3 Private * 10.4 Vocational College
* 11 Military * 12 Notable people
* 13 International relations
* 13.1 Consulates * 13.2 Sister cities
* 14 See also * 15 Notes * 16 References * 17 Further reading * 18 External links
The area around Xiamen Bay appears as TONG\'AN in some Han records. Xiamen Island was described as JIAHE ISLET c. 976. It received its present name from the Xiamen Castle erected on the island by Zhou Dexing in 1387 during the Ming . The name was formerly written using the Chinese characters meaning "Lower Gate". When its port prospered under the Qing , the name was considered unrefined and changed to homophonous characters meaning "Mansion Gate". Xiamen is the atonal pinyin romanization of the characters' pronunciation in Mandarin . It has also been romanized as HIAMEN. The former English name "Amoy" was based on the same name's pronunciation in the Zhangzhou dialect of Hokkien , _Ē-mûi_.
Xiamen was also named SIMING ("Remembering the Ming ") for a few years (1656–c. 1661) during its occupation by the loyalist Southern Ming forces of Koxinga . The Qing restored the former name upon their conquest of the area, but Koxinga's name was in turn restored after the Xinhai Revolution that inaugurated the republic in 1912. The name Xiamen was later restored again but Siming continues to be used as the name of one of its districts.
Xiamen Island , looking south. The Gaoji Causeway lies at the bottom and the old Yundang Harbor—now an inclosed lake—lies to the right. The Jinmen Islands controlled by the Republic of China are visible to the upper left. Main articles: Xiamen Island and Xiamen Bay
Xiamen is a sub-provincial city in southeastern
Fujian whose urban
core grew up from the port of
Xiamen on southern
Xiamen Island , now
Siming District . It now also includes
and the rugged coast of the mainland from the northeast bank of the
Jiulong River in the west to the islands of Xiang\'an in the east.
Xiamen Island lies about one degree north of the
Tropic of Cancer .
It is divided between
Huli District in the north and Siming District
in the south. Siming also includes Gulangyu. Its mainland territory is
divided among Haicang ,
In the 19th century, Xiamen's harbor on Yundang Bay was considered one of the world's great natural harbors. Land reclamation has since been used to fill in the mouth of this inlet, turning it into Siming District's Yundang Lake. The municipal government is located on other reclaimed land beside it.
CLIMATE CHART (EXPLANATION )
J F M A M J J A S O N D
34 17 10 99 17 10 125 19 12 157 23 16 162 27 20 187 30 23 138 32 25 209 32 25 141 30 23 36 27 20 31 24 16 28 19 12
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
_Source: CMA _
J F M A M J J A S O N D
1.3 63 49 3.9 62 50 4.9 66 53 6.2 74 61 6.4 80 68 7.4 85 74 5.4 90 77 8.2 89 77 5.6 86 74 1.4 81 69 1.2 74 61 1.1 67 53
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Xiamen has a monsoonal humid subtropical climate (Köppen _Cfa_), characterised by long, hot and humid summers (but moderate compared to much of the rest of the province) and short, mild and dry winters. The warmest month is July, with a 24-hour average of 27.8 °C (82.0 °F), and oddly, the coolest month is February, averaging 12.4 °C (54.3 °F); the annual mean is 20.42 °C (68.8 °F). Extremes since 1951 have ranged from 1.5 °C (35 °F) on 29 December 1991 to 39.2 °C (103 °F) on 20 July 2007. Spring, both by humidity and percentage of sunshine, is the dampest season but typhoons in late summer and early autumn can make the latter period wetter overall. Summer and autumn are marked by comparatively sunny conditions, while autumn is warm and dry. The annual rainfall is 1,350 millimeters (53 in). With monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 24% in March to 56% in July, the city receives 1,853 hours of bright sunshine annually. Frost occurs very rarely, and the last snowfall in the city took place in January 1893, when snow also fell at Guangzhou , Macau , in the inland parts of Hong Kong and in the hills of Taipei .
The area is known within China for its relatively low pollution.
CLIMATE DATA FOR XIAMEN (1971–2000)
MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR
AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F) 17.0 (62.6) 16.6 (61.9) 18.8 (65.8) 23.1 (73.6) 26.6 (79.9) 29.5 (85.1) 32.0 (89.6) 31.8 (89.2) 30.0 (86) 27.4 (81.3) 23.6 (74.5) 19.2 (66.6) 24.6 (76.3)
AVERAGE LOW °C (°F) 9.7 (49.5) 9.8 (49.6) 11.8 (53.2) 15.9 (60.6) 19.9 (67.8) 23.3 (73.9) 25.0 (77) 24.8 (76.6) 23.3 (73.9) 20.3 (68.5) 16.2 (61.2) 11.7 (53.1) 17.6 (63.7)
AVERAGE RAINFALL MM (INCHES) 34.2 (1.346) 99.4 (3.913) 125.2 (4.929) 157.0 (6.181) 161.8 (6.37) 187.2 (7.37) 138.4 (5.449) 209.0 (8.228) 141.4 (5.567) 36.2 (1.425) 31.1 (1.224) 28.2 (1.11) 1,349.1 (53.112)
AVERAGE RAINY DAYS (≥ 0.1 MM) 7.1 12.0 15.4 14.6 15.2 14.8 9.9 10.9 9.0 3.2 4.0 4.9 121.0
AVERAGE RELATIVE HUMIDITY (%) 75 80 83 82 84 86 82 82 78 71 70 70 78.6
MEAN MONTHLY SUNSHINE HOURS 133.3 88.3 89.6 105.6 132.6 163.8 234.6 211.6 178.9 188.4 163.0 163.5 1,853.2
PERCENT POSSIBLE SUNSHINE 40 28 24 28 32 40 56 53 49 52 50 50 41.8
Source: China Meteorological Administration
_ "Amoy" and "Kolang-soo " in 1844 "Amoy" Town and Harbor from "Kalangsu " in 1874. Lai Afong 's c. 1870 photograph of "Amoy" from "Koolansoo ". A Krupp gun at the Hulishan Battery, installed to protect Xiamen during the late Qing era. "Hsia-men" and "Ku-lang Hsü " in a 1945 American map. Large characters saying "Peaceful Reunification" and "One Country, Two Systems" on Xiamen Island's west coast, facing the nearby Taiwanese -controlled Jinmen Islands . Similar propaganda on Jinmen face Xiamen, reading " Three Principles of the People Unite China". Gulangyu (foreground)_ and Xiamen _(background)_.
The area of Xiamen was largely bypassed by the Qin and Han conquests and colonization of Guangdong , which passed west of Fujian down the Lingqu Canal between the Xiang and Li rivers . It was first organized as Tong\'an County in AD 282 under the Jin , but it lost this status soon afterwards. Tong'an County was again established in 933 under the Later Tang .
The settlement on the southeastern shore of
Xiamen Island (now part
Siming District ) developed as a seaport under the Song , although
legal foreign trade was restricted to nearby
By the 19th century, the city walls had a circumference of around 9 miles (14 km), with an inner and outer city divided by an inner wall and a ridge of hills surmounted by a well-built fort. The inner harbor on Yundang Bay was also well fortified and these defenses were further strengthened upon the outbreak of the First Opium War . Nonetheless, Xiamen was captured in 1841 between Guangzhou and Zhoushan . Rear Adm. Parker bombarded the Qing position to little effect, but the assault by the men under Lt. Gen. Gough caused the Chinese to flee their positions without a fight. The city was abandoned during the night and fell the next day on 27 August. The Chinese had spirited out the entire treasury of sycee bullion under the nose of the British by disguising it inside hollow logs. Xiamen being too large to garrison, a small force was left to hold Gulangyu. The next year, the Treaty of Nanjing made Xiamen one of the first five ports opened to British trade , which had previously been legally restricted to Guangzhou . Subsequent treaties opened the port to other international powers.
As the primary international port for Fujian, particularly Zhangzhou and its hinterland, Xiamen became a center of China's tea trade , with hundreds of thousands of tons shipped yearly to Europe and the Americas. Its local dialect influenced a variety of translations of Chinese terms . Its principal exports during the period were tea, porcelain, and paper; it imported sugar, rice, cotton, and opium, as well as some manufactured goods. Xiamen was also a center of Protestant missionaries in China ; the missions operated the city's two hospitals. The merchants of Xiamen were thought among the richest and most entrepreneurial and industrious in China, but the city was widely accounted the dirtiest city in China. Owing to local belief in feng shui , the streets were "as crooked as ram's horns" and averaged about 4 feet (1 m) in width to keep out sunlight and control public disturbances. Its population was estimated at 250,000 in the 1870s; by that point the island was largely barren and full of roughly 140 villages, with a total population around 400,000. European settlement in the port was concentrated on Gulangyu Island off Xiamen proper; it remains known for its colonial architecture.
A scene in Amoy painted by a passing traveler in 1899 *
Xiamen's paifang c. 1843 *
An 1869 stereogram of laborers in Xiamen. The first coolies left Xiamen for Havana in 1847 *
"Plan of the Country around Amoy", 1870 *
A stereogram of houses in Xiamen c. 1870 *
Nanputuo Temple c. 1870
A 1915 map of the "Environs of Amoy", showing the city and island before the massive land reclamation projects of the 20th century.
By the 20th century, the local export economy had collapsed due to the success of British tea plantations in India. During the Qing and the early 20th century, many southern Fujianese emigrated to Southeast Asia and Taiwan , spreading Hokkien language and culture overseas . Some 350,000 overseas Chinese currently trace their ancestry to Xiamen. Some of this diaspora later returned: an estimated 220,000 Xiamen residents are returning overseas Chinese and their kin. Others continue to help fund universities and cultural institutions in Xiamen.
At the time of the Xinhai Revolution , the native population of the city was estimated at 300,000 and the foreign settlement at 280. After the establishment of the Republic of China , the area around Xiamen was renamed Siming County . Xiamen's trade during the period was largely conducted through Taiwan , which had been seized by Japan during the First Sino-Japanese War . The Japanese subsequently claimed Fujian as their sphere of influence during the colonial squabbling over China. Japan occupied Xiamen Island from May 1938 to September 1945 during World War II . In the late phases of the Chinese Civil War that followed, the Communists captured Xiamen and Gulangyu in October 1949 but failed to capture Jinmen . The same year, Xiamen became a provincially-administered city (省辖市).
In 1955 and 1958, mainland
Cold War political
tensions by shelling nearby islands from
Xiamen in what became known
as the First and Second
When Deng Xiaoping initiated his Opening Up Policy , Xiamen was made one of the first four special economic zones in 1980, with special investment and trade regulations attracting foreign investment , particularly from overseas Chinese. The city grew and prospered. On 18 April 1988, Xiamen was promoted to sub-provincial status and began to be specially considered in China's state planning. In 2001, the governments of mainland China and Taiwan agreed to initiate the "Three Mini-Links " and restored ferry, commercial, and mail links between the mainland and offshore islands. Trade and travel between Xiamen and Jinmen was restored and later expanded to include direct air travel to Taiwan Island . In 2010, travelers between Xiamen and Jinmen made 1.31 million trips.
In 1999, the largest corruption scandal in China's history was uncovered in Xiamen, implicating up to 200 government officials. Lai Changxing is alleged to have run an enormous smuggling operation, which financed the city's football team, film studios, largest construction project and a vast brothel rented to him by the local Public Security Bureau . According to _Time _, "locals used to joke that Xiamen should change its name to Yuanhua, the name of Lai's company." They subsequently claimed that potential investors were discouraged by the taint of corruption.
In 2006, Xiamen was ranked as China's 2nd-"most suitable city for living", as well as China's "most romantic leisure city" in 2011.
According to the 2010 Census ,
Xiamen has a population of 3,531,347
inhabitants, almost 1.8 times the population counted for the last
census in 2000 (which was of 2,053,070 inhabitants). The annual
average population growth was of 5.57% for the period 2000–2010.
However, this masks the population explosion in
The local variety is Xiamenese (also known as Amoynese), a dialect of Hokkien which is part of the Southern Min languages. Amoy dialect is widely used and understood across the southern part of Fujian province as well as overseas. While it is widely spoken in and around Xiamen, especially by its native speakers , the Amoy dialect has no official status. The official language of all government and political business is Mandarin , although the locals do not use much of it in their everyday lives. The English words "Amoy", "tea " (茶; tê), "cumshaw" (感謝; kám-siā), "pekoe " (白毫; pe̍h-hô), kowtow (磕頭; khàu-thâu), "ketchup " (茄汁; kiô-chap) and possibly " Japan " (日本; Ji̍t-pún), originated from Amoy dialect.
MAP NAME SIMPLIFIED CHINESE PINYIN Population (2010 census ) Area (km2) Density (/km2)
HULI SIMING HAICANG JIMEI TONG\\'AN XIANG\\'AN Huli District 湖里区 Húlǐ Qū 931,291 73.77 14,782
Siming District 思明区 Sīmíng Qū 929,998 83.99 12,740
Haicang District 海沧区 Hǎicāng Qū 288,739 186.46 1,863
Tong\'an District 同安区 Tóng'ān Qū 496,129 669.36 754
Xiang\'an District 翔安区 Xiáng'ān Qū 304,333 411.50 865
In May 2003,
Gulangyu and Kaiyuan districts were merged into Siming
District; Xinglin District (杏林区) was merged into
Xiamen has a diverse and well-developed economy. The Siming and Huli districts form its Special Economic Zone . Important industries are fishing, shipbuilding, food processing, tanning, textiles, machine tool manufacturing, chemical industries, telecommunications and financial services . The city has economic and trade relations with 162 countries and regions worldwide, and benefits from foreign investment, particularly capital from Hong Kong , Macau and Taiwan .
In 2008, a total of 356 projects with foreign direct investment had been approved in the city, with a contractual foreign investment amount of US$1.896 billion and an actual foreign investment amount of US$2.042 billion. In 1992, Xiamen was ranked among the top 10 Chinese cities in relation to comprehensive strengths with its GDP increasing by an average of over 20% annually. In 2008, Xiamen's GDP amounted to 156 billion Yuan, an increase of 11.1% over the previous year; and the per-capita GDP was 62,651 yuan (US$9,017). Further economic reforms were introduced, and this brought the total volume of imports and exports in 2008 to US$45.4 billion, while that of exports totalled US$29.4 billion.
Various foreign banks that have established representative offices in Xiamen.
There are more than 600 financial institutions in operation in Xiamen.
The XIAMEN EXPORT PROCESSING ZONE is located in the south part of Haicang Development Zone only 1.5 kilometers (1 mi) from the Haicang Port Area, 10 kilometers (6 mi) from Gaoqi International Airport and 3 kilometers (2 mi) from Haicang railway station. It has a favorable geographical location and well-developed transportation network, especially sea transportation. It has a total planned area of 2.4 square kilometers (1 sq mi) with 1.46 square kilometers (0.56 sq mi) for the first phase. Industries encouraged in the zone include Biotechnology/Pharmaceuticals, Chemicals Production and Processing, Heavy Industry, Instruments & Industrial Equipment Production, Medical Equipment and Supplies, Research and Development, Shipping/Warehousing/Logistics, Telecommunications Equipment, Trading and Distribution.
XIAMEN HAICANG TAIWANESE INVESTMENT ZONE is situated to the southeast
Xiamen Island, at the tip of the Xiamen-Zhangzhou-
XINGLIN TAIWAN MERCHANTS DEVELOPMENT ZONE was approved to be established on 20 May 1989 by the State Council. The planned area is 19.36 square kilometers (7.47 sq mi) and the current area is 12.5 square kilometers (5 sq mi). The zone is located in Jimei, Xiamen. The main industries set up in the zone are chemistry, machinery, textile and electronics. The zone is 8 kilometers (5 mi) from the Xiamen Gaoqi International Airport and 3 kilometers (2 mi) from the 319 National Highway.
TORCH HI-TECH INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT ZONE was approved by the State Council as one of China's national level high-tech industrial development zones in March 1999. In 2001, the zone became the first to achieve 10 billion yuan per square kilometer target output level. It is located close to Xiamen Gaoqi International Airport.
In 1992, XIAMEN XIANGYU FREE TRADE ZONE is established and approved by The State Council. The overall planning area is 0.63 square kilometers (0.24 sq mi). In 2008, there are 1100 enterprises in this park. Industries encouraged in the zone include Electronics Assembly "> The Haicang Bridge in 2007 The Xiamen BRT beside the main railway station . Its expressways and elevated roads form a closed network accessible only to the system's busses.
The Gaoji Causeway , five main road bridges (the Jimei, Xiamen, Xiang'an, Xinglin, and Haicang Bridges ), and two undersea tunnel ( Xiang'an Tunnel and Haicang Tunnel) link Xiamen Island with the mainland.
The main forms of public transportation in Xiamen are bus and bus rapid transit (BRT). Xiamen\'s BRT system features a dedicated bus-only closed road system with stations and ticketing system similar to light rail. Most of the 115-kilometer (71 mi) BRT network consist of bus lanes along expressways and elevated BRT viaducts on Xiamen Island. BRT routes have no traffic lights and travel speed is limited by design to 60 kilometers per hour (37 mph). Five BRT routes are currently in service: BRT-1 Route, BRT-2 Route, Huandao Avenue BRT Route, Chenggong Avenue BRT Route and Connecting BRT Route. The fare is 0.6 RMB per km for the air-conditioned busses. The BRT is supplemented by 20 shuttle bus services that connect nearby places to the BRT stations. The shuttle bus service has a flat rate of 0.5 RMB. Fare discount is available when pre-paid e-card is used.
Taxis can be easily hailed in most areas of the city. Bicycles are commonly used by residents, especially on Xiamen Island. Unlike many Chinese cities, motorcycles, mopeds, tricycles, and wooden handcarts are not permitted in Xiamen. The city has upheld the ban on these vehicles since the 1990s. Electric bikes are permitted with proper licensing and obedience of traffic laws. On the small island of Gulangyu off Xiamen Island, automobiles are also banned.
Xiamen Metro has been under construction since 2013 and the first line is scheduled to start operation in 2017. A system of five lines has been approved so far, with plans to eventually expand to eleven lines including service to surrounding suburban areas.
The Fuzhou- Xiamen and Zhangzhou- Xiamen Express Highways link Xiamen with the highway network of Fujian and the neighboring provinces of Guangdong, Jiangxi and Zhejiang. There are also container freight services available between Xiamen and Shenzhen and Hong Kong.
Xiamen Railway Station 's south entrance.
Xiamen is served by the
Yingtan-Xiamen Railway , Longyan-Xiamen
Railway and the Fuzhou-
Xiamen High-Speed Railway , which are connected
to China\'s national railway network . Direct passenger trains are
A Boeing 737 bearing the egret livery of XiamenAir at Xiamen Airport .
The Xiamen Gaoqi International Airport in northeastern Xiamen Island is a main air hub in East China with flights to over 90 domestic and international destinations. Among airports in China , Xiamen ranked among the top 11 for passenger traffic , top 8 for cargo traffic and top 10 for air traffic . It can handle 27 million passengers annually. The airport is the headquarters hub of Xiamen Airlines .
Xiamen has direct flights to most cities in China, Hong Kong , Macao , Taiwan , and major cities in east Asia like Tokyo , Osaka , Seoul . Intercontinental flights to Amsterdam , Sydney , Melbourne , Vancouver , Seattle (stopover Shenzhen), Los Angeles have been started from 2011. Xiamen also hold a strong network to southeast Asia cities like, Bangkok , Kuala Lumpur , Manila , Jakarta , Cebu and Singapore , to server the large communities of southern Fujian's overseas diaspora and the increasing tourism flows.
Xiamen has passenger ferry service to cities along the coast of China as well as the neighbouring island of Kinmen (Jinmen) to the east, which is administered by the Republic of China on Taiwan . These ferries are all served from the Wutong Ferry Terminal to Shuitou Pier , Kinmen on the north-east side of the Xiamen Island (quite distant from downtown Xiamen), ferries to Jinmen take 60 minutes. There are facilities in both directions allowing for quick transfers between Xiamen Gaoqi Airport (for Mainland destinations) and Kinmen Airport (for Taiwanese destinations), which is very popular with large tour groups.
The Heping Wharf Ferry Terminal on the south-west side of Xiamen Island offers short 5 minute boat rides to the island of Gulangyu however this is only accessible by Xiamen residents. Tourists and non-locals must now take a longer 20 minute ferry ride from the main International Ferry Terminal, also called the Dongdu International Terminal , on the south-west side of Xiamen Island., as of 20 October 2014 with a fare increase from 8RMB to 35RMB. This has been in order to reduce tourist numbers accessing the island in an effort to conserve it. This terminal used to have ferries, taking 90 minutes, to Kinmen Island but were ceased in 2014.
The present-day Port of Xiamen lies on the northwestern shore of Xiamen Island, opposite its airport, and at eleven other sites around Xiamen Bay and along the Jiulong estuary, including the neighboring jurisdiction of Zhangzhou . The port facilities are interconnected by ship, road, and rail. The port has been one of the busiest in China since the early 1980s and is serviced by all of the 20 largest shipping lines in the world. In 2016, Xiamen ranked among the top 15 ports in the world for container freight.
The natural coastline in the port area is 64.5 kilometers (40 mi) while the water is over 12 meters (39 ft) in depth. There are 81 berths, including 16 deep-water berths, of which 6 operate containers of over 10,000 tonnes. Among other cargoes handled, Xiamen is the world's largest supply base for raw tungsten materials and sunglasses , exporting 120 million pairs each year.
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Xiamen and its surrounding countryside is known for its scenery and tree-lined beaches. Gulangyu , a former colonial enclave, is a popular weekend getaway with views of the city and features many Victorian-style buildings. Xiamen's Botanical Garden is a nature lover's paradise. The Buddhist Nanputuo Temple , dating back to the Tang Dynasty, is a national treasure. Xiamen is also well known as a continuing frontline in the Chinese Civil War , with the nearby Jinmen Islands remaining under Taiwanese control. Water Garden Expo Park has a total area of about 6.76 km2 (2.61 sq mi), with a land area of 3.03 km2 or 1.17 sq mi consisting of five exhibition park islands, four ecological landscapes islands and two peninsulas, including the main pavilion, Chinese Education Park, Marine Culture Island, Spa Island, and other functional areas and related facilities.
Xiamen is famed for its music, puppet shows, Gezi Opera, and temple celebration events.
Main article: Chinese cuisine
As with much of southern China, the staple foods of Xiamen have long been rice , seafood , pork , sweet potatoes , various pickled vegetables , and bok choy . Its traditional dishes form a branch of southern Fujianese cuisine , with Taiwanese influence. It is particularly well known within China for its street food and snacks. A local specialty is worm jelly (t 土笋凍, s 土笋冻, _tǔsǔndòng_), a gelatin made from a kind of marine peanut worm .
Many famous Chinese musicians hail from Xiamen, including Huang Yujun . It has a philharmonic orchestra. Every May there's an international music festival, and piano competitions and music festivals are also frequently held. On Huangyan Road on the way to Sunlight Rock, there's a concert hall where classical concerts are regularly held on weekends.
Wushipu Oil Painting Village, Xiamen
Xiamen Wushipu oil painting village has been named as “the second of the world oil painting industry base” and the second batch of national cultural (art) industry base” by the China artist association and the culture property department of Culture Ministry.
Xiamen has strong industry advantage in hand-done oil painting, which has two main manufacturing bases here, Xiamen Wushipu Oil Painting Village and Xiamen Haicang Oil Painting Village. 80% market shares in European and American market is taken up by products exported from Xiamen. As the main manufacturing base of hand painted oil painting in China, Xiamen Wushipu Oil Painting Village has more than 5,000 artists. It has the ability to produce all kinds of oil paintings with different specifications and styles. With the support of Xiamen Municipal Government, it has formed a powerful industrial chain, provided related accessories such as frames, brushes and paint colors and formed stable target customers composed by hotels, villas, high-class departments, galleries and so on. As another mail manufacturing base of oil painting, Xiamen Haicang Oil Painting Village has more than 3,000 painters. The scale of Xiamen Haicang Oil Painting Village has developed rapidly in recent years, which is from originally 28 enterprises to more than 250 enterprises at the moment. The combination of manufacturing, sales and distribution makes it become industrial base of commercial oil painting.
Xiamen is served by Xiamen Media Group , which broadcasts news and entertainment such as movies and television series by AM/FM radio, close circuit television and satellite television. Media in Xiamen were temporarily blocked by the Government in June 2007 when about 10,000 people participated in protests against the building of a paraxylene factory by Tenglong Aromatic PX (Xiamen) Co. Ltd., which is owned by Taiwanese businessman Chen Yu-hao. The incident, however, was solved smoothly later that year.
COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES
The first two universities below were founded by Tan Kah Kee .
* University of Chinese Academy of Sciences
Engineering College (中国科学院大学厦门微电子工程学院)
Xiamen academy of arts and design,
* Chinese Language and Culture College of Huaqiao University
Xiamen University of Technology (厦门理工学院)
Xiamen Medical College (厦门医学院)
Tan Kah Kee College (厦门大学嘉庚学院)
* Xiamen City University (厦门城市职业学院) * Xiamen Oceanography Vocational College (厦门海洋职业技术学院) * Xiamen Nanyang College (厦门南洋学院) * Xiamen Performing Arts College (厦门演艺职业学院) * Xiamen Software College (厦门软件学院)
Xiamen is headquarters of the 31st Group Army of the People\'s Liberation Army , one of the three group armies under the Nanjing Military Region , which is responsible for the defense of the eastern China , including any military action in the Taiwan Strait.
* Shen Kuo (1031–1095), scientist and statesman, spent some of his youth in Xiamen * Koxinga , a Ming loyalist * Lai Changxing , businessman * Raymond Lam , TVB actor and singer * Yin Chengzong , pianist * Henry Sy, Sr. , businessman, founder of SM Group and chairman of SM Prime Holdings * Tan Kah Kee , businessman, community leader, and philanthropist in colonial Singapore, and a Communist leader in the People's Republic of China. * Lin Qiaozhi , a Chinese physician * Walter Houser Brattain , American inventor of the transistor; co-recipient of 1956 Nobel Prize in Physics . * Han Kuo-Huang , ethnomusicologist
See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in China
* Cardiff , Wales, UK (1983.3.31) * Sasebo, Japan (1983.10.28) * Cebu , Philippines (1984.10.26) * Baltimore , US (1985.11.7) * Wellington , New Zealand (1987.6.23) * George Town , Penang , Malaysia (1993.11.10) * Sunshine Coast, Australia (1999.9.28) * Kaunas , Lithuania (2001.3.11) * Guadalajara , Mexico (2003.8.15) * Zoetermeer , Netherlands (2005.7.14) * Surabaya , Indonesia (2006.6.24) * Mokpo , South Korea (2007.7.25) * Sarasota , US (2007.11.9)(Sister City of Siming District) * Marathon , Greece (2009.1.4) * Trier , Germany (2010.11.11) * Richmond , Canada (2012.4.27) * Dushanbe , Tajikistan (2013.6.20) * Nice , France (2014.5.22) * Phuket , Thailand (2017.5.11)
* ^ The factory represented an investment of $ 30,000 in bullion and $20,000 in goods. * ^ For 1870, 314 British and 240 other foreign ships cleared the port with £ 1,144,046 of exports, apart from the domestic traders. This had fallen to £384,494 by 1904. * ^ For 1870, 315 British and 245 other foreign vessels entered the port with £ 1,915,427 of imports, apart from the domestic traders. For 1904, the figure was £2,081,494. * ^ The estimate is very rough. Pitcher, writing a little later, placed the town's population at 60–100,000. * ^ The churches bore the names "Sin-Koe-a" and "Tek-Chhiu-Kha".
* ^ "Communiqué of the National Bureau of Statistics of People\'s Republic of China on Major Figures of the 2010 Population Census (No. 1)". National Bureau of Statistics of China. 28 April 2011. Archived from the original on 8 November 2013. Retrieved 12 February 2014. * ^ 2010 census * ^ "Amoy". _ Oxford English Dictionary _ (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press . September 2005. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.) * ^ Formerly "Lower Gate" (下門); see Name section. * ^ _Zhongguo Gujin Diming Da Cidian_ 中国古今地名大词典, 2855. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ _H_ _EB_ (1911) . * ^ Pitcher (1893) , p. 26. * ^ 《环球时报》2002-04-22. .china.com.cn. Retrieved on 28 August 2011. * ^ _A_ _B_ 中国地面国际交换站气候标准值月值数据集（1971－2000年） (IN CHINESE). CHINA METEOROLOGICAL ADMINISTRATION . JUNE 2011. ARCHIVED FROM THE ORIGINAL ON 21 SEPTEMBER 2013. RETRIEVED 17 MARCH 2009. * ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 18 March 2013. Retrieved 18 February 2013. * ^ Wile, Rob. "These 10 Cities Are Your Best Bet At Escaping China\'s Epic Pollution Problem". Retrieved 17 July 2016. . * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Ouchterlony (1844) , p. 175 * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ _H_ _I_ _J_ _EB_ (1878) . * ^ Struve, Lynn A. (1984), _The Southern Ming 1644–1662_, New Haven: Yale University Press, p. 181 . * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Pitcher (1893) , p. 31. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Pitcher (1893) , p. 32. * ^ Ouchterlony (1844) , pp. 173 ff. * ^ Pitcher (1893) , p. 33. * ^ Ouchterlony (1844) , p. 176. * ^ Pitcher (1893) , p. 30. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Pitcher (1893) , p. 27. * ^ Cheung, David Yiqiang (2004), _Christianity in Modern China: The Making of the First Native Protestant Church_, Leiden, pp. 205 ff . * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Pitcher (1893) , p. 28. * ^ Pitcher (1893) , p. 34. * ^ Pitcher (1893) , p. 29. * ^ _A_ _B_ Pitcher (1893) , p. 25. * ^ Wright, G.N. (1843), _China, in a Series of Views, Displaying the Scenery, Architecture, and Social Habits of That Ancient Empire,_ Vol. II, Fisher, Son, & Co., p. 69 , illustrated by Thomas Allom. * ^ Morrison, George Ernest (c. 1870), _Album of Hongkong, Canton, Macao, Amoy, Foochow _, p. 50 . * ^ Thomson, John (1898), _Through China with a Camera_, Westminster: A. Constable & Co., p. 96 . * ^ _An Official Guide to Eastern Asia,_ Vol. IV: _China_, Tokyo: Imperial Japanese Gov't Railways, 1915 . * ^ _A_ _B_ (Chinese) "侨乡厦门" 厦门市华侨博物院 Archived 12 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine . Accessed 11 June 2011 * ^ Brown, Bill "> History of Xiamen * ^ (Chinese) "厦门港为赴台自由行开通夜航 拉动厦漳泉旅游资源整合" _厦门商报_ 2 June 2011 * ^ Beech, Hannah (28 July 2014). "Smuggler\'s Blues". Retrieved 28 July 2014. * ^ Jing Fu (3 January 2006). " Beijing drops out of top 10 \'best city\' list". _ China Daily _. Retrieved 25 April 2012. * ^ Daily, Xiamen (4 November 2011). " Xiamen dubbed \'Most Romantic Leisure City\'". Xiamen Daily. Retrieved 22 June 2012. * ^ (in Chinese) Compilation by LianXin website. Data from the Sixth National Population Census of the People\'s Republic of China Archived 25 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine . * ^ http://www.citypopulation.de/php/china-fujian-admin.php * ^ http://www.whatsonxiamen.com/news36687.html * ^ http://www.whatsonxiamen.com/news37938.html * ^ "中央机构编制委员会印发《关于副省级市若干问题的意见》的通知. 中编发5号". 豆丁网. 19 February 1995. Archived from the original on 29 May 2014. Retrieved 28 May 2014. * ^ _A_ _B_ Archived 26 April 2006 at the Wayback Machine . * ^ Xiamen Export Processing Zone China Industrial Space. Rightsite.asia. Retrieved on 28 August 2011. * ^ Xiamen Haicang Taiwanese Investment Zone. RightSite.asia. Retrieved on 28 August 2011. * ^ Xinglin Taiwan Merchants Development Zone. RightSite.asia (20 May 1989). Retrieved on 28 August 2011. * ^ Xiamen Torch Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone. RightSite.asia. Retrieved on 28 August 2011. * ^ Xiamen Xiangyu Free Trade Zone. RightSite.asia. Retrieved on 28 August 2011. * ^ " Xiamen cracks down on electric bicycle traffic violations – What\'s On Xiamen". _www.whatsonxiamen.com_. Retrieved 31 August 2016.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ " China Expat city Guide Xiamen". China Expat. 2008. Retrieved 8 February 2009. * ^ _A_ _B_ " China Briefing Business Reports". Asia Briefing. 2009. Archived from the original on 18 February 2009. Retrieved 8 February 2009. * ^ Pitcher (1893) , p. 38. * ^ Text Messages Giving Voice to Chinese Washington Post * ^ 厦门领事馆区大楼封顶.
* _ Baynes, T.S., ed. (1878), "Amoy", Encyclopædia Britannica _, 1 (9th ed.), New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, p. 748 . * _ Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911), "Amoy", Encyclopædia Britannica _, 1 (11th ed.), Cambridge University Press, p. 878 . * Ouchterlony, John (1844), _The Chinese War_, London: Saunders & Otley . * Pitcher, Philip Wilson (1893), _Fifty Years in Amoy or A History of the Amoy Mission, China_, New York: Reformed Church in America, ISBN 9785871498194 .
* Ng, Chin-Keong (1983). _Trade and Society, the Amoy Network on the China Coast, 1683–1735_. NUS Press. ISBN 9971690691 . Retrieved 24 April 2014.
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