Xiamen, formerly romanized as Amoy, is a sub-provincial city in
southeastern Fujian, China, beside the
Taiwan Strait. It is divided
into six districts: Huli, Siming, Jimei, Tong'an, Haicang, and
Xiang'an. Altogether, these cover an area of 1,699.39 square
kilometers (656.14 sq mi) with a population of 3,531,347 as
of 2010. The urbanized area of the city has spread from its original
island to include parts of all six of its districts, with a total
population of 1,861,289. This area connects to
Quanzhou in the north
Zhangzhou in the west, making up a metropolis of more than five
million people. The
Kinmen Islands administered by the
China lie less than 6 kilometers (4 mi) away.
Xiamen Island was considered to possess one of the world's great
natural harbors in Yundang Bay, but Fujian's international trade was
long restricted to
Quanzhou or to
Guangzhou in Guangdong. Due to the
siltification of Quanzhou's harbor, the British insisted that Xiamen
be opened to foreign trade in the treaty that ended the First Opium
War in 1842. Under the Qing, both before and after the war, there was
a large-scale emigration of Chinese from southern
Fujian who spread
Hokkien-speaking communities to Singapore,
Malaysia (especially in
Medan and Riau Province) and the Philippines. The
overseas Chinese continue to support Xiamen's educational and cultural
institutions. As part of China's
Opening Up Policy
Opening Up Policy under Deng
Xiamen became one of the original four special economic
zones opened to foreign investment and trade in the early 1980s. Its
former harbor was enclosed using land excavated during the city's
The city is known for its mild climate,
Hokkien culture and Gulangyu
Island, as well as its relatively low pollution. In 2006,
ranked as China's 2nd-"most suitable city for living", as well as
China's "most romantic leisure city" in 2011.
6.1 Financial services
6.2 Industrial zones
7.1 Local transportation
10 Colleges and universities
10.4 Vocational College
12 Notable people
13 International relations
13.2 Sister cities
16 Further reading
17 External links
The statue of
Koxinga (Zheng Chenggong) on
The area around
Xiamen Bay appears as
Tong'an in some Han records.
Xiamen Island was described as Jiahe Islet c. 976. It received its
present name from the
Xiamen Castle erected on the island by Zhou
Dexing in 1387 during the Ming. The name was formerly written using
Chinese characters meaning "Lower Gate". When its port prospered
under the Qing, the name was considered unrefined and changed to
homophonous characters meaning "Mansion Gate".
Xiamen is the atonal
pinyin romanization of the characters' pronunciation in Mandarin. It
has also been romanized as Hiamen. The former English name "Amoy"
was based on the same name's pronunciation in the
Zhangzhou dialect of
Xiamen was also named Siming ("Remembering the Ming") for a few years
(1656–c. 1661) during its occupation by the loyalist Southern Ming
forces of Koxinga. The Qing restored the former name upon their
conquest of the area, but Koxinga's name was in turn restored after
Xinhai Revolution that inaugurated the republic in 1912. The name
Xiamen was later restored again[when?] but Siming continues to be used
as the name of one of its districts.
Xiamen Island, looking south. The
Gaoji Causeway lies at the bottom
and the old Yundang Harbor—now an inclosed lake—lies to the right.
Kinmen Islands controlled by the Republic of
China are visible to
the upper left.
Xiamen Island and
Xiamen is a sub-provincial city in southeastern
Fujian whose urban
core grew up from the port of
Xiamen on southern
Xiamen Island, now
located within Siming District. It now also includes
and the rugged coast of the mainland from the northeast bank of the
Jiulong River in the west to the islands of
Xiang'an in the east.
Xiamen Island lies about one degree north of the Tropic of Cancer.
It is divided between
Huli District in the north and Siming District
in the south. Siming also includes Gulangyu. Its mainland territory is
divided among Haicang, Jimei, Tong'an, and
In the 19th century, Xiamen's harbor on Yundang Bay was considered one
of the world's great natural harbors.
Land reclamation has since been
used to fill in the mouth of this inlet, turning it into Siming
District's Yundang Lake. The municipal government is located on other
reclaimed land beside it.
The nearest point of Liehyu in the
Kinmen Islands, still controlled by
the Republic of
China from Taiwan, lies only 6 kilometers (4 mi)
Xiamen has a monsoonal humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cfa),
characterised by long, hot and humid summers (but moderate compared to
much of the rest of the province) and short, mild and dry winters. The
warmest month is July, with a 24-hour average of 27.8 °C
(82.0 °F), and the coolest month is January, averaging
12.8 °C (55.0 °F); the annual mean is 20.7 °C
(69.3 °F). Extremes since 1951 have ranged from 1.5 °C
(35 °F) on 29 December 1991 to 39.2 °C (103 °F) on
20 July 2007. Spring, both by humidity and percentage of sunshine,
is the dampest season but typhoons in late summer and early autumn can
make the latter period wetter overall. Summer and autumn are marked by
comparatively sunny conditions, while autumn is warm and dry. The
annual rainfall is 1,350 millimeters (53 in). With monthly
percent possible sunshine ranging from 24% in March to 56% in July,
the city receives 1,853 hours of bright sunshine annually. Frost
occurs very rarely, and the last snowfall in the city took place in
January 1893, when snow also fell at Guangzhou, Macau, in the inland
Hong Kong and in the hills of Taipei.
The area is known within
China for its relatively low pollution.
Climate data for
Record high °C (°F)
Average high °C (°F)
Daily mean °C (°F)
Average low °C (°F)
Record low °C (°F)
Average precipitation mm (inches)
Average rainy days (≥ 0.1 mm)
Average relative humidity (%)
Mean monthly sunshine hours
Percent possible sunshine
China Meteorological Data Service Center
China Meteorological Administration(precipitation days,
sunshine hours 1971–2000)
The first flag in the second row was a flag of Amoy as recorded in a
map published in 1787
"Amoy" and "Kolang-soo" in 1844
"Amoy" Town and Harbor from "Kalangsu" in 1874.
Lai Afong's c. 1870 photograph of "Amoy" from "Koolansoo".
Krupp gun at the Hulishan Battery, installed to protect Xiamen
during the late Qing era.
"Hsia-men" and "Ku-lang Hsü" in a 1945 American map.
Large characters saying "Peaceful Reunification" and "One Country, Two
Xiamen Island's west coast, facing the nearby
Jinmen Islands. Similar propaganda on
Xiamen, reading "
Three Principles of the People
Three Principles of the People Unite China".
Gulangyu (foreground) and
The area of
Xiamen was largely bypassed by the Qin and Han conquests
and colonization of Guangdong, which passed west of
Fujian down the
Lingqu Canal between the Xiang and Li rivers. It was first organized
Tong'an County in AD 282 under the Jin, but it lost this
status soon afterwards.
Tong'an County was again established in 933
under the Later Tang.
The settlement on the southeastern shore of
Xiamen Island (now
part of Siming District) developed as a seaport under the Song,
although legal foreign trade was restricted to nearby Quanzhou, which
administered the area. In 1387, attacks by the "Japanese" or "dwarf"
pirates—many of them actually disaffected Chinese—prompted the
Ming to protect the harbor with the fortress that gave
name. The Portuguese first reached
Xiamen in 1541. After the fall of
the Ming to the Qing in 1644,
Southern Ming loyalists including
Xiamen as a base from which to launch attacks against the
Manchus from 1650 to 1660. In 1661,
Koxinga drove the
Taiwan and moved his operations there. His base on Xiamen
fell to a combined Qing and Dutch invasion in 1663. The East India
Company traded extensively with the port, constructing a factory there
in 1678.[a] It was raised to the status of a subprefecture in
1680, but the taxes and other restrictions placed on
traders compelled the British to relocate to Canton and
next year. Trade resumed in 1685 and continued until the
imposition of the Canton System.
By the 19th century, the city walls had a circumference of around 9
miles (14 km), with an inner and outer city divided by an inner
wall and a ridge of hills surmounted by a well-built fort. The
inner harbor on Yundang Bay was also well fortified and these
defenses were further strengthened upon the outbreak of the First
Opium War. Nonetheless,
Xiamen was captured in 1841 between
Guangzhou and Zhoushan. Rear Adm. Parker bombarded the Qing position
to little effect, but the assault by the men under Lt. Gen. Gough
caused the Chinese to flee their positions without a fight.
The city was abandoned during the night and fell the next day on
27 August. The Chinese had spirited out the entire treasury of
sycee bullion under the nose of the British by disguising it inside
Xiamen being too large to garrison, a small force was
left to hold Gulangyu. The next year, the
Treaty of Nanjing
Treaty of Nanjing made
Xiamen one of the first five ports opened to British trade, which had
previously been legally restricted to Guangzhou. Subsequent treaties
opened the port to other international powers.
As the primary international port for Fujian, particularly Zhangzhou
and its hinterland,
Xiamen became a center of China's tea trade,
with hundreds of thousands of tons shipped yearly to Europe and the
Americas. Its local dialect influenced a variety of translations
of Chinese terms. Its principal exports during the period were tea,
porcelain, and paper;[b] it imported sugar, rice, cotton, and opium,
as well as some manufactured goods.[c]
Xiamen was also a center of
Protestant missionaries in China; the missions operated the
city's two hospitals. The merchants of
Xiamen were thought among
the richest and most entrepreneurial and industrious in China,
but the city was widely accounted the dirtiest city in
China. Owing to local belief in feng shui, the streets were
"as crooked as ram's horns" and averaged about 4 feet (1 m)
in width to keep out sunlight and control public disturbances. Its
population was estimated at 250,000 in the 1870s;[d] by that point
the island was largely barren and full of roughly 140 villages, with a
total population around 400,000. European settlement in the port
was concentrated on
Gulangyu Island off
Xiamen proper; it remains
known for its colonial architecture.
A scene in Amoy painted by a passing traveler in 1899
Xiamen's paifang c. 1843
An 1869 stereogram of laborers in Xiamen. The first coolies left
Xiamen for Havana in 1847
"Plan of the Country around Amoy", 1870
A stereogram of houses in
Xiamen c. 1870
Nanputuo Temple c. 1870
A 1915 map of the "Environs of Amoy", showing the city and island
before the massive land reclamation projects of the 20th century.
By the 20th century, the local export economy had collapsed due to the
success of British tea plantations in India. During the Qing and
the early 20th century, many southern Fujianese emigrated to Southeast
Asia and Taiwan, spreading
Hokkien language and culture overseas. Some
350,000 overseas Chinese currently trace their ancestry to Xiamen.
Some of this diaspora later returned: an estimated 220,000 Xiamen
residents are returning overseas Chinese and their kin. Others
continue to help fund universities and cultural institutions in
At the time of the Xinhai Revolution, the native population of the
city was estimated at 300,000 and the foreign settlement at 280.
After the establishment of the Republic of China, the area around
Xiamen was renamed Siming County. Xiamen's trade during the period was
largely conducted through Taiwan, which had been seized by Japan
during the First Sino-Japanese War. The Japanese subsequently claimed
Fujian as their sphere of influence during the colonial squabbling
Xiamen Island from May 1938 to September
1945 during World War II. In the late phases of the Chinese Civil War
that followed, the Communists captured
Gulangyu in October
1949 but failed to capture Jinmen. The same year,
Xiamen became a
provincially-administered city (省辖市).
In 1955 and 1958, mainland
Cold War political tensions
by shelling nearby islands from
Xiamen in what became known as the
First and Second
Taiwan Strait Crisis. The Nationalists responded by
Jinmen and shelling Xiamen. The
Gaoji Causeway built from
1955–57 notionally transformed
Xiamen Island into a peninsula, and
so it was termed in the heady propaganda of the time. Due to political
tensions, the eastern half of
Xiamen Island and much of the Fujian
Coast facing the offshore islands remained undeveloped in the 1960s
and 1970s. The Water Police and Post-Office were situated directly
across the water from the American embassy.
Siming District, looking north from the southern shore of Yundang Lake
Deng Xiaoping initiated his Opening Up Policy,
Xiamen was made
one of the first four special economic zones in 1980, with special
investment and trade regulations attracting foreign investment,
particularly from overseas Chinese. The city grew and prospered.
On 18 April 1988,
Xiamen was promoted to sub-provincial status and
began to be specially considered in China's state planning. In 2001,
the governments of mainland
Taiwan agreed to initiate the
"Three Mini-Links" and restored ferry, commercial, and mail links
between the mainland and offshore islands. Trade and travel between
Jinmen was restored and later expanded to include direct
air travel to
Taiwan Island. In 2010, travelers between
Jinmen made 1.31 million trips.
In 1999, the largest corruption scandal in China's history was
uncovered in Xiamen, implicating up to 200 government officials. Lai
Changxing is alleged to have run an enormous smuggling operation,
which financed the city's football team, film studios, largest
construction project and a vast brothel rented to him by the local
Public Security Bureau. According to Time, "locals used to joke that
Xiamen should change its name to Yuanhua, the name of Lai's company."
They subsequently claimed that potential investors were discouraged by
the taint of corruption.
Xiamen was ranked as China's 2nd-"most suitable city for
living", as well as China's "most romantic leisure city" in
According to the 2010 Census,
Xiamen has a population of 3,531,347
inhabitants, almost 1.8 times the population counted for the last
census in 2000 (which was of 2,053,070 inhabitants). The annual
average population growth was of 5.57% for the period 2000–2010.
However, this masks the population explosion in Jimei District, which
quadrupled since the prior census; Huli District's population more
than doubled. The resident population was 1,967,800 in 2013
yearend, and with a population of 3.73 million (those residing at
least half a year). The total resident population is said to be
4,255,000 in December 2014, without specifying what counts as a
The local variety is Xiamenese (also known as Amoynese), a dialect of
Hokkien which is part of the
Southern Min languages.
Amoy dialect is
widely used and understood across the southern part of
as well as overseas. While it is widely spoken in and around Xiamen,
especially by its native speakers, the
Amoy dialect has no official
status. The official language of all government and political business
is Mandarin, although the locals do not use much of it in their
everyday lives. The English words "Amoy", "tea" (茶; tê), "cumshaw"
(感謝; kám-siā), "pekoe" (白毫; pe̍h-hô), kowtow (磕頭;
khàu-thâu), "ketchup" (茄汁; kiô-chap) originated from Amoy
In the 19th century,
Xiamen proper had two Dutch Reformed[e] and two
Xiamen Island was home to three Dutch Reformed
missions at "Kang-thau", "Kio-than", and "Chhan-chhu-oa".
Xiamen is a sub-provincial city of
Fujian with direct jurisdiction
over 6 districts.
In May 2003,
Gulangyu and Kaiyuan districts were merged into Siming
District; Xinglin District (杏林区) was merged into Jimei District;
Xiang'an District was created out of a section of Tong'an
Xiamen International Bank
Xiamen International Bank Building
China Construction Bank Building, Xiamen
Zuanshi Hai'an (钻石海岸, lit. "Diamond Coast") Building on
Sheraton Hotel, Xiamen
Xiamen has a diverse and well-developed economy. The Siming and Huli
districts form its
Special Economic Zone. Important industries are
fishing, shipbuilding, food processing, tanning, textiles, machine
tool manufacturing, chemical industries, telecommunications and
financial services. The city has economic and trade relations with 162
countries and regions worldwide, and benefits from
foreign investment, particularly capital from Hong Kong,
In 2008, a total of 356 projects with foreign direct investment had
been approved in the city, with a contractual foreign investment
amount of US$1.896 billion and an actual foreign investment amount of
US$2.042 billion. In 1992,
Xiamen was ranked among the top 10
Chinese cities in relation to comprehensive strengths with its GDP
increasing by an average of over 20% annually. In 2008, Xiamen's GDP
amounted to 156 billion Yuan, an increase of 11.1% over the previous
year; and the per-capita GDP was 62,651 yuan (US$9,017). Further
economic reforms were introduced, and this brought the total volume of
imports and exports in 2008 to US$45.4 billion, while that of exports
totalled US$29.4 billion.
Xiamen is also the host of the
China International Fair for Investment
and Trade held annually in early September to attract foreign direct
investment into the Chinese mainland.
Xiamen also hold Straits Forum
Xiamen has excellent road, rail, air and port infrastructure. In the
last few years,
Xiamen has invested more than RMB30 billion in
Xiamen has highly developed banking services. The biggest bank is the
state-owned commercial bank, Sino-foreign joint venture Xiamen
International Bank, solely foreign-funded
Xiamen Bank, and Xiamen
Rural Commercial Bank.
Various foreign banks that have established representative offices in
There are more than 600 financial institutions in operation in
Xiamen Export Processing Zone is located in the south part of
Haicang Development Zone only 1.5 kilometers (1 mi) from the
Haicang Port Area, 10 kilometers (6 mi) from Gaoqi International
Airport and 3 kilometers (2 mi) from Haicang railway station. It
has a favorable geographical location and well-developed
transportation network, especially sea transportation. It has a total
planned area of 2.4 square kilometers (1 sq mi) with 1.46
square kilometers (0.56 sq mi) for the first phase.
Industries encouraged in the zone include
Biotechnology/Pharmaceuticals, Chemicals Production and Processing,
Heavy Industry, Instruments & Industrial Equipment Production,
Medical Equipment and Supplies, Research and Development,
Shipping/Warehousing/Logistics, Telecommunications Equipment, Trading
Xiamen Haicang Taiwanese Investment Zone is situated to the southeast
Xiamen Island, at the tip of the Xiamen-Zhangzhou-
Quanzhou Delta in
Zhangzhou City to the west,
Jimei District to
the north, and overlooking
Xiamen Island across the narrow water. The
100-square-kilometer Haicang Taiwanese Investment Zone is the largest
national Taiwanese investment zone authorized by the State Council in
1989. It is situated close to
Taiwan Merchants Development Zone was approved to be
established on 20 May 1989 by the State Council. The planned area is
19.36 square kilometers (7.47 sq mi) and the current area is
12.5 square kilometers (5 sq mi). The zone is located in
Jimei, Xiamen. The main industries set up in the zone are chemistry,
machinery, textile and electronics. The zone is 8 kilometers
(5 mi) from the
Xiamen Gaoqi International Airport
Xiamen Gaoqi International Airport and 3
kilometers (2 mi) from the 319 National Highway.
Torch Hi-tech Industrial Development Zone was approved by the State
Council as one of China's national level high-tech industrial
development zones in March 1999. In 2001, the zone became the first to
achieve 10 billion yuan per square kilometer target output level. It
is located close to
Xiamen Gaoqi International Airport.
Xiamen Xiangyu Free Trade Zone is established and approved by
The State Council. The overall planning area is 0.63 square kilometers
(0.24 sq mi). In 2008, there are 1100 enterprises in this
park. Industries encouraged in the zone include Electronics Assembly
& Manufacturing, Garment and Textiles Production, Trading and
Distribution, Research and Development,
Haicang Bridge in 2007
Xiamen BRT beside the main railway station. Its expressways and
elevated roads form a closed network accessible only to the system's
The Gaoji Causeway, five main road bridges (the Jimei, Xiamen,
Xiang'an, Xinglin, and Haicang Bridges), and two undersea tunnel
Xiang'an Tunnel and Haicang Tunnel) link
Xiamen Island with the
The main forms of public transportation in
Xiamen are bus and bus
rapid transit (BRT) and the subway. Xiamen's BRT system features a
dedicated bus-only closed road system with stations and ticketing
system similar to light rail. Most of the 115-kilometer (71 mi)
BRT network consist of bus lanes along expressways and elevated BRT
Xiamen Island. BRT routes have no traffic lights and
travel speed is limited by design to 60 kilometers per hour
(37 mph). Five BRT routes are currently in service: BRT-1 Route,
BRT-2 Route, Huandao Avenue BRT Route, Chenggong Avenue BRT Route and
Connecting BRT Route. The fare is 0.6 RMB per km for the
air-conditioned busses. The BRT is supplemented by 20 shuttle bus
services that connect nearby places to the BRT stations. The shuttle
bus service has a flat rate of 0.5 RMB. Fare discount is available
when pre-paid e-card is used.
Taxis can be easily hailed in most areas of the city. Bicycles are
commonly used by residents, especially on
Xiamen Island. Unlike many
Chinese cities, motorcycles, mopeds, tricycles, and wooden handcarts
are not permitted in Xiamen. The city has upheld the ban on these
vehicles since the 1990s. Electric bikes are permitted with proper
licensing and obedience of traffic laws. On the small island of
Xiamen Island, automobiles are also banned.
Xiamen Metro has been under construction since 13 November 2013 and
the first line began operation on 31 December 2017. A system of five
lines has been approved so far, with plans to eventually expand to
eleven lines including service to surrounding suburban areas.
Xiamen and Zhangzhou-
Xiamen Express Highways link Xiamen
with the highway network of
Fujian and the neighboring provinces of
Jiangxi and Zhejiang. There are also container freight
services available between
Shenzhen and Hong Kong.
Xiamen Railway Station's south entrance.
Xiamen is served by the Yingtan–
Xiamen railway, Fuzhou–Xiamen
Longyan–Xiamen railway and the Xiamen–
which are connected to China's national railway network. Direct
passenger trains are available from
Xiamen to Shanghai, Nanjing,
Nanchang and Yingtan. The completion of the
Quanzhou railway, Fuzhou–
Xiamen High-Speed railway, Longyan–Xiamen
High-Speed railway, Xiamen–
Shantou High-Speed railway in late 2020
expanded train services to destinations to the west and southwest.
Xiamen Railway Station
Xiamen Railway Station on the island of
Xiamen is connected to the
mainland by a railway bridge.
Xiamen North Railway Station
Xiamen North Railway Station is located in Jimei District.
Xiamen East Railway Station will be located in Xiang'an
A Boeing 737 bearing the egret livery of
Xiamen Gaoqi International Airport
Xiamen Gaoqi International Airport in northeastern
is a main air hub in East
China with flights to over 90 domestic and
international destinations. Among airports in China,
among the top 11 for passenger traffic, top 8 for cargo traffic and
top 10 for air traffic. It can handle 27 million passengers annually.
The airport is the headquarters hub of
Xiamen has direct flights to most cities in China, Hong Kong, Macao,
Taiwan, and major cities in east Asia like Tokyo, Osaka, Seoul.
Intercontinental flights to Amsterdam, Sydney, Melbourne, Vancouver,
Los Angeles have been started from 2011.
Xiamen also hold a strong network to southeast Asia cities like,
Bangkok, Kuala Lumpur, Manila, Jakarta,
Cebu and Singapore, to server
the large communities of southern Fujian's overseas diaspora and the
increasing tourism flows.
Xiamen has passenger ferry service to cities along the coast of China
as well as the neighbouring island of
Kinmen (Jinmen) to the east,
which is administered by the Republic of
China on Taiwan. These
ferries are all served from the
Wutong Ferry Terminal
Wutong Ferry Terminal to Shuitou Pier,
Kinmen on the north-east side of the
Xiamen Island (quite distant from
downtown Xiamen), ferries to
Jinmen take 60 minutes. There are
facilities in both directions allowing for quick transfers between
Xiamen Gaoqi Airport (for Mainland destinations) and
(for Taiwanese destinations), which is very popular with large tour
The Heping Wharf Ferry Terminal on the south-west side of Xiamen
Island offers short 5 minute boat rides to the island of Gulangyu
however this is only accessible by
Xiamen residents. Tourists and
non-locals must now take a longer 20 minute ferry ride from the main
International Ferry Terminal, also called the Dongdu International
Terminal, on the south-west side of
Xiamen Island., as of 20 October
2014 with a fare increase from 8RMB to 35RMB. This has been in order
to reduce tourist numbers accessing the island in an effort to
conserve it. This terminal used to have ferries, taking 90 minutes, to
Kinmen Island but were ceased in 2014.
The headquarters of the
Xiamen Port administration.
Main article: Port of Xiamen
The historic port of
Xiamen in Yundang Bay on the southwest side of
Xiamen Island has been converted into a lake by land reclamation
Port of Xiamen
Port of Xiamen lies on the northwestern shore of
Xiamen Island, opposite its airport, and at eleven other sites around
Xiamen Bay and along the Jiulong estuary, including the neighboring
jurisdiction of Zhangzhou. The port facilities are interconnected by
ship, road, and rail. The port has been one of the busiest in China
since the early 1980s and is serviced by all of the 20 largest
shipping lines in the world. In 2016,
Xiamen ranked among the top 15
ports in the world for container freight.
The natural coastline in the port area is 64.5 kilometers (40 mi)
while the water is over 12 meters (39 ft) in depth. There are 81
berths, including 16 deep-water berths, of which 6 operate containers
of over 10,000 tonnes. Among other cargoes handled,
Xiamen is the
world's largest supply base for raw tungsten materials and
sunglasses, exporting 120 million pairs each year.
Xiamen is also an important base in
Fujian province for making
medium-sized and large container vessels and yachts.
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Walkway on Gulangyu
A local store on Gulangyu
Buddhist library, Nanputuo Temple
Painted roofs at Nanputuo Temple
Xiamen local handicraft, gold plated lacquer ware
Xiamen and its surrounding countryside is known for its scenery and
tree-lined beaches. Gulangyu, a former treaty port
enclave, is a popular weekend getaway with views of
the city and features many Victorian-style buildings. Xiamen's
Botanical Garden is a nature lover's paradise. The Buddhist Nanputuo
Temple, dating back to the Tang Dynasty, is a national treasure.
Xiamen is also well known as a continuing frontline in the Chinese
Civil War, with the nearby
Jinmen Islands remaining under Taiwanese
control. Water Garden Expo Park has a total area of about
6.76 km2 (2.61 sq mi), with a land area of
3.03 km2 or 1.17 sq mi consisting of five exhibition
park islands, four ecological landscapes islands and two peninsulas,
including the main pavilion, Chinese Education Park, Marine Culture
Island, Spa Island, and other functional areas and related facilities.
Xiamen is famed for its music, puppet shows, Gezi Opera, and temple
Main article: Chinese cuisine
As with much of southern China, the staple foods of
Xiamen have long
been rice, seafood, pork, sweet potatoes, various pickled vegetables,
and bok choy. Its traditional dishes form a branch of southern
Fujianese cuisine, with Taiwanese influence. It is particularly well
China for its street food and snacks. A local specialty
is worm jelly (t 土笋凍, s 土笋冻, tǔsǔndòng), a gelatin made
from a kind of marine peanut worm.
Many famous Chinese musicians hail from
including Huang Yujun, Yin Chengzong, Jing Yang, and Xu Feiping. It
has a major symphony orchestra, the
Xiamen Philharmonic Orchestra.
Every May there's an international music festival, and piano
competitions and music festivals are also frequently held. On
Gulangyu, on Huangyan Road on the way to Sunlight Rock is the Gulangyu
Concert Hall, where classical concerts are regularly held on weekends.
Wushipu Oil Painting Village, Xiamen
Xiamen Wushipu oil painting village has been named as “the second of
the world oil painting industry base” and the second batch of
national cultural (art) industry base” by the
association and the culture property department of Culture
Xiamen has strong industry advantage in hand-done oil painting, which
has two main manufacturing bases here,
Xiamen Wushipu Oil Painting
Xiamen Haicang Oil Painting Village. 80% market shares in
European and American market is taken up by products exported from
Xiamen. As the main manufacturing base of hand painted oil painting in
Xiamen Wushipu Oil Painting Village has more than 5,000
artists. It has the ability to produce all kinds of oil paintings with
different specifications and styles. With the support of Xiamen
Municipal Government, it has formed a powerful industrial chain,
provided related accessories such as frames, brushes and paint colors
and formed stable target customers composed by hotels, villas,
high-class departments, galleries and so on. As another mail
manufacturing base of oil painting,
Xiamen Haicang Oil Painting
Village has more than 3,000 painters. The scale of
Xiamen Haicang Oil
Painting Village has developed rapidly in recent years, which is from
originally 28 enterprises to more than 250 enterprises at the moment.
The combination of manufacturing, sales and distribution makes it
become industrial base of commercial oil painting.
Xiamen is served by
Xiamen Media Group, which broadcasts news and
entertainment such as movies and television series by AM/FM radio,
close circuit television and satellite television. Media in Xiamen
were temporarily blocked by the Government in June 2007 when about
10,000 people participated in protests against the building of a
paraxylene factory by Tenglong Aromatic PX (Xiamen) Co. Ltd., which is
owned by Taiwanese businessman Chen Yu-hao. The incident, however,
was solved smoothly later that year.
Colleges and universities
A view of the
Xiamen University campus
A view of the
Jiannan Auditorium at
The first two universities below were founded by Tan Kah Kee.
Xiamen University (厦门大学) (founded 1921, Project 985, Project
Jimei University (集美大学)
Huaqiao University (华侨大学)
University of Chinese Academy of Sciences
Engineering College (中国科学院大学厦门微电子工程学院)
Xiamen academy of arts and design,
Chinese Language and Culture College of Huaqiao University
Xiamen University of Technology (厦门理工学院)
Xiamen Medical College (厦门医学院)
Tan Kah Kee
Tan Kah Kee College (厦门大学嘉庚学院)
Jimei University Chengyi College (集美大学诚毅学院)
Xiamen Institute of Technology (厦门工学院)
Xiamen Huaxia University (厦门华夏学院)
Xiamen Nanyang University (厦门南洋学院)
Xiamen City University (厦门城市职业学院)
Xiamen Ocean Vocational College (厦门海洋职业技术学院)
Xiamen Academy For Performing Arts (厦门演艺职业学院)
Xiamen Institute of Software Technology
Xiamen Huatian International Vocational Institute
Xiamen Xingcai Vocational & Technical College
Xiamen Donghai Institute (厦门东海职业技术学院)
Xiamen Security Science And Technology College
Xiamen is headquarters of the 73rd Group Army of the People's
Liberation Army, one of the three group armies under the Nanjing
Military Region, which is responsible for the defense of the eastern
China, including any military action in the
Shen Kuo (1031–1095), scientist and statesman, spent some of his
youth in Xiamen
Koxinga, a Ming loyalist
Lai Changxing, businessman
Raymond Lam, TVB actor and singer
Yin Chengzong, pianist
Henry Sy, Sr., businessman, founder of SM Group and chairman of SM
Tan Kah Kee, businessman, community leader, and philanthropist in
colonial Singapore, and a Communist leader in the People's Republic of
Lin Qiaozhi, a Chinese physician
Walter Houser Brattain, American inventor of the transistor;
co-recipient of 1956 Nobel Prize in Physics.
Han Kuo-Huang, ethnomusicologist
Thailand have the consulates in Xiamen.
See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in China
Cardiff, Wales, UK (1983.3.31)
Baltimore, US (1985.11.7)
New Zealand (1987.6.23)
George Town, Penang,
South Korea (2007.7.25)
Sarasota, US (2007.11.9)(Sister City of Siming District)
^ The factory represented an investment of $30,000 in bullion and
$20,000 in goods.
^ For 1870, 314 British and 240 other foreign ships cleared the port
with £1,144,046 of exports, apart from the domestic traders. This
had fallen to £384,494 by 1904.
^ For 1870, 315 British and 245 other foreign vessels entered the port
with £1,915,427 of imports, apart from the domestic traders. For
1904, the figure was £2,081,494.
^ The estimate is very rough. Pitcher, writing a little later, placed
the town's population at 60–100,000.
^ The churches bore the names "Sin-Koe-a" and "Tek-Chhiu-Kha".
^ "Communiqué of the National Bureau of Statistics of People's
China on Major Figures of the 2010 Population Census (No.
1)". National Bureau of Statistics of China. 28 April 2011. Archived
from the original on 8 November 2013. Retrieved 12 February
^ 2010 census
Oxford English Dictionary
Oxford English Dictionary (3rd ed.). Oxford University
Press. September 2005. (Subscription or UK public library
^ Formerly "Lower Gate" (下門); see Name section.
^ Zhongguo Gujin Diming Da Cidian 中国古今地名大词典, 2855.
^ a b c d e f g h EB (1911).
^ Pitcher (1893), p. 26.
^ 《环球时报》2002-04-22. .china.com.cn. Retrieved on 28 August
^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 18 March 2013.
Retrieved 18 February 2013.
^ Wile, Rob. "These 10 Cities Are Your Best Bet At Escaping China's
Epic Pollution Problem". Retrieved 17 July 2016. .
^ a b c Ouchterlony (1844), p. 175
^ a b c d e f g h i j EB (1878).
^ Struve, Lynn A. (1984), The
Southern Ming 1644–1662, New Haven:
Yale University Press, p. 181 .
^ a b c d Pitcher (1893), p. 31.
^ a b c Pitcher (1893), p. 32.
^ Ouchterlony (1844), pp. 173 ff.
^ Pitcher (1893), p. 33.
^ Ouchterlony (1844), p. 176.
^ Pitcher (1893), p. 30.
^ a b c d Pitcher (1893), p. 27.
^ Cheung, David Yiqiang (2004), Christianity in Modern China: The
Making of the First Native Protestant Church, Leiden, pp. 205
^ a b c Pitcher (1893), p. 28.
^ Pitcher (1893), p. 34.
^ Pitcher (1893), p. 29.
^ a b Pitcher (1893), p. 25.
^ Wright, G.N. (1843), China, in a Series of Views, Displaying the
Scenery, Architecture, and Social Habits of That Ancient Empire, Vol.
II, Fisher, Son, & Co., p. 69 , illustrated by Thomas
^ Morrison, George Ernest (c. 1870), Album of Hongkong, Canton, Macao,
Amoy, Foochow, p. 50 .
^ Thomson, John (1898), Through
China with a Camera, Westminster: A.
Constable & Co., p. 96 .
^ An Official Guide to Eastern Asia, Vol. IV: China, Tokyo: Imperial
Japanese Gov't Railways, 1915 .
^ a b (Chinese) "侨乡厦门" 厦门市华侨博物院 Archived 12
February 2012 at the Wayback Machine. Accessed 11 June 2011
^ Brown, Bill & Brown, Sue,
URL=http://www.amoymagic.com/bhistory.htm,[permanent dead link]
History of Xiamen
^ (Chinese) "厦门港为赴台自由行开通夜航
拉动厦漳泉旅游资源整合" 厦门商报 2 June 2011
^ Beech, Hannah (28 July 2014). "Smuggler's Blues". Retrieved 28 July
^ Jing Fu (3 January 2006). "
Beijing drops out of top 10 'best city'
China Daily. Retrieved 25 April 2012.
Xiamen (4 November 2011). "
Xiamen dubbed 'Most Romantic
Xiamen Daily. Retrieved 22 June 2012.
^ (in Chinese) Compilation by LianXin website. Data from the Sixth
National Population Census of the People's Republic of
25 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine.
中编发5号". 豆丁网. 19 February 1995. Archived from the
original on 29 May 2014. Retrieved 28 May 2014.
^ a b  Archived 26 April 2006 at the Wayback Machine.
Xiamen Export Processing Zone
China Industrial Space.
Rightsite.asia. Retrieved on 28 August 2011.
Xiamen Haicang Taiwanese Investment Zone. RightSite.asia. Retrieved
on 28 August 2011.
Taiwan Merchants Development Zone. RightSite.asia (20 May
1989). Retrieved on 28 August 2011.
Xiamen Torch Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone. RightSite.asia.
Retrieved on 28 August 2011.
Xiamen Xiangyu Free Trade Zone. RightSite.asia. Retrieved on 28
Xiamen cracks down on electric bicycle traffic violations –
What's On Xiamen". www.whatsonxiamen.com. Retrieved 31 August
^ a b c d "
China Expat city Guide Xiamen".
China Expat. 2008.
Retrieved 8 February 2009.
^ a b "
China Briefing Business Reports". Asia Briefing. 2009. Archived
from the original on 18 February 2009. Retrieved 8 February
^ Pitcher (1893), p. 38.
^ Text Messages Giving Voice to Chinese Washington Post
Baynes, T.S., ed. (1878), "Amoy", Encyclopædia Britannica, 1
(9th ed.), New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, p. 748 .
Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911), "Amoy", Encyclopædia Britannica, 1
(11th ed.), Cambridge University Press, p. 878 .
Ouchterlony, John (1844), The Chinese War, London: Saunders &
Pitcher, Philip Wilson (1893), Fifty Years in Amoy or A History of the
Amoy Mission, China, New York: Reformed Church in America,
ISBN 9785871498194 .
Ng, Chin-Keong (1983). Trade and Society, the Amoy Network on the
China Coast, 1683–1735. NUS Press. ISBN 9971690691. Retrieved
24 April 2014.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Xiamen.
Xiamen Government website
What's On Xiamen
Xiamen City Guide
Amoy Magic – English Guide to
Xiamen & Fujian
Xiamen travel guide from Wikivoyage
US Army map of Xiamen, 1945
Japanese Government Railways map of
Xiamen and surrounds, 1915
Special Economic Zone
Xiamen academy of arts and design,
Chinese Language and Culture College of Huaqiao University
Xiamen University of Technology
Xiamen Medical College
Tan Kah Kee
Tan Kah Kee College
Jimei University Chengyi College
Xiamen Institute of Technology
Xiamen Huaxia College
Xiamen Nanyang College
Xiamen Shuangshi High School
Xiamen Foreign Language School
Xiamen No.1 Middle School
Xiamen International School
SM City Xiamen
SM Lifestyle Center
South Putuo Temple
Millennium Harbourview Hotel Xiamen
China International Fair for Investment and Trade
Xiamen International Marathon
Xiamen Media Group
Xiamen Gaoqi International Airport
Xiang'an International Airport
Port of Xiamen
Xiamen Railway Station
Xiamen North Railway Station
Xiamen East Railway Station
Xiamen Metro (AMTR)
See also: Fujian
Fuzhou (PRC capital)
Jincheng (ROC capital)
Xiamen University of Technology
Min Chinese language
Hokkien earthen buildings
Shoushan stone carvings
Tale of the Lychee Mirror
Gongfu tea ceremony
Fujian White Crane
Dog Kung Fu
Bak kut teh
Buddha jumps over the wall
South Putuo Temple
County-level divisions of
Fujian Free-Trade Zone
Fujian Free-Trade Zone
Fujian Free-Trade Zone
Fujian Free-Trade Zone
Jinmen (Kinmen/Quemoy) is administered as a county by the
Republic of China, but claimed by the PRC.
Metropolitan cities of China
Major Metropolitan regions
Pearl River Delta
Pearl River Delta (PRD) / Yuegang'ao Greater Bay Area
Yangtze River Delta
Yangtze River Delta (YRD)
Central Plain (Zhongyuan)
Cross-Strait Western Coast
Yangtze River Mid-Reaches (Yangtze River Valley)
National Central Cities
Special Administrative Regions
Regional Central Cities
Autonomous regional capitals
Comparatively large cities
Prefecture-level cities by Province
Other cities (partly shown below)
(Inner Mongolia: Ulanhot
Xinjiang - XPCC(Bingtuan) cities: Shihezi
Former Prefecture-level cities
Manzhouli, Inner Mongolia
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County-level cities by Province
* Indicates this city has already occurred above.
aDirect-controlled Municipalities. bSub-provincial cities as
provincial capitals. cSeparate state-planning cities. 1Special
Economic Zone Cities. 2Coastal development cities.
3Prefecture capital status established by
Heilongjiang Province and
not recognized by Ministry of Civil Affairs. Disputed by Oroqen
Autonomous Banner, Hulunbuir,
Inner Mongolia as part of it.
4Only administers islands and waters in South
China Sea and have no
urban core comparable to typical cities in China.
5The claimed province of
Taiwan no longer have any internal division
announced by Ministry of Civil Affairs of PRC, due to lack of actual
jurisdiction. See Template:Administrative divisions of the Republic of
All provincial capitals are listed first in prefecture-level cities by
Economic Development Zones of China
Special Economic Zones
New open development zones
European and American trade in Qing China
East India Company
Augustine Heard and Company
Dent & Co.
Dodwell & Co.
Gibb, Livingston & Co.
Hugh Bold Gibb
Jardine, Matheson & Co.
John Abel Smith
Magniac & Co.
Thomas Chaye Beale
Olyphant & Co.
Robert Morrison Olyphant
Russell & Company
Robert Bennet Forbes
John Cleve Green
Abiel Abbot Low
William Henry Low
Shewan, Tomes & Co.
David Sassoon & Co.