O. rosmarus rosmarus
O. rosmarus divergens
O. rosmarus laptevi (debated)
Distribution of walrus
Walrus cows and yearlings (short tusks), photo courtesy USFWS
The walrus (Odobenus rosmarus) is a large flippered marine mammal with
a discontinuous distribution about the
North Pole in the
and subarctic seas of the Northern Hemisphere. The walrus is the only
living species in the family
Odobenidae and genus Odobenus. This
species is subdivided into three subspecies: the Atlantic walrus
(O. r. rosmarus) which lives in the Atlantic Ocean, the Pacific walrus
(O. r. divergens) which lives in the Pacific Ocean, and O. r. laptevi,
which lives in the
Laptev Sea of the
Adult walrus are easily recognized by their prominent tusks, whiskers,
and bulk. Adult males in the Pacific can weigh more than 2,000 kg
(4,400 lb) and, among pinnipeds, are exceeded in size only by
the two species of elephant seals. Walruses live mostly in shallow
waters above the continental shelves, spending significant amounts of
their lives on the sea ice looking for benthic bivalve mollusks to
eat. Walruses are relatively long-lived, social animals, and they are
considered to be a "keystone species" in the
Arctic marine regions.
The walrus has played a prominent role in the cultures of many
Arctic peoples, who have hunted the walrus for its meat,
fat, skin, tusks, and bone. During the 19th century and the early 20th
century, walruses were widely hunted and killed for their blubber,
walrus ivory, and meat. The population of walruses dropped rapidly all
Arctic region. Their population has rebounded somewhat
since then, though the populations of Atlantic and Laptev walruses
remain fragmented and at low levels compared with the time before
2 Taxonomy and evolution
3.1 Tusks and dentition
4 Life history
5.1 Range and habitat
6 Relation to humans
8 Further reading
9 External links
Walrus, labeled Ros marus piscis, is depicted in а 16th-century map
Scandinavia (the Carta Marina)
The origin of the word walrus is thought by J.R.R. Tolkien to
derive from a Germanic language, and it has been attributed largely to
Dutch language or Old Norse. Its first part is thought to
derive from a word such as Dutch walvis 'whale'. Its second part has
also been hypothesized to come from the
Old Norse word for 'horse'.
For example, the
Old Norse word hrossvalr means 'horse-whale' and is
thought to have been passed in an inverted form to both Dutch and the
dialects of northern Germany as walros and Walross. An alternate
theory is that is comes from the Dutch words wal 'shore' and reus
The species name rosmarus is Scandinavian. The Norwegian manuscript
Konungsskuggsja, thought to date from around AD 1240, refers to the
walrus as "rosmhvalr" in Iceland and "rostungr" in
were by now extinct in Iceland and Norway, while the word evolved on
in Greenland). Several place names in Iceland,
Greenland and Norway
may originate from walrus sites: Hvalfjord, Hvallatrar and Hvalsnes to
name some, all being typical walrus breeding grounds.
The archaic English word for walrus—morse—is widely thought to
have come from the Slavic languages, which in turn borrowed it from
Finno-Ugric languages. Compare морж (morž) in Russian, mursu in
Finnish, morša in Northern Saami, and morse in French. Olaus Magnus,
who depicted the walrus in the
Carta Marina in 1539, first referred to
the walrus as the ros marus, probably a Latinization of morž, and
this was adopted by
Linnaeus in his binomial nomenclature.
The coincidental similarity between morse and the
Latin word morsus
("a bite") supposedly contributed to the walrus's reputation as a
The compound Odobenus comes from odous (Greek for 'tooth') and baino
(Greek for 'walk'), based on observations of walruses using their
tusks to pull themselves out of the water. The term divergens in Latin
means 'turning apart', referring to their tusks.
Taxonomy and evolution
The walrus is a mammal in the order Carnivora. It is the sole
surviving member of the family Odobenidae, one of three lineages in
Pinnipedia along with true seals (Phocidae) and eared
seals (Otariidae). While there has been some debate as to whether all
three lineages are monophyletic, i.e. descended from a single
ancestor, or diphyletic, recent genetic evidence suggests all three
descended from a caniform ancestor most closely related to modern
bears. Recent multigene analysis indicates the odobenids and
otariids diverged from the phocids about 20–26 million years ago,
while the odobenids and the otariids separated 15–20 million years
Odobenidae was once a highly diverse and widespread
family, including at least twenty species in the subfamilies
Imagotariinae, Dusignathinae and Odobeninae. The key
distinguishing feature was the development of a squirt/suction feeding
mechanism; tusks are a later feature specific to Odobeninae, of which
the modern walrus is the last remaining (relict) species.
Two subspecies of walrus are widely recognized: the Atlantic walrus,
O. r. rosmarus (Linnaeus, 1758) and the Pacific walrus, O. r.
divergens (Illiger, 1815). Fixed genetic differences between the
Atlantic and Pacific subspecies indicate very restricted gene flow,
but relatively recent separation, estimated at 500,000 and 785,000
years ago. These dates coincide with the hypothesis derived from
fossils that the walrus evolved from a tropical or subtropical
ancestor that became isolated in the
Atlantic Ocean and gradually
adapted to colder conditions in the Arctic. From there, it
presumably recolonized the North
Pacific Ocean during high glaciation
periods in the
Pleistocene via the Central American Seaway.
An isolated population in the
Laptev Sea is considered by some
authorities, including many Russian biologists and the canonical
Mammal Species of the World, to be a third subspecies, O. r.
laptevi (Chapskii, 1940), and is managed as such in Russia. Where
the subspecies separation is not accepted, whether to consider it a
subpopulation of the Atlantic or Pacific subspecies remained under
debate until 2009, when multiple lines of molecular evidence
showed it to represent the westernmost population of the Pacific
Young male Pacific walruses on Cape Pierce in Alaska. Note the
variation in the curvature and orientation of the tusks and the bumpy
skin (bosses), typical of males.
Walrus using its tusks to hang on a breathing hole in the ice near St.
Lawrence Island, Bering Sea
Skull without tusk
While some outsized Pacific males can weigh as much as 2,000 kg
(4,400 lb), most weigh between 800 and 1,700 kg (1,800 and
3,700 lb). An occasional male of the Pacific subspecies far
exceeds normal dimensions. In 1909, a walrus hide weighing 500 kg
(1,100 lb) was collected from an enormous bull in Franz Josef
Land, while in August 1910, Jack Woodson shot a 4.9 m
(16 ft) long walrus, harvesting its 450 kg (1,000 lb)
hide. Since a walrus's hide usually accounts for about 20% of its body
weight, the total body mass of these two giants is estimated to have
been at least 2,300 kg (5,000 lb). The Atlantic
subspecies weighs about 10–20% less than the Pacific subspecies.
Male Atlantic walrus weigh an average of 900 kg
(2,000 lb). The Atlantic walrus also tends to have relatively
shorter tusks and somewhat more flattened snout. Females weigh about
two-thirds as much as males, with the Atlantic females averaging
560 kg (1,230 lb), sometimes weighing as little as
400 kg (880 lb), and the Pacific female averaging
800 kg (1,800 lb). Length typically ranges from 2.2 to
3.6 m (7.2 to 11.8 ft). Newborn walruses are already
quite large, averaging 33 to 85 kg (73 to 187 lb) in weight
and 1 to 1.4 m (3.3 to 4.6 ft) in length across both sexes
and subspecies. All told, the walrus is the third largest pinniped
species, after the two elephant seals. Walruses maintain such a high
body weight because of the blubber stored underneath their skin. This
blubber keeps them warm and the fat provides energy to the walrus.
The walrus's body shape shares features with both sea lions (eared
seals: Otariidae) and seals (true seals: Phocidae). As with otariids,
it can turn its rear flippers forward and move on all fours; however,
its swimming technique is more like that of true seals, relying less
on flippers and more on sinuous whole body movements. Also like
phocids, it lacks external ears.
The extraocular muscles of the walrus are well-developed. This and its
lack of orbital roof allow it to protrude its eyes and see in both a
frontal and dorsal direction. However, vision in this species appears
to be more suited for short-range.
Tusks and dentition
Skull with tusks
The most prominent feature of the walrus is its long tusks. These are
elongated canines, which are present in both male and female walruses
and can reach a length of 1 m (3 ft 3 in) and weigh up to
5.4 kg (12 lb). Tusks are slightly longer and thicker
among males, which use them for fighting, dominance and display; the
strongest males with the largest tusks typically dominate social
groups. Tusks are also used to form and maintain holes in the ice and
aid the walrus in climbing out of water onto ice. Tusks were once
thought to be used to dig out prey from the seabed, but analyses of
abrasion patterns on the tusks indicate they are dragged through the
sediment while the upper edge of the snout is used for digging.
While the dentition of walruses is highly variable, they generally
have relatively few teeth other than the tusks. The maximal number of
teeth is 38 with dentition formula: 22.214.171.124.1.3.2, but over half of
the teeth are rudimentary and occur with less than 50% frequency, such
that a typical dentition includes only 18 teeth 1.1.3.00.1.3.0
Surrounding the tusks is a broad mat of stiff bristles ('mystacial
vibrissae'), giving the walrus a characteristic whiskered appearance.
There can be 400 to 700 vibrissae in 13 to 15 rows reaching 30 cm
(12 in) in length, though in the wild they are often worn to much
shorter lengths due to constant use in foraging. The vibrissae are
attached to muscles and are supplied with blood and nerves, making
them highly sensitive organs capable of differentiating shapes
3 mm (0.12 in) thick and 2 mm (0.079 in) wide.
Aside from the vibrissae, the walrus is sparsely covered with fur and
appears bald. Its skin is highly wrinkled and thick, up to 10 cm
(3.9 in) around the neck and shoulders of males. The blubber
layer beneath is up to 15 cm (5.9 in) thick. Young walruses
are deep brown and grow paler and more cinnamon-colored as they age.
Old males, in particular, become nearly pink. Because skin blood
vessels constrict in cold water, the walrus can appear almost white
when swimming. As a secondary sexual characteristic, males also
acquire significant nodules, called "bosses", particularly around the
neck and shoulders.
The walrus has an air sac under its throat which acts like a
floatation bubble and allows it to bob vertically in the water and
sleep. The males possess a large baculum (penis bone), up to
63 cm (25 in) in length, the largest of any land mammal,
both in absolute size and relative to body size.
Walruses live to about 20–30 years old in the wild. The males
reach sexual maturity as early as seven years, but do not typically
mate until fully developed at around 15 years of age. They rut from
January through April, decreasing their food intake dramatically. The
females begin ovulating as soon as four to six years old. The
females are polyestrous, coming into heat in late summer and also
around February, yet the males are fertile only around February; the
potential fertility of this second period is unknown. Breeding occurs
from January to March, peaking in February. Males aggregate in the
water around ice-bound groups of estrous females and engage in
competitive vocal displays. The females join them and copulate in
A walrus pup at Kamogawa Seaworld, Japan
Gestation lasts 15 to 16 months. The first three to four months are
spent with the blastula in suspended development before it implants
itself in the uterus. This strategy of delayed implantation, common
among pinnipeds, presumably evolved to optimize both the mating season
and the birthing season, determined by ecological conditions that
promote newborn survival. Calves are born during the spring
migration, from April to June. They weigh 45 to 75 kg (99 to
165 lb) at birth and are able to swim. The mothers nurse for over
a year before weaning, but the young can spend up to five years with
Walrus milk contains higher amounts of fats and
protein compared to land animals but lower compared to phocid
seals. This lower fat content in turn causes a slower growth rate
among calves and a longer nursing investment for their mothers.
Because ovulation is suppressed until the calf is weaned, females give
birth at most every two years, leaving the walrus with the lowest
reproductive rate of any pinniped.
The rest of the year (late summer and fall), walruses tend to form
massive aggregations of tens of thousands of individuals on rocky
beaches or outcrops. The migration between the ice and the beach can
be long-distance and dramatic. In late spring and summer, for example,
several hundred thousand Pacific walruses migrate from the Bering Sea
Chukchi Sea through the relatively narrow Bering
Range and habitat
The majority of the population of the Pacific walrus spends its
summers north of the
Bering Strait in the
Chukchi Sea of the Arctic
Ocean along the northern coast of eastern Siberia, around Wrangel
Island, in the
Beaufort Sea along the north shore of
Alaska south to
Unimak Island, and in the waters between those locations. Smaller
numbers of males summer in the
Gulf of Anadyr
Gulf of Anadyr on the southern coast of
the Siberian Chukchi Peninsula, and in Bristol Bay off the southern
coast of Alaska, west of the
Alaska Peninsula. In the spring and fall,
walruses congregate throughout the Bering Strait, reaching from the
western coast of
Alaska to the Gulf of Anadyr. They winter over in the
Bering Sea along the eastern coast of
Siberia south to the northern
part of the Kamchatka Peninsula, and along the southern coast of
Alaska. A 28,000-year-old fossil walrus was dredged up from the
bottom of San Francisco Bay, indicating Pacific walruses ranged that
far south during the last ice age. There were roughly 200,000
Pacific walruses according to the most recent (1990) census-based
The much smaller population of Atlantic walruses ranges from the
Canadian Arctic, across Greenland, Svalbard, and the western part of
Arctic Russia. There are eight hypothetical subpopulations of
walruses, based largely on their geographical distribution and
movements: five west of
Greenland and three east of Greenland. The
Atlantic walrus once ranged south to
Sable Island, Nova Scotia, and as
late as the eighteenth century was found in large numbers in the
Gulf of St. Lawrence
Gulf of St. Lawrence region, sometimes in colonies of up to
7,000 to 8,000 individuals. This population was nearly eradicated
by commercial harvest; their current numbers, though difficult to
estimate, probably remain below 20,000. In April 2006, the
Canadian Species at Risk Act listed the population of the northwest
Atlantic walrus in Quebec, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Newfoundland
and Labrador as having been eradicated in Canada.
The isolated population of Laptev walruses is confined year-round to
the central and western regions of the Laptev Sea, the eastmost
regions of the Kara Sea, and the westmost regions of the East Siberian
Sea. The current population of these walruses has been estimated to be
between 5,000 and 10,000.
The limited diving abilities of walruses brings them to depend on
shallow waters (and the nearby ice floes) for reaching their food
Vibrissae of captive walrus (Japan)
Walruses leaving the water
Walruses prefer shallow shelf regions and forage primarily on the sea
floor, often from sea ice platforms. They are not particularly deep
divers compared to other pinnipeds; their deepest recorded dives are
around 80 m (260 ft). They can remain submerged for as long
as half an hour.
The walrus has a diverse and opportunistic diet, feeding on more than
60 genera of marine organisms, including shrimp, crabs, tube worms,
soft corals, tunicates, sea cucumbers, various mollusks, and even
parts of other pinnipeds. However, it prefers benthic bivalve
mollusks, especially clams, for which it forages by grazing along the
sea bottom, searching and identifying prey with its sensitive
vibrissae and clearing the murky bottoms with jets of water and active
flipper movements. The walrus sucks the meat out by sealing its
powerful lips to the organism and withdrawing its piston-like tongue
rapidly into its mouth, creating a vacuum. The walrus palate is
uniquely vaulted, enabling effective suction.
Aside from the large numbers of organisms actually consumed by the
walrus, its foraging has a large peripheral impact on benthic
communities. It disturbs (bioturbates) the sea floor, releasing
nutrients into the water column, encouraging mixing and movement of
many organisms and increasing the patchiness of the benthos.
Seal tissue has been observed in fairly significant proportion of
walrus stomachs in the Pacific, but the importance of seals in the
walrus diet is under debate. There have been isolated observations
of walruses preying on seals up to the size of a 200 kg
(440 lb) bearded seal. Rarely, incidents of walruses
preying on seabirds, particularly the
Brünnich's guillemot (Uria
lomvia), have been documented. Walruses may occasionally prey on
ice-entrapped narwhals and scavenge on whale carcasses but there is
little evidence to prove this.
Due to its great size and tusks, the walrus has only two natural
predators: the killer whale (orca) and the polar bear. The walrus
does not, however, comprise a significant component of either
predator's diets. Both the orca and the polar bear are also most
likely to prey on walrus calves. The polar bear often hunts the walrus
by rushing at beached aggregations and consuming the individuals
crushed or wounded in the sudden exodus, typically younger or infirm
animals. The bears also isolate walruses when they overwinter and
are unable to escape a charging bear due to inaccessible diving holes
in the ice. However, even an injured walrus is a formidable
opponent for a polar bear, and direct attacks are rare. Walruses have
been known to fatally injure polar bears in battles if the latter
follows the other into the water where the bear is at a
disadvantage. Polar bear–walrus battles are often extremely
protracted and exhausting, and bears have been known to forgo the
attack after injuring a walrus. Orcas regularly attack walrus,
although walruses are believed to have successfully defended
themselves via counterattack against the larger cetacean. However,
orcas have been observed successfully attacking walruses with few or
Relation to humans
Hunter sitting on dozens of walruses killed for their tusks
Walrus tusk engraving made by Chukchi artisans depicting polar bears
attacking walruses, on display in the
Magadan Regional Museum,
Trained walrus in captivity at Marineland
Walrus being fed at
Skansen in Stockholm, Sweden, 1908
In the 18th and 19th centuries, the walrus was heavily exploited by
American and European sealers and whalers, leading to the near
extirpation of the Atlantic population. Commercial walrus
harvesting is now outlawed throughout its range, although Chukchi,
Inuit peoples are permitted to kill small numbers
towards the end of each summer.
Traditional hunters used all parts of the walrus. The meat, often
preserved, is an important winter nutrition source; the flippers are
fermented and stored as a delicacy until spring; tusks and bone were
historically used for tools, as well as material for handicrafts; the
oil was rendered for warmth and light; the tough hide made rope and
house and boat coverings; and the intestines and gut linings made
waterproof parkas. While some of these uses have faded with access to
alternative technologies, walrus meat remains an important part of
local diets, and tusk carving and engraving remain a vital art
According to Adolf Erik Nordenskiöld, European hunters and Arctic
explorers found walrus meat not particularly tasty, and only ate it in
case of necessity; however walrus tongue was a delicacy.
Walrus hunts are regulated by resource managers in Russia, the United
States, Canada, and Denmark, and representatives of the respective
hunting communities. An estimated four to seven thousand Pacific
walruses are harvested in
Alaska and in Russia, including a
significant portion (about 42%) of struck and lost animals.
Several hundred are removed annually around Greenland. The
sustainability of these levels of harvest is difficult to determine
given uncertain population estimates and parameters such as fecundity
and mortality. The Boone and Crockett Big Game Record book has entries
for Atlantic and Pacific walrus. The recorded largest tusks are just
over 30 inches and 37 inches long respectively.
The effects of global climate change are another element of concern.
The extent and thickness of the pack ice has reached unusually low
levels in several recent years. The walrus relies on this ice while
giving birth and aggregating in the reproductive period. Thinner pack
ice over the
Bering Sea has reduced the amount of resting habitat near
optimal feeding grounds. This more widely separates lactating females
from their calves, increasing nutritional stress for the young and
lower reproductive rates. Reduced coastal sea ice has also been
implicated in the increase of stampeding deaths crowding the
shorelines of the
Chukchi Sea between eastern
Russia and western
Alaska. However, there are insufficient climate data to make
reliable predictions on population trends.
Currently, two of the three walrus subspecies are listed as
"least-concern" by the IUCN, while the third is "data deficient".
The Pacific walrus is not listed as "depleted" according to the Marine
Mammal Protection Act nor as "threatened" or "endangered" under the
Endangered Species Act. The Russian Atlantic and Laptev Sea
populations are classified as
Category 2 (decreasing) and
(rare) in the Russian Red Book. Global trade in walrus ivory is
restricted according to a
CITES Appendix 3 listing. In October 2017,
Center for Biological Diversity
Center for Biological Diversity announced they would sue the U.S.
Fish and Wildlife Service to force it to classify the Pacific Walrus
as a threatened or endangered species.
Walrus ivory masks made by Yupik in Alaska
John Tenniel's illustration for Lewis Carroll's poem "The
The walrus plays an important role in the religion and folklore of
Arctic peoples. Skin and bone are used in some ceremonies, and
the animal appears frequently in legends. For example, in a Chukchi
version of the widespread myth of the Raven, in which Raven recovers
the sun and the moon from an evil spirit by seducing his daughter, the
angry father throws the daughter from a high cliff and, as she drops
into the water, she turns into a walrus – possibly the original
walrus. According to various legends, the tusks are formed either by
the trails of mucus from the weeping girl or her long braids. This
myth is possibly related to the Chukchi myth of the old walrus-headed
woman who rules the bottom of the sea, who is in turn linked to the
Inuit goddess Sedna. Both in Chukotka and Alaska, the aurora borealis
is believed to be a special world inhabited by those who died by
violence, the changing rays representing deceased souls playing ball
with a walrus head.
The distinctive 12th century Lewis Chessmen from northern Europe are
carved from walrus ivory.
Because of its distinctive appearance, great bulk, and immediately
recognizable whiskers and tusks, the walrus also appears in the
popular cultures of peoples with little direct experience with the
animal, particularly in English children's literature. Perhaps its
best-known appearance is in Lewis Carroll's whimsical poem "The Walrus
and the Carpenter" that appears in his 1871 book Through the
Looking-Glass. In the poem, the eponymous antiheroes use trickery to
consume a great number of oysters. Although Carroll accurately
portrays the biological walrus's appetite for bivalve mollusks,
oysters, primarily nearshore and intertidal inhabitants, in fact
comprise an insignificant portion of its diet, even in captivity.
The "walrus" in the cryptic Beatles song "I Am the Walrus" is a
reference to the
Lewis Carroll poem.
Another appearance of the walrus in literature is in the story "The
White Seal" in Rudyard Kipling's The Jungle Book, where it is the "old
Sea Vitch—the big, ugly, bloated, pimpled, fat-necked, long-tusked
walrus of the North Pacific, who has no manners except when he is
Dutch explorers fight a walrus on the coast of Novya Zemlya, 1596
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Look up walrus in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Data related to Odobenus rosmarus at Wikispecies
Media related to Odobenus rosmarus at Wikimedia Commons
Biologist Tracks Walruses Forced Ashore As Ice Melts – audio report
Thousands Of Walruses Crowd Ashore Due To Melting Sea Ice – video by
Voices in the Sea - Sounds of the Walrus
African palm civet
African palm civet (N. binotata)
Marsh mongoose (A. paludinosus)
Bushy-tailed mongoose (B. crassicauda)
Jackson's mongoose (B. jacksoni)
Black-footed mongoose (B. nigripes)
Alexander's kusimanse (C. alexandri)
Angolan kusimanse (C. ansorgei)
Common kusimanse (C. obscurus)
Flat-headed kusimanse (C. platycephalus)
Yellow mongoose (C. penicillata)
Pousargues's mongoose (D. dybowskii)
Angolan slender mongoose
Angolan slender mongoose (G. flavescens)
Black mongoose (G. nigrata)
Somalian slender mongoose
Somalian slender mongoose (G. ochracea)
Cape gray mongoose
Cape gray mongoose (G. pulverulenta)
Slender mongoose (G. sanguinea)
Ethiopian dwarf mongoose
Ethiopian dwarf mongoose (H. hirtula)
Common dwarf mongoose
Common dwarf mongoose (H. parvula)
Short-tailed mongoose (H. brachyurus)
Indian gray mongoose
Indian gray mongoose (H. edwardsii)
Indian brown mongoose
Indian brown mongoose (H. fuscus)
Egyptian mongoose (H. ichneumon)
Small Asian mongoose
Small Asian mongoose (H. javanicus)
Long-nosed mongoose (H. naso)
Collared mongoose (H. semitorquatus)
Ruddy mongoose (H. smithii)
Crab-eating mongoose (H. urva)
Stripe-necked mongoose (H. vitticollis)
White-tailed mongoose (I. albicauda)
Liberian mongoose (L. kuhni)
Gambian mongoose (M. gambianus)
Banded mongoose (M. mungo)
Selous' mongoose (P. selousi)
Meller's mongoose (R. melleri)
Meerkat (S. suricatta)
Spotted hyena (C. crocuta)
Brown hyena (H. brunnea)
Striped hyena (H. hyaena)
Aardwolf (P. cristatus)
Large family listed below
Large family listed below
Small family listed below
Cheetah (A. jubatus)
Caracal (C. caracal)
African golden cat
African golden cat (C. aurata)
Bay cat (C. badia)
Asian golden cat
Asian golden cat (C. temminckii)
European wildcat (F. silvestris)
African wildcat (F. lybica)
Jungle cat (F. chaus)
Black-footed cat (F. nigripes)
Sand cat (F. margarita)
Chinese mountain cat
Chinese mountain cat (F. bieti)
Domestic cat (F. catus)
Ocelot (L. pardalis)
Margay (L. wiedii)
Pampas cat (L. colocola)
Geoffroy's cat (L. geoffroyi)
Kodkod (L. guigna)
Andean mountain cat
Andean mountain cat (L. jacobita)
Oncilla (L. tigrinus)
Southern tigrina (L. guttulus)
Serval (L. serval)
Canadian lynx (L. canadensis)
Eurasian lynx (L. lynx)
Iberian lynx (L. pardinus)
Bobcat (L. rufus)
Pallas's cat (O. manul)
Marbled cat (P. marmorata)
Fishing cat (P. viverrinus)
Leopard cat (P. bengalensis)
Sundaland leopard cat (P. javanensis)
Flat-headed cat (P. planiceps)
Rusty-spotted cat (P. rubiginosus)
Cougar (P. concolor)
Jaguarundi (H. yagouaroundi)
Lion (P. leo)
Jaguar (P. onca)
Leopard (P. pardus)
Tiger (P. tigris)
Snow leopard (P. uncia)
Clouded leopard (N. nebulosa)
Sunda clouded leopard
Sunda clouded leopard (N. diardi)
Viverridae (includes Civets)
Binturong (A. binturong)
Small-toothed palm civet
Small-toothed palm civet (A. trivirgata)
Sulawesi palm civet
Sulawesi palm civet (M. musschenbroekii)
Masked palm civet
Masked palm civet (P. larvata)
Golden wet-zone palm civet (P. aureus)
Asian palm civet
Asian palm civet (P. hermaphroditus)
Jerdon's palm civet (P. jerdoni)
Golden palm civet
Golden palm civet (P. zeylonensis)
Owston's palm civet
Owston's palm civet (C. owstoni)
Otter civet (C. bennettii)
Hose's palm civet
Hose's palm civet (D. hosei)
Banded palm civet
Banded palm civet (H. derbyanus)
Banded linsang (P. linsang)
Spotted linsang (P. pardicolor)
African civet (C. civetta)
Abyssinian genet (G. abyssinica)
Angolan genet (G. angolensis)
Bourlon's genet (G. bourloni)
Crested servaline genet
Crested servaline genet (G. cristata)
Common genet (G. genetta)
Johnston's genet (G. johnstoni)
Rusty-spotted genet (G. maculata)
Pardine genet (G. pardina)
Aquatic genet (G. piscivora)
King genet (G. poensis)
Servaline genet (G. servalina)
Haussa genet (G. thierryi)
Cape genet (G. tigrina)
Giant forest genet
Giant forest genet (G. victoriae)
African linsang (P. richardsonii)
Leighton's linsang (P. leightoni)
Malabar large-spotted civet
Malabar large-spotted civet (V. civettina)
Large-spotted civet (V. megaspila)
Malayan civet (V. tangalunga)
Large Indian civet
Large Indian civet (V. zibetha)
Small Indian civet
Small Indian civet (V. indica)
Fossa (C. ferox)
Eastern falanouc (E. goudotii)
Western falanouc (E. major)
Malagasy civet (F. fossana)
Ring-tailed mongoose (G. elegans)
Broad-striped Malagasy mongoose
Broad-striped Malagasy mongoose (G. fasciata)
Grandidier's mongoose (G. grandidieri)
Narrow-striped mongoose (M. decemlineata)
Brown-tailed mongoose (S. concolor)
Durrell's vontsira (S. durrelli)
Caniformia (cont. below)
Giant panda (A. melanoleuca)
Sun bear (H. malayanus)
Sloth bear (M. ursinus)
Spectacled bear (T. ornatus)
American black bear
American black bear (U. americanus)
Brown bear (U. arctos)
Polar bear (U. maritimus)
Asian black bear
Asian black bear (U. thibetanus)
Molina's hog-nosed skunk
Molina's hog-nosed skunk (C. chinga)
Humboldt's hog-nosed skunk
Humboldt's hog-nosed skunk (C. humboldtii)
American hog-nosed skunk
American hog-nosed skunk (C. leuconotus)
Striped hog-nosed skunk
Striped hog-nosed skunk (C. semistriatus)
Hooded skunk (M. macroura)
Striped skunk (M. mephitis)
Sunda stink badger
Sunda stink badger (M. javanensis)
Palawan stink badger
Palawan stink badger (M. marchei)
Southern spotted skunk
Southern spotted skunk (S. angustifrons)
Western spotted skunk
Western spotted skunk (S. gracilis)
Eastern spotted skunk
Eastern spotted skunk (S. putorius)
Pygmy spotted skunk
Pygmy spotted skunk (S. pygmaea)
Eastern lowland olingo
Eastern lowland olingo (B. alleni)
Northern olingo (B. gabbii)
Western lowland olingo
Western lowland olingo (B. medius)
Olinguito (B. neblina)
Ring-tailed cat (B. astutus)
Cacomistle (B. sumichrasti)
White-nosed coati (N. narica)
South American coati
South American coati (N. nasua)
Western mountain coati (N. olivacea)
Eastern mountain coati (N. meridensis)
Kinkajou (P. flavus)
Crab-eating raccoon (P. cancrivorus)
Raccoon (P. lotor)
Cozumel raccoon (P. pygmaeus)
Red panda (A. fulgens)
Caniformia (cont. above)
(includes fur seals
and sea lions)
South American fur seal
South American fur seal (A. australis)
Australasian fur seal (A. forsteri)
Galápagos fur seal
Galápagos fur seal (A. galapagoensis)
Antarctic fur seal
Antarctic fur seal (A. gazella)
Juan Fernández fur seal
Juan Fernández fur seal (A. philippii)
Brown fur seal
Brown fur seal (A. pusillus)
Guadalupe fur seal
Guadalupe fur seal (A. townsendi)
Subantarctic fur seal
Subantarctic fur seal (A. tropicalis)
Northern fur seal
Northern fur seal (C. ursinus)
Steller sea lion
Steller sea lion (E. jubatus)
Australian sea lion
Australian sea lion (N. cinerea)
South American sea lion
South American sea lion (O. flavescens)
New Zealand sea lion
New Zealand sea lion (P. hookeri)
California sea lion
California sea lion (Z. californianus)
Galápagos sea lion
Galápagos sea lion (Z. wollebaeki)
Walrus (O. rosmarus)
Hooded seal (C. cristata)
Bearded seal (E. barbatus)
Gray seal (H. grypus)
Ribbon seal (H. fasciata)
Leopard seal (H. leptonyx)
Weddell seal (L. weddellii)
Crabeater seal (L. carcinophagus)
Northern elephant seal
Northern elephant seal (M. angustirostris)
Southern elephant seal
Southern elephant seal (M. leonina)
Mediterranean monk seal
Mediterranean monk seal (M. monachus)
Hawaiian monk seal
Hawaiian monk seal (M. schauinslandi)
Ross seal (O. rossi)
Harp seal (P. groenlandicus)
Spotted seal (P. largha)
Harbor seal (P. vitulina)
Caspian seal (P. caspica)
Ringed seal (P. hispida)
Baikal seal (P. sibirica)
Large family listed below
Large family listed below
Canidae (includes dogs)
Short-eared dog (A. microtis)
Side-striped jackal (C. adustus)
African golden wolf
African golden wolf (C. anthus)
Golden jackal (C. aureus)
Coyote (C. latrans)
Gray wolf (C. lupus)
Black-backed jackal (C. mesomelas)
Red wolf (C. rufus)
Ethiopian wolf (C. simensis)
Crab-eating fox (C. thous)
Maned wolf (C. brachyurus)
Dhole (C. alpinus)
Culpeo (L. culpaeus)
Darwin's fox (L. fulvipes)
South American gray fox
South American gray fox (L. griseus)
Pampas fox (L. gymnocercus)
Sechuran fox (L. sechurae)
Hoary fox (L. vetulus)
African wild dog
African wild dog (L. pictus)
Raccoon dog (N. procyonoides)
Bat-eared fox (O. megalotis)
Bush dog (S. venaticus)
Gray fox (U. cinereoargenteus)
Island fox (U. littoralis)
Bengal fox (V. bengalensis)
Blanford's fox (V. cana)
Cape fox (V. chama)
Corsac fox (V. corsac)
Tibetan sand fox
Tibetan sand fox (V. ferrilata)
Arctic fox (V. lagopus)
Kit fox (V. macrotis)
Pale fox (V. pallida)
Rüppell's fox (V. rueppelli)
Swift fox (V. velox)
Red fox (V. vulpes)
Fennec fox (V. zerda)
African clawless otter
African clawless otter (A. capensis)
Oriental small-clawed otter
Oriental small-clawed otter (A. cinerea)
Sea otter (E. lutris)
Spotted-necked otter (H. maculicollis)
North American river otter
North American river otter (L. canadensis)
Marine otter (L. felina)
Neotropical otter (L. longicaudis)
Southern river otter
Southern river otter (L. provocax)
Eurasian otter (L. lutra)
Hairy-nosed otter (L. sumatrana)
Smooth-coated otter (L. perspicillata)
Giant otter (P. brasiliensis)
Hog badger (A. collaris)
Tayra (E. barbara)
Lesser grison (G. cuja)
Greater grison (G. vittata)
Wolverine (G. gulo)
Saharan striped polecat
Saharan striped polecat (I. libyca)
Striped polecat (I. striatus)
Patagonian weasel (L. patagonicus)
American marten (M. americana)
Yellow-throated marten (M. flavigula)
Beech marten (M. foina)
Nilgiri marten (M. gwatkinsii)
European pine marten
European pine marten (M. martes)
Japanese marten (M. melampus)
Sable (M. zibellina)
Fisher (P. pennanti)
Japanese badger (M. anakuma)
Asian badger (M. leucurus)
European badger (M. meles)
Honey badger (M. capensis)
Bornean ferret-badger (M. everetti)
Chinese ferret-badger (M. moschata)
Javan ferret-badger (M. orientalis)
Burmese ferret-badger (M. personata)
(Weasels and Ferrets)
Amazon weasel (M. africana)
Mountain weasel (M. altaica)
Stoat (M. erminea)
Steppe polecat (M. eversmannii)
Colombian weasel (M. felipei)
Long-tailed weasel (M. frenata)
Japanese weasel (M. itatsi)
Yellow-bellied weasel (M. kathiah)
European mink (M. lutreola)
Indonesian mountain weasel
Indonesian mountain weasel (M. lutreolina)
Black-footed ferret (M. nigripes)
Least weasel (M. nivalis)
Malayan weasel (M. nudipes)
European polecat (M. putorius)
Siberian weasel (M. sibirica)
Back-striped weasel (M. strigidorsa)
Egyptian weasel (M. subpalmata)
American mink (N. vison)
African striped weasel
African striped weasel (P. albinucha)
American badger (T. taxus)
Marbled polecat (V. peregusna)
Fauna Europaea: 305337