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WALLONIA (French : Wallonie , German : Wallonie(n), Dutch : Wallonië ( listen ), Walloon : Walonreye Walloon pronunciation: ​ ; Luxembourgish : Wallounien) is a region of Belgium
Belgium
. Wallonia
Wallonia
is primarily French-speaking , and accounts for 55% of the territory of Belgium, and a third of its population. Unlike Flanders
Flanders
, the Walloon Region was not merged with the French Community of Belgium
Belgium
which is the political entity that is responsible for matters related mainly to culture and education. The German-speaking minority in the east forms the German-speaking Community of Belgium
Belgium
, which has its own government and parliament for culture-related issues.

During the industrial revolution, Wallonia
Wallonia
was second only to the United Kingdom in industrialization, capitalizing on its extensive deposits of coal and iron . This brought the region wealth, and, from the beginning of the 19th to the middle of the 20th century, Wallonia was the more prosperous half of Belgium. Since World War II
World War II
the importance of heavy industry has greatly diminished, and the Flemish Region surpassed Wallonia
Wallonia
in wealth as Wallonia
Wallonia
declined economically. Wallonia
Wallonia
now suffers from high unemployment and has a significantly lower GDP per capita than Flanders. The economic inequalities and linguistic divide between the two are major sources of political conflict in Belgium
Belgium
and is a major factor in Flemish separatism .

The capital of Wallonia
Wallonia
is Namur but the city with the greatest population is Charleroi
Charleroi
. Most of Wallonia's major cities and two-thirds of its population lie along the Sambre and Meuse valley , the former industrial backbone of Belgium. To the north lies the Central Belgian Plateau, which, like Flanders, is relatively flat and agriculturally fertile. In the south-east lie the Ardennes
Ardennes
, hilly and sparsely populated. Wallonia
Wallonia
borders Flanders
Flanders
and the Netherlands
Netherlands
in the north, France
France
to the south and west, and Germany
Germany
and Luxembourg
Luxembourg
to the east. Wallonia
Wallonia
has been a member of the Organisation Internationale de la Francophonie since 1980.

CONTENTS

* 1 Terminology

* 2 History

* 2.1 Belgian period

* 3 Geography

* 3.1 Subdivisions * 3.2 Cities

* 4 Science and technology * 5 Economy

* 6 Politics and government

* 6.1 History of Walloon autonomy

* 7 Symbols * 8 Religion * 9 Regional languages

* 10 Culture

* 10.1 Literature

* 10.1.1 In Walloon * 10.1.2 In French * 10.1.3 In Picard

* 10.2 Mosan art, painting, architecture * 10.3 Music * 10.4 Cinema * 10.5 Festivals * 10.6 Cuisine

* 11 Transportation

* 11.1 Airports * 11.2 Railways, motorways, buses * 11.3 Waterways

* 12 See also * 13 References * 14 Further reading * 15 External links

TERMINOLOGY

The term Wallonia
Wallonia
can mean slightly different things in different contexts. One of the three federal regions of Belgium
Belgium
is still constitutionally defined as the Walloon Region, but the region's government has renamed it Wallonia, and it is commonly called Wallonia. Preceding 1 April 2010, when the renaming came into effect, Wallonia
Wallonia
would sometimes refer to the territory governed by the Walloon Region, whereas Walloon Region referred specifically to the government. In practice, the difference between the two terms is small and what is meant is usually clear, based on context.

The root of the word Wallonia, like the words Wales
Wales
, Cornwall
Cornwall
and Wallachia
Wallachia
, is the Germanic word Walha , meaning the strangers. Wallonia
Wallonia
is named after the Walloons , the population of the Burgundian Netherlands
Netherlands
speaking Romance languages
Romance languages
. In Middle Dutch (and French), the term Walloons also included the French-speaking population of the Prince-Bishopric of Liège or the whole population of the Romanic sprachraum within the medieval Low Countries
Low Countries
.

HISTORY

The Sequence of Saint Eulalia , the oldest surviving text written in what would become Old French
Old French
, likely originated in or near Wallonia. Baptismal font
Baptismal font
of Renier de Huy , an example of Mosan art and of medieval Walloon brass working expertise. Main article: History of Wallonia

Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
conquered Gaul
Gaul
in 57 BC. The Low Countries
Low Countries
became part of the larger Gallia Belgica
Gallia Belgica
province which originally stretched from southwestern Germany
Germany
to Normandy
Normandy
and the southern part of the Netherlands
Netherlands
. The population of this territory was Celtic with a Germanic influence which was stronger in the north than in the south of the province. Gallia Belgica
Gallia Belgica
became progressively romanized . The ancestors of the Walloons became Gallo-Romans and were called the " Walha " by their Germanic neighbours. The "Walha" abandoned their Celtic dialects and started to speak Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
.

The Merovingian
Merovingian
Franks
Franks
gradually gained control of the region during the 5th century, under Clovis . Due to the fragmentation of the former Roman Empire
Roman Empire
, Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
regionally developed along different lines and evolved into several langue d\'oïl dialects, which in Wallonia became Picard , Walloon and Lorrain . The oldest surviving text written in a langue d'oïl, the Sequence of Saint Eulalia , has characteristics of these three languages and was likely written in or very near to what is now Wallonia
Wallonia
around 880 AD . From the 4th to the 7th century, the Franks
Franks
established several settlements, probably mostly in the north of the province where the romanization was less advanced and some Germanic trace was still present. The language border began to crystallize between 700 under the reign of the Merovingians and Carolingians and around 1000 after the Ottonian Renaissance
Renaissance
. French-speaking cities, with Liège as the largest one, appeared along the Meuse river
Meuse river
and Gallo-Roman
Gallo-Roman
cities such as Tongeren , Maastricht
Maastricht
and Aachen
Aachen
became Germanized. The Lion\'s Mound commemorates the Battle of Waterloo
Battle of Waterloo
, fought in present-day Wallonia. Belgium
Belgium
was united with the Netherlands
Netherlands
following the Napoleonic Wars .

The Carolingian
Carolingian
dynasty dethroned the Merovingians in the 8th century. In 843, the Treaty of Verdun gave the territory of present-day Wallonia
Wallonia
to Middle Francia , which would shortly fragment, with the region passing to Lotharingia
Lotharingia
. On Lotharingia's breakup in 959, the present-day territory of Belgium
Belgium
became part of Lower Lotharingia
Lotharingia
, which then fragmented into rival principalities and duchies by 1190. Literary Latin
Latin
, which was taught in schools, lost its hegemony during the 13th century and was replaced by Old French
Old French
.

In the 15th century, the Dukes of Burgundy took over the Low Countries . The death of Charles the Bold
Charles the Bold
in 1477 raised the issue of succession, and the Liégeois took advantage of this to regain some of their autonomy. From the 16th to the 18th century, the Low Countries were governed successively by the Habsburg
Habsburg
dynasty of Spain (from the early 16th century until 1713-14) and later by Austria (until 1794). This territory was enlarged in 1521-22 when Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor gained the Tournai region from France.

Present-day Belgium
Belgium
was conquered in 1795 by the French Republic during the French Revolutionary Wars
French Revolutionary Wars
. It was annexed to the Republic, which later became the Napoleonic Empire . After the Battle of Waterloo , Wallonia
Wallonia
became part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands under King William of Orange . The Walloons played an active part in the Belgian Revolution
Belgian Revolution
in 1830. The Provisional Government of Belgium proclaimed Belgium's independence and held elections for the National Congress .

BELGIAN PERIOD

The boat lifts on the old Canal du Centre were first opened in 1888, and they are now a World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
. Mons
Mons
fusillade on 17 April 1893.

In the 19th century, the area began to industrialize, and Wallonia was the first fully industrialized area in continental Europe . This brought the region great economic prosperity, which was not mirrored in poorer Flanders
Flanders
and the result was a large amount of Flemish immigration to Wallonia
Wallonia
. Belgium
Belgium
was divided into two divergent communities. On the one hand, the very catholic Flemish society was characterized by an economy centered on agriculture; on the other hand, Wallonia
Wallonia
was the center of the continental European Industrial Revolution , where liberal and socialist movements were rapidly emerging. Major strikes and general strikes took place in Wallonia, including the Walloon jacquerie of 1886 , the Belgian general strikes of 1893 , 1902, 1913 (for universal suffrage ), 1932 (depicted in Misère au Borinage ), and 1936. After World War II
World War II
, major strikes included the general strike against Leopold III of Belgium
Belgium
(1950), and the 1960-1961 Winter General Strike for autonomy for Wallonia.

The profitability of the heavy industries to which Wallonia
Wallonia
owed its prosperity started declining in the first half of the 20th century, and the center of industrial activity shifted north to Flanders. The loss of prosperity caused social unrest, and Wallonia
Wallonia
sought greater autonomy in order to address its economic problems. In the wake of the 1960-1961 Winter General Strike , the process of state reform in Belgium
Belgium
got under way. This reform started partly with the linguistic laws of 1962-63 , which defined the four language areas within the constitution . But the strikes of 1960 which took place in Wallonia more than in Flanders
Flanders
are not principally linked with the four language areas nor with the Communities but with the Regions. In 1968, the conflict between the communities burst out. The French speakers were driven out of the Leuven campus of the Catholic University of Leuven amid shouts of "Walen buiten!" (" Walloons out!") and were given a brand new campus in the French-speaking area of the province. This led to State reform in Belgium
Belgium
, which resulted in the creation of the Walloon Region and the French Community , both of which have considerable autonomy.

GEOGRAPHY

Coalmining and steelmaking industrial areas in Belgium. The sillon industriel is the blue area along the Meuse
Meuse
and Sambre . The natural regions of Belgium
Belgium

Wallonia
Wallonia
is landlocked , with an area of 16,844 km2 (6,504 sq mi), or 55% of the total area of Belgium. The Sambre and Meuse valley , from Liège (70 m (230 ft)) to Charleroi
Charleroi
(120 m (390 ft)) is an entrenched river in a fault line which separates Middle Belgium
Belgium
(elevation 100–200 m (330–660 ft)) and High Belgium
Belgium
(200–700 m (660–2,300 ft)). This fault line corresponds to a part of the southern coast of the late London-Brabant Massif . The valley, along with Haine and Vesdre valleys form the sillon industriel , the historical centre of the Belgian coalmining and steelmaking industry, and is also called the Walloon industrial backbone. Due to their long industrial historic record, several segments of the valley have received specific names: Borinage
Borinage
, around Mons
Mons
, le Centre , around La Louvière , the Pays noir , around Charleroi
Charleroi
and the Basse- Sambre , near Namur .

To the north of the Sambre and Meuse valley lies the Central Belgian plateau, which is characterized by intensive agriculture . The Walloon part of this plateau is traditionally divided into several regions: Walloon Brabant around Nivelles
Nivelles
, Western Hainaut (French : Wallonie picarde, around Tournai ), and Hesbaye
Hesbaye
around Waremme . South of the sillon industriel, the land is more rugged and is characterized by more extensive farming . It is traditionally divided into the regions of Entre-Sambre-et- Meuse
Meuse
, Condroz , Fagne - Famenne , the Ardennes
Ardennes
and Land of Herve , as well as the Belgian Lorraine around Arlon
Arlon
and Virton . Dividing it into Condroz , Famenne , Calestienne , Ardennes (including Thiérache ), and Belgian Lorraine (which includes the Gaume
Gaume
) is more reflective of the physical geography. The larger region, the Ardennes, is a thickly forested plateau with caves and small gorges. It is host to much of Belgium's wildlife but little agricultural capacity. This area extends westward into France
France
and eastward to the Eifel
Eifel
in Germany
Germany
via the High Fens plateau, on which the Signal de Botrange forms the highest point in Belgium
Belgium
at 694 metres (2,277 ft). View of Charleroi
Charleroi

SUBDIVISIONS

Administratively, Wallonia
Wallonia
consists of the provinces of Walloon Brabant , Hainaut , Liège , Luxembourg
Luxembourg
, and Namur . It is also divided into 20 administrative arrondissements and 262 municipalities . View of Liège with the Meuse river
Meuse river
View Of Namur with the Sambre

CITIES

The largest cities in Wallonia
Wallonia
are:

* Charleroi
Charleroi
(204,146) * Liège (195,790) * Namur (110,428) * Mons
Mons
(92,529) * La Louvière (78,414) * Tournai (69,792) * Seraing (63,500) * Verviers (56,596) * Mouscron
Mouscron
(55,687) * Herstal
Herstal
(38,969) * Braine-l\'Alleud (38,748) * Châtelet (36,131)

SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

Georges Lemaître
Georges Lemaître
is credited with proposing the Big Bang
Big Bang
theory of the origin of the universe in 1927. Main article: Science and technology in Wallonia
Wallonia

Contributions to the development of science and technology have appeared since the beginning of the country's history. Baptismal font of Renier de Huy , is not the only example of medieval Walloon working expertise. An indication of that : the words "houille" (coal) or "houilleur" (coal miner) or "grisou" (damp) were coined in Wallonia and are from walloon origin.

The economically important very deep coal mining in the course of the First Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution
has required highly reputed specialized studies for mining engineers . But that was already the case before the Industrial Revolution, with an engineer as Rennequin Sualem for instance.

Engineer Zenobe Gramme invented the Gramme dynamo , the first generator to produce power on a commercial scale for industry. Chemist Ernest Solvay
Ernest Solvay
gave his name to the Solvay process for production of soda ash , important chemical for many industrial uses. Ernest Solvay also acted as a major philanthropist and gave its name to the Solvay Institute of Sociology , the Solvay Brussels
Brussels
School of Economics and Management and the International Solvay Institutes for Physics and Chemistry which are now part of the Université Libre de Bruxelles
Université Libre de Bruxelles
. In 1911, he started a series of conferences, the Solvay Conferences on Physics and Chemistry , which have had a deep impact on the evolution of quantum physics and chemistry.

Georges Lemaître
Georges Lemaître
of the Université Catholique de Louvain is credited with proposing the Big Bang
Big Bang
theory of the origin of the universe in 1927.

Three Nobel Prizes in Physiology or Medicine were awarded to Walloons: Jules Bordet
Jules Bordet
( Université Libre de Bruxelles
Université Libre de Bruxelles
) in 1919, Albert Claude (Université Libre de Bruxelles) together with Christian De Duve (Université Catholique de Louvain) in 1974.

In the present day, Bureau Greisch has acquired an international reputation as consulting engineer and architect in the fields of structures, civil engineering and buildings, including the Millau Viaduct in France.

ECONOMY

Steelmaking along the Meuse River
Meuse River
at Ougrée
Ougrée
, near Liège , on the sillon industriel

Wallonia
Wallonia
is rich in iron and coal , and these resources and related industries have played an important role in its history. In ancient times, the Sambre and Meuse valley was an important industrial area in the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
. In the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
, Wallonia
Wallonia
became a center for brass working and bronze working, with Huy
Huy
, Dinant and Chimay being important regional centers. In the 12th and 13th centuries, the iron masters of Liège developed a method of refining iron ore by the use of a blast furnace, called the Walloon Method . There were also a few coal mines around Charleroi
Charleroi
and the Borinage
Borinage
during this period, but their output was small, and was principally consumed as a fuel by various industries such as the important glass making industry that sprang up in the Charleroi
Charleroi
basin during the 14th century.

In the 19th century, the area began to industrialize, mainly along the so-called sillon industriel . It was the first fully industrialized area in continental Europe , and Wallonia
Wallonia
was the second industrial power in the world, in proportion to its population and its territory, after the United Kingdom. The sole industrial centre in Belgium
Belgium
outside the collieries and blast furnaces of Wallonia
Wallonia
was the historic cloth making town of Ghent
Ghent
.

The two World Wars curbed the continuous expansion that Wallonia
Wallonia
had enjoyed up till that time. Towards the end of the 1950s, things began to change dramatically. The factories of Wallonia
Wallonia
were by then antiquated, the coal was running out and the cost of extracting coal was constantly rising. It was the end of an era, and Wallonia
Wallonia
has been making efforts to redefine itself. The restoration of economical development is high on the political agenda, and the government is encouraging development of industries, notably in cutting edge technology and in business parks. The economy is improving, but Wallonia
Wallonia
is not yet at the level of Flanders
Flanders
and is still suffering from difficulties. The word spa comes from the healing hot springs of Spa
Spa
in the Ardennes
Ardennes
. Tourism is an important part of the economy of Wallonia.

The current Walloon economy is relatively diversified, although certain areas (especially around Charleroi
Charleroi
and Liège) are still suffering from the steel industry crisis, with an unemployment rate of up to 30%. Nonetheless, Wallonia
Wallonia
has some companies which are world leaders in their specialized fields, including armaments, glass production, lime and limestone production, cyclotrons and aviation parts. The south of Wallonia, bordering Luxembourg
Luxembourg
, benefits from its neighbour's economic prosperity, with many Belgians working on the other side of the border; they are often called frontaliers. The Ardennes
Ardennes
area south of the Meuse River
Meuse River
is a popular tourist destination for its nature and outdoor sports, in addition to its cultural heritage, with places such as Bastogne
Bastogne
, Dinant , Durbuy , and the famous hot springs of Spa
Spa
.

POLITICS AND GOVERNMENT

Willy Borsus is the current Minister-President of Wallonia . The Parliament of Wallonia
Parliament of Wallonia
in Namur (in pink), at a symbolic place at the confluence of the Meuse
Meuse
and Sambre rivers. Two-thirds of the population of Wallonia
Wallonia
lives along the Sambre and Meuse valley . Main articles: Politics of Wallonia and Communities, regions and language areas of Belgium
Belgium

Belgium
Belgium
is a federal state made up of three communities and three regions, each with considerable autonomy. One of these is the Walloon Region, which is governed by the Parliament of Wallonia
Parliament of Wallonia
and the executive Walloon Government . The Walloon Region's autonomy extends even to foreign policy; Wallonia
Wallonia
is entitled to pursue its own foreign policy, including the signing of treaties, and in many domains even the Belgian federal government is not able to sign an international treaty without the agreement of the Parliament of Wallonia.

Wallonia
Wallonia
is also home to about 80% of the population of the French Community of Belgium
Belgium
, a political level responsible for matters related mainly to culture and education, with the remainder living in Brussels
Brussels
. Wallonia
Wallonia
is also home to the small German-speaking Community of Belgium
Belgium
in the east, which has its own government and parliament for culture-related issues. Although in Flanders
Flanders
, the Flemish Region
Flemish Region
assigned all of its powers to the Flemish Community
Flemish Community
, the Walloon Region remains in principle distinct from and independent from the French Community, and vice versa. Despite this, the French Community\'s parliament is almost entirely composed of members of Wallonia's and Brussels' parliaments, so the bodies are governed by the same individuals. Additionally, the French Community of Belgium has controversially begun referring to itself exclusively as the 'Wallonia- Brussels
Brussels
Federation' to emphasize the links between the French Community, Wallonia
Wallonia
and Brussels.

The Walloon Region has a unicameral parliament with 75 members elected for five years by direct universal suffrage , and an executive, the Walloon Government , elected by a political majority in Parliament. The Government numbers nine members with the president. Each member is called a Walloon minister. The head of the Government is called the Minister-President of Wallonia . The coalition government for the 2014-2019 legislature was a center-left coalition PS -cdH until July 28th when it was replaced by a center-left coalition MR-cdH, and the current Minister-President is Willy Borsus .

HISTORY OF WALLOON AUTONOMY

Main articles: Walloon Movement
Walloon Movement
and History of the Walloon Movement
Walloon Movement

"From 1831, the year of Belgium's independence, until the federalization of the country in 1970, Wallonia
Wallonia
has increasingly asserted itself as a region in its own right." Following several state reforms , especially the 1993 state reform, Belgium
Belgium
became a federal state made up of three communities and three regions, with Wallonia
Wallonia
being represented by the Walloon Region and its two language communities. The directly elected Walloon Parliament was created in June 1995, replacing the Conseil régional wallon (Regional Council of Wallonia). The first Council had sat on 15 October 1980 and was composed of members of the Belgian Chamber of Representatives and the Belgian Senate elected in Wallonia.

SYMBOLS

A red rooster is the main symbol of Wallonia
Wallonia

The first appearance of the French word Wallonie as a reference to the romance world as opposed to Germany
Germany
is said to date from 1842. Two years later, it was first used to refer to the Romance part of the young country of Belgium. In 1886, the writer and Walloon militant Albert Mockel , first used the word with a political meaning of cultural and regional affirmation, in opposition with the word Flanders
Flanders
used by the Flemish Movement
Flemish Movement
. The word had previously appeared in German and Latin
Latin
as early as the 17th century.

The rising of a Walloon identity led the Walloon Movement
Walloon Movement
to choose different symbols representing Wallonia. The main symbol is the "bold rooster" (French : coq hardi), also named "Walloon rooster" (French : coq wallon, Walloon : cok walon), which is widely used, particularly on arms and flags. The rooster was chosen as an emblem by the Walloon Assembly on 20 April 1913, and designed by Pierre Paulus on 3 July 1913. The Flag of Wallonia
Flag of Wallonia
features the red rooster on a yellow background.

An anthem, Le Chant des Wallons (English: The Walloons' Song), written by Theophile Bovy in 1900 and composed by Louis Hillier in 1901, was also adopted. On September 21, 1913, the "national" feast day of Wallonia
Wallonia
took place for the first time in Verviers , commemorating the participation of Walloons during the Belgian revolution of 1830 . It is held annually on the third Sunday of September. The Assembly also chose a motto for Wallonia, "Walloon Forever" (Walloon : Walon todi), and a cry, "Liberty" (French : Liberté). In 1998, the Walloon Parliament made all these symbols official except the motto and the cry.

RELIGION

In 2016, 68% of residents of Wallonia
Wallonia
declared theirselves Catholics , 21% was practising Catholics
Catholics
and 47% was non-practising Catholics, 3% was Muslim
Muslim
, 3% was Protestant Christian , 1% was of an other religion and 25% was non religious.

Religion in Wallonia
Wallonia
(2016) Roman Catholicism
Roman Catholicism
(68%) Protestant (3%) Islam
Islam
(3%) Non-religious (25%) Other religion (1%)

REGIONAL LANGUAGES

A linguistic map of Wallonia. Note that in all areas, except the German-speaking part, French is currently the dominant language.

French is the major language spoken in Wallonia. German is spoken in the German-speaking Community of Belgium
Belgium
, in the east. Belgian French is rather similar to that spoken in France, with slight differences in pronunciation and some vocabulary differences, notably the use of the words septante (70) and nonante (90), as opposed to soixante-dix and quatre-vingt-dix in France.

There are noticeable Walloon accents, with the accent from Liège and its surroundings being perhaps the most striking. Other regions of Wallonia
Wallonia
also have characteristic accents, often linked to the regional language.

Walloons traditionally also speak regional Romance languages, all from the Langues d\'oïl group. Wallonia
Wallonia
includes almost all of the area where Walloon is spoken, a Picard zone corresponding to the major part of the Province of Hainaut , the Gaume
Gaume
(district of Virton ) with the Lorrain language and a Champenois zone. There are also regional Germanic languages, such as the Luxembourgish language
Luxembourgish language
in Arelerland (Land of Arlon
Arlon
). The regional languages of Wallonia
Wallonia
are more important than in France, and they have been officially recognized by the government. With the development of education in French, however, these dialects have been in continual decline. There is currently an effort to revive Walloon dialects; some schools offer language courses in Walloon, and Walloon is also spoken in some radio programmes, but this effort remains very limited.

CULTURE

LITERATURE

Traditional puppets ( Charlemagne
Charlemagne
Tchantchès ) of an (also) avant-garde theater linking French language
French language
and Walloon language literature

In Walloon

Literature is written principally in French but also in Walloon and other regional languages, colloquially called Walloon literature. Walloon literature (regional language not French) has been printed since the 16th century. But it did have its golden age, paradoxically, during the peak of the Flemish immigration to Wallonia in the 19th century: "That period saw an efflorescence of Walloon literature, plays and poems primarily, and the founding of many theaters and periodicals." The New York Public Library
New York Public Library
possesses a surprisingly large collection of literary works in Walloon, quite possibly the largest outside Belgium, and its holding are representative of the output. Out of nearly a thousand, twenty-six were published before 1880. Thereafter the numbers rise gradually year by year, reaching a peak of sixty-nine in 1903, and then they fall again, down to eleven in 1913. See 'Switching Languages', p. 153. Yves Quairiaux counted 4800 plays for 1860–1914, published or not. In this period plays were almost the only popular show in Wallonia. But this theater remains popular in the present-day Wallonia: Theater is still flourishing, with over 200 non-professional companies playing in the cities and villages of Wallonia
Wallonia
for an audience of over 200,000 each year. There are links between French literature and (the very small) Walloon literature. For instance Raymond Queneau set Editions Gallimard the publication of a Walloon Poets' anthology. Ubu roi
Ubu roi
was translated in Walloon by André Blavier ( an important pataphysician of Verviers , friend of Queneau), for the new and important Puppets theater of Liège of Jacques Ancion, the Al Botroûle theater "at the umbilical cord" in Walloon indicating a desire to return to the source (according to Joan Cross). But Jacques Ancion wanted to develop a regular adult audience. From the 19th century he included the Walloon play Tati l'Pèriquî by E.Remouchamps and the avant-garde Ubu roi
Ubu roi
by A.Jarry . For Jean-Marie Klinkenberg, the dialectal culture is no more a sign of attachment to the past but a way to participate to a new synthesis

In French

Jean-Marie Klinkenberg (member of the Groupe µ ) wrote that Wallonia, and literature in Wallonia, has been present in French language since its formation. In their 'Histoire illustrée des lettres française de Belgique', Charlier and Hanse (editors), La Renaissance
Renaissance
du livre, Bruxelles, 1958, published 247 pages (on 655 ), about the "French" literature in the Walloon provinces (or Walloon principalities of the Middle-Age, sometimes also Flemish provinces and principalities), for a period from the 11th to the 18th century. Among the works or the authors,the Sequence of Saint Eulalia (9th century), La Vie de Saint Léger (10th century), Jean Froissart (14th century in the County of Hainaut
County of Hainaut
), Jean d\'Outremeuse , Jean Lebel , Jean Lemaire de Belges (16th century from Bavay
Bavay
), the Prince of Ligne (18th century, Beloeil ). There is a Walloon Surrealism
Surrealism
, especially in the Province of Hainaut . Charles Plisnier (1896–1952), born in Mons, won the Prix Goncourt
Prix Goncourt
in 1936, for his novel Mariages and for Faux Passeports (short stories denouncing Stalinism, in the same spirit as Arthur Koestler ). He was the first foreigner to receive this honour. The Walloon Georges Simenon is likely the most widely read French-speaking writer in the world, according to the Tribune de Genève . More than 500 million of his books have been sold, and they have been translated into 55 languages. There is a link between the Jean Louvet 's work and the social issues in Wallonia
Wallonia

In Picard

Picard is spoken in the western province of Hainaut . Notable Belgian authors who wrote in Picard include Géo Libbrecht , Paul Mahieu , Paul André , Francis Couvreur and Florian Duc . Herri Met de Blès , Landscape with the Fire of Sodom, 21.5 x 33 cm, c. 1526-1550, Musée des Arts anciens du Namurois, Namur. This landscape is similar to the Meuse
Meuse
between Dinant and Namur

MOSAN ART, PAINTING, ARCHITECTURE

Mosan art is a regional style of Romanesque art
Romanesque art
from the valleys of the Meuse
Meuse
in present-day Wallonia, and the Rhineland
Rhineland
, with manuscript illumination, metalwork, and enamel work from the 11th, 12th and 13th centuries. Among them the masterpiece of Renier de Huy and perhaps of the whole Mosan art Baptismal font
Baptismal font
at St Bartholomew\'s Church, Liège . The architecture of Roman churches of the Walloon country are also named mosan, exemplified by the Collegiate Church of Saint Gertrude in Nivelles
Nivelles
, and the churches of Waha and Hastière
Hastière
, Dinant . The Ornamental brassware is also a part of the Mosan art and among these dinandiers Hugo d\'Oignies and Nicholas of Verdun .

Jacques du Broeucq
Jacques du Broeucq
was a sculptor of the 16th century.

Flemish art was not confined to the boundaries of modern Flanders
Flanders
and several leading artists came from or worked in areas in which langues d'oïl were spoken, from the region of modern Wallonia, e.g. Robert Campin , Rogier van der Weyden
Rogier van der Weyden
(Rogier de la Pasture) and Jacques Daret . Joachim Patinir
Joachim Patinir
Henri Blès are generally called mosan painters. Lambert Lombard
Lambert Lombard
( Liège , 1505 – 1566) was a Renaissance painter, architect and theorist for the Prince-Bishopric of Liège . Gérard de Lairesse , Bertholet Flemalle were also important painters in the Prince-Bishopric of Liège.

Gustave Serrurier-Bovy ( Liège , 1858 - Antwerp
Antwerp
, 1910) architect and furniture designer, credited (along with Paul Hankar , Victor Horta and Henry van de Velde
Henry van de Velde
) with creating the Art Nouveau
Art Nouveau
style, coined as a style in Paris by Bing. And in Liège also, principally Jean Del Cour , the sculptor of the Virgin in Vinâve d'Isle, Léon Mignon the sculptor of Li Tore and Louis Jéhotte of the statue of Charlemagne
Charlemagne
.

George Grard (1901 — 1984) was a Walloon sculptor, known above all for his representations of the female, in the manner of Pierre Renoir and Aristide Maillol , modelled in clay or plaster, and cast in bronze.

During the 19th and 20th centuries many original romantic , expressionist and surrealist Wallon painters emerged, including Félicien Rops , Paul Delvaux , Pierre Paulus , Fernand Verhaegen , Antoine Wiertz , René Magritte ... The avant-garde CoBrA movement appeared in the 1950s.

MUSIC

Guillaume Dufay
Guillaume Dufay
(left), with Gilles Binchois
Gilles Binchois

There was an important musical life in Prince-Bishopric of Liège since the beginning. Between 1370 and 1468 flourished a school of music in Liège, with Johannes Brassart , Johannes de Sarto and firstly Johannes Ciconia , the third Master of Ars Nova .

The vocal music of the so-called Franco-Flemish School developed in the southern part of the Low Countries
Low Countries
and was an important contribution to Renaissance
Renaissance
culture. Robert Wangermée and Philippe Mercier wrote in their encyclopedic book about the Walloon music that Liège , Cambrai
Cambrai
and Hainaut played a leading part in the so-called Franco-Flemish School.

Among them were Orlande de Lassus
Orlande de Lassus
, Gilles Binchois
Gilles Binchois
, Guillaume Dufay In the 19th and 20th centuries, there was an emergence of major violinists, such as Henri Vieuxtemps , Eugène Ysaÿe
Eugène Ysaÿe
(author of the unique opera in Walloon during the 20th century Piére li houyeû - Pierre the miner - based on a real incident which occurred in 1877 during a miners' strike in the Liège region), and Arthur Grumiaux
Arthur Grumiaux
, while Adolphe Sax
Adolphe Sax
(born in Dinant ) invented the saxophone in 1846. The composer César Franck was born in Liège in 1822, Guillaume Lekeu in Verviers . More recently, André Souris (1899–1970) was associated with Surrealism
Surrealism
. Zap Mama
Zap Mama
is a more international group.

Henri Pousseur is generally regarded as a member of the Darmstadt School in the 1950s. Pousseur's music employs serialism , mobile forms, and aleatory, often mediating between or among seemingly irreconcilable styles, such as those of Schubert and Webern (Votre Faust ), or Pousseur's own serial style and the protest song "We shall overcome" (Couleurs croisées). He was strongly linked to the social strikes in Liège during the 1960s. He worked also with the French writer Michel Butor .

CINEMA

Dardenne Brothers

Walloon films are often characterized by social realism . It is perhaps the reason why the documentary Misère au Borinage , and especially its co-director Henri Storck , is considered by Robert Stallaerts as the father of the Walloon cinema. He wrote: "Although a Fleming, he can be called the father of the Walloon cinema.". For F.André between Misère au Borinage and the films like those of the Dardenne brothers (since 1979), there is Déjà s\'envole la fleur maigre (1960) (also shot in the Borinage
Borinage
), a film regarded as a point of reference in the history of the cinema. Like those of the Dardenne brothers , Thierry Michel , Jean-Jacques Andrien , Benoît Mariage , or, e.g. the social documentaries of Patric Jean , the director of Les enfants du Borinage
Borinage
writing his film as a letter to Henri Storck. On the other hand, films such as Thierry Zéno 's Vase de noces (1974), Mireille in the life of the others by Jean-Marie Buchet (1979), C'est arrivé près de chez vous (English title: Man bites dog ) by Rémy Belvaux and André Bonzel (1992) and the works of Noël Godin and Jean-Jacques Rousseau are influenced by surrealism , absurdism and black comedy . The films of the Dardenne brothers are also inspired by the Bible and Le Fils for instance is regarded as one of the most spiritually significant films.

FESTIVALS

The dragon and the white men of the Ducasse de Mons
Mons

The Ducasse de Mons
Mons
(Walloon French for Kermesse ), is one of the UNESCO
UNESCO
Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity . It comprises two important parts: the procession, the descent and the ascent of shrine of Waltrude , and the combat between Saint George
Saint George
and the dragon. The combat (after the procession), plays out on the Trinity Sunday between 12:30 pm and 1:00 pm on the Mons
Mons
's central square. It represents the fight between Saint George
Saint George
(the good) and the dragon (the evil). The dragon is a mannequin carried and moved by the white men (fr:Hommes blancs). The dragon fights Saint George
Saint George
by giving attacking with his tail. Saint George
Saint George
on his horse turns clockwise. And the dragon turns in the other direction. Saint George finally kills the dragon.

The Gilles of Binche
Binche
and the giants' procession in Ath are also UNESCO
UNESCO
Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity .

CUISINE

The Trappist beer Orval , with a branded glass

Wallonia
Wallonia
is famous for a number of different foods and drinks, a great many of which are specialties of certain cities or regions. The 1957 Michelin Guide noted that "regional food has put up heroic resistance and the Walloon provinces and Flemish provinces are proud of their specialities." The Liège waffle a rich, dense, sweet, and chewy waffle native to Liège, is the most popular type of waffle in Belgium, and can be found in stores and even vending machines throughout the country. Cougnou , or the bread of Jesus, is a sweet bread typically eaten around Christmas
Christmas
time and found throughout the region.

Other specialties include Herve cheese , an apple butter called sirop de Liège , the Garden strawberry
Garden strawberry
of Wépion . Also notable is the Dinant specialty Flamiche : These cheese tarts are not found in window displays as they are meant to be eaten straight from the oven. As one restaurateur said so well in a book about Walloon gastronomy "it is the client who waits for the flamiche, as the flamiche does not wait for the client. There are also the Ardennes
Ardennes
ham , the tarte al djote from Nivelles
Nivelles
, a dessert pie made with beet leaves and cheese, while tarte au riz is a rice-pudding filled pie from Verviers .

In terms of drink, Wallonia
Wallonia
mirrors Belgium
Belgium
as a whole; beer and wine are both popular, and a great diversity of beers are made and enjoyed in Wallonia. Wallonia
Wallonia
boasts 3 of the 7 Trappist beers (from Chimay , Orval and Rochefort ), in addition to a great number of other locally brewed beers Wallonia
Wallonia
is also home to the last bastion of traditional rustic saisons. most notably those produced at the Brasserie de Silly and the Brasserie Dupont (located in Tourpes, in the region of Western Hainaut historically known for its production of rustic farmhouse ales). Jupiler , the best selling beer in Belgium, is brewed in Jupille-sur- Meuse
Meuse
in Liège . Wallonia
Wallonia
also home to a Jenever called Peket, and a May wine
May wine
called Maitrank.

TRANSPORTATION

AIRPORTS

The two largest cities in Wallonia
Wallonia
each have an airport. The Brussels South Charleroi
Charleroi
Airport has become an important passenger airport, especially with low fares companies such as Ryanair
Ryanair
or Wizzair . It serves as a low-cost alternative to Brussels
Brussels
Airport , and it saw 3 million passengers in 2008, almost 4 million in 2009. The Liège Airport is specialized in freight, although it also operates tourist-oriented charter flights. Today, Liège is the 8th airport for European freight and aims to reach the 5th rank in the next decade.

RAILWAYS, MOTORWAYS, BUSES

TEC is the single public transit authority for all of Wallonia, operating buses and trams. Charleroi
Charleroi
is the sole Walloon city to have a metro system , the Charleroi
Charleroi
Pre-metro .

Wallonia
Wallonia
has an extensive and well-developed rail network, served by the Belgian National Railway Company, SNCB .

Wallonia's numerous motorways fall within the scope of the TransEuropean Transport network programme (TEN-T). This priority programme run by the European Union provides more than 70,000 km of transport infrastructure, including motorways, express rail lines and roadways, and has been developed to carry substantial volumes of traffic.

WATERWAYS

With traffic of over 20 million tonnes and 26 kilometres of quays, the autonomous port of Liège (PAL) is the third largest inland port in Europe. It carries out the management of 31 ports along the Meuse and the Albert Canal . It is accessible to sea and river transporters weighing up to 2,500 tonnes, and to push two-barge convoys (4,500 tonnes, soon to be raised to 9,000 tonnes). Even if Wallonia
Wallonia
does not have direct access to the sea, it is very well connected to the major ports thanks to an extensive network of navigable waterways that pervades Belgium, and it has effective river connections to Antwerp
Antwerp
, Rotterdam
Rotterdam
and Dunkirk
Dunkirk
.

On the west side of Wallonia, in the Province of Hainaut , the Strépy-Thieu boat lift , permits river traffic of up to the new 1350-tonne standard to pass between the waterways of the Meuse
Meuse
and Scheldt
Scheldt
rivers. Completed in 2002 at an estimated cost of € 160 million (then 6.4 billion Belgian francs ) the lift has increased river traffic from 256 kT in 2001 to 2,295 kT in 2006.

*

Brussels
Brussels
South Charleroi
Charleroi
Airport *

Namur Railway Station *

Charleroi
Charleroi
Pre-metro *

TEC Bus in Liège

SEE ALSO

* Belgium
Belgium
portal

* History of coal mining * Manifesto for Walloon culture

REFERENCES

* ^ CHIFFRES DE POPULATION PAR PROVINCE ET PAR COMMUNE, A LA DATE DU 1er JANVIER 2015, consulté le 16 mars 2015. * ^ "Vlaamse overheid - Taalwetwijzer - Wetgeving". vlaanderen.be. * ^ French : Le Gouvernement a décidé de promouvoir le terme « Wallonie » en lieu et place de « Région wallonne ». * ^ For example, the CIA World Factbook states Wallonia
Wallonia
is the short form and Walloon Region is the long form. The Invest in Wallonia website and the Belgian federal government use the term Wallonia
Wallonia
when referring to the Walloon Region. * ^ (French) Albert Henry, Histoire des mots Wallons et Wallonie, Institut Jules Destrée, Coll. «Notre histoire», Mont-sur-Marchienne, 1990, 3rd ed. (1st ed. 1965), foodnote 13 p. 86. * ^ Footnote: In medieval French, the word Liégeois referred to all the inhabitants of the Principality vis-à-vis the other inhabitants of the Low-countries, the word Walloons being only used for the French-speaking inhabitants vis-à-vis the other inhabitants of the Principality. Stengers, Jean (1991). "Depuis quand les Liégeois sont-ils des Wallons?". In Hasquin, Hervé . Hommages à la Wallonie (in French). Brussels: éditions de l'ULB . pp. 431–447. * ^ A B (in French) Maurice Delbouille Romanité d'oïl Les origines : la langue - les plus anciens textes in La Wallonie, le pays et les hommes Tome I (Lettres, arts, culture), La Renaissance
Renaissance
du Livre, Bruxelles,1977, pp.99-107. * ^ A B C D E F G "A young region with a long history (from 57BC to 1831)". Gateway to the Walloon Region. Walloon Region. 2007-01-22. Retrieved 2009-01-13. * ^ Kramer, pg. 59, citing M. Gysseling (1962). "La genèse de la frontière linguistique dans le Nord de la Gaule". Revue du Nord (in French). 44: 5–38, in particular 17. * ^ A B "Wallonie : une région en Europe" (in French). Ministère de la Région wallonne. Retrieved September 29, 2007. * ^ A B "The region asserts itself (from 1840 to 1970)". Gateway to the Walloon Region. 2007-01-22. Retrieved 2009-01-14. * ^ Belgium: largest cities and towns and statistics of their population * ^ "HOUILLE : Définition de HOUILLE". cnrtl.fr. * ^ Allan H. Kittel, "The Revolutionary Period of the Industrial Revolution", Journal of Social History, Vol. I,n° 2 (Winter 1967), pp. 129-130. * ^ Philippe Destatte, L'identité wallonne, Institut Destrée, Charleroi, 1997, pages 49-50 ISBN 2-87035-000-7 * ^ "Welcome". erih.net. * ^ http://www.wallonie.be/en/discover-wallonia/economy/walloon-incentives/index.html * ^ " Wallonia
Wallonia
battles wasteland image". BBC News
BBC News
. October 6, 2008. Retrieved September 27, 2009. * ^ Accordin La Libre Belgique
La Libre Belgique
on 26 August 2010: 9,8 millions visitors in 2009 (2,8 in Brussels), 6 % of the regional economy (15% in Brussels) * ^ "AGC Flat Glass: Leadership through innovation". uwe.be. * ^ "Carmeuse: expansion through partnership and knowledge". uwe.be. * ^ "IBA’s growth still accelerating". uwe.be. * ^ "Sonaca: Increasing visibility in North America". uwe.be. * ^ Official Website of the Walloon Region * ^ There is also a mention of Wallonie in 1825 : (in French) « les Germains, au contraire, réservant pour eux seuls le noble nom de Franks, s'obstinaient, dès le onzième siècle, à ne plus voir de Franks
Franks
dans la Gaule, qu'ils nommaient dédaigneusement Wallonie, terre des Wallons ou des Welsches » Augustin Thierry
Augustin Thierry
, Histoire de la conquête de l'Angleterre par les Normands, Éd. Firmin Didot, Paris, 1825, tome 1, p. 155. read online * ^ (in French) Albert Henry, Histoire des mots Wallons et Wallonie, Institut Jules Destrée, Coll. «Notre histoire», Mont-sur-Marchienne, 1990, 3rd ed. (1st ed. 1965), p. 12. * ^ (in French) «C'est cette année-là que naît le mot Wallonie, dans son sens politique d'affirmation culturelle régionale, lorsque le Liégeois Albert Mockel crée une revue littéraire sous ce nom» Philippe Destatte, L'identité wallonne p. 32. * ^ La préhistoire latine du mot Wallonie in Luc Courtois, Jean-Pierre Delville, Françoise Rosart & Guy Zélis (editors), Images et paysages mentaux des XIXe et XXe siècles de la Wallonie à l'Outre-Mer, Hommage au professeur Jean Pirotte à l'occasion de son éméritat, Academia Bruylant, Presses Universitaires de l'UCL, Louvain-la-Neuve, 2007, pp. 35-48 ISBN 978-2-87209-857-6 , p. 47 * ^ http://www.allstates-flag.com/fotw/flags/be-wal_l.html#wal98 * ^ A B lesoir.be (28 January 2016). "75% des francophones revendiquent une identité religieuse". lesoir.be. Retrieved 2017-06-05. * ^ 'Switching Languages', Translingual Writers Reflect on Their Craft, Edited by Steven G. Kellman Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2003, p. 153. ISBN 978-0-8032-2747-7 * ^ "The Walloon language page". skynet.be. * ^ Joan Gross, Speaking in Other Voices: An Ethnography of Walloon Puppet Theaters. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins Press, 2001, ISBN 1-58811-054-0 * ^ Benoît Denis et Jean-Marie Klinkenberg, Littérature : entre insularité et activisme in Le Tournant des années 1970. Liège en effervescence, Les Impressions nouvelles, Bruxelles, 2010, pp. 237-253, p. 252. French : Ancion monte l'Ubu rwèen 1975 (...) la culture dialectalisante cesse d'être une marque de passéisme pour participer à une nouvelle synthèse... * ^ Histoire de la Wallonie, Privat Toulouse, 2004, ISBN 2-7089-4779-6 p. 220. French: Le latin apporté en Gaule par les légions romaines avait fini par éclater en de multiples dialectes (...) peu à peu, pour répondre aux besoins des pouvoirs publics et religieux se forme une langue standard. Dans ce processus qui aboutira à l'élaboration du français, la Wallonie est présente dès les premières heures. * ^ An Paenhuysen Surrealism
Surrealism
in the Provinces. Flemish and Walloon Identity in the Interwar period in Image&Narrative, n° 13, Leuven November, 2005 * ^ L\'écrivain français le plus dans le monde * ^ "Maigret and his master". theage.com.au. * ^ "The Columbia Encyclopedia of Modern Drama". google.com. * ^ Artnet, Gustave Serrurier-Bovy * ^ Your Antique Furniture
Furniture
Guide, Art Nouveau
Art Nouveau
in Belgium * ^ French ’’Le troisième grand Maître de l' Ars Nova in Robert Wangermée et Philippe Mercier, La musique en Wallonie et à Bruxelles, La Renaissance
Renaissance
du livre, Bruxelles, 1980, Tome I,pp. 37-40. * ^ Robert Wangermée et Philippe Mercier, La musique en Wallonie et à Bruxelles, La Renaissance
Renaissance
du livre, Bruxelles, 1980, Tome I, p. 10. * ^ "Dictionnaire de la chanson en Wallonie et à Bruxelles". google.com. * ^ The "Trois Visages de Liege", (...) full of provocative sound collages not only moments in sonic civic history, but the sounds of its historical events as well: wildcat strikes and their ensuing violence in 1960, protests against new laws being enacted, etc. See Acousmatrix 4: Scambi/Trois Visages de Liege/Paraboles Mix * ^ Historical dictionary of Belgium
Belgium
(Scarecrow press, 1999, p. 191 ISBN 0-8108-3603-3 ). * ^ Cinéma wallon et réalité particulière, in TOUDI, n° 49/50, septembre-octobre 2002, p.13. * ^ "les films repères dans l’histoire du cinéma". autourdu1ermai.fr. * ^ "The Arts & Faith Top 100 Films". artsandfaith.com. * ^ quoted by "Culinary cultures of Europe: identity, diversity and dialogue", by Darra Goldstein, Kathrin Merkle, Fabio Parasecoli, Stephen Mennell, Council of Europe. Directorate General IV--Education, Culture and Heritage, Youth and Sport, Council of Europe, 2005 * ^ Dinant Official Web Site * ^ Ardenne Ham * ^ The Simon and Schuster international pocket food guide, 1981. * ^ AWEX * ^ Liege port authority * ^ http://www.logisticsinwallonia.be/index.php?page=94&lng=en&text=L%92excellence%20logistique Logistics in Wallonia

FURTHER READING

* Johannes Kramer (1984). Zweisprachigkeit in den Benelux-ländern (in German). Buske Verlag. ISBN 3-87118-597-3 .

EXTERNAL LINKS

Wikimedia Commons has media related to WALLONIA .

* www.wallonie.be * Logistics in Wallonia * Tourism in Wallonia * Musique en Wallonie * Walloon composers (French)

Coordinates : 50°30′N 4°45′E /