Vukovar (Croatian pronunciation: [ʋûkoʋaːr], Serbian
Cyrillic: Вуковар[Note 1]) is a city in eastern Croatia. It
contains Croatia's largest river port, located at the confluence of
the Vuka and the Danube.
Vukovar is the seat of Vukovar-
The city's registered population was 26,468 in the 2011 census, with a
total of 27,683 in the municipality.
2 Municipal area
4.1 Early history
Habsburg Monarchy and Yugoslavia
4.3 Croatian War of Independence
5.1 Minority languages
7 Cultural heritage
Vukovar Municipal Museum
Vučedol Culture Museum
11 Education and media
11.1 History and today
13 Use in popular culture
14 Notable people
15 International relations
15.1 Foreign representatives
15.2 Twin towns — Sister cities
16 Picture gallery
20 External links
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Vukovar means 'town on the Vuka River' (Vuko from the Vuka
River, and vár from the Hungarian word for 'fortress'). The river was
called "Ulca" in antiquity, probably from an Illyrian language. Its
name might be related to the name of the river "Volga". Folk
etymology has connected it to the Croatian word "vuk", meaning "wolf".
In other languages, the city in German is known as Wukowar and in
Hungarian as Vukovár or Valkóvár. In the late 17th century, the
medieval Croatian name Vukovo was supplanted by the Hungarian
The administrative municipal area of the city contains the following
Grabovo, population 47
Lipovača, population 386
Sotin, population 782
Vukovar, population 26,468
In SFR Yugoslavia, the municipalities were generally larger, and the
Vukovar municipality spanned the region from Vera and Borovo in the
Ilok in the east and
Tovarnik in the south, but it has since
been divided into several municipalities.
Vukovar was divided into the Old Vukovar, New Vukovar
and former workers' Bata village with
Bata Shoes (now Borovo) factory,
today known as the
Vukovar suburb Borovo Naselje.
Satellite picture of
Vukovar on the
Vukovar is located in the Eastern part of the Republic of
is the centre of the Vukovar-
Syrmia County. Its location places it at
the border of historical provinces Eastern
Slavonia and Western
The city is positioned on important transport routes. Since time
immemorial transport routes from the northwest to the southeast were
active in the
Danube Valley through the
After steam ships were introduced in the mid-19th century, and with
the arrival of present-day tourist ships,
Vukovar is connected with
Vienna upstream and all the way to
Vukovar harbour is an important import and export station. The
Danube has always been and remains the connection of the people of
Europe and the world.
Vukovar is located 20 km (12 mi) northeast of
36 km (22 mi) southeast of Osijek, with an elevation of
108 m (354 ft).
Vukovar is located on the main road D2
Ilok and on the Vinkovci—
Vukovar railway (and
Vučedol Dove, historical simbol of the Vukovar.
Slavic tribes settled in this area in the 6th century. In the 9th
century the region was part of the Slavic
Balaton Principality ruled
by prince Pribina, part of the Principality of Pannonian
by prince Ljudevit, and part of the Bulgarian Empire. In the
11th–12th century, the region was part of the Kingdom of Croatia;
from the 13th to 16th century part of the Kingdom of Hungary; and
between 1526-1687 under Ottoman rule.
Vukovar was mentioned first in the 13th century as Volko, Walk, Wolkov
(original Croatian/Slavic name of the town was Vukovo). In 1231,
Vukovo obtained its first privileges and later the right to levy taxes
on passages along the
Danube and the Vuka. During administration of
the medieval Kingdom of Hungary, the town was a seat of Valkó
(Croatian: Vuka) county, which was located between the
Drava and Sava
rivers, while during Ottoman administration it was part of the Sanjak
of Syrmia. At the end of the 17th century, the town's population
numbered about 3,000 inhabitants.
Habsburg Monarchy and Yugoslavia
Vukovar 1917, view from the river Danube.
Treaty of Karlowitz
Treaty of Karlowitz in 1699,
Vukovar was part of the
Transleithania after the compromise of
1867), and soon after in the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia, created when
the Kingdom of
Slavonia and the Kingdom of
Croatia were merged in
In the late 19th and early 20th century,
Vukovar was the seat of
Syrmia County of the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia.
Vukovar became part of the newly formed Kingdom of Serbs,
Croats, and Slovenes (
Yugoslavia in 1929). Between 1918 and 1922,
Vukovar was the administrative seat of the county of
and between 1922 and 1929 it was the administrative seat of Syrmia
oblast. After 1929,
Vukovar was part of the
Sava Banovina, and
beginning in 1939 it was part of the Banovina of Croatia. Between 1941
Vukovar was part of the Independent State of Croatia. During
World War II
World War II the city was bombed by the Allies. In 2008 an unexploded
bomb was found in the city from this period. From 1945, it was part
of the People's Republic of
Croatia within the new Socialist Federal
Republic of Yugoslavia. After the creation of the Kingdom of Serbs,
Croats and Slovenes and in the wake of communism gaining popularity
Vukovar became the location where in 1920 the
Socialist Labor Party of
Yugoslavia (Communists) (Socijalistička
radnička partija Jugoslavije - komunista) was renamed the Communist
Yugoslavia (Komunistička partija Jugoslavije).
Croatian War of Independence
Battle of Vukovar
Battle of Vukovar and
Vukovar Korzo in the Early 20th Century
Vukovar was heavily damaged during the Croatian War of Independence.
Approximately 2,000 self-organised defenders (the army of
still in an embryonic stage at that time) defended the city for 87
days against approximately 36,000 JNA troops supplemented with 110
vehicles and tanks and dozens of planes. The city suffered heavy
damage during the siege and was eventually overrun. It is estimated
that 2,000 defenders of
Vukovar and civilians were killed, 800 went
missing and 22,000 civilians were forced into exile.
The damage to
Vukovar during the siege has been called the worst in
Europe since World War II, drawing comparisons with Stalingrad.
The city's water tower, riddled with bullet holes, was retained by
city planners to serve as a testimony to the events of the early
On 18 November 2006 approximately 25,000 people from all over the
country gathered in
Vukovar for the 15th anniversary of the fall of
the city to commemorate those who were killed during the siege. A
museum dedicated to the siege was opened in the basement of a now
rebuilt hospital that had been damaged during the battle. On 27
September 2007 the International Criminal Tribunal for the former
Yugoslavia convicted two former Yugoslav Army officers and acquitted a
third of involvement in the hospital massacre.
As a result of the conflict, a deep ethnic divide exists between the
Croat and Serb populations.
Source: Naselja i stanovništvo Republike Hrvatske 1857–2001, DZS,
Zagreb, 2005 & Popis stanovništva 2011
In the years from 1948 until 1991 Vukovar's population increased
quickly due to industrial development. Primarily it was immigration
that fed the growth in the
Vukovar region and in the town
particularly. The region's population distribution changed notably too
when the town of
Ilok became the second largest town in the region.
National structure of the population of Vukovar:
Eltz Manor early 20th century
The most significant change was the forced displacement and internment
of the German civilian population after World War II. The confiscated
houses and properties were given to Croat and Serb colonists during
the years of Communist Yugoslavia.
National structure (2011)
National structure of the population in the municipality of
Year of census
Croats were in the majority in most villages and in the region's
eastern part, whereas the
Serbs dominated in the northwest. Vukovar's
population was ethnically mixed and had 28 ethnic groups before the
war. Since the boundaries of the municipality have changed a few
times, there are significant differences in the population census
between '61 and '71, and '91 and '01.
Particularly since the war in Croatia, much of the native Croat
population has moved to other areas of
Croatia or emigrated to Western
Europe (notably Germany or Austria) and many
Serbs have either moved
Serbia or to Canada and Western Europe.
Fifteen years after the war, in 2006, the city's ethnic makeup showed
equal percentages of Croat and Serb residents. The city remains
very divided, as a deeper sense of reconciliation has failed to take
root. The ethnic communities remain separated by mistrust, divided
institutions and disappointment. Separate schooling for Croat and Serb
children remains in place. Incidents involving
regularly, and public spaces have become identified not by the
services they offer but by the ethnicity of those who gather there.
Even coffee shops are identified as Croat or Serb.
In 2013, the government's intention to implement in
Constitutional Law on the Rights of Ethnic Minorities in
allowed for minorities, where they made up more than a third of a
city's population, to be entitled to have their language used for
official purposes, provoked considerable popular opposition.
Further information: Anti-Cyrillic protests in Croatia
Serbs of Vukovar
According to the 2011 Croatian census, the Serb population of the city
has exceeded one third, which is the legal prerequisite for the
Serbian Cyrillic script to become co-official. In 2013, this
re-ignited political discussion on the matter, which had already
arisen in 2009 after the local promulgation of
Serbian Cyrillic as
available for public use.
Vukovar Synagogue was devastated by the Nazis in 1941 and
demolished in 1958.
Factories and mass housing at city suburb Borovo Naselje, today
protected industrial cultural heritage
Vukovar is the largest Croatian town and river port on the Danube. Its
economy is based on trade, farming, viticulture, livestock breeding,
textiles, the food-processing industry, the footwear industry and
Vukovar port is situated on 1,335 kilometres (830 miles) of the
downstream flow of
Danube river, on its right coast, and is the
biggest official concessioner in the
Vukovar region. The Company
focuses its business on the transshipment of general and bulk cargo.
The Port (850m long and 45m wide) is conveniently situated on the main
current of the river, enabling navigation throughout the whole year
regardless of water level. The Port recorded productivity growth and
increase in cargo transshipment from 123,570 tons in 2009 to 295,199
tons in 2011. The majority of transshipment was in the category of
bulk cargo (237,119 tons in 2011), while packaged goods and heavy
cargo accounted for a total of 58,080 tons.
However, the port infrastructure in Vukovar, only partly
reconstructed, still does not meet the requirements of the market. The
layout of the port area, particularly the access to railway tracks and
the quay operational area, are technologically inappropriate and not
compatible with market standards. There is also a lack of warehouse
capacity. Altogether, it affects the quality of the service provided
in the Port and thus decreases the port competitiveness.
Borovo, a manufacturer of footwear located in Vukovar, ended up
devastated and demolished in 1991 during the war. In its prime it
employed 24,000 employees and tried to break into foreign markets with
innovations in the manufacture of footwear, but today there are fewer
than 1000 employees. The Business Innovation Centre BIC-
Vukovar is a
rounded concept for the support of innovative,
technologically-oriented entrepreneurship independent of the size or
maturity of the company. The goal of this centre is to attract or
provide incentives for the creation and growth of
technologically-oriented companies in all phases of their life-cycle
and provide them with a complete package of services to support their
businesses, from workspaces, support for innovations, growth and
export, as well as various intellectual and administrative services
Religion in Vukovar
Orthodox Church of Saint Nicholas
Church of Saints Philip and James
Since the end of the war, much of the infrastructure in
remained unrestored and unemployment is estimated to stand at 40
Arcades in the old city center
Among a number of attractive buildings, severely damaged in the recent
war, the most interesting are the
Eltz Manor of the
Eltz noble family
from the 18th century,
Baroque buildings in the centre of the town,
Franciscan monastery with the parish church of Sts. Philip and
James, the water tower, the birth house of
Nobel prize winner Lavoslav
Ružička, the Orthodox church of St Nicholas, the palace of Syrmia
County etc. Since the peaceful reintegration under Croatian control in
1998, many buildings have been rebuilt, but there are many ruins still
in the town.
Outside the town, on the banks of the
Danube toward Ilok, lies a
notable archaeological site, Vučedol. The ritual vessel called the
Vučedol Dove (vučedolska golubica) is considered the symbol of
Vukovar. Vučedol is also a well-known excursion destination,
frequented by anglers and bathers, especially the beautiful sand beach
on Orlov Otok (Eagle's Island).
Vukovar Synagogue was built in 1889, it was devastated in 1941
and completely demolished by the communist regime of
SFR Yugoslavia in
Vukovar Municipal Museum
Municipal Museum in
Vukovar Municipal Museum was founded in 1948 by a donation of
Roman money, furniture, weapons, and paintings given to his city by
Dr. Antun Bauer. The museum started in the Coach Post Building in the
old baroque centre, but was moved to Castle
Eltz in 1966. Up until
1991 the museum had about 50 thousand exhibits in four separate
The Heritage Museum displayed the history of
Vukovar from prehistory
to modern times and some of its most important collections included
the items excavated at the archaeological site Vučedol and the
Culture and History Collection, which contained documents, furniture,
and pieces of art, and provided an authentic display of the life of
the citizens of
Vukovar and the
One of houses with wine cellar in
Eltz Manor complex
The Bauer Collection contained the most complete overview of modern
Croatian art from the end of the 19th and the early 20th century with
special emphasis on the period between the two world wars. Among more
than one thousand pieces of art the Collection contained the works of
Vlaho Bukovac ,
Mato Celestin Medović
Mato Celestin Medović , Ico Kršnjavi, Ivan
Meštrović , Fran Kršinić ,
Emanuel Vidović , and many others.
Memorial Museum of the Nobel Prize Winner Lavoslav Ružička, located
in the house where he was born, it displayed original documents and
medals from the life and work of the famous Nobel Prize winner, who
received this prestigious award in 1939 for chemistry.
Memorial Museum of the 2nd Congress of the
Communist Party of
Yugoslavia was located in the Workers' Hall building, former Grand
Hotel, where the congress was held in 1920. The materials connected to
the development of the labour movement and the founding of the
Communist Party of
Yugoslavia was exhibited and presented here.
During Croatian War of Independence, Castle
Eltz suffered significant
damage and the collections which were kept there were also damaged:
some of the exhibits were completely destroyed, some have disappeared
and cannot be recovered, and some of them were taken to Serbia. After
years of effort and diplomatic activity by the Ministry of Culture of
the Republic of
Croatia that part of the collection was returned to
Vukovar on 13 December 2001. In the period from 1991 to 1997 the
Vukovar City Museum was operating in the
Mimara Museum in Zagreb.
Catholic Church of Saint Roch
Near the end of 1992 a collection was founded with the name Vukovar
Museum in Exile which began the creation of a collection of donations
by Croatian, and soon after also European, artists for the City of
Vukovar. To this day that collection has gathered over 1400 pieces of
modern Croatian and European art. This collection represented the
beginning of the cultural restoration of
Vukovar and it is displayed
at the restored Castle
Eltz today, along with other museum collections
which are part of the permanent collection of the museum.
Now that it is renovated, the Castle
Eltz complex represents a unique
museum and gallery , science, and multimedia centre, which preserves
and presents cultural heritage as an element of national identity and
the continuity of life in this area.
In 2013 the
Vukovar City Museum won a prestigious Anton Štifanić
Award for special contributions to the development of tourism in the
Croatia and in 2014 won the Simply the Best award.
Vučedol Culture Museum
Vučedol Culture Museum.
Vučedol Culture Museum is open on the tenth of June 2015. Is one
of the most modern museums in Croatia. In addition to the specificity
and uniqueness which the museum is drawing from its contents, the
attractiveness of the museum is guaranteed by its location and
Namely, the museum is positioned on one side almost at the very Danube
riverbank and on the other side, on four floors, in the hill, while
its flat green roof is a promenade which leads to the archaeological
site. As for the content, the permanent exhibition is displayed in 19
rooms on almost 1200 square meters. In addition to using state of the
art technologies, multimedia and interactive content, the way of life
on Vučedol culture localities, spreading through 12 European
countries, is displayed.
Vukovar water tower
Vukovar City Theater - " Hrvatski Dom".
Vukovar during the year there are many cultural events. Certainly
the most important is the
Vukovar Film Festival.
Vukovar Film Festival is unique due to many things. It is the only
film festival of the community of
Danube region countries and the only
one held literally on the Danube. It is designed to promote and spread
the creative development of filmmakers from the region and it is
organized with the intent to contribute to cultural restoration in the
city destroyed in the Homeland War.The theme of the festival, the
films from the
Danube region countries, is logically connected to
Vukovar as a centre of the Croatian part of the community of the
Danube region. Cultural influences have always spread along the
Danube. Since the
Vukovar film festival is the only film festival
focused on this region, on the international level it seeks to connect
filmmakers from the
Danube region countries, whose film making
industries are some of the most vital in the world.
Chamber music Festival is held in the first half of June
at the area of Castle Eltz, the Chapel of Saint Rok, and the Church of
Saint Filip and Jakov in Vukovar, and it traditionally starts with a
concert by the
Zagreb Philharmonic Orchestra. The guests of the
festival are solo performers and chamber ensembles from
Vukovar Puppet Spring Festival was founded in 1996 as a national
theatre conference. There are around 15 puppet theatres performing
every year and in the five days of the festival they give around 100
performances in the towns and municipalities of Vukovarsko-Srijemska
County. The center of the festival is the town of
Vukovar where 16
performances are played and where various workshops and an awards
ceremony are held (for the award for life achievement in contribution
to Croatian puppetry). The festival is held at the same time every
year, the week before the
Holy Week before Easter. In 2011 there were
16 puppet theatres from
Croatia and abroad (Pecs, Mostar) that
participated the festival.
Saint Vinko's Day in Vučedol is an event held traditionally every
year on 22 January at the Goldschmidt farm grounds. This event marks
the beginning of the year's work in the vineyards and it starts with a
blessing of the vineyards. Sausages and other cured meat products are
hung on the vines, because of a tradition that by hanging large
sausages on the vines, the grape vines will be more fruitful and the
grape clusters will be large. The same legend claims that if on that
day, before noon, icicles or snow melts and creates puddles in which a
sparrow can bathe, the year will be fruitful and there will be so much
wine that people can bathe in it. Along with an accompanying culture
and art programme, this event represents a true vineyard experience,
with mulled wine and delicacies that the visitors may taste or prepare
for themselves, on the fire.
Bonofest is held every year in the middle of May. It is a festival of
spiritual music held in the church of Saint Filip and Jakov. The two
evenings of the festival feature famous musicians as well as lesser
known young musicians who were selected by a committee of
professionals. Aside from showing the beauty and richness of spiritual
music it encourages lyricists and composers to write new material and
carries the message about the beauty of faith and the human need for
The Ethno fair is organised each year by the
Vukovar City Tourist
Board and takes place in September in the city centre in the "Hotel
Grand" building. Various craftsmen, winemakers and other manufacturers
sell their handmade products which represent the heritage of this part
Vukovar Advent Festivities start four weeks during Advent during
which a series of musical and performance events are organised. Each
event is special as the traditional lighting of the candles is
Silent night in
Vukovar is a traditional Christmas concert of Croatian
National Television. It is held during Vukovar's Advent Festivities in
the Church of St. Philip and James
The Christmas Fair is held a couple of days before Christmas.
Vukovar is the seat of several local organizations and institutions
such as Vukovar-Srijem County, Polytechnic
Lavoslav Ružička Vukovar,
Gymnasium Vukovar, etc. It is also the seat of several organizations
and institutions of the Serb minority in
Croatia such as the Joint
Council of Municipalities, the Association for Serbian language and
literature in the Republic of Croatia, the Independent Democratic Serb
Party, the Party of
Serbs as well as the seat of the Consulate
General of Republic of
Serbia in Vukovar.
Education and media
History and today
Palace Jirkovsky, College of Applied Sciences „Lavoslav Ružička“
Vukovar is Croatia's biggest river port.
In accordance with its position in the economic and administrative
Vukovar developed in educational, cultural and health center.
For the 1730th
Vukovar has developed popular education. From the
Franciscan School has developed elementary school in Old Vukovar. New
Vukovar has its own school.
They worked and denominational schools for children and Orthodox
Jewish religion, and schools in the German , Serbian orthodox and
Hungarian. Apprentice school was established in 1886. year, a
Printing was opened 1867th when they first came out and
German newspaper "Der Syrmier-Bote".
Vukovar has seven primary schools and five high schools, including one
gymnasium (Gymnasium Vukovar) and one music school. The city is also
home to the
Lavoslav Ružička polytechnic, which offers study
opportunities in the fields of economics and trade, law and
kinesitherapy. Additionally, the
University of Split
University of Split runs dislocated
studies in information technology, economics and law in Vukovar.
Similarly, the University of
Osijek offers programmes in economics and
Major sports facilities in the city of
Vukovar are: Borovo Sports Hall
(capacity 3,000 spectators) opened for maintenance International Table
Championship of Yugoslavia, (Borovo 1978), stadium FC
Vukovar '91, sport and recreation center "Lijeva Bara" with a hall for
martial arts, swimming pools
Borovo Naselje , Borovo naselje Tennis
Center, Sports Center "Hrgović" - tennis courts and horse riding,
firing range, "Hill-7" as well as several football stadiums including
Vukovar City Stadium and the FC Vuteks Sloga Stadium.
Main Railway Station "Vukovar-Borovo"
Use in popular culture
The siege of
Vukovar is an important part in the background of the
novel The Redeemer by popular Norwegian crime-writer Jo Nesbø, in
whose plot traumatized survivors of the siege arrive in
Oslo and play
a major role in the murder mystery which Inspector
Harry Hole must
Harrison's Flowers is a French war drama from 2000, directed by Elie
Chouraqui based on the novel " Diable à l' avantage " by Isabel
Ellsen. The story takes place during the battle of Vukovar, in the
middle of which an American woman (
Andie MacDowell ) searches for her
missing husband, a journalist named Harrison, who disappeared during
the siege. The film was shot in the
United States and the Czech
Andie MacDowell ,
Elias Koteas ,
Brendan Gleeson ,
Adrien Brody and David Strathairn.
A movie actually filmed in
Vukovar, jedna priča
Vukovar, jedna priča (Vukovar:
A Story). Also known as
Vukovar poste restante, it is a Serbian war
film directed by Boro Drašković. The film was selected as the
Serbian entry for the Best Foreign Language Film at the 67th Academy
Awards, but was not accepted as a nominee. The film shows the Serbian
side of the story related to the war in
Vukovar in 1991.
The 1991 siege and hospital massacre by JNA paramilitaries is
remembered in Croatian singer-songwriter Nenad Bach's song "Vukovar."
Dr. Luka Kovač, played by Goran Visnjic from the ER TV series, is
supposedly from this city.
Leopold Ružička, winner of the 1939 Nobel Prize in Chemistry
Pavao Pavličić, Croatian writer, literary historian and translator,
Károly (Dragutin) Unkelhäusser, Croatian politician who served as
Minister of Croatian Affairs of Hungary
Károly Unkelhäusser - Croatian politician
Marko Babić – Croatian soldier
Franjo Benzinger – Croatian pharmacist
Damir Bičanić – Croatian handballer
Dražen Bošnjaković – Croatian politician
Aleksandar Čavrić – Serbian footballer
Saša Drakulić – Serbian footballer
Eltz – German nobleman and former member of Croatian
Milan Gajić - Serbian football midfielder, U-20 World champion
Jovan Gavrilović (sr) - politician and regent to adulthood of
King Milan I of Serbia
Siniša Glavašević – Croatian reporter
Dinko Jukić – Austrian swimmer, European champion
Mirna Jukić – Austrian swimmer, European champion and Olympic Games
Damir Kreilach – Croatian footballer
Milan Mačvan – Serbian basketball player, Olympic Games and
Eurobasket silver medalist
Damir Martin - Croatian rower
Tomislav Merčep – Croatian politician
Siniša Mihajlović – Serbian footballer, European Cup champion
Tomislav Mikulić – Croatian footballer
Ante Miše – Croatian footballer
Petar Mlinarić – Member of Croatian parliament
Josip Mrzljak – Croatian priest, bishop of Varaždin
Zaharije Orfelin – Serbian poet
Pavao Pavličić – Croatian novelist
Leopold Ružička –
Nobel prize winner in chemistry
Vladimir Štengl – Former Member of the
Croatian Parliament and
former mayor of Vukovar
Blago Zadro – Croatian Army general
Dario Zahora – Croatian footballer
Tezija Zararić – Croatian musician
See also: List of diplomatic missions in
Croatia and List of twin
towns and sister cities in Croatia
The Consulate General of Republic of
Serbia in the city of
Twin towns — Sister cities
Vukovar is twinned with:
Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bački Petrovac, Serbia
Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Panoramic view of the
Vukovar from the
World War II
World War II Memorial park
Vukovar Memorial Cemetery – Eternal Flame
Wooden bridge in Adica park
"Saint Bono" border police patrol boat
SA-9 Gaskin at Homeland War memorial center
Vukovar Homeland War memorial Cross
Memorial cemetery of Homeland War victims
Ovčara Memorial Center
^ The official use of
Serbian Cyrillic in
Vukovar is subject to a
dispute involving the local and national authorities, and is the
source of a current political controversy. See #Minority languages.
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Croatian Bureau of Statistics. December 2012.
^ Antun, Mayer, (1 April 1935). "Ime Mursa". Vjesnik Arheološkog
muzeja u Zagrebu. 16 (1). Retrieved 3 April 2018. More than one
of website= and journal= specified (help)
^ Treasures of Yugoslavia, p.249.
^ Treasures of Yugoslavia, published by Yugoslaviapublic, Beograd,
available in English, German and Serbo-Croatian, 664 pages, 1980
^ Treasures of Yugoslavia, p.249
^ "Bombs from the II World War found in Vukovar" (in Croatian).
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18 November 2010.
^ Tucker, Spencer (2010). A Global Chronology of Conflict: From the
Ancient World to the Modern Middle East. Santa Barbara, California:
ABC-CLIO, LLC. p. 2617. ISBN 978-1-85109-667-1.
^ President after meeting with Del Ponte: Someone has to match what
Stalingrad (in Croatian)
^ Seeney, Helen (22 August 2006). "Croatia:
Vukovar is Still Haunted
by the Shadow of its Past". Deutsche Welle. Archived from the original
on 18 November 2010. Retrieved 6 May 2009.
^ "Tens of thousands gather for 15th anniversary of
Vukovar siege 1991
– 2006". Croatian World Network. AFP. Archived from the original on
18 November 2010. Retrieved 18 November 2010.
^ "Two jailed over
Croatia massacre". news.bbc.co.uk.
BBC NEWS. 27
September 2007. Archived from the original on 18 November 2010.
Retrieved 18 November 2010.
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Wikimedia Commons has media related to Vukovar.
Official site (in Croatian)
Tourist office Vukovar
Photo Gallery of Vukovar
Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Vukovar.
History of Vukovar
Battle of Vukovar
Places of worship
St. Philip and James Church
St. Roch's Church
Our Lady of Fatima Church
St. Nicholas Orthodox Church
Croatian Home Vukovar
City Museum Vukovar
Polytechnic Lavoslav Ružička
Vukovar Film Festival
Festival of chamber music
Subdivisions of Vukovar-Srijem County
County seats of Croatia
Slavonski Brod, Brod-Posavina
Rijeka, Primorje-Gorski Kotar
Cities and towns of
Croatia by population
Sveti Ivan Zelina
List of islands in the Danube
List of crossings of the Danube