Vipassanā (Pāli) or vipaśyanā (Sanskrit: विपश्यन;
Burmese: ဝိပဿနာ; Sinhalese: විපස්සනා;
Chinese: 觀 guān; Standard Tibetan: ལྷག་མཐོང་,
lhaktong; Wyl. lhag mthong) in the Buddhist tradition means insight
into the true nature of reality. In the
Theravada tradition this
specifically refers to insight into the three marks of existence:
impermanence, suffering or unsatisfactoriness, and the realisation of
Vipassanā meditation in conjunction with
Samatha meditation is a
necessary part of all Buddhist traditions. Therefore, it is important
Vipassanā on the one hand, and the Vipassana movement
on the other, which was represented in the
Theravada tradition by Ledi
Mogok Sayadaw and popularised by Mahasi Sayadaw, V. R.
Dhiravamsa and  S. N. Goenka.
2.2 Sudden insight
2.3 Relation with samatha
3.1.1 Insight in the Four Noble Truths
3.1.3 Vipassana-meditation in the modern Vipassana movement
3.1.4 Stages of Jhana in the Vipassana movement
3.2 Northern tradition and Mahāyāna
3.2.1 East Asian Mahāyāna
3.2.2 Tibetan Buddhism
3.2.3 Mahāmudrā and Dzogchen
4 See also
8 External links
See also: Enlightenment in Buddhism, Sotāpanna, Jnana, Prajna, Bodhi,
Vidhya, and Kensho
Vipassanā is a
Pali word from the
Sanskrit prefix "vi-" and verbal
root paś. It is often translated as "insight" or "clear-seeing",
though the "in-" prefix may be misleading; "vi" in Indo-Aryan
languages is equivalent to the Latin "dis." The "vi" in vipassanā may
then mean to see into, see through or to see 'in a special way.'
Alternatively, the "vi" can function as an intensive, and thus
vipassanā may mean "seeing deeply."
A synonym for "Vipassanā" is paccakkha (Pāli; Sanskrit:
pratyakṣa), "before the eyes," which refers to direct experiential
perception. Thus, the type of seeing denoted by "vipassanā" is that
of direct perception, as opposed to knowledge derived from reasoning
or argument.
In Tibetan, vipaśyanā is lhagthong (wylie: lhag mthong). The term
"lhag" means "higher", "superior", "greater"; the term "thong" is
"view" or "to see". So together, lhagthong may be rendered into
English as "superior seeing", "great vision" or "supreme wisdom." This
may be interpreted as a "superior manner of seeing", and also as
"seeing that which is the essential nature." Its nature is a
lucidity—a clarity of mind.
Henepola Gunaratana defined
Looking into something with clarity and precision, seeing each
component as distinct and separate, and piercing all the way through
so as to perceive the most fundamental reality of that thing"
Richard Gombrich a development took place in early
Buddhism resulting in a change in doctrine, which considered prajna to
be an alternative means to "enlightenment". The suttas contain
traces of ancient debates between
Theravada schools in
the interpretation of the teachings and the development of insight. In
the sutta pitaka the term "vipassanā" is hardly mentioned, while they
frequently mention jhana as the meditative practice to be
undertaken.[citation not found][note 1]
According to Vetter and Bronkhorst, dhyāna itself constituted the
original "liberating practice".[citation not found] Vetter
further argues that the eightfold path constitutes a body of practices
which prepare one, and lead up to, the practice of dhyana. Norman
notes that "the Buddha's way to release [...] was by means of
meditative practices." Out of these debates developed the idea
that bare insight suffices to reach liberation, by discerning the
Three marks (qualities) of (human) existence (tilakkhana), namely
dukkha (suffering), anatta (non-self) and anicca (impermanence).
The Sthaviravāda, one of the early Buddhist schools from which the
Theravada-tradition originates, emphasized sudden insight:
In the Sthaviravada [...] progress in understanding comes all at once,
'insight' (abhisamaya) does not come 'gradually' (successively -
The Mahasanghika, another one of the early Buddhist schools, had the
doctrine of ekaksana-citt, "according to which a Buddha knows
everything in a single thought-instant".[citation not found] This
process however, meant to apply only to the Buddha and Peccaka
buddhas. Lay people may have to experience various levels of insights
to become fully enlightened.
Mahayana tradition emphasizes prajna, insight into sunyata,
dharmata, the two truths doctrine, clarity and emptiness, or bliss and
[T]he very title of a large corpus of early
Mahayana literature, the
Prajnaparamita, shows that to some extent the historian may
extrapolate the trend to extol insight, prajna, at the expense of
dispassion, viraga, the control of the emotions.
Mahayana are commonly understood as different
streams of Buddhism, their practice however, may reflect emphasis on
insight as a common denominator:
In practice and understanding
Zen is actually very close to the
Theravada Forest Tradition even though its language and teachings are
heavily influenced by Taoism and Confucianism.[note 2]
The emphasis on insight is discernible in the emphasis in Chán on
sudden insight, though in the Chán-tradition this insight is to
be followed by gradual cultivation.[note 3]
Relation with samatha
See also: Samatha,
Samadhi (Buddhism), Dhyāna in Buddhism, Mahamudra,
and Raja yoga
In all Buddhist schools two types of meditation practices are
followed: samatha (Pāli: Samatha, Sanskrit: śamatha; English: "calm
abiding") and vipassanā (Pali: vipassanā, Sanskrit: vipaśyanā,
English: "clear seeing").
Samatha is a primary meditation aimed at
calming the mind, and is also well-known and widely used in
non-buddhist traditions. It is, however, vipassanā, the systematic
investigation of self and phenomena that is unique to the Buddhist
To gain true insight
Vipassanā needs to be conjoined.
There are two different traditions concerning the sequence of the two.
Samatha first approach is the most common, and involves
cultivating a stable samatha before practicing vipassanā. Different
traditions describe different levels of
Samatha as being sufficient.
In some access to first dhyana is said to be enough. In others full
attainment of dhyana is enough. Yet in others only full attainment of
the four form and formless absorption dhyana states are said to be
sufficient. The approach of first cultivating
Samatha is recommended
by most of the great scholar-practitioners of ancient India.
Mahayana this approach is reflected in the sutra approach of
Shantideva and Kamalashila. Through Shamatha disturbing
emotions are abandoned and thus facilitates clear seeing Vipashyana.
Mahayana sutra approach Vipashyana is cultivated through
reasoning, logic and analysis in conjunction with Shamatha. In
contrast, in the Vipashyana directly approach represented by for
example the siddha tradition of the direct approach of
Dzogchen, the view of Vipashyana is ascertained directly through
looking into one's own mind. After this initial recognition of
Vipashyana the steadiness of Shamatha is developed within that
recognition. It is however also common in the direct approach to first
develop enough Shamatha to serve as a basis for Vipashyana. In that
case the view of Vipashyana is ascertained through meditation. In sum,
the traditions differ in the sequence but all comes down to the union
Samatha and Vipassanā. It is therefore faulty to claim that only
Samatha or only
Vipassanā is sufficient.
Theravada tradition, samatha is regarded as a preparation for
vipassanā, pacifying the mind and strengthening concentration in
order for insight to arise, which leads to liberation. In contrast,
the modern Vipassana Movement gives more emphasis to Vipassanā
already from the start, highlighting the risks of going out of course
when strong samatha is developed. For this the Vipassana Movement
has been criticised, especially in Sri Lanka.
Though both terms appear in the Sutta Pitaka[note 4], Gombrich and
Brooks argue that the distinction as two separate paths originates in
the earliest interpretations of the Sutta Pitaka, not in the
suttas themselves.[note 5] According to Gombrich, the distinction
between vipassanā and samatha did not originate in the suttas, but in
the interpretation of the suttas.[note 6] Various traditions
disagree which techniques belong to which pole.
See also: Buddhist Paths to liberation
Vipassanā can be cultivated by the practice that includes
contemplation and introspection through primarily awareness and
observation of bodily sensations. The practices may differ in the
modern Buddhist traditions and non-sectarian groups according to the
founder but the main objective is to develop insight. 
Insight in the Four Noble Truths
According to the Theravada-tradition, Buddhist practices lead to
insight in the Four Noble Truths, which can only be reached by
practising the Noble Eightfold Path. According to Theravāda
tradition, enlightenment or
Nibbana can only be attained by discerning
Vipassanā insight levels when the Eightfold Noble Path is
followed ardently. This is a developmental process where various
Vipassanā insights are discerned; the final enlightenment may come
suddenly, as proposed by other schools.
Vipassana movement and Buddhist modernism
The term vipassana is often conflated with the Vipassana movement, a
movement which started in the 1950s in
Burma but has gained wide
renown mainly through American Buddhist teachers such as Joseph
Goldstein, Tara Brach, Gil Fronsdal, Sharon Salzberg, and Jack
Kornfield. The movement has had a wide appeal due to being open and
inclusive to different Buddhist and non-buddhist wisdom, poetry as
well as science. It has together with the modern American Zen
tradition served as one of the main inspirations for the 'mindfulness
movement' as developed by
Jon Kabat-Zinn and others.
Vipassanā Movement, also known as the Insight Meditation
Movement, is rooted in Theravāda Buddhism, especially from the Thai
Forest Tradition and the "New Burmese Method", as well as the modern
influences on the traditions of Sri Lanka, Burma,
Thailand originating from various Theravāda teachers like Ledi
Mogok Sayadaw (who was less known to the West due to lack of
International Mogok Centres), Mahasi Sayadaw,
Ajahn Chah, and Dipa Ma,
as well as derivatives from those traditions such as the movement led
by S. N. Goenka.
Vipassanā Movement, the emphasis is on the
and the use of mindfulness to gain insight into the impermanence of
Vipassana-meditation in the modern Vipassana movement
See also: Four stages of enlightenment
Vipassanā-meditation uses mindfulness of breathing, combined with the
contemplation of impermanence, to gain insight into the true nature of
this reality. All phenomena are investigated, and concluded to be
painful and unsubstantial, without an immortal entity or self-view,
and in its ever-changing and impermanent nature.
Mindfulness of breathing is described throughout the Sutta Pitaka. The
Satipatthana Sutta describes it as going into the forest and sitting
beneath a tree and then to simply watch the breath. If the breath is
long, to notice that the breath is long, if the breath is short, to
notice that the breath is short.
By observing the breath one becomes aware of the perpetual changes
involved in breathing, and the arising and passing away of
mindfulness. One can also be aware of and gain insight into
impermanence through the observation of bodily sensations and their
nature of arising and passing away. Eventually
Vipassanā-meditation leads to insight into the impermanence of all
phenomena, the absence of a permanent self, and the cause of
suffering, thereby leading to liberation from suffering.
Stages of Jhana in the Vipassana movement
Vipassanā jhanas are stages that describe the development of samatha
in vipassanā meditation practice as described in modern Burmese
Vipassana meditation. Mahasi Sayadaw's student
Sayadaw U Pandita
described the four vipassanā jhanas as follows:
The meditator first explores the body/mind connection as one,
nonduality; discovering three characteristics. The first jhana
consists in seeing these points and in the presence of vitakka and
vicara. Phenomena reveal themselves as appearing and ceasing.
In the second jhana, the practice seems effortless. Vitaka and vicara
In the third jhana, piti, the joy, disappears too: there is only
happiness (sukha) and concentration.
The fourth jhana arises, characterised by purity of mindfulness due to
equanimity. The practice leads to direct knowledge. The comfort
disappears because the dissolution of all phenomena is clearly
visible. The practice will show every phenomenon as unstable,
transient, disenchanting. The desire of freedom will take place.
Northern tradition and Mahāyāna
Like the southern
Theravada tradition, the north Indian Buddhist
traditions like the
Sarvastivada and the
vipaśyanā meditation as outlined in texts like the Abhidharmakosha
Vasubandhu and the Yogacarabhumi. The
Abhidharmakosha states that
vipaśyanā is practiced once one has reached samadhi (absorption) by
cultivating the four foundations of mindfulness (smrtyupasthanas).
This is achieved according to Vasubandhu:
"By considering the unique characteristics (svalaksana) and the
general characteristics (samanyalaksana) of the body, sensation, the
mind, and the dharmas."
"'The unique characteristics' means its self nature (svabhava)."
"The general characteristics" signifies the fact that "All conditioned
things are impermanent; all impure dharmas are suffering; and that all
the dharmas are empty (sunya) and not-self (anatmaka)."
These works are some of the main texts used to study vipaśyanā in
Mahāyāna vipaśyanā differs from the
Theravada tradition in its strong emphasis on the meditation on
emptiness (shunyata) of all phenomena. The Mahayana
Akṣayamati-nirdeśa refers to vipaśyanā as seeing phenomena as
they really are, that is, empty, without self, nonarisen, and without
Prajnaparamita sutra in 8,000 lines states that the
practice of insight is the non-appropriation of any dharmas, including
the five aggregates:
So too, a
Bodhisattva coursing in perfect wisdom and developing as
such, neither does nor even can stand in form, feeling, perception,
impulse and consciousness...This concentrated insight of a Bodhisattva
is called 'the non-appropriation of all dharmas'.
Prajnaparamita in 25,000 lines states that a Bodhisattva
should know the nature of the five aggregates as well as all dharmas
That form, etc. [feeling, perception, impulse and consciousness],
which is like a dream, like an echo, a mock show, a mirage, a
reflection of the moon in water, an apparition, that is neither bound
nor freed. Even so form, etc., which is past, future, or present, is
neither bound nor freed. And why? Because of the nonbeing-ness of
form, etc. Even so form, etc., whether it be wholesome or unwholesome,
defiled or undefiled, tainted or untainted, with or without outflows,
worldly or supramundane, defiled or purified, is neither bound nor
freed, on account of its non-beingness, its isolatedness, its quiet
calm, its emptiness, signless-ness, wishless-ness, because it has not
been brought together or produced. And that is true of all
Abhidharma-samuccaya states that the practice of
śamatha-vipaśyanā is a part of a Bodhisattva's path at the
beginning, in the first "path of preparation" (Sambharamarga).
The later Indian
Mahayana scholastic tradition, as exemplified by
Shantideva's Bodhicaryavatara, saw śamatha as a necessary
prerequisite to vipaśyanā and thus one needed to first begin with
calm abiding meditation and then proceed to insight. In the Panjika
commentary of Prajnakaramati on the Bodhicaryavatara, vipaśyanā is
defined simply as "wisdom (prajña) that has the nature of thorough
knowledge of reality as it is."
East Asian Mahāyāna
In Chinese Buddhism, the works of
Zhiyi (such as the
Mohe Zhiguan, "Great śamatha-vipaśyanā") are some of the most
influential texts which discuss vipaśyanā meditation from a
Mahāyāna perspective. In this text
Zhiyi teaches the contemplation
of the skandhas, ayatanas, dhātus, the Kleshas, false views and
several other elements. Likewise the influential text called the
Awakening of Faith
Awakening of Faith scripture has a section on calm and insight
meditation. It states:
He who practices 'clear observation' should observe that all
conditioned phenomena in the world are unstationary and are subject to
instantaneous transformation and destruction; that all activities of
the mind arise and are extinguished from moment or moment; and that,
therefore, all of these induce suffering. He should observe that all
that had been conceived in the past was as hazy as a dream, that all
that is being conceived in the future will be like clouds that rise up
suddenly. He should also observe that the physical existences of all
living beings in the world are impure and that among these various
filthy things there is not a single one that can be sought after with
The Chan (Zen) Buddhist tradition advocates the simultaneous practice
of śamatha and vipaśyanā, and this is called the practice of Silent
Illumination. The classic Chan text known as the Platform Sutra
Calming is the essence of wisdom. And wisdom is the natural function
of calming [i.e., prajñā and samādhi]. At the time of prajñā,
samādhi exists in that. At the time of samādhi, prajñā exists in
that. How is it that samādhi and prajñā are equivalent? It is like
the light of the lamp. When the lamp exists, there is light. When
there is no lamp, there is darkness. The lamp is the essence of light.
The light is the natural function of the lamp. Although their names
are different, in essence, they are fundamentally identical. The
teaching of samādhi and prajñā is just like this.
Vajrayana and Tibetan Buddhism
In Tibetan Buddhism, the classical practice of śamatha and
vipaśyanā is strongly influenced by the
Mahāyāna text called the
Bhavanakrama of Indian master Kamalaśīla.
vipaśyanā as "the discernment of reality" (bhūta-pratyavekṣā)
and "accurately realizing the true nature of dharmas".
Buddhism employed both deductive investigation
(applying ideas to experience) and inductive investigation (drawing
conclusions from direct experience) in the practice of
vipaśyanā.[note 7][note 8] According to Leah Zahler, only the
tradition of deductive analysis in vipaśyanā was transmitted to
Tibet in the sūtrayāna context.[note 9]
In Tibet direct examination of moment-to-moment experience as a means
of generating insight became exclusively associated with
vajrayāna.[note 10][note 11]
Mahāmudrā and Dzogchen
Dzogchen use vipaśyanā extensively. This includes
some methods of the other traditions, but also their own specific
approaches. They place a greater emphasis on meditation on symbolic
images. Additionally in the Vajrayāna (tantric) path, the true nature
of mind is pointed out by the guru, and this serves as a direct form
of insight.[note 12]
Atthakavagga and Parayanavagga
Global Vipassana Pagoda
Neural mechanisms of mindfulness meditation
^ Thanissaro Bhikkhu: "If you look directly at the
Pali discourses —
the earliest extant sources for our knowledge of the Buddha's
teachings — you'll find that although they do use the word samatha
to mean tranquillity, and vipassanā to mean clear-seeing, they
otherwise confirm none of the received wisdom about these terms. Only
rarely do they make use of the word vipassanā — a sharp contrast to
their frequent use of the word jhana. When they depict the Buddha
telling his disciples to go meditate, they never quote him as saying
"go do vipassanā," but always "go do jhana." And they never equate
the word vipassanā with any mindfulness techniques."[citation not
Khantipalo recommends the use of the koan-like question "Who?" to
penetrate "this not-self-nature of the five aggregates": "In Zen
Buddhism this technique has been formulated in several koans, such as
'Who drags this corpse around?'"
^ This "gradual training" is expressed in teachings as the Five ranks
of enlightenment, Ten Ox-Herding Pictures which detail the steps on
the Path, The Three mysterious Gates of Linji, and the Four Ways of
Knowing of Hakuin.
^ See, for example:
AN 4.170 (Pali):
“Yo hi koci, āvuso, bhikkhu vā bhikkhunī vā mama santike
arahattappattiṁ byākaroti, sabbo so catūhi maggehi, etesaṁ vā
Katamehi catūhi? Idha, āvuso, bhikkhu samathapubbaṅgamaṁ
Puna caparaṁ, āvuso, bhikkhu vipassanāpubbaṅgamaṁ samathaṁ
Puna caparaṁ, āvuso, bhikkhu samathavipassanaṁ yuganaddhaṁ
Puna caparaṁ, āvuso, bhikkhuno dhammuddhaccaviggahitaṁ mānasaṁ
Friends, whoever — monk or nun — declares the attainment of
arahantship in my presence, they all do it by means of one or another
of four paths. Which four?
There is the case where a monk has developed insight preceded by
Then there is the case where a monk has developed tranquillity
preceded by insight. [...]
Then there is the case where a monk has developed tranquillity in
tandem with insight. [...]
"Then there is the case where a monk's mind has its restlessness
concerning the Dhamma [Comm: the corruptions of insight] well under
AN 2.30 Vijja-bhagiya Sutta, A Share in Clear Knowing:
"These two qualities have a share in clear knowing. Which two?
Tranquility (samatha) & insight (vipassana).
"When tranquility is developed, what purpose does it serve? The mind
is developed. And when the mind is developed, what purpose does it
serve? Passion is abandoned.
"When insight is developed, what purpose does it serve? Discernment is
developed. And when discernment is developed, what purpose does it
serve? Ignorance is abandoned.
"Defiled by passion, the mind is not released. Defiled by ignorance,
discernment does not develop. Thus from the fading of passion is there
awareness-release. From the fading of ignorance is there
SN 43.2 (Pali): "Katamo ca, bhikkhave, asaṅkhatagāmimaggo? Samatho
ca vipassanā". English translation: "And what, bhikkhus, is the
path leading to the unconditioned? Serenity and insight."
^ Brooks: "While many commentaries and translations of the Buddha's
Discourses claim the Buddha taught two practice paths, one called
"shamata" and the other called "vipassanā," there is in fact no place
in the suttas where one can definitively claim that."
^ Henepola Gunaratana: "The classical source for the distinction
between the two vehicles of serenity and insight is the
^ Corresponding respectively to the "contemplative forms" and
"experiential forms" in the Theravāda school described above
^ Leah Zahler: "The practice tradition suggested by the Treasury
[Abhidharma-kośa] .. . — and also by Asaṅga's Grounds of Hearers
— is one in which mindfulness of breathing becomes a basis for
inductive reasoning on such topics as the five aggregates; as a result
of such inductive reasoning, the meditator progresses through the
Hearer paths of preparation, seeing, and meditation. It seems at least
possible that both
Vasubandhu and Asaṅga presented their respective
versions of such a method, analogous to but different from modern
Theravāda insight meditation, and that Gelukpa scholars were unable
to reconstruct it in the absence of a practice tradition because of
the great difference between this type of inductive meditative
reasoning based on observation and the types of meditative reasoning
using consequences (thal 'gyur, prasaanga) or syllogisms (sbyor ba,
prayoga) with which Gelukpas were familiar. Thus, although Gelukpa
scholars give detailed interpretations of the systems of breath
meditation set forth in Vasubandu's and Asaṅga's texts, they may not
fully account for the higher stages of breath meditation set forth in
those texts [...] it appears that neither the Gelukpa textbook writers
nor modern scholars such as Lati
Rinpoche and Gendun Lodro were in a
position to conclude that the first moment of the fifth stage of
Vasubandhu's system of breath meditation coincides with the attainment
of special insight and that, therefore, the first four stages must be
a method for cultivating special insight [although this is clearly the
^ This tradition is outlined by
Kamalaśīla in his three
Bhāvanākrama texts (particularly the second one), following in turn
an approach described in the Laṅkāvatāra Sūtra. One scholar
describes his approach thus: "the overall picture painted by
Kamalaśīla is that of a kind of serial alternation between
observation and analysis that takes place entirely within the sphere
of meditative concentration" in which the analysis portion consists of
^ According to contemporary Tibetan scholar
Thrangu Rinpoche the
Vajrayana cultivates direct experience. Thrangu Rinpoche: "The
approach in the sutras [...] is to develop a conceptual understanding
of emptiness and gradually refine that understanding through
meditation, which eventually produces a direct experience of emptiness
[...] we are proceeding from a conceptual understanding produced by
analysis and logical inference into a direct experience [...] this
takes a great deal of time [...] we are essentially taking inferential
reasoning as our method or as the path. There is an alternative [...]
which the Buddha taught in the tantras [...] the primary difference
between the sutra approach and the approach of
mantra or tantra) is that in the sutra approach, we take inferential
reasoning as our path and in the
Vajrayana approach, we take direct
experience as our path. In the
Vajrayana we are cultivating simple,
direct experience or "looking." We do this primarily by simply looking
directly at our own mind."
Thrangu Rinpoche also explains: "In general there are two
kinds of meditation: the meditation of the paṇḍita who is a
scholar and the nonanalytical meditation or direct meditation of the
kusulu, or simple yogi. . . the analytical meditation of the
paṇḍita occurs when somebody examines and analyzes something
thoroughly until a very clear understanding of it is developed. . .
The direct, nonanalytical meditation is called kusulu meditation in
Sanskrit. This was translated as trömeh in Tibetan, which means
"without complication" or being very simple without the analysis and
learning of a great scholar. Instead, the mind is relaxed and without
applying analysis so it just rests in its nature. In the sūtra
tradition, there are some nonanalytic meditations, but mostly this
tradition uses analytic meditation."
Thrangu Rinpoche describes the approach using a guru: "In the Sūtra
path one proceeds by examining and analyzing phenomena, using
reasoning. One recognizes that all phenomena lack any true existence
and that all appearances are merely interdependently related and are
without any inherent nature. They are empty yet apparent, apparent yet
empty. The path of Mahāmudrā is different in that one proceeds using
the instructions concerning the nature of mind that are given by one's
guru. This is called taking direct perception or direct experiences as
the path. The fruition of śamatha is purity of mind, a mind
undisturbed by false conception or emotional afflictions. The fruition
of vipaśyanā is knowledge (prajnā) and pure wisdom (jñāna).
Jñāna is called the wisdom of nature of phenomena and it comes about
through the realization of the true nature of phenomena.
^ a b c Gunaratana 2011, p. 21.
^ King 1992, p. 132–137.
^ Nyanaponika 1998, p. 107–109.
^ Koster 2009, p. 9–10.
^ Ray (2004) p.74
^ Gombrich 1997, p. 131.
^ a b Thanissaro
^ Vetter 1988, p. xxi-xxii.
^ Bronkhorst 1993.
^ Cousins 1996, p. 58.
^ Vetter 1988, p. xxx.
^ Norman 1997, p. 29.
^ a b c Gombrich 1997, p. 96-144.
^ a b Warder 2000, p. 284.
^ Gomez 1991, p. 69.
^ Defined by Reginald A. Ray. ""Vipashyana," by Reginald A. Ray.
''Buddhadharma: The Practitioner's Quarterly'', Summer 2004".
Archive.thebuddhadharma.com. Retrieved 2013-05-30.
^ a b c Gombrich 1997, p. 133.
^ "Through the Looking Glass, ''Essential Buddhism''".
Bhikkhucintita.wordpress.com. Retrieved 2013-05-30.
Khantipalo 1984, p. 71.
^ "What is
Theravada Buddhism?". Access to Insight. Access to Insight.
Retrieved 17 August 2013.
^ Thrangu Rinpoche, Essentials of Mahamudra
^ Bond 1992, p. 167.
^ Bond 1992, p. 162-171.
^ Robert H. Sharf, Division of Social and Transcultural Psychiatry,
Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, McGill University
^ "AN 4.170 Yuganaddha Sutta: ''In Tandem''. Translated from the Pali
by Thanissaro Bhikkhu". Accesstoinsight.org. 2010-07-03. Retrieved
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Theravada reinvents meditation
Meditation Online From Buddhanet.net
A Honed and Heavy Axe
Satipatthana Vipassana: Criticisms and Replies
Jeffrey S, Brooks, The Fruits (Phala) of the Contemplative Life
Publications in the Theravāda tradition/ Pariyatti.org
Publications and resources on Vipassana meditation (as taught by S.N.
Meditation From Yellowrobe.com
Meditation as taught by
S.N. Goenka and his assistant
teachers in the tradition of Sayagyi U
Ba Khin at free centers
Saddhamma Foundation Information about practicing Vipassana
Practical Guidelines for Vipassanâ by Ayya Khema
A Meditator's Handbook by Bill Crecelius
Turning to the Source by V.R. Dhiravamsa
The Middle Path of Live by V.R. Dhiravamsa
Healing through Pure
Mindfulness by V.R. Dhiravamsa
Four Noble Truths
Noble Eightfold Path
Laos and Thailand
Mahapajapati Gotamī (aunt, adoptive mother)
Places where the Buddha stayed
Buddha in world religions
Three marks of existence
Two truths doctrine
Ten spiritual realms
Hungry Ghost realm
Three planes of existence
Vipassanā (Vipassana movement)
Seven Factors of Enlightenment
Four Right Exertions
Four stages of enlightenment
Upāsaka and Upāsikā
The ten principal disciples
Emperor Wen of Sui
Chinese Buddhist canon
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Early Buddhist schools
Basic points unifying Theravāda and Mahāyāna
Buddhism in India
Buddhism in India
Great Anti-Buddhist Persecution
Buddhism and the Roman world
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Silk Road transmission of Buddhism
Persecution of Buddhists
Banishment of Buddhist monks from Nepal
Sinhalese Buddhist nationalism
Women in Buddhism
The unanswered questions
Japanese Buddhist architecture
Korean Buddhist temples
Thai temple art and architecture
Tibetan Buddhist architecture
Jaya Sri Maha Bodhi
Om mani padme hum
Maya Devi Temple
Temple of the Tooth
East Asian religions
Brain activity and meditation
History of meditation
Meditation in popular culture
Research on meditation
Anapanasati (Buddhist breathing meditation)
Dhyāna (Buddhist meditation)
Dhyāna (Hindu meditation)
Muraqaba (Sufi meditation)
New Age meditation
Naam Japo (Sikism meditation)
Pranayama (yoga breathing practice)
Zen Buddhist seated meditation)
Transcendental meditation (TM)
Vipassanā (Silent meditation)
Zen Buddhist seated meditation)
Zhan zhuang (
Qigong standing meditation)