A vernacular or vernacular language is the native language or native
dialect (usually colloquial or informal) of a specific population,
especially as distinguished from a literary, national or standard
variety of the language, or a lingua franca (also called a vehicular
language) used in the region or state inhabited by that population.
Some linguists use "vernacular" and "nonstandard dialect" as
The oldest known vernacular manuscript in Scanian (Danish, c. 1250.)
It deals with Scanian and Scanian Ecclesiastical Law.
An allegory of philosophy and grammar, Trinci Palace, Foligno, Italy,
by Gentile da Fabriano, who lived at about the time the Italian
language was being standardized.
2 Concepts of the vernacular
2.1 General linguistics
2.1.1 In contrast with lingua franca
2.1.2 As a low variant in diglossia
2.2.1 As an informal register
2.2.2 As a non-standard dialect
2.2.3 As an idealisation
3 First vernacular grammar
4 First vernacular dictionaries
5 See also
8 External links
The use of "vernacular" is not recent. In 1688,
James Howell wrote:
Concerning Italy, doubtless there were divers before the
spread all over that Country; the Calabrian, and Apulian spoke Greek,
whereof some Relicks are to be found to this day; but it was an
adventitious, no Mother-
Language to them: 'tis confess'd that Latium
it self, and all the Territories about Rome, had the
Latin for its
maternal and common first vernacular Tongue; but Tuscany and Liguria
had others quite discrepant, viz. the Hetruscane and Mesapian, whereof
though there be some Records yet extant; yet there are none alive that
can understand them: The Oscan, the Sabin and Tusculan, are thought to
be but Dialects to these.
Here vernacular, mother language and dialect are already in use in a
modern sense. According to Merriam-Webster, "vernacular" was
brought into the
English language as early as 1601 from the Latin
vernaculus ("native") which had been in figurative use in Classical
Latin as "national" and "domestic", having originally been derived
from vernus and verna, a male or female slave respectively born in the
house rather than abroad. The figurative meaning was broadened from
the diminutive extended words vernaculus, vernacula. Varro, the
Latin grammarian, used the term vocabula vernacula, "termes
de la langue nationale" or "vocabulary of the national language" as
opposed to foreign words.
Concepts of the vernacular
In contrast with lingua franca
Dante Alighieri, champion of the use of vernacular Italian
for literature rather than the lingua franca, Latin. Fresco by Luca
Signorelli in the cappella di San Brizio dome, Orvieto.
Ratio of books printed in the vernacular languages to those in Latin
in the 15th century
In general linguistics, a vernacular is contrasted with a lingua
franca, a third-party language in which persons speaking different
vernaculars not understood by each other may communicate. For
Western Europe until the 17th century, most scholarly
works had been written in Latin, which was serving as a lingua franca.
Works written in Romance languages are said to be in the vernacular.
The Divina Commedia, the Cantar de Mio Cid, and
The Song of Roland
The Song of Roland are
examples of early vernacular literature in Italian, Spanish, and
Latin was used widely instead of vernacular languages in
varying forms until c. 1701, in its latter stage as New Latin.
Protestantism was a driving force in the use of the
vernacular in Christian Europe, the
Bible being translated from Latin
into vernacular languages with such works as the
Bible in Dutch:
published in 1526 by Jacob van Liesvelt;
Bible in French: published in
1528 by Jacques Lefevre d’Étaples (or Faber Stapulensis); German
Bible in 1534 (
New Testament 1522);
Bible in Spanish: published
in Basel in 1569 by Casiodoro de Reina (Biblia del Oso);
Bible of Kralice, printed between 1579 and 1593;
English: King James Bible, published in 1611;
Bible in Slovene,
published in 1584 by Jurij Dalmatin. In Catholicism, vernacular bibles
were later provided, but
Latin was used at
Tridentine Mass until the
Second Vatican Council
Second Vatican Council of 1965. Certain groups, notably Traditionalist
Catholics, continue to practice
In India, the 12th century
Bhakti movement led to the translation of
Sanskrit texts to the vernacular.
In science, an early user of the vernacular was Galileo, writing in
Italian c. 1600, though some of his works remained in Latin. A later
example is Isaac Newton, whose 1687 Principia was in Latin, but whose
Opticks was in English.
Latin continues to be used in certain
fields of science, notably binomial nomenclature in biology, while
other fields such as mathematics use vernacular; see scientific
nomenclature for details.
In diplomacy, French displaced
Latin in Europe in the 1710s, due to
the military power of Louis XIV of France.
Certain languages have both a classical form and various vernacular
forms, with two widely used examples being Arabic and Chinese: see
Varieties of Arabic
Varieties of Arabic and Chinese language. In the 1920s, due to the May
Classical Chinese was replaced by written vernacular
As a low variant in diglossia
The vernacular is also often contrasted with a liturgical language, a
specialized use of a former lingua franca. For example, until the
Roman Rite Catholics held Masses in
Latin rather than in
vernaculars; to this day the Coptic Church holds liturgies in Coptic,
not Arabic; the
Ethiopian Orthodox Church
Ethiopian Orthodox Church holds liturgies in Ge'ez
though parts of Mass are read in Amharic.
Hindu culture, traditionally religious or scholarly
works were written in
Sanskrit (long after its use as a spoken
language) or in Tamil in Tamil country.
Sanskrit was a lingua franca
among the non-Indo-European languages of the Indian subcontinent and
became more of one as the spoken language, or prakrits, began to
diverge from it in different regions. With the rise of the bhakti
movement from the 12th century onwards, religious works were created
in the other languages: Hindi, Kannada, Telugu and many others. For
example, the Ramayana, one of Hinduism's sacred epics in Sanskrit, had
vernacular versions such as Ranganadha Ramayanam composed in Telugu by
Gona Buddha Reddy in the 15th century; and Ramacharitamanasa, a Hindi
version of the
Ramayana by the 16th-century poet Tulsidas.
These circumstances are a contrast between a vernacular and language
variant used by the same speakers. According to one school of
linguistic thought, all such variants are examples of a linguistic
phenomenon termed diglossia ("split tongue", on the model of the
genetic anomaly). In it, the language is bifurcated, i.e. the
speaker learns two forms of the language and ordinarily uses one but
under special circumstances the other. The one most frequently used is
the low (L) variant, equivalent to the vernacular, while the special
variant is the high (H). The concept was introduced to linguistics by
Charles A. Ferguson (1959), but Ferguson explicitly excluded variants
as divergent as dialects or different languages or as similar as
styles or registers. H must not be a conversational form; Ferguson had
in mind a literary language. For example, a lecture is delivered in a
different variety than ordinary conversation. Ferguson's own example
was classical and spoken Arabic, but the analogy between Vulgar Latin
Classical Latin is of the same type. Excluding the upper-class and
lower-class register aspects of the two variants,
Classical Latin was
a literary language; the people spoke Vulgar
Latin as a vernacular.
Joshua Fishman redefined the concept in 1964 to include everything
Fergusen had excluded. Fishman allowed both different languages and
dialects and also different styles and registers as the H variants.
The essential contrast between them was that they be "functionally
differentiated"; that is, H must be used for special purposes, such as
a liturgical or sacred language. Fasold expanded the concept still
further by proposing that multiple H exist in society from which the
users can select for various purposes. The definition of an H is
intermediate between Ferguson's and Fishman's. Realizing the
inappropriateness of the term diglossia (only two) to his concept, he
proposes the term broad diglossia.
Within sociolinguistics, the term "vernacular" has been applied to
several concepts. Context, therefore, is crucial to determining its
As an informal register
In variation theory, pioneered by William Labov, language is a large
set of styles or registers from which the speaker selects according to
the social setting of the moment. The vernacular is "the least
self-conscious style of people in a relaxed conversation", or "the
most basic style"; that is, casual varieties used spontaneously rather
than self-consciously, informal talk used in intimate situations. In
other contexts the speaker does conscious work to select the
appropriate variations. The one he can use without this effort is the
first form of speech acquired.
As a non-standard dialect
In another theory, the vernacular is opposed to the standard. The
non-standard varieties thus defined are dialects, which are to be
identified as complexes of factors: "social class, region, ethnicity,
situation, and so forth." Both the standard and the non-standard
language have dialects, but in contrast to the standard, the
non-standard have "socially disfavored" structures. The standard are
primarily written, but the non-standard are spoken. An example of a
vernacular dialect is African American
As an idealisation
A vernacular is not a real language but is "an abstract set of
First vernacular grammar
Vernaculars acquired the status of official languages through
metalinguistic publications. Between 1437 and 1586, the first grammar
of Italian, Spanish, French, Dutch, German and English were written,
though not always immediately published. It is to be understood that
the first vestiges of those languages preceded their standardization
by up to several hundred years.
In the 16th century, the "rederijkerskamers", learned literary
societies founded throughout
Holland from the 1420s
onward, attempted to impose a
Latin structure on Dutch, on the
Latin grammar had a "universal character."
However, in 1559
John III van de Werve, Lord of Hovorst
John III van de Werve, Lord of Hovorst published his
grammar Den schat der Duytsscher Talen in Dutch and so did Dirck
Volckertszoon Coornhert (Eenen nieuwen ABC of Materi-boeck) in 1564.
The Latinizing tendency changed course with the joint publication in
1584 by De Eglantier, the rhetoric society of Amsterdam, of the first
comprehensive Dutch grammar, Twe-spraack vande Nederduitsche
letterkunst/ ófte Vant spellen ende eyghenscap des Nederduitschen
Hendrick Laurenszoon Spieghel
Hendrick Laurenszoon Spieghel was a major contributor but
others contributed as well.
Further information: History of English
Modern English is considered to have begun at a conventional date of
about 1550, most notably at the end of the
Great Vowel Shift
Great Vowel Shift (for
example, "bot", the footwear, more as in "boat" to
"boot")[clarification needed]. It was created by the infusion of Old
Old English after the
Norman conquest of 1066 AD and of
Latin at the instigation of the clerical administration. While
present-day English-speaking students may be able to read Middle
English authors such as
Chaucer with some schooling,
Old English is
much more difficult.
Middle English is known for its alternative spellings and
pronunciations. The British Isles, although geographically limited,
have always supported populations of widely variant dialects (as well
as a few different languages). Being the language of a maritime power,
English was of necessity formed from elements of many different
languages. Standardization has been an ongoing issue. Even in the age
of modern communications and mass media, according to one study,
"… although the Received Pronunciation of
Standard English has been
heard constantly on radio and then television for over 60 years, only
3 to 5% of the population of Britain actually speaks RP … new brands
of English have been springing up even in recent times ...." What the
vernacular would be in this case is a moot point: "… the
standardisation of English has been in progress for many centuries."
Modern English came into being as the standard Middle English, i.e. as
the preferred dialect of the monarch, court and administration. That
dialect was East Midland, which had spread to
London where the king
resided and from which he ruled. It contained Danish forms not often
used in the north or south, as the Danes had settled heavily in the
Chaucer wrote in an early East Midland, Wycliffe translated
New Testament into it and William Caxton, the first English
printer, wrote in it. Caxton is considered the first modern English
author. The first printed book in England was Chaucer's Canterbury
Tales, published by Caxton in 1476.
The first English grammars were written in Latin, with some in
French. After a general plea for mother-tongue education in
England: The first part of the elementary, published in 1582 by
William Bullokar wrote the first English
grammar to be written in English: Pamphlet for Grammar, followed by
Bref Grammar, both in 1586. Previously he had written Booke at Large
for the Amendment of Orthography for English Speech (1580) but his
orthography was not generally accepted and was soon supplanted, and
his grammar shared a similar fate. Other grammars in English followed
rapidly: Paul Greaves' Grammatica Anglicana, 1594; Alexander Hume's
Orthographie and Congruitie of the Britain Tongue, 1617, and many
others. Over the succeeding decades many literary figures turned a
hand to grammar in English: Alexander Gill, Ben Jonson, Joshua Poole,
John Wallis, Jeremiah Wharton, James Howell, Thomas Lye, Christopher
Cooper, William Lily,
John Colet and so on, all leading to the massive
dictionary of Samuel Johnson.
Further information: Old French
French (as Old French) emerged as a Gallo-
Romance language from Vulgar
Latin during late antiquity. The written language is known from at
least as early as the 9th century. That language contained many forms
still identifiable as Latin. Interest in standardizing French began in
the 16th century. Because of the
Norman conquest of England and
the Anglo-Norman domains in both northwestern France and Britain,
English scholars retained an interest in the fate of French as well as
of English. Some of the numerous 16th-century surviving grammars are:
John Palsgrave, L'esclarcissement de la langue francoyse (1530; in
Louis Meigret, Tretté de la grammaire françoeze (1550).
Robert Stephanus: Traicté de la grammaire françoise (1557).
Further information: History of German
The development of a standard German was impeded by political disunity
and strong local traditions until the invention of printing made
possible a "High German-based book language." This literary
language was not identical to any specific variety of German. The
first grammar evolved from pedagogical works that also tried to create
a uniform standard from the many regional dialects for various
reasons. Religious leaders wished to create a sacred language for
Protestantism that would be parallel to the use of
Latin for the Roman
Catholic Church. Various administrations wished to create a civil
service, or chancery, language that would be useful in more than one
locality. And finally, nationalists wished to counter the spread of
the French national language into German-speaking territories assisted
by the efforts of the French Academy.
With so many linguists moving in the same direction a standard German
(hochdeutsche Schriftsprache) did evolve without the assistance of a
language academy. Its precise origin, the major constituents of its
features, remains uncertainly known and debatable.
Latin prevailed as
a lingua franca until the 17th century, when grammarians began to
debate the creation of an ideal language. Before 1550 as a
conventional date "supraregional compromises" were used in printed
works, such as the one published by Valentin Ickelsamer (Ein Teutsche
Grammatica) 1534. Books published in one of these artificial variants
began to increase in frequency replacing the
Latin then in use. After
1550 the supraregional ideal broadened to a universal intent to create
a national language from Early New
High German by deliberately
ignoring regional forms of speech, which practice was considered
to be a form of purification parallel to the ideal of purifying
religion in Protestantism.
In 1617, the Fruitbearing Society, a language club, was formed in
Weimar in imitation of the
Accademia della Crusca
Accademia della Crusca in Italy. It was one
of many such clubs; however, none became a national academy. In
1618–1619 Johannes Kromayer wrote the first all-German grammar.
In 1641 Justin Georg Schottel in teutsche Sprachkunst presented the
standard language as an artificial one. By the time of his work of
1663, ausführliche Arbeit von der teutschen Haubt-Sprache, the
standard language was well established.
Auraicept na n-Éces
Auraicept na n-Éces is a grammar of the
Irish language which is
thought to date back as far as the 7th century: the earliest surviving
manuscripts are 12th-century.
Further information: Italian language
Italian appears before standardization as the lingua Italica of
Isidore and the lingua vulgaris of subsequent medieval writers.
Documents of mixed
Latin and Italian are known from the 12th century,
which appears to be the start of writing in Italian.
The first known grammar of a
Romance language was a book written in
manuscript form by
Leon Battista Alberti
Leon Battista Alberti between 1437 and 1441 and
entitled Grammatica della lingua toscana, "
Grammar of the Tuscan
Language." In it Alberti sought to demonstrate that the vernacular –
here Tuscan, known today as modern Italian – was every bit as
structured as Latin. He did so by mapping vernacular structures onto
The book was never printed until 1908. It was not generally known, but
it was known, as an inventory of the library of Lorenzo de'Medici
lists it under the title Regule lingue florentine ("Rules of the
Florentine language"). The only known manuscript copy, however, is
included in the codex, Reginense Latino 1370, located at Rome in the
Vatican library. It is therefore called the Grammatichetta
More influential perhaps were the 1516 Regole grammaticali della
volgar lingua of Giovanni Francesco Fortunio and the 1525 Prose della
vulgar lingua of Pietro Bembo. In those works the authors strove to
establish a dialect that would qualify for becoming the Italian
The very first grammar in a vernacular language in western Europe was
Toulouse in 1327. Known as the
Leys d'amor and written by
Guilhèm Molinièr, an advocate of Toulouse, it was published in order
to codify the use of the
Occitan language in poetry competitions
organized by the company of the Gai Saber in both grammar and
Further information: History of Spanish
Spanish (more accurately, la lengua castellana) has a development
chronologically similar to that of Italian: some vocabulary in Isidore
of Seville, traces afterward, writing from about the 12th century,
standardization beginning in the 15th century, coincident with the
rise of Castile as an international power. The first Spanish
Antonio de Nebrija
Antonio de Nebrija (Tratado de gramática sobre la lengua
Castellana, 1492) was divided into parts for native and nonnative
speakers, pursuing a different purpose in each: Books 1–4 describe
Spanish language grammatically in order to facilitate the study of
Latin for its Spanish speaking readers. Book 5 contains a phonetical
and morphological overview of Spanish for nonnative speakers.
Grammar Books of the Master-poets (Welsh: Gramadegau'r
Penceirddiaid) are considered to have been composed in the early
fourteenth century, and are present in manuscripts from soon after.
These tractates draw on the traditions of the
Latin grammars of
Donatus and Priscianus and also on the teaching of the professional
Welsh poets. The tradition of grammars of the Welsh
from these through the Middle Ages and to the Renaissance.
First vernacular dictionaries
A dictionary is to be distinguished from a glossary. Although numerous
glossaries publishing vernacular words had long been in existence,
such as the
Etymologiae of Isidore of Seville, which listed many
Spanish words, the first vernacular dictionaries emerged together with
Glossaries in Dutch began about 1470 AD leading eventually to two
Thesaurus Theutonicae Linguae, 1573
Cornelis Kiliaan: Dictionarium Teutonico-Latinum, 1574 (becoming
Etymologicum with the 1599 3rd edition)
Shortly after (1579) the
Southern Netherlands came under the dominion
of Spain, then of Austria (1713) and of France (1794). The Congress of
Vienna created the
United Kingdom of the Netherlands
United Kingdom of the Netherlands in 1815 from
which southern Netherlands (being Catholic) seceded in 1830 to form
the Kingdom of Belgium, which was confirmed in 1839 by the Treaty of
London. As a result of this political instability no standard
Dutch was defined (even though much in demand and recommended as an
ideal) until after World War II. Currently the Dutch
an international treaty organization founded in 1980, supports a
standard Dutch in the Netherlands, while
Afrikaans is regulated by Die
Taalkommissie founded in 1909.
Standard English remains a quasi-fictional ideal, despite the numerous
private organizations publishing prescriptive rules for it. No
language academy was ever established or espoused by any government
past or present in the English-speaking world. In practice the British
monarchy and its administrations established an ideal of what good
English should be considered to be, and this in turn was based on the
teachings of the major universities, such as
Cambridge University and
Oxford University, which relied on the scholars whom they hired. There
is a general but far from uniform consensus among the leading scholars
about what should or should not be said in standard English, but for
every rule examples from famous English writers can be found that
break it. Uniformity of spoken English never existed and does not
exist now, but usages do exist, which must be learnt by the speakers,
and do not conform to prescriptive rules.
Usages have been documented not by prescriptive grammars, which on the
whole are less comprehensible to the general public, but by
comprehensive dictionaries, often termed unabridged, which attempt to
list all usages of words and the phrases in which they occur as well
as the date of first use and the etymology where possible. These
typically require many volumes, and yet not more so than the
unabridged dictionaries of many languages.
Bilingual dictionaries and glossaries precede modern English and were
in use in the earliest written English. The first monolingual
dictionary was Robert Cawdrey's Table Alphabeticall (1604) which
was followed by Edward Phillips's A New World of English Words (1658)
and Nathaniel Bailey's An Universal Etymological English Dictionary
(1721). These dictionaries whetted the interest of the
English-speaking public in greater and more prescriptive dictionaries
Samuel Johnson published Plan of a Dictionary of the English
Language (1747), which would imitate the dictionary being produced by
the French Academy. He had no problem acquiring the funding, but not
as a prescriptive dictionary. This was to be a grand comprehensive
dictionary of all English words at any period, A Dictionary of the
By 1858, the need for an update resulted in the first planning for a
new comprehensive dictionary to document standard English, a term
coined at that time by the planning committee. The dictionary,
known as the Oxford English Dictionary, published its first fascicle
in 1884. It attracted significant contributions from some singular
minds, such as William Chester Minor, a former army surgeon who had
become criminally insane and made most of his contributions while
incarcerated. Whether the OED is the long-desired standard English
Dictionary is debatable, but its authority is taken seriously by the
entire English-speaking world. Its staff is currently working on a
Surviving dictionaries are a century earlier than their grammars. The
Académie française founded in 1635 was given the obligation of
producing a standard dictionary. Some early dictionaries are:
Louis Cruse, alias Garbin: Dictionaire latin-françois, 1487
Robert Estienne, alias Robertus Stephanus: Dictionnaire
Maurice de la Porte: Epitheta, 1571
Jean Nicot: Thresor de la langue fracoyse, tant ancienne que moderne,
Pierre Richelet: Dictionnaire françois contenant les mots et les
Académie française: Dictionnaire de l’Académie française, 1694
High German dictionaries began in the 16th century and were at first
multi-lingual. They were preceded by glossaries of German words and
phrases on various specialized topics. Finally interest in developing
a vernacular German grew to the point where Maaler could publish a
work called by
Jacob Grimm "the first truly German dictionary",
Joshua Maaler's Die Teutsche Spraach: Dictionarium Germanico-latinum
It was followed along similar lines by Georg Heinisch: Teütsche
Sprache und Weißheit (1616). After numerous dictionaries and
glossaries of a less-than-comprehensive nature came a thesaurus that
attempted to include all German, Kaspar Stieler's Der Teutschen
Sprache Stammbaum und Fortwachs oder Teutschen Sprachschatz (1691),
and finally the first codification of written German, Johann
Christoph Adelung's Versuch eines vollständigen
grammatisch-kritischen Wörterbuches Der Hochdeutschen Mundart
Schiller called Adelung an Orakel and Wieland is said to
have nailed a copy to his desk.
In the early 15th century a number of glossaries appeared, such as
that of Lucillo Minerbi on
Boccaccio in 1535, and those of Fabrizio
Luna on Ariosto, Petrarca,
Dante in 1536. In the
mid-16th the dictionaries began, as listed below. In 1582 the first
language academy was formed, called Accademia della Crusca, "bran
academy", which sifted language like grain. Once formed, its
publications were standard-setting.
Alberto Accarisio: Vocabolario et grammatica con l'orthographia della
lingua volgare, 1543
Francesco Alunno: Le richezze della lingua volgare, 1543
Francesco Alunno: La fabbrica del mondo, 1548
Giacomo Pergamini: Il memoriale della lingua italiana, 1602
Accademia della Crusca: Vocabolario degli Accademici della Crusca,
Italian / French
Nathanael Duez : Dittionario italiano e francese/Dictionnaire
italien et François, Leiden, 1559–1560
Gabriel Pannonius: Petit vocabulaire en langue françoise et
italienne, Lyon, 1578
Jean Antoine Fenice : Dictionnaire françois et italien, Paris,
Italian / English
John Florio: A Worlde of Words, London, 1598
John Florio: Queen Anna’s New World of Words, London, 1611
Italian / Spanish
Cristóbal de las Casas: Vocabulario de las dos lenguas toscana y
castellana, Sevilla, 1570
Lorenzo Franciosini: Vocabulario italiano e spagnolo/ Vocabulario
español e italiano, Roma, 1620.
The first Spanish dictionaries in the 15th century were
Latin-Spanish/Spanish-Latin, followed by monolingual Spanish. In 1713
the Real Academia Española, "Royal Spanish Academy," was founded to
set standards. It published an official dictionary, 1726–1739.
Alonzo de Palencia: El universal vocabulario en latin y romance, 1490
Antonio de Nebrija: Lexicon latino-hispanicum et hispanico-latinum,
Sebastián de Covarrubias Orozco: Tesoro de la lengua castellana o
Real Academia Española: Diccionario de la lengua castellana,
The first vernacular Serbian dictionary was
Srpski rječnik (Serbian
dictionary) written by
Vuk Karadžić and published in 1818.
Slavonic-Serbian / German
German–Serbian dictionary (1791)
^ a b Wolfram, Walt; Schilling-Estes, Natalie (1998). American
English: dialects and variation. Malden, Mass.: Blackwell.
^ Howell, James (1688). Epistolæ Ho-Elianæ: Familiar letters,
domestic and forren (6th ed.). London: Thomas Grey. p. 363.
Merriam-Webster Online. Retrieved 8 November
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^ Wardhaugh, Ronald (2006). An introduction to sociolinguistics.
Malden, Mass.; Oxford: Blackwell Publishing. p. 59. In 1953,
UNESCO defined a lingua franca as 'a language which is used habitually
by people whose mother tongues are different in order to facilitate
communication between them.'
^ "diglossia". Stedman's Medical Dictionary (5th ed.). 1918.
^ Fasold 1984, pp. 34–60
^ Mesthrie 1999, pp. 77–83
^ Lodge 2005, p. 13
^ Noordegraaf 2000, p. 894
^ Milroy, James; Milroy, Lesley (1985). Authority in language:
investigating language prescription and standardisation. Routledge.
^ Champneys 1893, pp. 269, 285–286, 301, 314
^ Dons 2004, p. 6
^ Dons 2004, p. 5
^ Dons 2004, pp. 7–9
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^ Wells 1985, p. 134
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Nicola, Standardization: studies from the Germanic languages, Current
Issues in Linguistic Theory 235, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing
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^ Wells 1985, p. 222
^ Diez 1863, pp. 75–77
^ Marazzini, Claudio (2000), "102. Early grammatical descriptions of
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Berlin, New York: Walter de Gruyter, pp. 742–749
^ Diez 1863, p. 77
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