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Uzhhorod

Ужгород
Aerial view Uzhhorod -Amphitheatre-0308.jpg
21-101-0044 Uzgorod02.jpg
Uzhhorod, Zakarpats'ka oblast, Ukraine - panoramio (97).jpg
UzhhorodBridge2.jpg
Вихід з Театральної площі на вул. Корзо.jpg
Uzhhorod-castle-main-building.jpg
Uzhhorod (Ukrainian and Rusyn: У́жгород, romanized: Užhorod, pronounced [ˈuʒɦorod]) previously and historically known as Ungvár (in Hungarian; German: Ungwar) is a city located in western Ukraine, at the border with Slovakia and near the border with Hungary. The city is located nearly within the same distance to the three nearest seas: the Baltic, the Adriatic and the Black Sea (650-690 km) making it the most inland city in this part of Europe. It is the administrative center of Zakarpattia Oblast (region), as well as the administrative center of the surrounding Uzhhorod Raion (district) within the oblast. The city itself is also designated as city of oblast significance, a status equivalent to that of a raion, and does not belong to Uzhhorod Raion. Population: 115,512 (2020 est.)[2].

Name

The historical name of the city is Hungarian, Ungvár.[citation needed] The Rusyn name Uzhhorod is a recent construct, and has been used only since the beginning of the 20th century.[citation needed]

The town is also known by several alternative names: Czech: Užhorod; Slovak: Užhorod; German: Ungwar, Ungarisch Burg; Polish: Użhorod; Romanian: Ujgorod; Yiddish: אונגוואַר‎.

Uzhhorod

The city gets its name from the Uzh River, which divides the city into two parts (the old and new sections), while horod (город) is Rusyn for city, coming from Old Slavonic grad (градъ).

Ungvár

Ungvár, also spelled Ongvár, Hungvár, and Unguyvar, is derived from Ung, the Hungarian name for the Uzh (as well as the surrounding county) and vár, meaning castle, fort.

History

Historical affiliations[3]
Principality of Hungary 895–1000

Kingdom of Hungary 1000–1526
Kingdom of Hungary 1526–1804
Kingdom of Hungary (crownland of the Austrian Empire 1804–1867)
Austro-Hungarian Empire 1867–1918
 Czechoslovakia 1920–1938
Kingdom of Hungary 1938–1945
 Soviet Union 1945–1991

 Ukraine 1991–present

Early history

Slavic beginnings

The best known of the first city founders are early Slavs. One of their tribes – White Croats – settled the area of the modern Uzhhorod in the second half of the first millennium AD.[4] During the 9th century a fortified castle changed into a fortified early feudal town-settlement, which became the center of a new Slavic principality, at the head of which was a mythical prince Laborec, who was vassal of Great Moravia .[4] Great Moravia, according to historians and experts did not extend as far east as Uzhgorod, in fact, it was west of what is now the City of Bratislava, Slovakia. According to Gesta Hungarorum, the city was under the rule of Salan, the Bulgarian Prince.[5]

Hungarian conquest (895)

In 895 AD, Magyar tribes, headed by their leader Árpád, stormed the Hungvar fortress. The forces were not equal and Laborec was defeated and beheaded on the banks of the river that still carries his name. Again, this is mythical. There was not much of a settlement when the Magyar tribes arrived, having left Kyiv (then known as Kevevara) and encountering no resistance.

10th-15th centuries

11th-century Rotunda in Horiany

After the arrival of the Hungarians, the small town began to extend its borders. In 1241–1242 the Mongols of Batu Khan burnt the settlement. After, in 1248 the city was granted town privileges by the King Béla IV of Hungary. In the early 14th century, Uzhhorod showed strong resistance to the new Hungarian rulers of the Anjou dynasty. Although the majority of inhabitants were Hungarians, they wanted more freedom. From 1318 for 360 years, the Drugeths (Italian counts from the Kingdom of Naples) owned the town. During that period Philip Drugeth built Uzhhorod Castle. Together with the castle, the city b

The historical name of the city is Hungarian, Ungvár.[citation needed] The Rusyn name Uzhhorod is a recent construct, and has been used only since the beginning of the 20th century.[citation needed]

The town is also known by several alternative names: Czech: Užhorod; Slovak: Užhorod; German: Ungwar, Ungarisch Burg; Polish: Użhorod; Romanian: Ujgorod; Yiddish: אונגוואַר‎.

Uzhhorod

The city gets its name from the Uzh River, which divides the city into two parts (the old and new sections), while horod (город) is Rusyn for city, coming from Old Slavonic grad (градъ).

Ungvár

Ungvár, also spelled Ongvár, Hungvár, and Unguyvar, is derived from Ung, the Hungarian name for the Uzh (as well as the surrounding county) and vár, meaning castle, fort.

History

Historical affiliations[3]
Czech: Užhorod; Slovak: Užhorod; German: Ungwar, Ungarisch Burg; Polish: Użhorod; Romanian: Ujgorod; Yiddish: אונגוואַר‎.

The city gets its name from the Uzh River, which divides the city into two parts (the old and new sections), while horod (город) is Rusyn for city, coming from Old Slavonic grad (градъ).

Ungvár

Kingdom of Hungary 1000–1526
Kingdom of Hungary 1526–1804
Kingdom of Hungary (crownland of the Austrian Empire 1804–1867)
Austro-Hungarian Empire 1867–1918
 Czechoslovakia 1920–1938
Kingdom of Hungary 1938–1945
 Soviet Union 1945–1991

 Ukraine 1991–present

Early history

Slavic beginnings

The best known of the first city founders are early Slavs. One of their tribes – White Croats – settled the area of the modern Uzhhorod in the second half of the first millennium AD.[4] During the 9th century a fortified castle changed into a fortified early feudal town-settlement, which became the center of a new Slavic principality, at the head of which was a mythical prince Laborec, who was vassal of Great Moravia .[4] Great Moravia, according to historians and experts did not extend as far east as Uzhgorod, in fact, it was west of what is now the City of Bratislava, Slovakia. According to Gesta Hungarorum, the city was under the rule of Salan, the Bulgarian Prince.[5]

Hungarian conquest (89

The best known of the first city founders are early Slavs. One of their tribes – White Croats – settled the area of the modern Uzhhorod in the second half of the first millennium AD.[4] During the 9th century a fortified castle changed into a fortified early feudal town-settlement, which became the center of a new Slavic principality, at the head of which was a mythical prince Laborec, who was vassal of Great Moravia .[4] Great Moravia, according to historians and experts did not extend as far east as Uzhgorod, in fact, it was west of what is now the City of Bratislava, Slovakia. According to Gesta Hungarorum, the city was under the rule of Salan, the Bulgarian Prince.[5]

Hungarian conquest (895)

In 895 AD, Magyar tribes, headed by their leader Árpád, stormed the Hungvar fortress. The forces were not equal and Laborec was defeated and beheaded on the banks of the river that still carries his name. Again, this is mythical. There was not much of a settlement when the Magyar tribes arrived, having left Kyiv (then known as Kevevara) and encountering no resistance.

10th-15th centuries

Mongols of Batu Khan burnt the settlement. After, in 1248 the city was granted town privileges by the King Béla IV of Hungary. In the early 14th century, Uzhhorod showed strong resistance to the new Hungarian rulers of the Anjou dynasty. Although the majority of inhabitants were Hungarians, they wanted more freedom. From 1318 for 360 years, the Drugeths (Italian counts from the Kingdom of Naples) owned the town. During that period Philip Drugeth built Uzhhorod Castle. Together with the castle, the city began to grow. From 1430, Uzhhorod became a free royal town.

16th-18th centuries

During the 16–17th centuries there were many handicraft corporations in Uzhhorod. In this period the city was engaged in the religious fight between primarily Protestant Transylvania and Catholic Austria. In 1646 the Union of Ungvár was proclaimed and the Greek-Catholic church was established in Subcarpathia, in a ceremony held in the Ungvár castle by the Vatican Aegis. In 1707 Ungvár was the residence of Ferenc II Rák

During the 16–17th centuries there were many handicraft corporations in Uzhhorod. In this period the city was engaged in the religious fight between primarily Protestant Transylvania and Catholic Austria. In 1646 the Union of Ungvár was proclaimed and the Greek-Catholic church was established in Subcarpathia, in a ceremony held in the Ungvár castle by the Vatican Aegis. In 1707 Ungvár was the residence of Ferenc II Rákóczi, leader of the national liberation war of Hungarians against Vienna. From 1175 the city became the capital of the Greek Catholic Eparchy and from 1776 the center of new created school district.[6]

Hungarian Revolution of 1848-1849, during which the native Hungarian nobility sought both shake off the suzerainty of the Austrian Empire and to have authority over their own people. 27 March 1848 was officially celebrated in the city as the overthrow of the monarchy in Hungary. It is now celebrated in Hungary on 15 March.

In 1872 the first railway line opened, linking the city to the important railway junction of Chop, then known as Csap.

Twentieth century

According to the 1910 census, the city had 16,919 inhabitants, of which 13,590 (80.3%) were Magyars, 1,219 (7.2%) Slovaks, 1,151 (6.8%) Germans, 641 (3.8%) Rusyns and 1.6% Czechs.[7] Since Jews were not counted as ethnicity (as defined by language), rather only religious group, this Austrian-Hungarian census does not specifically mention the Jewish population, which was significant, and represented about 31% of the total population in 1910.[8] In the same time, the municipal area of the city had a population c

In 1872 the first railway line opened, linking the city to the important railway junction of Chop, then known as Csap.

According to the 1910 census, the city had 16,919 inhabitants, of which 13,590 (80.3%) were Magyars, 1,219 (7.2%) Slovaks, 1,151 (6.8%) Germans, 641 (3.8%) Rusyns and 1.6% Czechs.[7] Since Jews were not counted as ethnicity (as defined by language), rather only religious group, this Austrian-Hungarian census does not specifically mention the Jewish population, which was significant, and represented about 31% of the total population in 1910.[8] In the same time, the municipal area of the city had a population composed of 10,541 (39.05%) Hungarians, 9,908 (36.71%) Slovaks, and 5,520 (20.45%) Rusyns.[9]

The First World War slowed down the tempo of city development. On 10 September 1919, Subcarpathia was officially allocated to the Republic of The First World War slowed down the tempo of city development. On 10 September 1919, Subcarpathia was officially allocated to the Republic of Czechoslovakia. Uzhhorod became the administrative center of the territory. During these years Uzhhorod developed into an architecturally modern city.[10] After the Treaty of Trianon 1920, Uzhhorod became part of the eastern half of the new Czecho-Slovak state.

After the First Vienna Award in 1938, Uzhhorod was given back to Hungary from which it was separated after WWI.

In 1941 the Jewish population reached 9,576. On 19 March 1944, Germans troops entered the city. They established a Judenrat (Jewish council) and set up two ghettos, at the Moskovitz brickyard and Gluck lumberyard. During May 1944, all Jews were deported to Auschwitz in five different transports and subsequently murdered. Only a few hundred Jews survived.[11]

On 27 October 1944, the city was captured by the troops of the 4th Ukrainian Front of the Red Army.[citation needed] Thousands of ethnic Hungarians were killed, expelled, or else taken to work in Soviet forced labor camps.[citation needed] The Hungarian majority population was decimated in order to strengthen the Soviet and Ukrainian right to the city.[citation needed]

This period brought significant changes. On the outskirts of Uzhhorod new enterprises were constructed and the old enterprises were renewed.[citation needed] On 29 June 1945, Subcarpathian Ukraine was annexed by the Soviet Union and became a westernmost part of the Ukrainian SSR. That year the Uzhhorod State University (now Uzhhorod National University) was also opened. Since January 1946 Uzhhorod was the center of newly formed Zakarpatska oblast.[1]

Since 1991 Uzhhorod has become one of 24 regional capitals within Ukraine. Of these, Uzhhorod is the smallest and westernmost.

[citation needed] On 29 June 1945, Subcarpathian Ukraine was annexed by the Soviet Union and became a westernmost part of the Ukrainian SSR. That year the Uzhhorod State University (now Uzhhorod National University) was also opened. Since January 1946 Uzhhorod was the center of newly formed Zakarpatska oblast.[1]

Since 1991 Uzhhorod has become one of 24 regional capitals within Ukraine. Of these, Uzhhorod is the smallest and westernmost.

In 2002, a bust of Tomáš Masaryk, Czechoslovakia's first president, was unveiled in a main square of the city. A similar bust was unveiled in 1928 on the 10th anniversary of Czechoslovak independence, but was removed by the Hungarians when they took over the region in 1939.[12]

Climate

humid continental climate (Köppen: Dfb) with cool to cold winters and warm summers. The coldest month is January with an average temperature of −1.7 °C (28.9 °F) while the warmest month is July with an average temperature of 20.9 °C (69.6 °F).[13] The coldest temperature ever recorded is −28.2 °C (−18.8 °F) and the warmest temperature was 38.6 °C (101.5 °F). Average annual precipitation is 748 millimetres (29.4 in), which is evenly distributed throughout the year though the summer months have higher precipitation.[13] On average, Uzhhorod receives 1950 hours of sunshine per year.[14]

Climate data for Uzhhorod (1981–2010, extremes 1947–present)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 13.3
(55.9)
17.2
(63.0)
25.4
(77.7)
29.7
(85.5)
33.4
(92.1)
35.0
(95.0)
38.6
(101.5)
38.4
(101.1)
35.9
(96.6)
26.1
(79.0)
23.3
(73.9)
15.6
(60.1)
38.6
(101.5)
According to the Ukrainian 2001 census, the population of Uzhhorod included:[15]

Transportation

Uzhhorod is served by Uzhhorod railway station and has railway connection with Chop (further to Hungary and Slovakia) and Lviv (further to Kyiv).

Uzhhorod is served by Uzhhorod International Airport.[16]

Sport

The city was home to the SC Rusj Užhorod football club from 1925. Contemporary side FC Hoverla Uzhhorod made their debut in the Ukrainian Premier League in 2001, but dissolved in 2016 due to money issues.[17]

In 2020 professional football matches at the highest levels of Ukraine returned to Uzhhorod since the 2020–21 season FC Mynai plays its home matches in the Avanhard Stadium.[18]

International relations

Twin towns – Sister cities

Uzhhorod is currently twinned with:

  • Pedestrian Bridge across Uzh River, between Petöfi Square and Teatralna Square

  • Tourist street signs in Uzhhorod

  • Lamplighter statue in Uzhhorod

  • Aerial view of Uzhhorod - Amphitheatre and residential neighborhood.

  • Mini-sculpture in Hospital Square Garden, Uzhhorod host various mini-statues sculpted by local born Mihaly Kolodko [uk; hu; eo][24]

  • Residential street

  • Korzo Street in the Historical center of Uzhhorod

  • Teatralna Square

  • Petöfi Square and Teatralna Square

  • Tour

    Tourist street signs in Uzhhorod

  • Aerial view of Uzhhorod - Amphitheatre and residential neighborhood.

  • Residential street

  • Teatralna Square

  • See also

    References


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