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UNHCR, the UN Refugee
Refugee
Agency, is a United Nations
United Nations
programme with the mandate to protect refugees, forcibly displaced communities and stateless people, and assist in their voluntary repatriation, local integration or resettlement to a third country. UNHCR stands for the Office of the United Nations
United Nations
High Commissioner for Refugees and was created in 1950, during the aftermath of World War II. Its headquarters are in Geneva, Switzerland
Switzerland
and it is a member of the United Nations
United Nations
Development Group.[1] The UNHCR has won two Nobel Peace Prizes, once in 1954 and again in 1981.[2]

Contents

1 History 2 Function

2.1 Palestine refugee mandate 2.2 Public awareness 2.3 Cooperation within the United Nations 2.4 Awards

3 Persons of concern to UNHCR 4 Staffing

4.1 High Commissioners 4.2 Special
Special
Envoy of High Commissioner Filippo Grandi 4.3 Goodwill ambassadors

5 See also 6 Notes 7 References 8 External links

History[edit]

Office of the United Nations
United Nations
High Commissioner for Refugees

Following the demise of the League of Nations
League of Nations
and the formation of the United Nations
United Nations
the international community was acutely aware of the refugee crisis following the end of World War II. In 1947, the International Refugee
Refugee
Organization (IRO) was founded by the United Nations.[3] The IRO was the first international agency to deal comprehensively with all aspects of refugees' lives. Preceding this was the United Nations
United Nations
Relief and Rehabilitation Administration, which was established in 1944 to address the millions of people displaced across Europe
Europe
as a result of World War II.[3] In the late 1940s, the IRO fell out of favor, but the UN agreed that a body was required to oversee global refugee issues. Despite many heated debates in the General Assembly, the United Nations
United Nations
High Commissioner for Refugees was founded as a subsidiary organ of the General Assembly by Resolution 319 (IV) of the United Nations
United Nations
General Assembly of December 1949. However, the organization was only intended to operate for 3 years, from January 1951, due to the disagreement of many UN member states over the implications of a permanent body.[3] UNHCR's mandate was originally set out in its statute, annexed to resolution 428 (V) of the United Nations
United Nations
General Assembly of 1950. This mandate has been subsequently broadened by numerous resolutions of the General Assembly and its Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC).[3] According to UNHCR,

[its] mandate is to provide, on a non-political and humanitarian basis, international protection to refugees and to seek permanent solutions for them.[3]

Soon after the signing of the 1951 Convention relating to the Status of Refugees, it became clear that refugees were not solely restricted to Europe. In 1956, UNHCR was involved in coordinating the response to the uprising in Hungary. Just a year later, UNHCR was tasked with dealing with Chinese refugees in Hong Kong, while also responding Algerian refugees who had fled to Morocco
Morocco
and Tunisia
Tunisia
in the wake of Algeria's war for independence. The responses marked the beginning of a wider, global mandate in refugee protection and humanitarian assistance.[3] Decolonization in the 1960s triggered large refugee movements in Africa, creating a massive challenge that would transform UNHCR; unlike the refugee crises in Europe, there were no durable solutions in Africa and many refugees who fled one country only found instability in their new country of asylum. By the end of the decade, two-thirds of UNHCR's budget was focused on operations in Africa and in just one decade, the organization's focus had shifted from an almost exclusive focus on Europe.[3] In 1967, the Protocol Relating to the Status of Refugees
Protocol Relating to the Status of Refugees
was ratified to remove the geographical and temporal restrictions of UNHCR under the 1951 Convention relating to the Status of Refugees. As the Convention was confined to the refugee crisis in the aftermath of World War II
World War II
in Europe, the Protocol was made to address the “new refugee situations that have arisen since the Convention was adopted and the refugees concerned that may therefore not fall within the scope of the Convention”.[4] In the 1970s, UNHCR refugee operations continued to spread around the globe, with the mass exodus of East Pakistanis to India
India
shortly before the birth of Bangladesh. Adding to the woes in Asia was the Vietnam war, with millions fleeing the war-torn country.[3] The 1980s saw new challenges for UNHCR, with many member states unwilling to resettle refugees due to the sharp rise in refugee numbers over the 1970s. Often, these refugees were not fleeing wars between states, but inter-ethnic conflict in newly independent states. The targeting of civilians as military strategy added to the displacement in many nations, so even 'minor' conflicts could result in a large number of displaced persons. Whether in Asia, Central America or Africa, these conflicts, fueled by superpower rivalry and aggravated by socio-economic problems within the concerned countries, durable solutions continued to prove a massive challenge for the UNHCR. As a result, the UNHCR became more heavily involved with assistance programs within refugee camps, often located in hostile environments.[3] The end of the Cold War
Cold War
marked continued inter-ethnic conflict and contributed heavily to refugee flight. In addition, humanitarian intervention by multinational forces became more frequent and the media began to play a big role, particularly in the lead up to the 1999 NATO
NATO
mission in Yugoslavia, while by contrast, the 1994 Rwandan Genocide had little attention. The genocide in Rwanda caused a massive refugee crisis, again highlighting the difficulties for UNHCR to uphold its mandate, and the UNHCR continued to battle against restrictive asylum policies in so called 'rich' nations.[3] Function[edit]

UNHCR packages containing tents, tarps, and mosquito netting sit in a field in Dadaab, Kenya, on 11 December 2006, following disastrous flooding

UNHCR was established on 14 December 1950[5] and succeeded the earlier United Nations
United Nations
Relief and Rehabilitation Administration. The agency is mandated to lead and co-ordinate international action to protect refugees and resolve refugee problems worldwide. Its primary purpose is to safeguard the rights and well-being of refugees. It strives to ensure that everyone can exercise the right to seek asylum and find safe refuge in another state, with the option to return home voluntarily, integrate locally or to resettle in a third country. UNHCR's mandate has gradually been expanded to include protecting and providing humanitarian assistance to whom it describes as other persons "of concern," including internally displaced persons (IDPs) who would fit the legal definition of a refugee under the 1951 United Nations Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees
Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees
and 1967 Protocol, the 1969 Organization for African Unity Convention, or some other treaty if they left their country, but who presently remain in their country of origin. UNHCR presently has major missions in Lebanon, South Sudan, Chad/Darfur, Democratic Republic of Congo, Iraq, Afghanistan
Afghanistan
as well as Kenya
Kenya
to assist and provide services to IDPs and refugees in camps and in urban settings. UNHCR maintains a database of refugee information, ProGres, which was created during the Kosovo War
Kosovo War
in the 1990s. The database today contains data on over 11 million refugees, or about 11% of all displaced persons globally. The database contains biometric data, including fingerprints and iris scans and is used to determine aid distribution for recipients.The results of using biometric verification has been successful. When introduced in Kenyan refugee camps of Kakuma
Kakuma
and Dadaab
Dadaab
in the year 2013, the UN World Food Programme was able to eliminate $1.4m in waste and fraud.[6] To achieve its mandate, the UNHCR engaged in activities both in the countries of interest and in countries with donors. For example, the UNHCR hosts expert roundtables to discuss issues of concern to the international refugee community. Palestine refugee mandate[edit] Main article: United Nations
United Nations
Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East Most Palestinian refugees
Palestinian refugees
– those in the West Bank, Gaza Strip, Lebanon, Syria, and Jordan
Jordan
– do not come within the responsibility of the UNHCR, but instead come under an older body, the United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA). The UNRWA
UNRWA
has a much broader definition of "refugee" than the UNHCR, including not only refugees themselves but their descendants in perpetuity; however, it only covers refugees stemming from the 1948 and 1967 Arab-Israeli wars. Other Palestinian refugees
Palestinian refugees
outside of UNRWA's area of operations do fall under UNHCR's mandate, if they meet the UNHCR's more limited definition of refugee. Public awareness[edit]

UNHCR 50th anniversary. Stamp of Tajikistan, 2001.

Several new programs have recently been introduced to support and to heighten awareness of the issues faced by refugees around the world. These two new programs are a product of the benchmarks set out by the United Nations
United Nations
Millennium Development Goals. The UNHCR works in different regions of the world to raise awareness about the refugee crisis and the needs of these refugees. Since 2009, the UNHCR acknowledged a large presence of migration and refugees in the Caribbean, where the refugee crisis remained largely unreported.[7] Many refugees in search for asylum in the United States are unable to reach their destination and end up in the Caribbean.[8] However, migrant laws in most of these nations lacked any protections for asylum-seekers, even the ability to be recognized as a refugee or asylum seeker itself.[7] The UNHCR organized talks with these nations in Costa Rica
Costa Rica
in 2009,[8] in an effort to bring forward the lack of protections for refugees, who are often labeled as "illegal" [7] and prosecuted as unauthorized migrants. In 2007, UNHCR offices in Canada launched an aggressive media campaign to shed light on the plight of refugees.[9] This campaign was meant to humanize the refugee crisis by showing refugees living in the midst of disturbing conditions. Using emotional appeals to raise public awareness, the campaign hoped to increase the interest of particularly "30 to 45-year-old professionals who are generally well educated, well read, but have not had direct experience or knowledge of refugee issues,”[9] according to fund-raising officer Jonathan Wade. In Ireland, the UNHCR works to inform the public through different channels. The UNHCR in Ireland actively pursues media relations and "[they] supply the media with accurate and reliable information coupled with our unique insight based on our refugee protection mandate and role as one of the world’s leading humanitarian agencies".[10] It also engages its community by holding public events in aims of informing people of current refugee crises. One of these is the annual UNHCR/SARI Fair play Football Cup.[10] Cooperation within the United Nations[edit] As UNHCR is a program governed by the UN General Assembly, and the UN Economic and Social Council, it cooperates with many other programs and agencies under the United Nations
United Nations
in order to effectively protect the rights of refugees. On 19 September 2016, UN General Assembly hosted the UN Summit for Refugees and Migrants, a high-level summit to address large movements of refugees and migrants, with the aim of bringing countries together behind a more humane and coordinated approach.[11] Leaders of the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights, UN Entity for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women, UN Office on Drugs and Crime, and The World Bank were present. The summit addressed the root causes and drive for migration and the necessity of global cooperation. As a result of this summit, the United Nations
United Nations
unveiled a draft set of principles that urge the international community to build on the momentum set by the adoption of the New York Declaration for Refugees and Migrants. Specifically, the 20 draft principles focus on human rights; non-discrimination; rescue and assistance; access to justice; border governance; returns; violence; detention; family unity; child migrants; women migrants; right to health; adequate standard of living; decent work; right to education; right to information; monitoring and accountability; migrants’ human rights defenders; data; and international cooperation.[12] On 28 September 2016, the UNHCR partnered with the UN Food and Agricultural Organization in Tehran for the Solutions Strategy for Afghan Refugees. FAO highlighted the contributions to be made by FAO towards SSAR objectives on livelihood related activities including livestock and fishery initiatives as well as nutritional projects in Iranian schools. FAO and UNHCR are committed towards increasing refugees’ access to livelihood opportunities and reducing dependency on humanitarian aid. Of late, a joint livelihood strategy for South Sudan was launched looking to address this issue with a clearly defined action plan. The strategy targets both refugees (70 percent) and local communities (30 percent) in refugee-hosting areas across the country.[13] Awards[edit] Since 1954, the UNHCR Nansen Refugee
Refugee
Award has been annually awarded to a person or an organization in recognition of outstanding service to the cause of refugees, displaced or stateless people. The UNHCR itself was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize
Nobel Peace Prize
in 1954 and 1981.The UNHCR has been chosen for the prestigious Indira Gandhi Prize for Peace, Disarmament and Development 2015.

Refugee
Refugee
camp in Darfur
Darfur
(Chad)

A helicopter arrives at a refugee facility in Macedonia with an underslung load of Aid

Trucks loaded with supplies drive across the border from Turkey
Turkey
into Iraq
Iraq
to take part in Operation Provide Comfort, a multinational effort to aid Kurdish refugees

An UNHCR-officer talks with a Marine during Exercise Eager Lion 12

Workers from the UNHCR, and CARE International
CARE International
gather bundles of shelters and mosquito nets in Kenya

Heavily fortified UNHCR offices in Somaliland

Persons of concern to UNHCR[edit] The UNHCR's Mid-Year Trends report of June 2015 (based on information for mid-2015 or latest available information up to that date) reported an "unprecedented" 57,959,702 individuals falling under its mandate (for reference, on January the 1st, 2007, 21,018,589 people - or less than half of the number in 2015 - fell under the mandate of the UNHCR). The sharp increase was mainly attributed to the Syrian Civil War, "with the outbreak of armed crises or the deterioration of ongoing ones in countries like Afghanistan, Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Mali, Somalia, South Sudan
South Sudan
and the Ukraine contributing to prevailing trends."[14] Persons of concern include refugees and asylum-seekers, people in refugee-like conditions, internally-displaced people (IDPs), stateless persons and "others of concern to the UNHCR".

Aerial view of Zaatari refugee camp
Zaatari refugee camp
for Syrian refugees in Jordan, July 2013

Sorted by the UNHCR bureau in which asylum is sought, the number for June 2015 included:

16,796,426 in the Middle East
Middle East
and North Africa, of which

2,941,121 are refugees 64,166 are in refugee-like situations 109,847 have pending asylum cases 374,309 are stateless ("persons not considered as nationals by any State") 13,297,101 are IDPs or people in IDP-like situations assisted by the UNHCR

9,694,535 in the Asia and Pacific bureau, of which

3,506,644 are refugees 278,350 are in refugee-like situations 133,894 have pending asylum cases 1,801,802 are stateless ("persons not considered as nationals by any State") 2,965,211 are IDPs or people in IDP-like situations assisted by the UNHCR

8,451,275 in East and Horn of Africa, of which

2,713,748 are refugees 33,553 are in refugee-like situations 108,016 have pending asylum cases 233,726 are stateless ("persons not considered as nationals by any State" 5,119,463 are IDPs or people in IDP-like situations assisted by the UNHCR

7,726,594 in the Americas, of which

501,049 are refugees 251,888 are in refugee-like situations 276,394 have pending asylum cases 136,413 are stateless ("persons not considered as nationals by any State") 6,520,270 are IDPs or people in IDP-like situations assisted by the UNHCR

7,585,581 in Europe, of which

3,506,644 are refugees 14,261 are in refugee-like situations 827,374 are asylum-seekers 610,532 are stateless ("persons not considered as nationals by any State" 2,574,886 are IDPs or people in IDP-like situations assisted by the UNHCR

3,580,181 in Central Africa-Great Lakes, of which

865,112 are refugees 13,741 are in refugee-like situations 18,623 have pending asylum cases 1,302 are stateless ("persons not considered as nationals by any State" 2,021,269 are IDPs or people in IDP-like situations assisted by the UNHCR

2,754,893 in Western Africa of which

258,893 are refugees (Information not applicable/unavailable) on number in refugee-like situations 9,298 have pending asylum cases 700,116 are stateless ("persons not considered as nationals by any State") 1,549,516 are IDPs or people in IDP-like situations assisted by the UNHCR

1,370,217 in Southern Africa, of which

179,837 are refugees (Information not applicable/unavailable) on number in refugee-like situations 860,500 have pending asylum cases 300,000 are stateless ("persons not considered as nationals by any State") (Information not applicable/unavailable) on number of IDPs or people in IDP-like situations assisted by the UNHCR

Staffing[edit]

Filippo Grandi
Filippo Grandi
holds the post of High Commissioner since January 2016

As of April 2008[update], the UNHCR employed a staff of 6,351 people in 117 countries.[15][needs update] High Commissioners[edit] The UN General Assembly elects High Commissioners every five years. High Commissioners are supported by the 'Executive Committee to the High Commissioner’s Programme' and he or she has to make annual reports to the UN General Assembly and needs to follow their directives.[16] The current High Commissioner is Filippo Grandi, who has held the post since 1 January 2016.[17] Prior to the establishment of the UNHCR, Fridtjof Nansen
Fridtjof Nansen
was the League of Nations
League of Nations
High Commissioner of the Nansen International Office for Refugees, from 1922. The post of High Commissioner has been held by:[18]

High Commissioner Took office Left office Time in office Nationality

0

Nansen, FridtjofFridtjof Nansen (1861–1930) League of Nations
League of Nations
High Commissioner 1922 1927 4–5 years  Norway

1

Goedhart, Gerrit Jan van HeuvenGerrit Jan van Heuven Goedhart (1901–1956) 1 January 1951 8 July 1956 7003201500000000000♠5 years, 189 days  Netherlands

2

Lindt, August R.August R. Lindt (1905–2000) 8 July 1956 1960 3–4 years   Switzerland

3

Schnyder, FélixFélix Schnyder (1910–1992) 1960 1965 4–5 years   Switzerland

4

Khan, Sadruddin AgaSadruddin Aga Khan (1933–2003) 1965 31 December 1977 11–12 years  Iran

5

Hartling, PoulPoul Hartling (1914–2000) 1 January 1978 31 December 1985 7003292100000000000♠7 years, 364 days  Denmark

6

Hocké, Jean-PierreJean-Pierre Hocké (de) (born 1938) 1 January 1986 31 December 1989 7003146000000000000♠3 years, 364 days   Switzerland

7

Stoltenberg, ThorvaldThorvald Stoltenberg (born 1931) 1 January 1990 3 November 1990 7002306000000000000♠306 days  Norway

8

Ogata, SadakoSadako Ogata (born 1927) 3 November 1990 31 December 2000 7003371200000000000♠10 years, 59 days  Japan

9

Lubbers, RuudRuud Lubbers (1939–2018) (Resign due to internal investigation) 1 January 2001 20 February 2005 7003151100000000000♠4 years, 50 days  Netherlands

-

Chamberlin, WendyWendy Chamberlin (Acting) (born 1948) 24 February 2005 2 June 2005 7001980000000000000♠98 days  United States

10

Guterres, AntónioAntónio Guterres (born 1949) 2 June 2005 31 December 2015 7003386400000000000♠10 years, 212 days  Portugal

11

Grandi, FilippoFilippo Grandi (born 1957) 1 January 2016 Incumbent 7002825000000000000♠2 years, 94 days  Italy

Special
Special
Envoy of High Commissioner Filippo Grandi[edit]

Angelina Jolie

After 10 years serving as a Goodwill Ambassador, Angelina Jolie
Angelina Jolie
was promoted in 2012 to Special
Special
Envoy to the High Commissioner. In this role she represents the UNHCR and High Commissioner Filipo Grandi at the diplomatic level and works to facilitate long-term solutions for people displaced by large-scale crises, such as Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and Somalia. "This is an exceptional position reflecting an exceptional role she has played for us," said a UNHCR spokesman. Goodwill ambassadors[edit] UNHCR is also represented by a number of UNHCR Goodwill Ambassadors, who at present are:

Barbara Hendricks
Barbara Hendricks
(Honorary Lifetime Goodwill Ambassador) Cate Blanchett David Morrissey Neil Gaiman Yao Chen Julien Clerc George Dalaras Alessandro Gassman Muazzez Ersoy Khaled Hosseini Kristin Davis Adel Emam Ger Duany Rokia Traore Osvaldo Laport Jesús Vázquez Alek Wek Jung Woo-sung Praya Lundberg John Abraham Yusra Mardini Sheikha Rima al-Sabah Iskui Abalyan

Previous ambassadors include:

Richard Burton Nazia Hassan James Mason Sophia Loren

See also[edit]

United Nations
United Nations
portal

Nansen International Office for Refugees United Nations
United Nations
High Commissioner for Refugees Representation in Cyprus UNHCR Representation in India Albert Einstein German Academic Refugee
Refugee
Initiative Fund, a scholarship program for refugees administered by UNHCR United Nations
United Nations
Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East Dadaab Australia

Notes[edit]

^ UNDG Members Archived 11 May 2011 at the Wayback Machine.. Undg.org. Retrieved on 2013-07-12. ^ "Nobel Laureates Facts – Organizations". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2009-10-13.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j Refworld Self-Study Module 1: An Introduction to International Protection. Protecting Persons of Concern to UNHCR. Unhcr.org (1 August 2005). Retrieved on 2013-07-12. ^ "Convention relating to the Status of Refugees". www.ohchr.org. Retrieved 2016-09-29.  ^ "History of UNHCR: A global humanitarian organization of humble origins". UNHCR. Retrieved 2009-11-01.  ^ "Phones are now indispensable for refugees". The Economist. Retrieved 2017-02-20.  ^ a b c Refugees, United Nations
United Nations
High Commissioner for. "UNHCR and Caribbean
Caribbean
partners work to raise awareness of "invisible" refugees". UNHCR. Retrieved 2016-11-16.  ^ a b "UNHCR discuss plight of refugees in Caribbean". ftp.jamaicagleaner.com. Retrieved 2016-11-16.  ^ a b Refugees, United Nations
United Nations
High Commissioner for. "Canadian-made refugee awareness campaign aims to shock". UNHCR. Retrieved 2016-11-16.  ^ a b Refugees, United Nations
United Nations
High Commissioner for. "Building Awareness". www.unhcr.ie. Retrieved 2016-11-16.  ^ "Summit for Refugees and Migrants - 19 September 2016". 2014-12-12. Retrieved 2016-09-29.  ^ Section, United Nations
United Nations
News Service (2016-09-20). "UN News - UN official unveils draft principles on protecting human rights of refugees and migrants". UN News Service Section. Retrieved 2016-09-29.  ^ "UNHCR and FAO help vulnerable refugees and South Sudanese families strengthen their food security". www.fao.org. Retrieved 2016-09-29.  ^ Refugees, United Nations
United Nations
High Commissioner for. "Mid-Year Trends, June 2015". UNHCR. Retrieved 2016-02-27.  ^ "Basic facts". UNHCR. Retrieved 3 October 2010.  ^ http://www.unhcr.org/46f7c0ee2.pdf page12 ^ "UN appoints Filippo Grandi
Filippo Grandi
as next high commissioner for refugees". The Guardian. London. 12 November 2015. Retrieved 27 November 2015.  ^ "UNHCR Ehemalige FlüchtlingshochkommissarInnen". Retrieved 15 May 2015.

References[edit]

Gil Loescher, Alexander Betts and James Milner. UNHCR: The Politics and Practice of Refugee
Refugee
Protection into the Twenty-First Century, Routledge. 2008. Alexander Betts. Protection by Persuasion: International Cooperation in the Refugee
Refugee
Regime, Cornell University Press. 2009. Gil Loescher. The UNHCR and World Politics: A Perilous Path. Oxford University Press. 2002 Fiona Terry. Condemned to Repeat? The Paradox of Humanitarian Action. Cornell University Press. 2002. Nicholas Steiner. Problems of Protection. Routledge. 2003.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to UNHCR.

Official website UNHCR's "Refworld" refugee document and news web site: from UNHCR's Status Determination and Protection Information Section (SDPIS) in the Division of International Protection Services (DIPS). Bottled Water Program in Support of the UNHCR News from UNHCR official website "Basic facts" from official website Measuring Protection by Numbers, Report from official website United Nations
United Nations
Rule of Law: The United Nations
United Nations
High Commissioner for Refugees, on the rule of law work conducted by the High Commissioner for Refugees. History of the United Nations
United Nations
– UK Government site "Who is a Refugee
Refugee
and who is not – the Crisis of Identity as a Challenge to Protection" Online video of an address by Ms. Erika Feller, director, Department of International Protection, UNHCR, in 2005 USCRI's Campaign to End Refugee
Refugee
Warehousing USCRI's joint Statement Calling for Solutions to End the Warehousing of Refugees "Prisons of the Stateless: The Derelictions of UNHCR" by Jacob Stevens Nine Million EarthWater

Links to related articles

v t e

Laureates of the Nobel Peace Prize

1901–1925

1901 Henry Dunant / Frédéric Passy 1902 Élie Ducommun / Charles Gobat 1903 Randal Cremer 1904 Institut de Droit International 1905 Bertha von Suttner 1906 Theodore Roosevelt 1907 Ernesto Moneta / Louis Renault 1908 Klas Arnoldson / Fredrik Bajer 1909 A. M. F. Beernaert / Paul Estournelles de Constant 1910 International Peace Bureau 1911 Tobias Asser / Alfred Fried 1912 Elihu Root 1913 Henri La Fontaine 1914 1915 1916 1917 International Committee of the Red Cross 1918 1919 Woodrow Wilson 1920 Léon Bourgeois 1921 Hjalmar Branting / Christian Lange 1922 Fridtjof Nansen 1923 1924 1925 Austen Chamberlain / Charles Dawes

1926–1950

1926 Aristide Briand / Gustav Stresemann 1927 Ferdinand Buisson / Ludwig Quidde 1928 1929 Frank B. Kellogg 1930 Nathan Söderblom 1931 Jane Addams / Nicholas Butler 1932 1933 Norman Angell 1934 Arthur Henderson 1935 Carl von Ossietzky 1936 Carlos Saavedra Lamas 1937 Robert Cecil 1938 Nansen International Office for Refugees 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 International Committee of the Red Cross 1945 Cordell Hull 1946 Emily Balch / John Mott 1947 Friends Service Council / American Friends Service Committee 1948 1949 John Boyd Orr 1950 Ralph Bunche

1951–1975

1951 Léon Jouhaux 1952 Albert Schweitzer 1953 George Marshall 1954 United Nations
United Nations
High Commissioner for Refugees 1955 1956 1957 Lester B. Pearson 1958 Georges Pire 1959 Philip Noel-Baker 1960 Albert Lutuli 1961 Dag Hammarskjöld 1962 Linus Pauling 1963 International Committee of the Red Cross / League of Red Cross Societies 1964 Martin Luther King Jr. 1965 UNICEF 1966 1967 1968 René Cassin 1969 International Labour Organization 1970 Norman Borlaug 1971 Willy Brandt 1972 1973 Lê Đức Thọ (declined award) / Henry Kissinger 1974 Seán MacBride / Eisaku Satō 1975 Andrei Sakharov

1976–2000

1976 Betty Williams / Mairead Corrigan 1977 Amnesty International 1978 Anwar Sadat / Menachem Begin 1979 Mother Teresa 1980 Adolfo Pérez Esquivel 1981 United Nations
United Nations
High Commissioner for Refugees 1982 Alva Myrdal / Alfonso García Robles 1983 Lech Wałęsa 1984 Desmond Tutu 1985 International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War 1986 Elie Wiesel 1987 Óscar Arias 1988 UN Peacekeeping
Peacekeeping
Forces 1989 Tenzin Gyatso (14th Dalai Lama) 1990 Mikhail Gorbachev 1991 Aung San Suu Kyi 1992 Rigoberta Menchú 1993 Nelson Mandela / F. W. de Klerk 1994 Shimon Peres / Yitzhak Rabin / Yasser Arafat 1995 Pugwash Conferences / Joseph Rotblat 1996 Carlos Belo / José Ramos-Horta 1997 International Campaign to Ban Landmines / Jody Williams 1998 John Hume / David Trimble 1999 Médecins Sans Frontières 2000 Kim Dae-jung

2001–present

2001 United Nations / Kofi Annan 2002 Jimmy Carter 2003 Shirin Ebadi 2004 Wangari Maathai 2005 International Atomic Energy Agency / Mohamed ElBaradei 2006 Grameen Bank / Muhammad Yunus 2007 Al Gore / Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 2008 Martti Ahtisaari 2009 Barack Obama 2010 Liu Xiaobo 2011 Ellen Johnson Sirleaf / Leymah Gbowee / Tawakkol Karman 2012 European Union 2013 Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons 2014 Kailash Satyarthi / Malala Yousafzai 2015 Tunisian National Dialogue Quartet 2016 Juan Manuel Santos 2017 International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons

v t e

International human rights organisations and institutions

Types

Human rights
Human rights
group Human rights
Human rights
commission Human rights
Human rights
institutions Truth and reconciliation commission

International institutions

Committee on the Rights of the Child Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities International Criminal Court Office of the United Nations
United Nations
High Commissioner for Human Rights UN Human Rights Committee UN Human Rights Council UN Security Council

Regional bodies

African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights African Court on Human and Peoples' Rights African Court of Justice European Court of Human Rights European Committee for the Prevention of Torture Inter-American Commission on Human Rights Inter-American Court of Human Rights

Multi-lateral bodies

European Union Council of Europe Organisation of American States (OAS) UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
(UNOCHA) International Labour Organization
International Labour Organization
(ILO) World Health Organization
World Health Organization
(WHO) UN Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Joint UN Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UNDESA) Commission on the Status of Women (CSW) UN Population Fund (UNFPA) UN Children's Fund (UNICEF) UN Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM) UN Development Programme (UNDP) Food and Agriculture Organization
Food and Agriculture Organization
of the UN (FAO) UN Human Settlements Programme (UN-HABITAT)

Major NGOs

Amnesty International FIDH Human Rights Watch International Committee of the Red Cross
International Committee of the Red Cross
(ICRC) Emergency NGO Human Rights First

v t e

 United Nations

António Guterres, Secretary-General Amina J. Mohammed, Deputy Secretary-General Miroslav Lajčák, General Assembly President

United Nations
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System

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Members

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statute

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Dag Hammarskjöld
Library

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Programmes and specialized agencies

FAO ICAO IFAD ILO IMO ITC IPCC IAEA MINURSO UNIDO ITU UNAIDS SCSL UNCTAD UNCITRAL UNCDF UNDG UNDP UNDPI UNDPKO

peacekeeping

UNEP

OzonAction UNEP/GRID-Arendal UNEP-WCMC

UNESCO UNFIP UNFPA UN-HABITAT OHCHR UNHCR UNHRC UNICEF UNICRI UNIDIR UNITAR UN-Oceans UNODC UNOPS UNOSAT UNRISD UNRWA UNSSC UNU

UNU-OP UNU-CRIS

UNV UN Women UNWTO UPU WFP WHO WIPO WMO

Members / observers

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European Union

History

League of Nations Four Policemen Declaration by United Nations Peacekeeping
Peacekeeping
missions

history timeline

Enlargement

Resolutions

Security Council vetoes General Assembly

66th 67th

Security Council

Cyprus Iran Iraq Israel Lebanon Nagorno-Karabakh North Korea Palestine Syria Western Sahara

Elections

Secretary-General (2006 2016) International Court of Justice
International Court of Justice
2011 General Assembly President (2012 2016) Security Council (2015 2016)

Related

Bretton Woods system Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Criticism Delivering as One Flag

Honour Flag

Four Nations Initiative Genocide Convention UN Global Compact ICC International Decade for a Culture of Peace and Non-Violence for the Children of the World International Years UN laissez-passer Military Staff Committee Official languages Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons Peacekeeping Treaty Series UN Day Universal Declaration of Human Rights Millennium Declaration

Summit Development Goals

Security Council veto power UN reform

Security Council reform

UN Art Collection UN Memorial Cemetery Korea

Other

Outline UN television film series (1964–1966) In popular culture

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 140620282 LCCN: n81090356 ISNI: 0000 0001 2292 8350 GND: 43182-5 SUDOC: 02639555X BNF: cb11865088c (data) NDL: 0028

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