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The Kingdom of the Two Sicilies
Kingdom of the Two Sicilies
(Neapolitan: Regno dê Doje Sicilie, Sicilian: Regnu dî Dui Sicili, Italian: Regno delle Due Sicilie)[3] was the largest of the states of Italy
Italy
before the Italian unification.[4] It was formed as a union of the Kingdom of Sicily
Kingdom of Sicily
and the Kingdom of Naples, which collectively had long been called the "Two Sicilies" (Utraque Sicilia, literally "both Sicilies"). The Kingdom of the Two Sicilies
Kingdom of the Two Sicilies
lasted from 1815 until 1860, when it was annexed by the Kingdom of Sardinia
Kingdom of Sardinia
to form the Kingdom of Italy
Kingdom of Italy
in 1861. The capitals of the Two Sicilies were in Naples
Naples
and in Palermo. The kingdom extended over the Mezzogiorno
Mezzogiorno
(the southern part of mainland Italy) and the island of Sicily. Jordan Lancaster notes that the integration of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies
Kingdom of the Two Sicilies
into the Kingdom of Italy
Italy
changed the status of Naples
Naples
forever: "Abject poverty meant that, throughout Naples
Naples
and Southern Italy, thousands decided to leave in search of a better future." Many went to the United States, Australia and Argentina.[5] The kingdom was heavily agricultural, like the other Italian states;[6] the church owned 50–65% of the land by 1750.[7]

Contents

1 Name 2 Background

2.1 Establishment of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies 2.2 Origins of the two kingdoms 2.3 Aragonese and Spanish direct rule

3 History

3.1 Crowns' unification 3.2 Invasion by Piedmont

4 Geography

4.1 Departments

5 Economy

5.1 Industry 5.2 Transport 5.3 Technological and scientific achievements

6 Monarchy

6.1 Kings of the Two Sicilies 6.2 Titles of King of the Two Sicilies

7 House of Bourbon
House of Bourbon
in exile 8 Heads of the Royal House of the Two Sicilies, 1861–present

8.1 Calabria
Calabria
line 8.2 Castro line 8.3 Current lines of succession

9 Flags of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies 10 Orders of knighthood 11 Further reading 12 See also 13 References 14 Further reading 15 External links

Name[edit] The name "Two Sicilies" originated from the partition of the medieval Kingdom of Sicily. Until 1285, the island of Sicily
Sicily
and the Mezzogiorno
Mezzogiorno
were constituent parts of the Kingdom of Sicily. As a result of the War of the Sicilian Vespers
War of the Sicilian Vespers
(1282–1302),[8] the King of Sicily
Sicily
lost the Island of Sicily
Sicily
(also called Trinacria) to the Crown of Aragon, but remained ruler over the peninsular part of the realm. Although his territory became known unofficially as the Kingdom of Naples, he and his successors never gave up the title "King of Sicily" and still officially referred to their realm as the "Kingdom of Sicily". At the same time, the Aragonese rulers of the Island of Sicily
Sicily
also called their realm the "Kingdom of Sicily". Thus, there were two kingdoms called "Sicily":[8] hence, the Two Sicilies. Background[edit] Establishment of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies[edit] The Kingdom of the Two Sicilies
Kingdom of the Two Sicilies
resulted from the re-unification of the Kingdom of Sicily
Kingdom of Sicily
with the Kingdom of Naples
Naples
(called the Kingdom of Peninsular Sicily), by King Alfonso V of Aragon
Alfonso V of Aragon
in 1442. The two states had functioned as separate realms since the War of the Sicilian Vespers in 1282. At the death of King Alfonso in 1458, the kingdom again became divided between his brother John II of Aragon, who kept the island of Sicily, and his illegitimate son Ferdinand, who became King of Naples. In 1501, King Ferdinand II of Aragon, son of John II, conquered Naples and reunified the two kingdoms under the authority of the newly united Spanish throne. The Kings of Spain then bore the title King of Both Sicilies[9] or King of Sicily
Sicily
and of the Two Coasts of the Strait until the War of the Spanish Succession.[citation needed] At the end of that war, the Treaty of Utrecht
Treaty of Utrecht
in 1713 granted Sicily
Sicily
to the Duke of Savoy until the Treaty of Rastatt
Treaty of Rastatt
in 1714 left Naples
Naples
to the Emperor Charles VI. In 1720 the Emperor and Savoy exchanged Sicily
Sicily
for Sardinia, thus reuniting Naples
Naples
and Sicily.

Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies
Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies
(aka Ferdinand III of Sicily
Sicily
and Ferdinand IV of Naples) depicted on a Duchy of Parma, 8 Doppie (1791) gold coin

In 1734, Charles, Duke of Parma, son of Philip V of Spain, took the Sicilian crown from the Austrians and became Charles VII & V, giving Parma to his younger brother, Philip. In 1759, Charles became King Carlos III of Spain and resigned Sicily
Sicily
and Naples
Naples
to his younger son, who became Ferdinand III of Sicily
Sicily
and Ferdinand IV of Naples, later crowned Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies
Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies
in 1816. Apart from an interruption under Napoleon, the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies
Kingdom of the Two Sicilies
remained under the Bourbon line (Bourbon Duo-Sicilie) continually until 1860. In January 1799, Napoleon Bonaparte, in the name of the French Republic, captured Naples
Naples
and proclaimed the Parthenopaean Republic, a French client state, as successor to the kingdom. King Ferdinand fled from Naples
Naples
to Sicily
Sicily
until June of that year. In 1806, Napoleon, by then French Emperor, again dethroned King Ferdinand and appointed his brother, Joseph Bonaparte, as King of Naples. In the Edict of Bayonne of 1808 Napoleon moved Joseph to Spain and appointed their brother-in-law, Joachim Murat, as King of the Two Sicilies, though this only meant control of the mainland portion of the kingdom.[10][11] Throughout this Napoleonic interruption, King Ferdinand remained in Sicily, with Palermo
Palermo
as his capital. The Congress of Vienna
Congress of Vienna
restored King Ferdinand in 1815. He established a concordat with the Papal States, which previously had a claim to the land.[12] Several rebellions took place on the island of Sicily
Sicily
against King Ferdinand II (reigned 1830-1859), but the end of the kingdom came only with the Expedition of the Thousand
Expedition of the Thousand
in 1860, led by Garibaldi - an icon of Italian unification
Italian unification
- with the support of the House of Savoy and their Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia. The expedition resulted in a striking series of defeats for the Sicilian armies facing the growing troops of Garibaldi. After the capture of Palermo
Palermo
and Sicily, Garibaldi disembarked in Calabria
Calabria
and moved towards Naples, while in the meantime the Piedmontese also invaded the Kingdom from the Marche. The last battles took place at Volturnus in 1860 and at the siege of Gaeta, where King Francis II (reigned 1859-1861) had sought shelter, hoping for French help, which never came. The last towns to resist Garibaldi's expedition, Messina
Messina
and Civitella del Tronto, capitulated on 13 March 1861 and on 20 March 1861 respectively. The Kingdom of the Two Sicilies dissolved and the new Kingdom of Italy, founded in the same year annexed its territory.[citation needed] The fall of the Sicilian aristocracy in the face of Garibaldi's invasion forms the subject of the novel The Leopard by Giuseppe Tomasi di Lampedusa
Giuseppe Tomasi di Lampedusa
and its film adaptation.[citation needed] Origins of the two kingdoms[edit] Main articles: Kingdom of Sicily
Kingdom of Sicily
and Kingdom of Naples

Cappella Palatina, church of first unifier Roger II of Sicily.

A monarchy over the areas which would later become known as the Two Sicilies existed as one single kingdom, including a peninsular and an insular part, dating from the Middle Ages. The Norman king Roger II formed the Kingdom of Sicily
Kingdom of Sicily
by combining the County of Sicily
Sicily
with the southern part of the Italian Peninsula
Italian Peninsula
(then known as the Duchy of Apulia and Calabria) as well as with the Maltese Islands. The capital of this kingdom was Palermo — which is on the actual island of Sicily. The state existed in that form from 1130 until 1285. In the period of the Capetian House of Anjou
Capetian House of Anjou
during the reign (1266-1285) of King Charles I, the kingdom was split by the War of the Sicilian Vespers
War of the Sicilian Vespers
of 1282-1302.[8] Charles, who was of French origin, lost Sicily
Sicily
proper to the House of Barcelona, who were Aragonese and Catalan, after they were able to gain the support of the natives. Charles remained king over the peninsular part of the realm, thereafter informally known as the Kingdom of Naples. Officially Charles never gave up the title of "The Kingdom of Sicily", thus there existed two separate kingdoms calling themselves "Sicily".[8] Aragonese and Spanish direct rule[edit] Main articles: Crown of Aragon
Crown of Aragon
and Spanish Empire

Crown of Aragon, greatest extent

Only with the Peace of Caltabellotta (1302), sponsored by Pope Boniface VIII, did the two kings of "Sicily" recognize each other's legitimacy; the island kingdom then became the "Kingdom of Trinacria" in official contexts, though the populace still called it Sicily.[8] Eventually by 1442 the Angevin line of the Kings of Naples
Naples
was coming to an end. Alfonso V of Aragon, king of insular Sicily, conquered Naples
Naples
and became king of both (1442). Alfonso V described the geographical area in Latin
Latin
as Utriusque Siciliæ, meaning "of both Sicilies", and used the name as part of his title.[13][not in citation given] After the death of Alfonso in 1458, both Sicilies remained under the direct rule of the Crown of Aragon, but Naples
Naples
had a different Aragonese king from the island of Sicily from 1458 until 1501. For a brief period Naples
Naples
was controlled by a different power other than Sicily, in the form of French king Louis XII of France, who took the mainland kingdom and held it (1501-1504) for around three years. After the French lost the Battle of Garigliano (1503), the last Aragonese king, Ferdinand II of Aragon, re-united the two areas once again under control of the same power and the same king. From 1516, when Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor
Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor
became the first King of Spain, both Naples
Naples
and Sicily
Sicily
came under direct Spanish rule. In 1530 Charles V granted the islands of Malta
Malta
and Gozo, which had been part of the Kingdom of Sicily
Kingdom of Sicily
for four centuries, to the Knights Hospitaller (thereafter known as the Order of Malta). The period of direct Spanish rule under the same line of kings lasted until 1713, when control of Spain and of both Sicilies passed to the French prince Philip, duke of Anjou, who founded the Spanish branch of the House of Bourbon. After an eight-year spell of Savoy rule in Sicily (1713-1720), the two Sicilian kingdoms once again came under the same king after the Treaty of The Hague (1720)
Treaty of The Hague (1720)
appointed the Austrian king Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor
Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor
as their ruler. History[edit] Crowns' unification[edit]

Ferdinand I

The kingdoms were conquered from the Austrians by a young Spanish prince during the War of the Polish Succession; he became Charles VII of Naples. The two kingdoms were then recognised as both independent and under Charles' rule as a cadet branch of the Spanish Bourbons by the Treaty of Vienna.[14] After Charles' brother, Fernando VI of Spain died childless, Charles inherited the Spanish Crown in 1759, reigning as Charles III of Spain. His son Ferdinand then became king of the two kingdoms so as to maintain them as separate realms as required by the treaties restoring the junior Spanish royalty to the southern Italian kingdoms. Ferdinand was highly popular with the poorest class. Ferdinand's reign was highly eventful. For a brief period the Parthenopaean Republic controlled Naples
Naples
with the support of those who supported the French Revolution. However, a counter-revolutionary army of the poorest class retook Naples
Naples
in order to restore royal power.[15]

Joachim Murat

Eight years later, Napoleon conquered the peninsular portion of the kingdom during the War of the Third Coalition
War of the Third Coalition
and placed his brother Joseph Bonaparte
Joseph Bonaparte
on the throne as king.[16] Ferdinand fled to his other kingdom, on the island of Sicily
Sicily
itself. Here the alliance he had previously made with George III of the United Kingdom and Tory Prime Minister the Earl of Liverpool saved him. The British protected Ferdinand and the island of Sicily
Sicily
from Napoleonic conquest with the presence of a powerful Royal Navy
Royal Navy
fleet.[17] Back on the mainland, Joachim Murat
Joachim Murat
had become the second Bonapartist king. In the Edict of Bayonne
Bayonne
he was named as "King of the Two Sicilies",[10] though de facto he never actually held the island of Sicily
Sicily
where Ferdinand was, and is usually referred to as just the King of Naples.[18] Murat actually switched sides for a while, abandoning the Grand Army after the disastrous Battle of Leipzig
Battle of Leipzig
in an attempt to save his Neapolitan throne. However, as the Congress of Vienna progressed, tensions arose as there was strong pressure to restore Ferdinand to the Neapolitan kingdom as well as keeping his Sicilian one.[16] Murat returned to Napoleon and together they declared war on the Austrian Empire, leading to the Neapolitan War
Neapolitan War
in March 1815. Ferdinand and his allies Austria, Britain and Tuscany were victorious, restoring him to his Neapolitan throne. To avoid further French attempts, it was agreed at the Congress of Vienna
Congress of Vienna
that Ferdinand would reunite his kingdom. Invasion by Piedmont[edit] Between 1816 and 1848, the island of Sicily
Sicily
experienced three popular revolts against Bourbon rule, including the revolution of independence of 1848, when the island was fully independent of Bourbon control for 16 months. In 1860, Sicily
Sicily
was invaded by a corps of volunteers, led by Giuseppe Garibaldi from the Kingdom of Sardinia. They successfully conquered the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, and incorporated the territory into the new Kingdom of Italy. Geography[edit] Departments[edit]

Departments and Districts of Kingdom of the Two Sicilies

The peninsula was divided into fifteen departments[19] and Sicily
Sicily
was divided into seven departments.[20] The island itself had a special administrative status, with its base at Palermo.[citation needed] In 1860, when the Two Sicilies were conquered by the Kingdom of Sardinia, the departments became provinces of Italy, according to the Rattazzi law.[citation needed]

Peninsula Capital

1 Abruzzo Ultra I Teramo

2 Abruzzo Ultra II Aquila

3 Abruzzo Citra Chieti

4 Contado di Molise Campobasso

5 Terra di Lavoro Capua, Caserta
Caserta
from 1818

6 Province of Naples Naples

7 Principato Ultra Avellino[a]

8 Principato Citra Salerno

9 Capitanata originally San Severo, then Foggia

10 Terra di Bari Bari

11 Terra d'Otranto Lecce

12 Basilicata Potenza

13 Calabria
Calabria
Citra Cosenza

14 Calabria
Calabria
Ultra II Catanzaro

15 Calabria
Calabria
Ultra I Reggio

 

Insular Capital

16 Caltanissetta Caltanissetta

17 Catania Catania

18 Girgenti Girgenti

19 Messina Messina

20 Noto Noto

21 Palermo Palermo

22 Trapani Trapani

^ The city of Benevento
Benevento
was formally included in this department, but it was occupied by the Papal States
Papal States
and was de facto an exclave of that country.[citation needed]

Economy[edit] Industry[edit]

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Industry was the highest form of income if compared with the other preunitarian states. One of the most important industrial complexes in the kingdom was the Shipyard
Shipyard
of Castellammare di Stabia, which employed 1800 workers. The engineering factory of Pietrarsa, was the largest industrial plant in the Italian peninsula producing tools, cannons, rails, locomotives. The complex also included a school for train drivers, and naval engineers and thanks to this school, the kingdom was able to replace the English personnel which was necessary until then. The first steamboat with screw propulsion known in the Mediterranean Sea is the "Giglio delle Onde", with mail delivery and passenger transport purposes after 1847. In Calabria
Calabria
were located the Fonderia Ferdinandea was a large foundry where cast iron was produced. The Reali ferriere ed Officine di Mongiana
Mongiana
was an iron foundry and weapons factory. Founded in 1770, it employed 1600 workers in 1860 and closed in 1880. In Sicily
Sicily
(near Catania
Catania
and Agrigento), sulphur was mined for gunpowder. The Sicilian mines were able to satisfy most of the global demand for sulfur. Silk cloth production was focused in San Leucio
San Leucio
(near Caserta). The region of Basilicata
Basilicata
also had several mills in Potenza
Potenza
and San Chirico Raparo, where cotton, wool and silk were processed. Food processing was widespread, especially near Naples
Naples
( Torre Annunziata
Torre Annunziata
and Gragnano). Almost 99% of the industries present in the Kingdom were destroyed and relocated to the north by the occupying forces of the house of Savoy after the unification. Transport[edit]

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Rail lines of the Italian Peninsula
Italian Peninsula
in 1861

Rail lines in Italy
Italy
in 1870

With all of its major cities boasting successful ports, transport and trade in the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies
Kingdom of the Two Sicilies
was most efficiently conducted by sea. The Kingdom possessed the largest merchant fleet in the Mediterranean. Urban road conditions were to the best European standards, by 1839, the main streets of Naples
Naples
were gas-lit. Efforts were made to tackle the tough mountainous terrain, Ferdinand II built the cliff-top road along the Sorrentine peninsula. Road conditions in the interior and hinterland areas of the kingdom made internal trade difficult. The first railways and iron-suspension bridges in Italy were developed in the south, as was the first overland electric telegraph cable. Technological and scientific achievements[edit]

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The kingdom achieved several scientific and technological accomplishments, such as the first steamboat in the Mediterrean Sea (1818), built in the shipyard of Stanislao Filosa al ponte di Vigliena, near Naples, and the first railway in the Italian peninsula (1839), which connected Naples
Naples
to Portici. However, until the Italian unification, the railway development was highly limited. In the year 1859, the kingdom had only 99 kilometers of rails, compared to the 800 kilometers of Piedmont. This was because the kingdom could count on a very large and efficient merchant navy, which was able to compensate for the need for railways. Also, southern landscape was mainly mountainous making the process of building railways quite difficult, as building railway tunnels was much harder at the time. However, the first railway tunnel in the world was built there. Among the other achievements, one worth mentioning is the first suspension bridge in Continental Europe (1832), the first gaslight in Italy
Italy
(1839), the first volcano observatory in the world, l'Osservatorio Vesuviano (1841), the first and actual archaeological excavations in the world (in the ancient cities of Pompei
Pompei
and Ercolano), the first faculty of Economics
Economics
in Europe and the first faculty of Astronomy
Astronomy
in Italy. The first suspension bridge, built in iron, the "Real Ferdinando" on the river Garigliano
Garigliano
and it was built in the Reali Ferriere factory and Weapons factory in Mongiana. The rails for the first Italian railways were built in Mongiana
Mongiana
as well. All the rails of the old railways that went from the south to as far as Bologna
Bologna
were built in Mongiana. Naples
Naples
was the most populated city in Italy, and the third most populated city in Europe.[citation needed] Monarchy[edit] Kings of the Two Sicilies[edit] Main articles: Monarchs of the Two Sicilies, Monarchs of Sicily, and Monarchs of Naples

Ferdinand I, 1816–1825

Francis I, 1825–1830

Ferdinand II, 1830–1859

Francis II, 1859–1861

In 1860–61 the kingdom was conquered by the Kingdom of Sardinia, and the title dropped. It is still claimed by the head of the House of Bourbon-Two Sicilies. Titles of King of the Two Sicilies[edit] Francis I, King of the Two Sicilies, of Jerusalem, etc., Duke of Parma, Piacenza, Castro, etc., Hereditary Grand Prince of Tuscany, etc. House of Bourbon
House of Bourbon
in exile[edit]

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Some sovereigns continued to maintain diplomatic relations with the exiled court, including the Emperor of Austria, the Kings of Bavaria, Württemberg and Hanover, the Queen of Spain, the Emperor of Russia, and the Papacy.[when?] Heads of the Royal House of the Two Sicilies, 1861–present[edit]

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House of Bourbon-Two Sicilies

Error: please use either Two Sicilies Royal FamilyCastro or Two Sicilies Royal Family Calabria
Calabria

v t e

1861–1894: Francis II 1894–1934: Prince Alfonso, Count of Caserta 1934–1960: Prince Ferdinando Pius, Duke of Noto, later, Duke of Calabria 1960–1964: Disputed between Infante Alfonso, Duke of Calabria
Calabria
and Prince Ranieri, Duke of Castro 1964–1966: Disputed between Infante Carlos, Duke of Calabria
Calabria
and Prince Ranieri, Duke of Castro 1966–2008: Disputed between Infante Carlos, Duke of Calabria
Calabria
and Prince Ferdinand, Duke of Castro 2008–2015: Disputed between Infante Carlos, Duke of Calabria
Calabria
and Prince Carlo, Duke of Castro 2015–present: Disputed between Prince Pedro, Duke of Calabria
Calabria
and Prince Carlo, Duke of Castro

Upon Ferdinando Pio's death in 1960, there was a dispute about who inherited the headship of the house. Ferdinando's next brother Carlo had, in anticipation of his marriage to the eldest sister and heiress presumptive of King Alfonso XIII of Spain, signed the so-called Act of Cannes on 14 December 1900:

...Here present is His Royal Highness Prince Don Carlo our dearest loved Son and he has declared that he shall be entering into marriage with Her Royal Highness the Infanta Doña Maria Mercedes, Princess of the Asturias, and assuming by that marriage the nationality and quality of Spanish Prince, intends to renounce, and by this present act solemnly renounces for Himself and for his Heirs and Successors to any right and rights to the eventual succession to the Crown of the Two Sicilies and to all the Properties of the Royal House found in Italy
Italy
and elsewhere and this according to our laws, constitutions and customs of the Family and in execution of the Pragmatic Decree of King Charles III, Our August ancestor, of the 6th October 1759, to whose prescriptions he declares freely and explicitly to subscribe to and obey.[21]

The laws of the deposed Sicilian dynasty and the Pragmatic Decree of Charles III, issued by him as King of Spain
King of Spain
and the Two Sicilies on 6 October 1759, required a renunciation only if the Crown of Spain (or the heir apparent thereto) and the "Italian sovereignties" were united in the same person, and in no other circumstances. This could only have happened in 1900 if the Count of Caserta, his oldest son Ferdinand, and King Alfonso XIII had all died, thereby leaving Prince Carlo as heir to the Two Sicilies crown and his wife as Queen of Spain, and if the Two Sicilies crown had been restored. It is claimed that theories advanced to suggest that the 1900 renunciation were in some way unnecessary have been formulated long after the fact,[citation needed], but by 1907 a son (the first of four, along with two daughters) had been born to Alfonso XIII and Queen Victoria Eugenia and Prince Carlos's older brother Ferdinand had also had a son, Roggero, Duke of Noto, so it soon became irrelevant. Calabria
Calabria
line[edit]

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Prince Carlo's son, Infante Alfonso, became the senior male of the house on the death of his uncle, Ferdinando Pio, Duke of Calabria, in 1960 and was proclaimed Head of the Royal House of the Two Sicilies, with the recognition of the Heads of the royal houses of Spain, Parma and Portugal, and the senior line (Bourbon) pretender to the throne of France. Prince Carlo and his descendants continued to be included as Princes of the Two Sicilies in the Almanach de Gotha
Almanach de Gotha
from 1901–44, and in the Libro d'Oro
Libro d'Oro
of the Italian Nobility from the first edition in 1907 until 1964, at which time the editor came out in support of the cadet line claimant. Infante Don Alfonso took the title of Duke of Calabria, considering that the title of Duke of Castro (a Farnese inheritance) had been lost with the sale of the last portions of the duchy to the Italian government in 1941 (a sale from which Prince Carlo received his portion of the proceeds, along with his brothers and sisters, although if the alleged renunciation of 1900 had been valid he would not have been entitled to do so). Carlo married as his second wife, in 1907, Princess Louise of Orléans, and by her had a son (Carlos, killed in the Spanish Civil War) and three daughters (of whom Princess Maria Mercedes married Juan, Count of Barcelona
Juan, Count of Barcelona
and was the mother of King Juan Carlos I of Spain, and Princess Esperanza married Prince Pedro Gastão of Orléans-Braganza). The descent in the senior line is as follows:

1960–1964: Alfonso, Duke of Calabria, Infante of Spain (married in 1936 to Princess Alicia of Bourbon-Parma, born 1917, daughter of Elias, Duke of Parma) 1964–2015: Carlos, Duke of Calabria, Infante of Spain since 1994 (married in 1965 to Princess Anne of Orléans, daughter of the late Count and Countess of Paris) 2015–: Pedro, Duke of Calabria, (married to D. Sofia de Landaluce y Melgarejo, a descendant through her mother of the Dukes of San Fernando de Quiroga).

The latter's immediate heir is Jaime, Duke of Noto. Castro line[edit]

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The rest of the Bourbon-Two Sicilies family rejected Alfonso's claims, however, and recognized Ranieri, the next surviving brother of Ferdinando Pius, as head of the house. Ranieri took the style of "Duke of Castro" as his title of pretence. The representatives of the junior branch are as follows:

1960–1973: Prince Ranieri, Duke of Castro
Prince Ranieri, Duke of Castro
(died 1973), married to Countess Maria Carolina Zamoyska
Countess Maria Carolina Zamoyska
(whose mother was a Princess of Bourbon-Two Sicilies). 1973–2008: Prince Ferdinand, Duke of Castro, who had one son and two daughters by his wife Mlle Chantal de Chevron-Villette, including Princess Béatrice, the former wife of Prince Charles Napoléon. 2008–present: Prince Carlo, Duke of Castro
Prince Carlo, Duke of Castro
married to Ms. Camilla Crociani

They also claim the office of the Grand Master of the Sacred Military Constantinian Order of Saint George. Current lines of succession[edit]

Line of succession to the throne of the Two Sicilies

Flags of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies[edit]

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1816–1848; 1849–1860 flag

1848–1849 flag

1860–1861 flag

Description of the arms appearing in the flag. Corrections: the upper part of the block marked "Flanders" is Burgundy Ancient; Burgundy Modern (as it is called in English; shown here as New Burgundy) includes a red-and-white border; the block marked "Aragon Two Sicilies" is only for Sicily
Sicily
proper (the other "Sicily" being the Angevin kingdom of Naples).

Orders of knighthood[edit]

Order of St. Januarius Sacred Military Constantinian Order of Saint George Order of Saint George and Reunion Order of Saint Ferdinand and Merit Royal Order of Francis I

Further reading[edit]

The Volcano Lover, a novel by Susan Sontag, is set in the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies during the Napoleonic era.

See also[edit]

Italy
Italy
portal

Historical states of Italy Mezzogiorno List of monarchs of the Two Sicilies Southern Italy
Italy
autonomist movements Dictatorship of Garibaldi Two Sicilies national football team

References[edit]

^ Colletta P., History of the Kingdom of Naples: 1734-1825, p.71 ^ Proclaims with Murat's title. (in Italian) ^ Swinburne, Henry (1790). Travels in the Two Sicilies (1790). British Library.  ^ De Sangro, Michele (2003). I Borboni nel Regno delle Due Sicilie (in Italian). Lecce: Edizioni Caponi.  ^ Jordan Lancaster, In the shadow of Vesuvius: a cultural history of Naples
Naples
(2005) pp. 199–206[ISBN missing] ^ Nicola Zitara. "La legge di Archimede: L'accumulazione selvaggia nell'Italia unificata e la nascita del colonialismo interno" (PDF) (in Italian). Eleaml-Fora!. [permanent dead link] ^ Carlo M. Cipolla. Before the industrial revolution: European society and economy, 1000–1700 (1993), p. 36 ^ a b c d e "Sicilian History". Dieli.net. 7 October 2007.  ^ Waller, Maureen. Sovereign Ladies: The Six Reigning Queens of England. St. Martin's Press (New York), 2006. ISBN 0-312-33801-5. ^ a b Colletta, Pietro (1858). History of the Kingdom of Naples (1858). University of Michigan.  ^ "The Battle of Tolentino > Joachim Murat". Tolentino815.it. 7 October 2007.  ^ Blanch, L. Luigi de' Medici come uomo di stato e amministratore. Archivio Storico per le Province Napoletane.  ^ "Alfonso V, or Alfonso el Magnánimo". Britannica.com. 7 October 2007.  ^ "Charles of Bourbon – the restorer of the Kingdom of Naples". RealCasaDiBorbone.it. 7 October 2007. Archived from the original on 26 September 2009.  ^ "The Parthenopean Republic". Faculty.ed.umuc.edu. 7 October 2007. Archived from the original on 29 June 2009.  ^ a b "Austria Naples
Naples
Neapolitan War
Neapolitan War
1815". Onwar.com. 7 October 2007.  ^ "Ferdinand IV King of Naples
Naples
and Sicily
Sicily
(Ferdinand I as King of the Two Sicilies)". RealCasaDiBorbone.it. 7 October 2007. Archived from the original on 29 December 2006.  ^ "Joachim Murat,". Emeliefr.club.fr. 7 October 2007.  ^ Pompilio Petitti (1851). Repertorio amministrativo ossia collezione di leggi, decreti, reali rescritti ecc. sull'amministrazione civile del Regno delle Due Sicilie, vol. 1 (in Italian). Napoli: Stabilimento Migliaccio. p. 1.  ^ Pompilio Petitti (1851). Repertorio amministrativo ossia collezione di leggi, decreti, reali rescritti ecc. sull'amministrazione civile del Regno delle Due Sicilie, vol. 1 (in Italian). Napoli: Stabilimento Migliaccio. p. 4.  ^ Sainty, Guy Stair. "ChivalricOrders.org". The Two Sicilies Succession. Guy Stair Sainty. Archived from the original on 6 February 2012. Retrieved 13 June 2015. 

Further reading[edit]

Eckaus, Richard S. "The North-South differential in Italian economic development." Journal of Economic History (1961) 21#3 pp: 285-317. Finley, M. I., Denis Mack Smith and Christopher Duggan, A History of Sicily
Sicily
(1987) abridged one-volume version of 3-volume set of 1969) Imbruglia, Girolamo, ed. Naples
Naples
in the eighteenth century: The birth and death of a nation state (Cambridge University Press, 2000) Petrusewicz, Marta. "Before the Southern Question: 'Native' Ideas on Backwardness and Remedies in the Kingdom of Two Sicilies, 1815-1849." in Italy’s 'Southern Question' (Oxford: Berg, 1998) pp: 27-50. Pinto, Carmine. "The 1860 disciplined Revolution. The Collapse of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies." Contemporanea (2013) 16#1 pp: 39-68. Riall, Lucy. Sicily
Sicily
and the Unification of Italy: Liberal Policy & Local Power, 1859-1866 (1998), 252pp Zamagni, Vera. The economic history of Italy
Italy
1860-1990 (Oxford University Press, 1993)

External links[edit]

(in Italian) Brigantino – Il portale del Sud, a massive Italian-language site dedicated to the history, culture and arts of southern Italy (in Italian) Casa Editoriale Il Giglio, an Italian publisher that focuses on history, culture and the arts in the Two Sicilies (in Italian) La Voce di Megaride, a website by Marina Salvadore dedicated to Napoli
Napoli
and Southern Italy (in Italian) Associazione culturale "Amici di Angelo Manna", dedicated to the work of Angelo Manna, historian, poet and deputy (in Italian) Fora! The e-journal of Nicola Zitara, professor; includes many articles about southern Italy's culture and history Regalis, a website on Italian dynastic history, with sections on the House of the Two Sicilies

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Bourbons of Naples
Naples
and Sicily

Charles VII

Spouse(s)

Princess Maria Amalia of Saxony

Children

Princess María Isabel Princess María Josefa Princess María Isabel Princess María Josefa Maria Luisa, Holy Roman Empress Prince Felipe, Duke of Calabria Charles IV of Spain Princess María Teresa Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies Prince Gabriel Princess Ana María Prince Antonio Pascual Prince Francisco Javier

Ferdinand IV

Spouse(s)

Archduchess Maria Carolina of Austria Lucia Migliaccio of Floridia

Children

Maria Teresa, Holy Roman Empress Luisa, Grand Duchess of Tuscany Carlo, Duke of Calabria Princess Maria Ana Francis I of the Two Sicilies Maria Christina, Queen of Sardinia Princess Maria Cristina Amelia Prince Gennaro Prince Giuseppe Maria Amalia, Queen of the French Princess Maria Cristina Maria Antonia, Princess of Asturias Princess Maria Clothilde Princess Maria Enrichetta Prince Carlo* Prince Leopold, Prince of Salerno Prince Alberto Princess Maria Isabella

See also: Princes and Princesses of the Two Sicilies

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WorldCat Identities VIAF: 168221750 GND: 404147

.