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The KINGDOM OF THE TWO SICILIES (Neapolitan : Regno dê Doje Sicilie, Sicilian : Regnu dî Dui Sicili, Italian : Regno delle Due Sicilie) was the largest of the states of Italy
Italy
before the Italian unification . It was formed as a union of the Kingdom of Sicily and the Kingdom of Naples
Naples
, which collectively had long been called the "Two Sicilies" (Utraque Sicilia, literally "both Sicilies").

The Kingdom of the Two Sicilies lasted from 1815 until 1860, when it was annexed by the Kingdom of Sardinia to form the Kingdom of Italy in 1861. The capitals of the Two Sicilies were in Naples
Naples
and in Palermo
Palermo
. The kingdom extended over the Mezzogiorno
Mezzogiorno
(the southern part of mainland Italy) and the island of Sicily
Sicily
. Jordan Lancaster notes that the integration of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies into the Kingdom of Italy
Italy
changed the status of Naples
Naples
forever: "Abject poverty meant that, throughout Naples
Naples
and Southern Italy, thousands decided to leave in search of a better future." Many went to the United States, Australia and Argentina. The kingdom was heavily agricultural, like the other Italian states; the church owned 50–65% of the land by 1750.

CONTENTS

* 1 Name

* 2 Background

* 2.1 Establishment of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies * 2.2 Origins of the two kingdoms * 2.3 Aragonese and Spanish direct rule

* 3 History

* 3.1 Crowns\' Unification * 3.2 Invasion by Piedmont

* 4 Geography

* 4.1 Departments

* 5 Economy

* 5.1 Industry * 5.2 Transport * 5.3 Technological and scientific achievements

* 6 Monarchy

* 6.1 Kings of the Two Sicilies * 6.2 Titles of King of the Two Sicilies

* 7 House of Bourbon in exile

* 8 Heads of the Royal House of the Two Sicilies, 1861–present

* 8.1 Calabria line * 8.2 Castro line * 8.3 Current lines of succession

* 9 Flags of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies * 10 Orders of knighthood * 11 Further reading * 12 See also * 13 References * 14 Further reading * 15 External links

NAME

The name "Two Sicilies" originated from the partition of the medieval Kingdom of Sicily . Until 1285, the island of Sicily
Sicily
and the Mezzogiorno
Mezzogiorno
were constituent parts of the Kingdom of Sicily. As a result of the War of the Sicilian Vespers
War of the Sicilian Vespers
(1282-1302), the King of Sicily
Sicily
lost the Island of Sicily
Sicily
(also called Trinacria) to the Crown of Aragon , but remained ruler over the peninsular part of the realm. Although his territory became known officially as the Kingdom of Naples
Naples
, he and his successors never gave up the title "King of Sicily" and still officially referred to their realm as the "Kingdom of Sicily". At the same time, the Aragonese rulers of the Island of Sicily
Sicily
also called their realm the "Kingdom of Sicily". Thus, there were two kingdoms formally called "Sicily": hence, the TWO SICILIES.

BACKGROUND

ESTABLISHMENT OF THE KINGDOM OF THE TWO SICILIES

The Kingdom of the Two Sicilies resulted from the re-unification of the Kingdom of Sicily with the Kingdom of Naples
Naples
(called the Kingdom of Peninsular Sicily), by King Alfonso V of Aragon
Alfonso V of Aragon
in 1442. The two states had functioned as separate realms since the War of the Sicilian Vespers in 1282. At the death of King Alfonso in 1458, the kingdom again became divided between his brother John II of Aragon , who kept the island of Sicily, and his illegitimate son Ferdinand , who became King of Naples.

In 1501, King Ferdinand II of Aragon , son of John II, conquered Naples
Naples
and reunified the two kingdoms under the authority of the newly united Spanish throne. The Kings of Spain then bore the title King of Both Sicilies or King of Sicily
Sicily
and of the Two Coasts of the Strait until the War of the Spanish Succession . At the end of that war, the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713 granted Sicily
Sicily
to the Duke of Savoy until the Treaty of Rastatt in 1714 left Naples
Naples
to the Emperor Charles VI . In 1720 the Emperor and Savoy exchanged Sicily
Sicily
for Sardinia , thus reuniting Naples
Naples
and Sicily. Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies
Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies
(aka Ferdinand III of Sicily
Sicily
and Ferdinand IV of Naples) depicted on a Duchy of Parma , 8 Doppie (1791) gold coin

In 1734, Charles, Duke of Parma , son of Philip V of Spain, took the Sicilian crown from the Austrians and became Charles VII "> The fall of the Sicilian aristocracy in the face of Garibaldi's invasion forms the subject of the novel The Leopard by Giuseppe Tomasi di Lampedusa and its film adaptation .

ORIGINS OF THE TWO KINGDOMS

Main articles: Kingdom of Sicily and Kingdom of Naples
Naples
Cappella Palatina , church of first unifier Roger II of Sicily
Sicily
.

A monarchy over the areas which would later become known as the Two Sicilies existed as one single kingdom, including a peninsular and an insular part, dating from the Middle Ages . The Norman king Roger II formed the Kingdom of Sicily by combining the County of Sicily
Sicily
with the southern part of the Italian Peninsula (then known as the Duchy of Apulia and Calabria ) as well as with the Maltese Islands . The capital of this kingdom was Palermo
Palermo
— which is on the actual island of Sicily
Sicily
.

The state existed in that form from 1130 until 1285. In the period of the Capetian House of Anjou during the reign (1266-1285) of King Charles I , the kingdom was split by the War of the Sicilian Vespers of 1282-1302. Charles, who was of French origin, lost Sicily
Sicily
proper to the House of Barcelona , who were Aragonese and Catalan , after they were able to gain the support of the natives. Charles remained king over the peninsular part of the realm, thereafter informally known as the Kingdom of Naples
Naples
. Officially Charles never gave up the title of "The Kingdom of Sicily", thus there existed two separate kingdoms calling themselves "Sicily".

ARAGONESE AND SPANISH DIRECT RULE

Main articles: Crown of Aragon and Spanish Empire
Spanish Empire
Crown of Aragon, greatest extent

Only with the Peace of Caltabellotta (1302), sponsored by Pope Boniface VIII , did the two kings of "Sicily" recognize each other's legitimacy; the island kingdom then became the " Kingdom of Trinacria " in official contexts, though the populace still called it Sicily. Eventually by 1442 the Angevin line of the Kings of Naples
Naples
was coming to an end. Alfonso V of Aragon
Alfonso V of Aragon
, king of insular Sicily, conquered Naples
Naples
and became king of both (1442).

Alfonso V described the geographical area in Latin
Latin
as Utriusque Siciliæ, meaning "of both Sicilies", and used the name as part of his title. After the death of Alfonso in 1458, both Sicilies remained under the direct rule of the Crown of Aragon , but Naples
Naples
had a different Aragonese king from the island of Sicily
Sicily
from 1458 until 1501. For a brief period Naples
Naples
was controlled by a different power other than Sicily, in the form of French king Louis XII of France , who took the mainland kingdom and held it (1501-1504) for around three years. After the French lost the Battle of Garigliano (1503), the last Aragonese king, Ferdinand II of Aragon , re-united the two areas once again under control of the same power and the same king.

From 1516, when Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor
Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor
became the first King of Spain , both Naples
Naples
and Sicily
Sicily
came under direct Spanish rule. In 1530 Charles V granted the islands of Malta
Malta
and Gozo
Gozo
, which had been part of the Kingdom of Sicily for four centuries, to the Knights Hospitaller (thereafter known as the Order of Malta
Malta
). The period of direct Spanish rule under the same line of kings lasted until 1713, when control of Spain and of both Sicilies passed to the French prince Philip, duke of Anjou , who founded the Spanish branch of the House of Bourbon . After an eight-year spell of Savoy rule in Sicily (1713-1720), the two Sicilian kingdoms once again came under the same king after the Treaty of The Hague (1720) appointed the Austrian king Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor
Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor
as their ruler.

HISTORY

CROWNS\' UNIFICATION

Ferdinand I

The kingdoms were conquered from the Austrians by a young Spanish prince during the War of the Polish Succession ; he became Charles VII of Naples
Naples
. The two kingdoms were then recognised as both independent and under Charles' rule as a cadet branch of the Spanish Bourbons by the Treaty of Vienna . After Charles' brother, Fernando VI of Spain died childless, Charles inherited the Spanish Crown in 1759, reigning as Charles III of Spain.

His son Ferdinand then became king of the two kingdoms so as to maintain them as separate realms as required by the treaties restoring the junior Spanish royalty to the southern Italian kingdoms. Ferdinand was highly popular with the poorest class . Ferdinand's reign was highly eventful. For a brief period the Parthenopaean Republic controlled Naples
Naples
with the support of those who supported the French Revolution . However, a counter-revolutionary army of the poorest class retook Naples
Naples
in order to restore royal power. Joachim Murat .

Eight years later, Napoleon conquered the peninsular portion of the kingdom during the War of the Third Coalition and placed his brother Joseph Bonaparte on the throne as king.

Ferdinand fled to his other kingdom, on the island of Sicily
Sicily
itself. Here the alliance he had previously made with George III of the United Kingdom and Tory Prime Minister the Earl of Liverpool saved him. The British protected Ferdinand and the island of Sicily
Sicily
from Napoleonic conquest with the presence of a powerful Royal Navy
Royal Navy
fleet.

Back on the mainland, Joachim Murat had become the second Bonapartist king. In the Edict of Bayonne
Bayonne
he was named as "King of the Two Sicilies", though de facto he never actually held the island of Sicily
Sicily
where Ferdinand was, and is usually referred to as just the King of Naples
Naples
. Murat actually switched sides for a while, abandoning the Grand Army after the disastrous Battle of Leipzig
Battle of Leipzig
in an attempt to save his Neapolitan throne. However, as the Congress of Vienna progressed, tensions arose as there was strong pressure to restore Ferdinand to the Neapolitan kingdom as well as keeping his Sicilian one. Murat returned to Napoleon and together they declared war on the Austrian Empire , leading to the Neapolitan War in March 1815. Ferdinand and his allies Austria, Britain and Tuscany were victorious, restoring him to his Neapolitan throne. To avoid further French attempts, it was agreed at the Congress of Vienna that Ferdinand would reunite his kingdom.

INVASION BY PIEDMONT

Between 1816 and 1848, the island of Sicily
Sicily
experienced three popular revolts against Bourbon rule, including the revolution of independence of 1848, when the island was fully independent of Bourbon control for 16 months.

In 1860, Sicily
Sicily
was invaded by a corps of volunteers, led by Giuseppe Garibaldi from the Kingdom of Sardinia . They successfully conquered the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, and incorporated the territory into the new Kingdom of Italy .

GEOGRAPHY

DEPARTMENTS

Departments and Districts of Kingdom of the Two Sicilies

The peninsula was divided into fifteen departments and Sicily
Sicily
was divided into seven departments. The island itself had a special administrative status, with its base at Palermo
Palermo
. In 1860, when the Two Sicilies were conquered by the Kingdom of Sardinia , the departments became provinces of Italy
Italy
, according to the Rattazzi law .

PENINSULA CAPITAL

1 Abruzzo Ultra I Teramo

2 Abruzzo Ultra II Aquila

3 Abruzzo Citra Chieti

4 Contado di Molise Campobasso

5 Terra di Lavoro Capua , Caserta
Caserta
from 1818

6 Province of Naples
Naples
Naples
Naples

7 Principato Ultra Avellino
Avellino

8 Principato Citra Salerno
Salerno

9 Capitanata originally San Severo , then Foggia

10 Terra di Bari
Terra di Bari
Bari
Bari

11 Terra d\'Otranto Lecce

12 Basilicata Potenza

13 Calabria Citra Cosenza

14 Calabria Ultra II Catanzaro

15 Calabria Ultra I Reggio

INSULAR CAPITAL

16 Caltanissetta Caltanissetta

17 Catania
Catania
Catania
Catania

18 Girgenti Girgenti

19 Messina
Messina
Messina
Messina

20 Noto Noto

21 Palermo
Palermo
Palermo
Palermo

22 Trapani
Trapani
Trapani
Trapani

* ^ The city of Benevento
Benevento
was formally included in this department, but it was occupied by the Papal States
Papal States
and was de facto an exclave of that country.

ECONOMY

INDUSTRY

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Industry was the highest form of income if compared with the other preunitarian states. One of the most important industrial complexes in the kingdom was the Shipyard of Castellammare di Stabia , which employed 1800 workers. The engineering factory of Pietrarsa , was the largest industrial plant in the Italian peninsula producing tools, cannons , rails, locomotives . The complex also included a school for train drivers, and naval engineers and thanks to this school, the kingdom was able to replace the English personnel which was necessary until then. The first steamboat with screw propulsion known in the Mediterranean Sea is the "Giglio delle Onde", with mail delivery and passenger transport purposes after 1847.

In Calabria were located the Fonderia Ferdinandea was a large foundry where cast iron was produced. The Reali ferriere ed Officine di Mongiana
Mongiana
was an iron foundry and weapons factory. Founded in 1770, it employed 1600 workers in 1860 and closed in 1880. In Sicily
Sicily
(near Catania
Catania
and Agrigento
Agrigento
), sulphur was mined for gunpowder . The Sicilian mines were able to satisfy most of the global demand for sulfur. Silk
Silk
cloth production was focused in San Leucio
San Leucio
(near Caserta ). The region of Basilicata also had several mills in Potenza and San Chirico Raparo , where cotton , wool and silk were processed. Food processing was widespread, especially near Naples
Naples
(Torre Annunziata and Gragnano ). Almost 99% of the industries present in the Kingdom were destroyed and relocated to the north by the occupying forces of the house of Savoy after the unification.

TRANSPORT

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Rail lines of the Italian Peninsula in 1861 Rail lines in Italy
Italy
in 1870

With all of its major cities boasting successful ports, transport and trade in the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies was most efficiently conducted by sea. The Kingdom possessed the largest merchant fleet in the Mediterranean. Urban road conditions were to the best European standards, by 1839, the main streets of Naples
Naples
were gas-lit. Efforts were made to tackle the tough mountainous terrain, Ferdinand II built the cliff-top road along the Sorrentine peninsula. Road conditions in the interior and hinterland areas of the kingdom made internal trade difficult. The first railways and iron-suspension bridges in Italy were developed in the south, as was the first overland electric telegraph cable.

TECHNOLOGICAL AND SCIENTIFIC ACHIEVEMENTS

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The kingdom achieved several scientific and technological accomplishments, such as the first steamboat in the Mediterrean Sea (1818), built in the shipyard of Stanislao Filosa al ponte di Vigliena, near Naples, and the first railway in the Italian peninsula (1839), which connected Naples
Naples
to Portici. However, until the Italian unification, the railway development was highly limited. In the year 1859, the kingdom had only 99 kilometers of rails, compared to the 800 kilometers of Piedmont . This was because the kingdom could count on a very large and efficient merchant navy, which was able to compensate for the need for railways. Also, southern landscape was mainly mountainous making the process of building railways quite difficult, as building railway tunnels was much harder at the time. However, the first railway tunnel in the world was built there. Among the other achievements, one worth mentioning is the first suspension bridge in Continental Europe (1832), the first gaslight in Italy
Italy
(1839), the first volcano observatory in the world, l\'Osservatorio Vesuviano (1841), the first and actual archaeological excavations in the world( in the ancient cities of Pompei
Pompei
and Ercolano ), the first faculty of Economics in Europe and the first faculty of Astronomy in Italy. The first suspension bridge, built in iron, the "Real Ferdinando " on the river Garigliano and it was built in the Reali Ferriere factory and Weapons factory in Mongiana
Mongiana
. The rails for the first Italian railways were built in Mongiana
Mongiana
as well. All the rails of the old railways that went from the south to as far as Bologna
Bologna
were built in Mongiana. Naples
Naples
was the most populated city in Italy, and the third most populated city in Europe.

MONARCHY

KINGS OF THE TWO SICILIES

Main articles: Monarchs of the Two Sicilies
Monarchs of the Two Sicilies
, Monarchs of Sicily
Sicily
, and Monarchs of Naples
Naples

*

Ferdinand I , 1816–1825 *

Francis I , 1825–1830 *

Ferdinand II , 1830–1859 *

Francis II , 1859–1861

In 1860–61 the kingdom was conquered by the Kingdom of Sardinia , and the title dropped. It is still claimed by the head of the House of Bourbon-Two Sicilies .

TITLES OF KING OF THE TWO SICILIES

Francis I, King of the Two Sicilies, of Jerusalem , etc., Duke of Parma , Piacenza, Castro , etc., Hereditary Grand Prince of Tuscany, etc.

HOUSE OF BOURBON IN EXILE

Some sovereigns continued to maintain diplomatic relations with the exiled court, including the Emperor of Austria , the Kings of Bavaria, Württemberg and Hanover, the Queen of Spain, the Emperor of Russia , and the Papacy.

HEADS OF THE ROYAL HOUSE OF THE TWO SICILIES, 1861–PRESENT

House of Bourbon-Two Sicilies

Error: please use either {{Two Sicilies Royal FamilyCastro}} or {{Two Sicilies Royal FamilyCalabria}}

* v * t * e

* 1861–1894: Francis II * 1894–1934: Prince Alfonso, Count of Caserta
Caserta
* 1934–1960: Prince Ferdinando Pius , Duke of Noto, later, Duke of Calabria * 1960–1964: Disputed between Infante Alfonso, Duke of Calabria and Prince Ranieri, Duke of Castro
Prince Ranieri, Duke of Castro
* 1964–1966: Disputed between Infante Carlos, Duke of Calabria and Prince Ranieri, Duke of Castro
Prince Ranieri, Duke of Castro
* 1966–2008: Disputed between Infante Carlos, Duke of Calabria and Prince Ferdinand, Duke of Castro * 2008–2015: Disputed between Infante Carlos, Duke of Calabria and Prince Carlo, Duke of Castro * 2015–present: Disputed between Prince Pedro, Duke of Calabria and Prince Carlo, Duke of Castro

Upon Ferdinando Pio's death in 1960, there was a dispute about who inherited the headship of the house. Ferdinando's next brother Carlo had, in anticipation of his marriage to the eldest sister and heiress presumptive of King Alfonso XIII of Spain
Alfonso XIII of Spain
, signed the so-called Act of Cannes on 14 December 1900:

...Here present is His Royal Highness Prince Don Carlo our dearest loved Son and he has declared that he shall be entering into marriage with Her Royal Highness the Infanta Doña Maria Mercedes, Princess of the Asturias, and assuming by that marriage the nationality and quality of Spanish Prince, intends to renounce, and by this present act solemnly renounces for Himself and for his Heirs and Successors to any right and rights to the eventual succession to the Crown of the Two Sicilies and to all the Properties of the Royal House found in Italy
Italy
and elsewhere and this according to our laws, constitutions and customs of the Family and in execution of the Pragmatic Decree of King Charles III, Our August ancestor, of the 6th October 1759, to whose prescriptions he declares freely and explicitly to subscribe to and obey.

The laws of the deposed Sicilian dynasty and the Pragmatic Decree of Charles III, issued by him as King of Spain and the Two Sicilies on 6 October 1759, required a renunciation only if the Crown of Spain (or the heir apparent thereto) and the "Italian sovereignties" were united in the same person, and in no other circumstances. This could only have happened in 1900 if the Count of Caserta, his oldest son Ferdinand, and King Alfonso XIII had all died, thereby leaving Prince Carlo as heir to the Two Sicilies crown and his wife as Queen of Spain, and if the Two Sicilies crown had been restored. It is claimed that theories advanced to suggest that the 1900 renunciation were in some way unnecessary have been formulated long after the fact,, but by 1907 a son (the first of four, along with two daughters) had been born to Alfonso XIII and Queen Victoria Eugenia and Prince Carlos's older brother Ferdinand had also had a son, Roggero, Duke of Noto, so it soon became irrelevant.

CALABRIA LINE

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Prince Carlo's son, Infante Alfonso, became the senior male of the house on the death of his uncle, Ferdinando Pio, Duke of Calabria, in 1960 and was proclaimed Head of the Royal House of the Two Sicilies, with the recognition of the Heads of the royal houses of Spain, Parma and Portugal, and the senior line (Bourbon) pretender to the throne of France. Prince Carlo and his descendants continued to be included as Princes of the Two Sicilies in the Almanach de Gotha from 1901–44, and in the Libro d\'Oro of the Italian Nobility from the first edition in 1907 until 1964, at which time the editor came out in support of the cadet line claimant. Infante Don Alfonso took the title of Duke of Calabria, considering that the title of Duke of Castro (a Farnese inheritance) had been lost with the sale of the last portions of the duchy to the Italian government in 1941 (a sale from which Prince Carlo received his portion of the proceeds, along with his brothers and sisters, although if the alleged renunciation of 1900 had been valid he would not have been entitled to do so). Carlo married as his second wife, in 1907, Princess Louise of Orléans, and by her had a son (Carlos, killed in the Spanish Civil War
Spanish Civil War
) and three daughters (of whom Princess Maria Mercedes married Juan, Count of Barcelona and was the mother of King Juan Carlos I of Spain , and Princess Esperanza married Prince Pedro Gastão of Orléans-Braganza ). The descent in the senior line is as follows:

* 1960–1964: Alfonso, Duke of Calabria , Infante of Spain (married in 1936 to Princess Alicia of Bourbon-Parma
Princess Alicia of Bourbon-Parma
, born 1917, daughter of Elias, Duke of Parma ) * 1964–2015: Carlos, Duke of Calabria , Infante of Spain since 1994 (married in 1965 to Princess Anne of Orléans , daughter of the late Count and Countess of Paris) * 2015–: Pedro, Duke of Calabria , (married to D. Sofia de Landaluce y Melgarejo, a descendant through her mother of the Dukes of San Fernando de Quiroga).

The latter's immediate heir is Jaime, Duke of Noto.

CASTRO LINE

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The rest of the Bourbon-Two Sicilies family rejected Alfonso's claims, however, and recognized Ranieri, the next surviving brother of Ferdinando Pius, as head of the house. Ranieri took the style of "Duke of Castro" as his title of pretence. The representatives of the junior branch are as follows:

* 1960–1973: Prince Ranieri, Duke of Castro
Prince Ranieri, Duke of Castro
(died 1973), married to Countess Maria Carolina Zamoyska
Countess Maria Carolina Zamoyska
(whose mother was a Princess of Bourbon-Two Sicilies ). * 1973–2008: Prince Ferdinand, Duke of Castro , who had one son and two daughters by his wife Mlle Chantal de Chevron-Villette
Chantal de Chevron-Villette
, including Princess Béatrice , the former wife of Prince Charles Napoléon . * 2008–present: Prince Carlo, Duke of Castro married to Ms. Camilla Crociani

They also claim the office of the Grand Master of the Sacred Military Constantinian Order of Saint George.

CURRENT LINES OF SUCCESSION

* Line of succession to the throne of the Two Sicilies

FLAGS OF THE KINGDOM OF THE TWO SICILIES

*

1816–1848; 1849–1860 flag *

1848–1849 flag *

1860–1861 flag

Description of the arms appearing in the flag. Corrections: the upper part of the block marked " Flanders
Flanders
" is Burgundy Ancient; Burgundy Modern (as it is called in English; shown here as New Burgundy) includes a red-and-white border; the block marked "Aragon Two Sicilies" is only for Sicily
Sicily
proper (the other "Sicily" being the Angevin kingdom of Naples).

ORDERS OF KNIGHTHOOD

* Order of St. Januarius * Sacred Military Constantinian Order of Saint George
Sacred Military Constantinian Order of Saint George
* Order of Saint George and Reunion
Order of Saint George and Reunion
* Order of Saint Ferdinand and Merit
Order of Saint Ferdinand and Merit
* Royal Order of Francis I

FURTHER READING

* The Volcano Lover , a novel by Susan Sontag
Susan Sontag
, is set in the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies during the Napoleonic era.

SEE ALSO

* Italy
Italy
portal

* Historical states of Italy
Italy
* Mezzogiorno
Mezzogiorno
* List of monarchs of the Two Sicilies * Southern Italy
Italy
autonomist movements * Dictatorship of Garibaldi
Dictatorship of Garibaldi
* Two Sicilies national football team

REFERENCES

* ^ Colletta P., History of the Kingdom of Naples: 1734-1825, p.71 * ^ Proclaims with Murat\'s title. (in Italian) * ^ Swinburne, Henry (1790). Travels in the Two Sicilies (1790). British Library. * ^ De Sangro, Michele (2003). I Borboni nel Regno delle Due Sicilie (in Italian). Lecce : Edizioni Caponi. * ^ Jordan Lancaster, In the shadow of Vesuvius: a cultural history of Naples
Naples
(2005) pp. 199–206 * ^ Nicola Zitara. "La legge di Archimede: L\'accumulazione selvaggia nell\'Italia unificata e la nascita del colonialismo interno" (PDF) (in Italian). Eleaml-Fora!. * ^ Carlo M. Cipolla. Before the industrial revolution: European society and economy, 1000–1700 (1993), p. 36 * ^ A B C D E "Sicilian History". Dieli.net. 7 October 2007. * ^ Waller, Maureen. Sovereign Ladies: The Six Reigning Queens of England. St. Martin's Press (New York), 2006. ISBN 0-312-33801-5 . * ^ A B Colletta, Pietro (1858). History of the Kingdom of Naples (1858). University of Michigan. * ^ "The Battle of Tolentino > Joachim Murat". Tolentino815.it. 7 October 2007. * ^ Blanch, L. Luigi de\' Medici come uomo di stato e amministratore. Archivio Storico per le Province Napoletane. * ^ "Alfonso V, or Alfonso el Magnánimo". Britannica.com. 7 October 2007. * ^ "Charles of Bourbon – the restorer of the Kingdom of Naples". RealCasaDiBorbone.it. 7 October 2007. Archived from the original on 26 September 2009. * ^ "The Parthenopean Republic". Faculty.ed.umuc.edu. 7 October 2007. Archived from the original on 29 June 2009. * ^ A B "Austria Naples
Naples
Neapolitan War 1815". Onwar.com. 7 October 2007. * ^ "Ferdinand IV King of Naples
Naples
and Sicily
Sicily
(Ferdinand I as King of the Two Sicilies)". RealCasaDiBorbone.it. 7 October 2007. Archived from the original on 29 December 2006. * ^ "Joachim Murat,". Emeliefr.club.fr. 7 October 2007. * ^ Pompilio Petitti (1851). Repertorio amministrativo ossia collezione di leggi, decreti, reali rescritti ecc. sull\'amministrazione civile del Regno delle Due Sicilie, vol. 1 (in Italian). Napoli
Napoli
: Stabilimento Migliaccio. p. 1. * ^ Pompilio Petitti (1851). Repertorio amministrativo ossia collezione di leggi, decreti, reali rescritti ecc. sull\'amministrazione civile del Regno delle Due Sicilie, vol. 1 (in Italian). Napoli
Napoli
: Stabilimento Migliaccio. p. 4. * ^ Sainty, Guy Stair . "ChivalricOrders.org". The Two Sicilies Succession. Guy Stair Sainty. Archived from the original on 6 February 2012. Retrieved 13 June 2015.

FURTHER READING

* Eckaus, Richard S. "The North-South differential in Italian economic development." Journal of Economic History (1961) 21#3 pp: 285-317. * Finley, M. I., Denis Mack Smith and Christopher Duggan, A History of Sicily
Sicily
(1987) abridged one-volume version of 3-volume set of 1969) * Imbruglia, Girolamo, ed. Naples
Naples
in the eighteenth century: The birth and death of a nation state (Cambridge University Press, 2000) * Petrusewicz, Marta. "Before the Southern Question: 'Native' Ideas on Backwardness and Remedies in the Kingdom of Two Sicilies, 1815-1849." in Italy’s 'Southern Question' (Oxford: Berg, 1998) pp: 27-50. * Pinto, Carmine. "The 1860 disciplined Revolution. The Collapse of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies." Contemporanea (2013) 16#1 pp: 39-68. * Riall, Lucy. Sicily
Sicily
and the Unification of Italy: Liberal Policy includes many articles about southern Italy's culture and history * Regalis, a website on Italian dynastic history, with sections on the House of the Two Sicilies

* v * t * e

Former states of the Italian Peninsula, Savoy, Corsica, Sardinia, Sicily
Sicily
and Malta
Malta

Ancient History and early Middle Ages

Etruscan civilization

* Lega dei popoli

* Etruscan dodecapolis

Ancient Rome

* Roman Kingdom (753 BC–509 BC)

* Roman Republic
Roman Republic
(509 BC–27 BC)

* Roman Italy
Italy
* Sicilia (241 BC–476 AD) * Corsica and Sardinia (238 BC–455 AD)

* Roman Empire
Roman Empire
(27 BC–395 AD)

* Praetorian prefecture of Italy
Italy
(337 AD–584 AD) * Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
(285 AD–476 AD)

Post-Roman states

ITALIAN KINGDOM

* Odoacer\'s rule (476–493) * Ostrogothic rule (493–553) * Vandal rule (435–534)

* Lombard rule (568–774)

* Duchy of Benevento
Benevento
* Duchy of Friuli * Duchy of Ivrea * Duchy of Spoleto * Duchy of Tridentum

Holy Roman rule (800/962–1806), Papal States
Papal States
and other independent states

* March of Ancona * Duchy of Aosta * Patria del Friuli
Patria del Friuli
(Patriarchate of Aquileia) * Bishopric of Bressanone * Duchy of Castro
Duchy of Castro
* Commune of Rome * Marquisate of Ceva * Republic of Cospaia * Duchy of Ferrara * Marquisate of Finale
Marquisate of Finale
* City of Fiume and its District * Republic of Florence * Duchy of Florence * March of Friuli * Republic of Genoa * Republic of Noli * County of Gorizia * Gorizia and Gradisca
Gorizia and Gradisca
* County of Guastalla * Duchy of Guastalla * Kingdom of Illyria * March of Istria * Duchy of Ivrea * Republic of Lucca * Margravate of Mantua * Duchy of Mantua * Duchy of Massa and Carrara * Duchy of Merania * Duchy of Milan * Duchy of Mirandola * Duchy of Modena and Reggio * March of Montferrat
March of Montferrat
* Duchy of Montferrat * County of Nizza * Duchy of Parma * Principality of Piedmont
Principality of Piedmont
* Principality of Piombino * Republic of Pisa * Duchy of Reggio * Marquisate of Saluzzo
Marquisate of Saluzzo
* County of Savoy * Duchy of Savoy * Republic of Siena * Duchy of Spoleto * Terra Sancti Benedicti
Terra Sancti Benedicti
* Bishopric of Trento * March of Turin * March of Tuscany * Grand Duchy of Tuscany * County of Tirolo * Duchy of Urbino * March of Verona * Imperial Free City of Trieste
Imperial Free City of Trieste

Byzantine Empire (395–1453)

* Exarchate of Ravenna (584–751)

* Duchy of Rome
Duchy of Rome
(533–751) * Duchy of Perugia (554–752) * Duchy of the Pentapolis (554–752)

* Exarchate of Africa
Exarchate of Africa
(585–698)

REPUBLIC OF VENICE (697–1797)

* Dogado * Stato da Màr
Stato da Màr
* Domini di Terraferma

Southern Italy (774–1139)

BYZANTINE

* Duchy of Amalfi * Duchy of Gaeta * Catepanate of Italy
Italy
* Longobardia * Theme of Lucania * Duchy of Naples
Naples
* Sicily
Sicily
(theme) and Byzantine Sicily
Sicily
* Duchy of Sorrento

ARAB

* Emirate of Bari
Bari
* Emirate of Sicily
Sicily

LOMBARD

* Principality of Benevento
Benevento
* Principality of Salerno
Salerno
* Principality of Capua

NORMAN

* County of Apulia and Calabria * County of Aversa * County of Sicily
Sicily
* Principality of Taranto

Sardinia and Corsica (9th century–1420)

* Giudicati

* Giudicato of Agugliastra
Giudicato of Agugliastra
* Giudicato of Arborea * Giudicato of Cagliari * Giudicato of Gallura * Giudicato of Logudoro

* Kingdom of Sardinia and Corsica * Corsican Republic (1755–1769)

Kingdom of Sicily (1130–1816) and Kingdom of Naples
Naples
(1282–1816)

* State of the Presidi * Duke of San Donato
Duke of San Donato
* Duchy of Sora
Duchy of Sora
* Principality of Taranto * Neapolitan Republic (1647–1648) * Malta
Malta
under the Order * Gozo
Gozo
* Malta
Malta
Protectorate * Crown Colony of Malta
Malta

French Revolutionary and Napoleonic era (1792–1815)

REPUBLICS

* Alba * Ancona * Bergamo * Bologna
Bologna
* Brescia * Cisalpinia * Cispadania * Crema * Italy
Italy
* Liguria * Lucca * Parthenopea * Piedmont * Rome * Subalpinia * Tiberinia * Transpadania

MONARCHIES

* Benevento
Benevento
* Etruria * Guastalla * Italy
Italy
* Lucca and Piombino * Massa and Carrara * Naples
Naples
* Pontecorvo * Tuscany * Elba * Corsica

POST-NAPOLEONIC STATES

* Duchy of Genoa (1815–1848) * Duchy of Lucca
Duchy of Lucca
(1815–1847) * Duchy of Massa and Carrara (1814–1829) * Duchy of Modena and Reggio (1814–1859) * Duchy of Parma (1814–1859) * Grand Duchy of Tuscany (1815–1859) * Italian United Provinces (1831) * Provisional Government of Milan (1848) * Republic of San Marco (1848–1849) * Roman Republic
Roman Republic
(1849) * United Provinces of Central Italy
Italy
(1859–1860) * Kingdom of Sardinia (1814–1860) * Kingdom of the Two Sicilies (1816–1861) * Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia
Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia
(1815–1866) * Papal States
Papal States
(1814–1870)

* Kingdom of Italy (1861–1946)

* Italian Empire (1869–1946)

* Free State of Fiume (1920–1924) * Italian Social Republic (1943–1945)

* v * t * e

The Bourbons of Naples
Naples
and Sicily
Sicily

CHARLES VII

SPOUSE(S)

* HH Princess Maria Amalia of Saxony
Maria Amalia of Saxony

CHILDREN

* Princess María Isabel * Princess María Josefa * Princess María Isabel * Princess María Josefa * Maria Luisa, Holy Roman Empress * Prince Felipe, Duke of Calabria * Charles IV of Spain
Charles IV of Spain
* Princess María Teresa * Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies
Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies
* Prince Gabriel * Princess Ana María * Prince Antonio Pascual * Prince Francisco Javier

FERDINAND IV

SPOUSE(S)

* HRH Archduchess Maria Carolina of Austria * Lucia Migliaccio of Floridia
Lucia Migliaccio of Floridia

CHILDREN

* Maria Teresa, Holy Roman Empress * Luisa, Grand Duchess of Tuscany * Carlo, Duke of Calabria * Princess Maria Ana * Francis I of the Two Sicilies
Francis I of the Two Sicilies
* Maria Christina, Queen of Sardinia * Princess Maria Cristina Amelia * Prince Gennaro * Prince Giuseppe * Maria Amalia, Queen of the French * Princess Maria Cristina * Maria Antonia, Princess of Asturias * Princess Maria Clothilde * Princess Maria Enrichetta * Prince Carlo* * Prince Leopold, Prince of Salerno
Salerno
* Prince Alberto * Princess Maria Isabella

See also: Princes and Princesses of the Two Sicilies

* v * t * e

Former monarchies

* List of monarchs who lost their thrones in the 20th and 21st centuries * List of monarchs who lost their thrones in the 19th century

AFRICA

* Ethiopia * Libya * Tunisia * Egypt * Madagascar * South Africa * Burundi * Central Africa * Zanzibar * Ghana * Nigeria * Sierra Leone * Tanganyika * Uganda * Kenya * Gambia * Mauritius

ASIA

* China * Korea * Vietnam * Georgia * India
India
* Manchukuo
Manchukuo
* Iran * Iraq * Syria * Yemen * Afghanistan * Turkey * Pakistan
Pakistan
* Philippines
Philippines
* Sri Lanka * Tibet
Tibet
* Nepal
Nepal

EUROPE

* Germany

* Bavaria * Prussia * Saxony
Saxony
* Württemberg

* Austria-Hungary * Russia * France
France
* Portugal * Italy
Italy
* Two Sicilies * Hungary
Hungary
* Bulgaria
Bulgaria
* Romania
Romania
* Yugoslavia * Serbia * Montenegro * Greece * Albania * Lithuania
Lithuania
* Hanover * Iceland
Iceland
* Tuscany * Polish- Lithuania
Lithuania
* Malta
Malta
* Papal States
Papal States
* Finland

OCEANIA

* Bora Bora * Fiji * Hawaii * Rarotonga * Tahiti

AMERICAS

* Brazil * Mexico * Haiti * Trinidad and Tobago
Trinidad and Tobago
* Guyana * Suriname

* v * t * e

Sicily
Sicily

Provinces and places

* Agrigento
Agrigento
* Caltanissetta * Catania
Catania
* Enna * Messina
Messina
* Palermo
Palermo
* Ragusa * Syracuse

* Trapani
Trapani
* Islands * Cities, towns and villages

HISTORY

* Magna Graecia * Sicilia province * Sicilian revolt * Theme of Sicily
Sicily
* Emirate of Sicily
Sicily
* County of Sicily
Sicily
* Kingdom of Sicily * War of the Sicilian Vespers
War of the Sicilian Vespers
* Monarchs * Viceroys * Sicilian Parliament * Two Sicilies * 1848 Sicilian revolution * Dictatorship of Garibaldi
Dictatorship of Garibaldi
* Risorgimento * Allied invasion of Sicily
Sicily

Politics and government

* Politics of Sicily
Sicily
* Statute of Sicily
Sicily
* Elections in Sicily
Sicily
* List of Presidents of Sicily
Sicily
* Sicilian Regional Assembly
Sicilian Regional Assembly

Culture and heritage

* Cuisine

* List of Sicilian dishes
List of Sicilian dishes

* Language * People * Music * Sicilian Baroque * Sicilian School * Sicilian cart * Coppola * Flags * Triskelion ( Trinacria ) * Mount Etna

Categories

AUTHORITY CONTROL

* WorldCat Identities * VIAF : 168221750 * GND : 4041478-4

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