The Twenty-Four Histories (Chinese: 二十四史; pinyin: Èrshísì Shǐ; Wade–Giles: Erh-shih-szu shih), also known as the Orthodox Histories (Chinese: 正史; pinyin: Zhèngshǐ) are the Chinese official historical books covering a period from 3000 BC to the Ming dynasty in the 17th century. The Han dynasty official Sima Qian established many of the conventions of the genre, but the form was not fixed until much later. Starting with the Tang dynasty, each dynasty established an official office to write the history of its predecessor using official court records. As fixed and edited in the Qing dynasty, the whole set contains 3213 volumes and about 40 million words. It is considered one of the most important sources on Chinese history and culture.
The title "Twenty-Four Histories" dates from 1775 which was the 40th year in the reign of the Qianlong Emperor. This was when the last volume, the History of Ming was reworked and a complete set of the histories produced.
- Early Four Historiographies (前四史)
- Book of Song (simplified Chinese: 宋书; traditional Chinese: 宋書; pinyin: Sòng Shū) — Southern Dynasties, compiled by Shen Yue 沈約 in 488
- Book of Qi (simplified Chinese: 齐书; traditional Chinese: 齊書; pinyin: Qí Shū) — Southern Dynasties, compiled by Xiao Zixian 蕭子顯 in 537
- Book of Wei (simplified Chinese: 魏书; traditional Chinese: 魏書; pinyin: Wèi Shū) — Northern Dynasties, compiled by Wei Shou 魏收 in 554
- Eight Historiographies complied in Tang Dynasty (唐初八史)
- Book of Liang (梁書, Liáng Shū) — Southern Dynasties, compiled by Yao Silian 姚思廉 in 636
- Book of Chen (陳書, Chén Shū) — Southern Dynasties, compiled by Yao Silian in 636
- Book of Northern Qi (北齊書, Běi Qí Shū) — Northern Dynasties, compiled by Li Baiyao 李百藥 in 636
- Book of Zhou (周書, Zhōu Shū) — Northern Dynasties, compiled under Linghu Defen 令狐德棻 in 636
- Book of Sui (隋書, Suí Shū), compiled under Wei Zheng 魏徵 in 636
- Book of Jin (晉書, Jìn Shū), compiled under Fang Xuanling 房玄齡 in 648
- History of the Southern Dynasties (南史, Nán Shǐ), compiled by Li Yanshou 李延壽 in 659
- History of the Northern Dynasties (北史, Běi Shǐ), compiled by Li Yanshou in 659
- Old Book of Tang (唐書, Táng Shū), compiled under Liu Xu 劉昫 in 945
- Old History of the Five Dynasties (五代史, Wǔdài Shǐ), compiled under Xue Juzheng 薛居正 in 974
- New History of the Five Dynasties (新五代史, Xīn Wǔdài Shǐ), compiled under Ouyang Xiu 歐陽脩 in 1053
- New Book of Tang (新唐書, Xīn Táng Shū), compiled under Ouyang Xiu in 1060
- Three Historiographies compiled in Yuan Dynasty (元末三史)
- History of Yuan (元史, Yuán Shǐ), compiled under Song Lian 宋濂 in 1370
- History of Ming (明史, Míng Shǐ), compiled under Zhang Tingyu 張廷玉 in 1739
These works were begun by one historian and completed by an heir, usually in the next generation.
In China, the Zhonghua Book Company (Zhonghua Shuju) have edited a number of these histories. They have been collated, edited, and punctuated by Chinese specialists.
One of the Twenty-Four Histories is in the process of being fully translated into English: Records of the Grand Historian by William Nienhauser, in nine volumes,
In Korean and Vietnamese, only the Records has been translated. Most of the histories have been translated into Japanese.
- ^ Ch 49, "Standard Histories," in Endymion Wilkinson. Chinese History: A New Manual. (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center, Harvard-Yenching Institute Monograph Series, 2012). ISBN 9780674067158. Also see "Standard Histories" link to the Googlebook of the 2000 edition of Wilkinson.
- ^ Hill, John E. (2009) Through the Jade Gate to Rome: A Study of the Silk Routes during the Later Han Dynasty, 1st to 2nd Centuries CE. BookSurge, Charleston, South Carolina. ISBN 978-1-4392-2134-1.
- ^ Xu Elina-Qian, p.23
- ^ Xu Elina-Qian, p.19
- ^ The Grand Scribe's Records (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1994- )