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The Turks and Caicos Islands
Turks and Caicos Islands
(/tɜːrks/ and /ˈkeɪkəs, -koʊs, -kɒs/), or TCI for short, are a British Overseas Territory
British Overseas Territory
consisting of the larger Caicos Islands and smaller Turks Islands, two groups of tropical islands in the Lucayan Archipelago
Lucayan Archipelago
of the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
and northern West Indies. They are known primarily for tourism and as an offshore financial centre. The resident population is 31,458 as of 2012[update][2] of whom 23,769 live on Providenciales
Providenciales
in the Caicos Islands. The Turks and Caicos Islands
Turks and Caicos Islands
lie southeast of Mayaguana
Mayaguana
in the Bahamas island chain and north of the island of Hispaniola
Hispaniola
( Haiti
Haiti
and the Dominican Republic) and the other Antilles
Antilles
archipelago islands. Cockburn Town, the capital since 1766, is situated on Grand Turk Island about 1,042 kilometres (647 mi) east-southeast of Miami, United States. The islands have a total land area of 430 square kilometres (170 sq mi).[b] The first recorded European sighting of the islands now known as the Turks and Caicos occurred in 1512.[7] In the subsequent centuries, the islands were claimed by several European powers with the British Empire eventually gaining control. For many years the islands were governed indirectly through Bermuda, the Bahamas, and Jamaica. When the Bahamas
Bahamas
gained independence in 1973, the islands received their own governor, and have remained a separate autonomous British Overseas Territory since. In August 2009, the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
suspended the Turks and Caicos Islands' self-government following allegations of ministerial corruption.[8] Home rule was restored in the islands after the November 2012 elections.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History

2.1 Settlement 2.2 Political reorganisation

3 Geography

3.1 Turks Islands 3.2 Mouchoir Bank 3.3 Caicos Islands

4 Climate 5 Politics

5.1 Administrative divisions

6 Judiciary 7 Population

7.1 Demographics 7.2 Vital statistics 7.3 Population breakdown 7.4 Language 7.5 Religion 7.6 Culture 7.7 Citizenship

8 Education system 9 Health system 10 Economy

10.1 Tourism

11 Biodiversity 12 Transportation 13 Postal system 14 Media 15 Spaceflight 16 Sports 17 Notable people

17.1 Sport 17.2 Politics

18 See also 19 Notes 20 References 21 Bibliography 22 External links

Etymology[edit] The Turks and Caicos Islands
Turks and Caicos Islands
are named after the Turk's cap cactus (Melocactus intortus), and the Lucayan term caya hico, meaning 'string of islands'.[9][10] History[edit] Main article: History of the Turks and Caicos Islands The first inhabitants of the islands were Arawakan-speaking Taíno people, who crossed over from Hispaniola
Hispaniola
sometime from AD 500 to 800. Together with Taino who migrated from Cuba
Cuba
to the southern Bahamas around the same time, these people developed as the Lucayan. Around 1200, the Turks and Caicos Islands
Turks and Caicos Islands
were resettled by Classical Taínos from Hispaniola. Soon after the Spanish arrived in the islands in 1512,[7] they began capturing the Taíno
Taíno
of the Turks and Caicos Islands
Turks and Caicos Islands
and the Lucayan as slaves (technically, as workers in the encomienda system)[11] to replace the largely depleted native population of Hispaniola. The southern Bahama Islands and the Turks and Caicos Islands
Turks and Caicos Islands
were completely depopulated by about 1513, and remained so until the 17th century.[12][13][14][15][16] The first European documented to sight the islands was Spanish conquistador Juan Ponce de León, who did so in 1512.[7] During the 16th, 17th, and 18th centuries, the islands passed from Spanish, to French, to British control, but none of the three powers ever established any settlements. Settlement[edit]

Raking salt on a 1938 postage stamp of the islands.

The 1852 lighthouse on Grand Turk

Bermudian salt collectors settled the Turks Islands around 1680. For several decades around the turn of the 18th century, the islands became popular pirate hideouts. From 1765–1783, the islands were under French occupation, and again after the French captured the archipelago in 1783. After the American War of Independence (1775–1783), many Loyalists fled to British Caribbean
Caribbean
colonies; in 1783, they were the first settlers on the Caicos Islands. They developed cotton as an important cash crop, but it was superseded by the development of the salt industry. In 1799, both the Turks and the Caicos island groups were annexed by Britain as part of the Bahamas.[17] The processing of sea salt was developed as a highly important export product from the West Indies, with the labour done by African slaves. Salt continued to be a major export product into the nineteenth century. In 1807, Britain prohibited the slave trade and, in 1833, abolished slavery in its colonies. British ships sometimes intercepted slave traders in the Caribbean, and some ships were wrecked off the coast of these islands. In 1837, the Esperanza, a Portuguese slaver, was wrecked off East Caicos, one of the larger islands. While the crew and 220 captive Africans survived the shipwreck, 18 Africans died before the survivors were taken to Nassau. Africans from this ship may have been among the 189 liberated Africans whom the British colonists settled in the Turks and Caicos from 1833 to 1840.[18] In 1841, the Trouvadore, an illegal Spanish slave ship, was wrecked off the coast of East Caicos. All the 20-man crew and 192 captive Africans survived the sinking. Officials freed the Africans and arranged for 168 persons to be apprenticed to island proprietors on Grand Turk Island
Grand Turk Island
for one year. They increased the small population of the colony by seven percent.[18] Numerous descendants have come from those free Africans. The remaining 24 were resettled in Nassau. The Spanish crew were also taken there, to be turned over to the custody of the Cuban consul and taken to Cuba
Cuba
for prosecution.[19] An 1878 letter documents the " Trouvadore Africans" and their descendants as constituting an essential part of the "labouring population" on the islands.[18] In 2004, marine archaeologists affiliated with the Turks and Caicos National Museum discovered a wreck, called the "Black Rock Ship", that subsequent research has suggested may be that of the Trouvadore. In November 2008, a cooperative marine archaeology expedition, funded by the United States
United States
NOAA, confirmed that the wreck has artefacts whose style and date of manufacture link them to the Trouvadore.[19][20][21] Political reorganisation[edit] In 1848, Britain designated the Turks and Caicos as a separate colony under a council president. In 1873, the islands were made part of the Jamaica
Jamaica
colony; in 1894, the chief colonial official was restyled commissioner. In 1917, Canadian Prime Minister Robert Borden
Robert Borden
suggested that the Turks and Caicos join Canada, but this suggestion was rejected by British Prime Minister David Lloyd George. The islands remained a dependency of Jamaica.[22] On 4 July 1959, the islands were again designated as a separate colony, the last commissioner being restyled administrator. The governor of Jamaica
Jamaica
also continued as the governor of the islands. When Jamaica
Jamaica
was granted independence from Britain in August 1962, the Turks and Caicos Islands
Turks and Caicos Islands
became a Crown colony. Beginning in 1965, the governor of the Bahamas
Bahamas
was also governor of the Turks and Caicos Islands and oversaw affairs for the islands.[citation needed] When the Bahamas
Bahamas
gained independence in 1973, the Turks and Caicos received their own governor (the last administrator was restyled). In 1974, Canadian New Democratic Party MP Max Saltsman tried to use his Private Member's Bill for legislation to annex the islands to Canada, but it did not pass in the Canadian House of Commons.[23] Since August 1976, the islands have had their own government headed by a chief minister (now premier), the first of whom was James Alexander George Smith McCartney. The islands' political troubles in the early 21st century resulted in a rewritten constitution promulgated in 2006. In 2009, after Premier Michael Misick
Michael Misick
resigned in the face of corruption charges, the United Kingdom took over direct control of the government.[24] A new constitution was promulgated in October 2012 and the government was returned to local administration after the November 2012 elections.[25] In the 2016 elections Rufus Ewing's Progressive National Party (PNP) lost for the first time since they replaced Derek Hugh Taylor's government in 2003. The People's Democratic Movement (PDM) came to power with Sharlene Cartwright-Robinson
Sharlene Cartwright-Robinson
as Premier.[26] Geography[edit]

Map of the Turks and Caicos Islands.

The two island groups are in the North Atlantic Ocean, southeast of the Bahamas, northwest of Puerto Rico, north of Hispaniola, and about 1,000 kilometres (620 mi) from Miami
Miami
in the United States, at 21°45′N 71°35′W / 21.750°N 71.583°W / 21.750; -71.583Coordinates: 21°45′N 71°35′W / 21.750°N 71.583°W / 21.750; -71.583. The territory is geographically contiguous to the Bahamas, both comprising the Lucayan Archipelago, but is politically a separate entity. The Caicos Islands are separated by the Caicos Passage from the closest Bahamian islands, Mayaguana
Mayaguana
and Great Inagua. The eight main islands and more than 299 smaller islands[citation needed] have a total land area of 616.3 square kilometres (238.0 square miles),[b] consisting primarily of low, flat limestone with extensive marshes and mangrove swamps and 332 square kilometres (128 sq mi) of beach front. The weather is usually sunny (it is generally regarded that the islands receive 350 days of sun each year[27]) and relatively dry, but suffers frequent hurricanes.[citation needed] The islands have limited natural fresh water resources; private cisterns collect rainwater for drinking. The primary natural resources are spiny lobster, conch, and other shellfish. The two distinct island groups are separated by the Turks Islands Passage. Turks Islands[edit] The Turks Islands are separated from the Caicos Islands by Turks Island Passage, which is more than 2,200 m or 7,200 ft deep,[28] The islands form a chain that stretches north–south. The 2012 Census population was 4,939 on the two main islands, the only inhabited islands of the group:

Grand Turk (with the capital of the territory, area 17.39 km2 (6.71 sq mi),[29] population 4,831) Salt Cay (area 6.74 km2 (2.60 sq mi),[29] population 108)

Together with nearby islands, all on Turks Bank, those two main islands form the two administrative districts of the territory (out of six in total) that fall within the Turks Islands. Turks Bank, which is smaller than Caicos Bank, has a total area of about 324 km2 (125 sq mi).[30] Mouchoir Bank[edit] 25 kilometres (16 mi) east of the Turks Islands and separated from them by Mouchoir Passage is the Mouchoir Bank. Although it has no emergent cays or islets, some parts are very shallow and the water breaks on them. Mouchoir Bank
Mouchoir Bank
is part of the Turks and Caicos Islands and falls within its Exclusive Economic Zone. It measures 960 square kilometres (370 sq mi) in area.[31] Two banks further east, Silver Bank
Silver Bank
and Navidad Bank, are geographically a continuation, but belong politically to the Dominican Republic. Caicos Islands[edit] The largest island in the Caicos archipelago is the sparsely-inhabited Middle Caicos, which measures 144 square kilometres (56 sq mi) in area, but has a population of only 168 at the 2012 Census. The most populated island is Providenciales, with 23,769 inhabitants in 2012, and an area of 122 square kilometres (47 sq mi). North Caicos
North Caicos
(116 square kilometres (45 sq mi) in area) had 1,312 inhabitants. South Caicos
South Caicos
(21 square kilometres (8.1 sq mi) in area) had 1,139 inhabitants, and Parrot Cay
Parrot Cay
(6 square kilometres (2.3 sq mi) in area) had 131 inhabitants. East Caicos (which is administered as part of South Caicos
South Caicos
District) is uninhabited, while the only permanent inhabitants of West Caicos (administered as part of Providenciales
Providenciales
District) are resort staff. Climate[edit] The Turks and Caicos Islands
Turks and Caicos Islands
feature tropical climate, with relatively consistent temperatures throughout the course of the year.[32] Summertime temperatures rarely exceed 33 °C (91 °F) and winter nighttime temperatures rarely fall below 18 °C (64 °F).

Climate data for Turks and Caicos Islands : Grand Turk

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Average high °C (°F) 27 (81) 27 (81) 28 (82) 28 (82) 29 (84) 30 (86) 31 (88) 31 (88) 31 (88) 30 (86) 29 (84) 28 (82) 29.1 (84.3)

Average low °C (°F) 23 (73) 23 (73) 23 (73) 24 (75) 25 (77) 26 (79) 27 (81) 27 (81) 27 (81) 26 (79) 24 (75) 24 (75) 24.9 (76.8)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 36.1 (1.421) 34.0 (1.339) 24.6 (0.969) 35.6 (1.402) 29.5 (1.161) 54.9 (2.161) 30.0 (1.181) 40.4 (1.591) 66.5 (2.618) 74.9 (2.949) 93.5 (3.681) 85.1 (3.35) 605.1 (23.823)

Source: Weather.com[33] Weatherbase.com[34]

Politics[edit]

A street in Cockburn Town, the capital of the Turks and Caicos Islands

Map of the European Union in the world with overseas countries and territories and outermost regions

Main article: Politics of the Turks and Caicos Islands The Turks and Caicos Islands
Turks and Caicos Islands
are a British Overseas Territory. As a British territory, its sovereign is Queen Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II
of the United Kingdom, represented by a governor appointed by the monarch, on the advice of the Foreign Office. With the election of the territory's first Chief Minister, J.A.G.S. McCartney, the islands first adopted a constitution on 30 August 1976, which is Constitution Day, the national holiday. The territory's legal system is based on English common law, with a small number of laws adopted from Jamaica
Jamaica
and the Bahamas. Suffrage is universal for those over 18 years of age. English is the official language. Grand Turk is the administrative and political capital of the Turks and Caicos Islands
Turks and Caicos Islands
and Cockburn Town
Cockburn Town
has been the seat of government since 1766. The Turks and Caicos Islands
Turks and Caicos Islands
participates in the Caribbean
Caribbean
Development Bank, is an associate in CARICOM, member of the Universal Postal Union and maintains an Interpol
Interpol
sub-bureau. Defence is the responsibility of the United Kingdom. The United Nations Special
Special
Committee on Decolonization includes the territory on the United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories. Under the new Constitution that came into effect in October 2012, legislative power is held by a unicameral House of Assembly, consisting of 19 seats, 15 elected and 4 appointed by the governor; of elected members, five are elected at large and 10 from single member districts for four-year terms. In the 2016 elections the People's Democratic Movement prevailed and Sharlene Cartwright-Robinson
Sharlene Cartwright-Robinson
became Premier.[26] Administrative divisions[edit] Main article: Districts of the Turks and Caicos Islands The Turks and Caicos Islands
Turks and Caicos Islands
are divided into six administrative districts (two in the Turks Islands and four in the Caicos Islands), headed by district commissioners. For the House of Assembly, the Turks and Caicos Islands are divided into 15 electoral districts (four in the Turks Islands and eleven in the Caicos Islands). Judiciary[edit] The judicial branch of government is headed by a Supreme Court; appeals are heard by the Court of Appeal and final appeals by the United Kingdom's Judicial Committee of the Privy Council. There are three justices of the Supreme Court, a Chief Justice and two others. The Court of Appeal consists of a president and at least two justices of appeal. Magistrates' Courts are the lower courts and appeals from Magistrates' Courts are sent to the Supreme Court. As of September 2014, the Chief Justice is Justice Margaret Ramsay-Hale.[35]

Chief Justices

John Charles Powell Fieldsend 1985–1987 Sir Frederick Smith 1987–1990 Lindsey Worrall 1990–1993 Kipling Douglas 1993–1996 Sir Richard Ground 1998–2004 Christopher Gardner 2004–2007 Sir Gordon Ward 2008–2012 Edwin Goldsbrough 2012–2014 Margaret Ramsey Hale 2014–present

Population[edit]

Census population and average annual growth rate

Year Pop. ±%

1911 5,615 —    

1921 5,522 −1.7%

1943 6,138 +11.2%

1960 5,668 −7.7%

1970 5,558 −1.9%

1980 7,413 +33.4%

1990 11,465 +54.7%

2000 20,014 +74.6%

2012 31,458 +57.2%

Source:[36][37]

Demographics[edit] Eight of the thirty islands in the territory are inhabited, with a total population estimated from preliminary results of the census of 25 January 2012 (released on 12 August 2012) of 31,458 inhabitants, an increase of 58.2% from the population of 19,886 reported in the 2001 census.[2] One-third of the population is under 15 years old, and only 4% are 65 or older. In 2000 the population was growing at a rate of 3.55% per year. The infant mortality rate was 18.66 deaths per 1,000 live births and the life expectancy at birth was 73.28 years (71.15 years for males, 75.51 years for females). The total fertility rate was 3.25 children born per woman. The annual population growth rate is 2.82%. The adult population is composed of 57.5% immigrants. The CIA World Factbook describes the islanders' ethnicity as African 87%, European 7.9%, Mixed 2.5.%, East Indian 1.3% and Other 0.7%[38] Vital statistics[edit] Vital statistics related to the population are:[39][40][41]

Average population (x 1000) Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1000) Crude death rate (per 1000) Natural change (per 1000)

1950 5.0 240 80 160 47.6 15.9 31.7

1951 5.0 239 71 168 48.0 14.2 33.7

1952 5.0 243 79 164 48.8 15.9 33.0

1953 5.0 206 92 114 41.1 18.3 22.7

1954 5.1 238 74 164 46.7 14.5 32.2

1955 5.2 268 96 172 51.6 18.5 33.1

1956 5.3 223 83 140 41.9 15.6 26.3

1957 5.4 231 75 156 42.4 13.8 28.7

1958 5.6 244 84 160 43.9 15.1 28.8

1959 5.7 244 90 154 43.1 15.9 27.2

1960 5.7 252 60 192 44.0 10.5 33.5

1961 5.8 247 65 182 42.9 11.3 31.6

1962 5.8 252 69 183 43.7 12.0 31.8

1963 5.7 238 74 164 41.5 12.9 28.6

1964 5.7 217 61 156 38.0 10.7 27.3

1965 5.7 149 66 83 26.3 11.6 14.6

1966 5.6 199 63 136 35.4 11.2 24.2

1967 5.6 137 27 110 24.5 4.8 19.7

1968 5.6 163 38 125 29.3 6.8 22.5

1969 5.6 162 50 112 29.1 9.0 20.1

1970 5.6 176 47 129 31.3 8.3 22.9

1971 5.8 190 59 131 33.0 10.3 22.8

1972 5.9 171 46 125 28.9 7.8 21.1

1973 6.1 191 46 145 31.1 7.5 23.6

1974 6.3 152 36 116 24.0 5.7 18.3

1975 6.5 159 54 105 24.3 8.2 16.0

1976 6.7 200 43 157 29.7 6.4 23.4

1977 6.9 194 47 147 28.2 6.8 21.3

1978 7.1 170 51 119 24.1 7.2 16.9

1979 7.3 197 28 169 27.1 3.9 23.3

1980 7.5 214 15 199 28.4 2.0 26.4

1981 7.9 189 24 165 24.1 3.1 21.0

1982 8.2 204 33 171 24.7 4.0 20.7

1983 8.7

1984 9.1

1985 9.5

1986 9.9

1987 10.2

1988 10.6

1989 11.0

1990 11.6 240 50 190 20.8 4.3 16.5

1991 12.2 211 59 152 17.3 4.8 12.5

1992 13.0 263 52 211 20.3 4.0 16.3

1993 13.8 197 66 131 14.3 4.8 9.5

1994 14.6 229 62 167 15.7 4.2 11.4

1995 15.3 300 74 226 19.6 4.8 14.7

1996 16.0 324 55 269 20.3 3.4 16.8

1997 16.5 287 55 232 17.4 3.3 14.0

1998 17.1 272 24 248 15.9 1.4 14.5

1999 17.9 292 39 253 16.3 2.2 14.2

2000 18.9 290 67 223 15.4 3.5 11.8

2001 20.2 271 69 202 13.4 3.4 10.0

2002 21.7 153 48 105 7.0 2.2 4.8

2003 23.4 213 61 152 9.1 2.6 6.5

2004 25.0 300 46 254 12.0 1.8 10.1

2005 30.6 318 53 265 10.4 1.7 8.7

2006 33.2 411 73 338 12.3 2.3 10.0

2007 34.9 462 116 346 13.1 3.3 9.8

2008 36.6 460 65 395 12.4 1.8 10.6

2009 36

73

2010 34.3

116

14.8 2.3

2011 31.5

Population breakdown[edit]

Island Capital Area (km²) Population[c]

Caicos Islands

South Caicos Cockburn Harbour 21.2 2,013

West Caicos New Marina 28 10 (Employees of new resort)

Providenciales Downtown Providenciales 122 33,253

Pine Cay South Bay Village 3.2 30 (Resort Staff)

Parrot Cay Parrot Cay
Parrot Cay
Village 5 90 (Half resort staff, half residential)

North Caicos Bottle Creek 116.4 2,066

Middle Caicos Conch
Conch
Bar 136 522

Ambergris Cays Big Ambergris Cay 10.9 50

Other Caicos Islands East Caicos 146.5 0

Turks Islands

Grand Turk Cockburn Town 17.6 8,051

Salt Cay Balfour Town 7.1 315

Other Turks Islands Cotton Cay 2.4 0

Turks and Caicos Islands Cockburn Town 616.3 49000[3]

Language[edit] The official language of the islands is English and the population also speaks Turks and Caicos Islands
Turks and Caicos Islands
Creole[42] which is similar to Bahamian Creole.[43] Due to its close proximity to Cuba
Cuba
and Hispaniola, large Haitian Creole
Haitian Creole
and Spanish-speaking communities have developed in the territory due to immigration, both legal and illegal, from Creole-speaking Haiti
Haiti
and from Spanish-speaking Cuba
Cuba
and Dominican Republic.[44] Religion[edit] Main article: Religion in the Turks and Caicos Islands 72.8% of the population of Turks and Caicos are Christian
Christian
(Baptists 35.8%, Church of God 11.7%, Roman Catholics
Roman Catholics
11.4%, Anglicans
Anglicans
10%, Methodists 9.3%, Seventh-day Adventists 6%, Jehovah's Witnesses
Jehovah's Witnesses
1.8% and Others 14%).[38] Catholics are served by the Mission "Sui Iuris" for Turks and Caicos, which was erected in 1984 with territory taken from the then Diocese of Nassau. Culture[edit] See also: Music of the Turks and Caicos Islands

Turks and Caicos National Museum on Grand Turk

The Turks and Caicos Islands
Turks and Caicos Islands
are most well known for ripsaw music. The islands are known for their annual Music and Cultural Festival showcasing many local talents and other dynamic performances by many music celebrities from around the Caribbean
Caribbean
and United States. Women continue traditional crafts of using straw to make baskets and hats on the larger Caicos islands. It is possible that this continued tradition is related to the liberated Africans who joined the population directly from Africa in the 1830s and 1841 from shipwrecked slavers; they brought cultural craft skills with them.[21] The island's most popular sports are fishing, sailing, football (soccer) and cricket (which is the national sport). Turks and Caicos cuisine is based primarily around seafood, especially conch.[45] Two common dishes, whilst not traditionally 'local', are conch fritters and conch salad.[46] Citizenship[edit] See also: British Overseas Territories
British Overseas Territories
citizen § Access to British citizenship Because the Turks and Caicos is a British Overseas Territory
British Overseas Territory
and not an independent country, they, at one time, could not confer citizenship. Instead, people with close ties to Britain's Overseas Territories all held the same nationality: British Overseas Territories Citizen (BOTC) as defined by the British Nationality Act 1981 and subsequent amendments. BOTC, however, does not confer any right to live in any British Overseas Territory, including the territory from which it is derived. Instead, the rights normally associated with citizenship derive from what is called Belonger status and island natives or descendants from natives are said to be Belongers. In 2002, the British Overseas Territories
British Overseas Territories
Act restored full British citizenship status to all citizens of British Overseas Territories, including the Turks and Caicos. Education system[edit] Public Education is supported by taxation, and is mandatory for children aged five to sixteen. Primary education lasts for six years and secondary education lasts for five years. In the 1990s, the island nation launched the Primary In-Service Teacher Education Project (PINSTEP) in an effort to increase the skills of its primary school teachers, nearly one-quarter of whom were unqualified. Turks and Caicos also worked to refurbish its primary schools, reduce textbook costs, and increase equipment and supplies given to schools. For example, in September 1993, each primary school was given enough books to allow teachers to establish in-class libraries.[citation needed] In 2001, the student–teacher ratio at the primary level was roughly 15:1.[citation needed] The Turks and Caicos Islands
Turks and Caicos Islands
Community College offers free higher education to students who have successfully completed their secondary education. The community college also oversees an adult literacy program. The Ministry of Health, Education, Youth, Sports, and Women's Affairs oversees education in Turks and Caicos. Once a student completes their education at Turks and Caicos Islands Community College, they are allowed to further their education at a university in the United States, Canada, or the United Kingdom for free. They have to commit to working in The Turks and Caicos Islands for four years to receive this additional education. Health system[edit] The Turks and Caicos established a National Health System in 2010. Residents contribute to a National Health Insurance Plan through salary deduction and nominal user fees. Majority of care is provided by the private-public-partnership hospitals in Providenciales
Providenciales
and Grand Turk. In addition there are a number of government clinics and private clinics. The hospital opened in 2010 is administered by Interhealth Canada and has been accredited by Accreditation Canada
Canada
in 2012 and 2015. Economy[edit]

Cruise terminal at Grand Turk island

The salt industry, along with small sponge and hemp exports, sustained the Turks and Caicos Islands
Turks and Caicos Islands
(only barely, however; there was little population growth and the economy stagnated) until in the 1960s American investors arrived on the islands and funded the construction of an airstrip on Provo Island and built the archipelago's first hotel, "The Third Turtle". A small trickle of tourists began to arrive, supplementing the salt economy. Club Med
Club Med
set up a resort at Grace Bay soon after. In the 1980s, Club Med
Club Med
funded an upgrading of the airstrip to allow for larger aircraft, and since then, tourism has been gradually on the increase. It is common for foreign couples to be married in the Turks and Caicos Islands
Turks and Caicos Islands
today. In 2009, GDP contributions were as follows:[47] Hotels & Restaurants 34.67%, Financial Services 13.12%, Construction 7.83%, Transport, Storage & Communication 9.90%, and Real Estate, Renting & Business Activities 9.56%.[clarification needed] Most capital goods and food for domestic consumption are imported. In 2010/2011, major sources of government revenue included Import Duties (43.31%), Stamp Duty on Land Transaction (8.82%), Work Permits and Residency Fees (10.03%) and Accommodation Tax (24.95%). The territory's gross domestic product as of late 2009 is approximately US$795 million (per capita $24,273).[47] The labour force totalled 27,595 workers in 2008. The labour force distribution in 2006 is as follows:

Skill level Percentage

Unskilled/Manual 53%

Semi-skilled 12%

Skilled 20%

Professional 15%

The unemployment rate in 2008 was 8.3%. In 2007–2008, the territory took in revenues of $206.79 million against expenditures of $235.85 million. In 1995, the island received economic aid worth $5.7 million. The territory's currency is the United States
United States
dollar, with a few government fines (such as airport infractions) being payable in pounds sterling. Most commemorative coin issues are denominated in crowns. The primary agricultural products include limited amounts of maize, beans, cassava (tapioca) and citrus fruits. Fish and conch are the only significant export, with some $169.2 million of lobster, dried and fresh conch, and conch shells exported in 2000, primarily to the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and the United States. In recent years, however, the catch has been declining. The territory used to be an important trans-shipment point for South American narcotics destined for the United States, but due to the ongoing pressure of a combined American, Bahamian and Turks and Caicos effort this trade has been greatly reduced. The islands import food and beverages, tobacco, clothing, manufacture and construction materials, primarily from the United States
United States
and the United Kingdom. Imports totalled $581 million in 2007. The islands produce and consume about 5 GWh of electricity, per year, all of which comes from fossil fuels. Tourism[edit] The United States
United States
was the leading source of tourists in 1996, accounting for more than half of the 87,000 visitors; another major source of tourists is Canada. Tourist arrivals had risen to 264,887 in 2007 and to 351,498 by 2009. In 2010, a total of 245 cruise ships arrived at the Grand Turk Cruise Terminal, carrying a total of 617,863 visitors.[48]

A Turks and Caicos sunset

View of the southwestern beach at Grand Turk Island

The government is pursuing a two-pronged strategy to increase tourism. Upscale resorts are aimed at the wealthy, while a large new cruise ship port and recreation centre has been built for the masses visiting Grand Turk. Turks and Caicos Islands
Turks and Caicos Islands
has one of the longest coral reefs in the world[49] and the world's only conch farm.[50] The French vacation village company of Club Mediterannee (Club Med) has an all-inclusive adult resort called 'Turkoise' on one of the main islands. Several Hollywood stars have built homes in the Turks and Caicos, including Dick Clark
Dick Clark
and Bruce Willis. Ben Affleck
Ben Affleck
and Jennifer Garner married on Parrot Cay
Parrot Cay
in 2005. Actress Eva Longoria
Eva Longoria
and her ex-husband Tony Parker
Tony Parker
went to the islands for their honeymoon in July 2007 and High School Musical
High School Musical
actors Zac Efron
Zac Efron
and Vanessa Hudgens
Vanessa Hudgens
went for a vacation there. In 2013 Hollywood writer/director Rob Margolies and actress Kristen Ruhlin vacationed here. Musician Nile Rodgers
Nile Rodgers
has a vacation home on the island. To boost tourism during the Caribbean
Caribbean
low season of late summer, since 2003 the Turks and Caicos Tourist Board have organised and hosted an annual series of concerts during this season called the Turks & Caicos Music and Cultural Festival.[51] Held in a temporary bandshell at The Turtle Cove Marina in The Bight on Providenciales, this festival lasts about a week and has featured several notable international recording artists, such as Lionel Richie, LL Cool J, Anita Baker, Billy Ocean, Alicia Keys, John Legend, Kenny Rogers, Michael Bolton, Ludacris, Chaka Khan, and Boyz II Men.[52] More than 10,000 people attend annually.[52]

Resorts

Grace Bay Club[53] The Somerset on Grace Bay[54] Beaches Resorts
Beaches Resorts
– Turks & Caicos[55] Seven Stars Resort[56] Alexandra Resort[57] West Bay Club[58]

Biodiversity[edit]

A French Angelfish
French Angelfish
in Princess Alexandra Land and Sea National Park, Providenciales

A Blue Tang and a Squirrelfish
Squirrelfish
in Princess Alexandra Land and Sea National Park, Providenciales

Humpback whale
Humpback whale
breaching off South Caicos

The Turks and Caicos Islands
Turks and Caicos Islands
are a biodiversity hotspot. The islands have many endemic species and others of international importance, due to the conditions created by the oldest established salt-pan development in the Caribbean. The variety of species includes a number of endemic species of lizards, snakes, insects and plants, and marine organisms; in addition to being an important breeding area for seabirds.[59] The UK and Turks and Caicos Islands
Turks and Caicos Islands
Governments have joint responsibility for the conservation and preservation to meet obligations under international environmental conventions.[60] Due to this significance, the islands are on the United Kingdom's tentative list for future UNESCO World Heritage Sites.[61] Transportation[edit] Providenciales
Providenciales
International Airport is the main entry point for the Turks and Caicos Islands. Altogether, there are seven airports, located on each of the inhabited islands. Five have paved runways (three of which are approximately 2,000 m (6,600 ft) long and one is approximately 1,000 m (3,300 ft) long), and the remaining two have unpaved runways (one of which is approximately 1,000 m (3,300 ft)s long and the other is significantly shorter).[62] The islands have 121 kilometres (75 miles) of highway, 24 km (15 mi) paved and 97 km (60 mi) unpaved. Like the United States Virgin Islands
United States Virgin Islands
and British Virgin Islands, the Turks and Caicos Islands drive on the left, but use left-hand-drive vehicles that are imported from the United States.[63] The territory's main international ports and harbours are on Grand Turk and Providenciales.[64] The islands have no significant railways. In the early twentieth century East Caicos operated a horse-drawn railway to transport Sisal from the plantation to the port. The 14-kilometre (8.7-mile) route was removed after sisal trading ceased.[65] Postal system[edit] There is no postal delivery in the Turks and Caicos; mail is picked up at one of four post offices on each of the major islands.[66] Mail is transported three or seven times a week, depending on the destination.[67] The Post Office is part of the territory's government and reports to the Minister of Government Support Services.[68] Media[edit] Mobile phone service is provided by Cable & Wireless Communications, through its Flow brand, using GSM
GSM
850 and TDMA, and Digicel, using GSM
GSM
900 and 1900 and Islandcom Wireless, using 3G 850. Cable & Wireless provides CDMA mobile phone service in Providenciales
Providenciales
and Grand Turk. The system is connected to the mainland by two submarine cables and an Intelsat
Intelsat
earth station. There were three AM radio stations (one inactive) and six FM stations (no shortwave) in 1998. The most popular station is Power 92.5 FM which plays Top 100 hits. Over 8000 radio receivers are owned across the territory. West Indies
West Indies
Video (WIV) has been the sole cable television provider for the Turks and Caicos Islands
Turks and Caicos Islands
for over two decades and WIV4 (a subsidiary of WIV) has been the only broadcast station in the islands for over 15 years; broadcasts from the Bahamas
Bahamas
can also be received. The territory has two internet service providers and its country code top level domain (ccTLD) is ".tc". Amateur radio
Amateur radio
callsigns begin with "VP5" and visiting operators frequently work from the islands. WIV introduced Channel 4 News in 2002 broadcasting local news and infotainment programs across the country. Channel 4 was re-launched as WIV4 in November 2007. Since 2013 4NEWS has become the Islands first HD Cable News service with Television Studios in Grace Bay, Providenciales. DigicelPlay is the local cable provider. Turks and Caicos's newspapers include the Turks and Caicos Weekly News, the Turks and Caicos SUN[69] and the Turks and Caicos Free Press.[70] All three publications are weekly. The Weekly News and the Sun both have supplement magazines. Other local magazines Times of the Islands,[71] s3 Magazine,[72] Real Life Magazine, Baller Magazine, and Unleashed Magazine. Spaceflight[edit]

Replica of Friendship 7
Friendship 7
at Grand Turk Airport

From 1950 to 1981, the United States
United States
had a missile tracking station on Grand Turk. In the early days of the American space program, NASA
NASA
used it. After his three earth orbits in 1962, American astronaut John Glenn successfully landed in the nearby ocean and was brought back ashore to Grand Turk island.[73][74] Sports[edit] Cricket
Cricket
is the islands' national sport.[75] The national team takes part in regional tournaments in the ICC Americas Championship,[76] as well as having played one Twenty20
Twenty20
match as part of the 2008 Standford 20/20.[77] Two domestic leagues exist, one on Grand Turk with three teams and another on Providenciales.[75] As of 4 July 2012, Turks and Caicos Islands' football team shared the position of the lowest ranking national men's football team in the world at the rank of 207th.[78] Because the territory is not recognized by the International Olympic Committee, Turks and Caicos Islanders compete for Great Britain
Great Britain
at the Olympic Games.[79] Notable people[edit] Sport[edit]

Christopher Bryan (born 1960 in the Turks and Caicos Islands) is a former association football player. In 2006 he became the President of the Turks and Caicos Islands
Turks and Caicos Islands
Football Association Errion Charles (born 1965 in Saint Vincent) is a sportsman from the Turks and Caicos Islands
Turks and Caicos Islands
who has represented his nation at both association football and cricket Gregory Watts (born 1967 in the Turks and Caicos Islands) is a former footballer, he played as a defender Gavin Glinton (born 1979 in Grand Turk) is a footballer who last played for Nam Dinh FC Trevor Ariza
Trevor Ariza
(born 1985 in Miami) is an American professional basketball player for the Houston Rockets. He is of Turks & Caicos Islands and Dominican descent through his parents, Lolita Ariza and Trevor Saunders of Grand Turk Delano Williams (born 1993 in Grand Turk) is a British sprinter. He trains with the Racers Track Club in Jamaica

Politics[edit]

Nathaniel Francis (1912 – 2004 both in the Turks and Caicos Islands) was a politician who served as the island territory's acting Chief Minister from 28 March 1985 until 25 July 1986, when he was forced to resign after charges of corruption and patronage were leveled against him Clement Howell (1935 in Blue Hills, Providenciales
Providenciales
- 1987 near Nassau, Bahamas) was a politician who served on a four-member interim Advisory Council beginning in July 1986 Norman B. Saunders (born 1943 in the Turks and Caicos Islands) is a former politician who served as the island territory's Chief Minister until March 1985, when he was arrested in Miami. In July 1985 he was sentenced to eight years in prison on conspiracy charges related to drug smuggling. James Alexander George Smith McCartney (1945 in Grand Turk – 1980 in New Jersey) also known as "Jags" McCartney was a politician who served as the island territory's first Chief Minister from August 1976 until 9 May 1980, when he died in a plane crash over New Jersey. Washington Misick (born 1950 in the Turks and Caicos Islands) is a politician who served as the island territory's Chief Minister from April 1991 to 31 January 1995. Ariel Misick (born 1951) is a former minister of development and commerce. He served on a four-member interim Advisory Council from July 1986 to 3 March 1988 Oswald Skippings (born 1953 in the Turks and Caicos Islands) is a politician who served as the island territory's Chief Minister from 19 June 1980 to November 1980 and again from 3 March 1988 to April 1991. Michael Misick
Michael Misick
(born 1966 in Bottle Creek, North Caicos) is the former chief minister from 15 August 2003 to 9 August 2006 and was the first Premier from 9 August 2006 to 23 March 2009. He is on trial for conspiracy to receive bribes, conspiracy to defraud the government and money laundering.

See also[edit]

Caribbean
Caribbean
portal United Kingdom
United Kingdom
portal

Outline of the Turks and Caicos Islands Index of Turks and Caicos Islands-related articles

Notes[edit]

^ Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State in the Foreign and Commonwealth Office with responsibility for the British Overseas Territories ^ a b Different sources give different figures for the Islands' area. The CIA World Factbook
CIA World Factbook
gives 430 km2,[3] the European Union says 417 km2,[4] and the Encyclopædia Britannica says "Area at high tide, 238 square miles (616 square km); at low tide, 366 square miles (948 square km)".[5] A report by the Turks and Caicos Islands
Turks and Caicos Islands
Department of Economic Planning and Statistics gives the same numbers as the Encyclopædia Britannica though its definitions are less clear.[6] ^ The Islands area and population data retrieved from the 2012 census

References[edit]

^ " Turks and Caicos Islands
Turks and Caicos Islands
–". Nationalanthems.info. Retrieved 2017-03-22.  ^ a b c "Census Figures from Turks and Caicos Strategic Planning and Policy Department Website". Sppdtci.com. Retrieved 2017-03-22.  ^ a b "Turks and Caicos Islands". CIA World Factbook. Retrieved 13 March 2013.  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 28 September 2008. Retrieved 2008-12-11.  ^ "Turks and Caicos Islands". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 13 March 2013.  ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 July 2011. Retrieved 2013-03-13.  ^ a b c "World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples – Turks and Caicos Islands : Overview". Minority Rights Group International, 2007. ^ Fincher, Christina (14 August 2009). "Britain suspends Turks and Caicos government". Reuters. Retrieved 26 May 2013.  ^ Unknown. "Turks and Caicos – History". Geographia.com. Retrieved 2017-03-22.  ^ "Turks and Caicos". Turksandcaicostourism.com. 2013-01-24. Retrieved 2017-03-22.  ^ " Encomienda
Encomienda
or Slavery? The Spanish Crown's Choice of Labor Organization in Sixteenth-Century Spanish America" (PDF), Latin American Studies. ^ Paul Albury. (1975) The Story of the Bahamas. MacMillan Caribbean. ISBN 0-333-17131-4 pp. 34–37 ^ Michael Craton. (1986) A History of the Bahamas. San Salvador Press. ISBN 0-9692568-0-9 pp. 17, 37–39 ^ Julian Granberry and Gary S. Vescelius. (2004) Languages of the Pre-Columbian Antilles. The University of Alabama Press. ISBN 0-8173-5123-X pp. 80–86 ^ William F. Keegan. (1992) The People Who Discovered Columbus: The Prehistory of the Bahamas. University Press of Florida. ISBN 0-8130-1137-X pp. 25, 48–62, 86, 170–173, 212–213, 220–223 ^ Carl Ortwin Sauer. (1966, Fourth printing, 1992) The Early Spanish Main. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-01415-4 pp. 159–160, 191 ^ "Unnoticed Unrest in Turks and Caicos and the Canadian Connection". GeoCurrents. Retrieved 23 January 2017.  ^ a b c Leshikar-Denton, Margaret E; Erreguerena, Pilar Luna (2008-10-15). Underwater and Maritime Archaeology in Latin America and the Caribbean. Books.google.com. p. 209. ISBN 9781598742626. Retrieved 2017-03-22.  ^ a b Jane Sutton, "Shipwreck may hold key to Turks and Caicos' lineage", Reuters, 26 November 2008 ^ Randolph E. Schmid, "Artifacts appear linked to Trouvadore", Associated Press, 25 November 2008. ^ a b Nigel Sadler, "The Sinking of the Slave Ship Trouvadore: Linking the Past to the Present", Underwater and Maritime Archaeology in Latin America and the Caribbean, edited by Margaret E Leshikar-Denton, Pilar Luna Erreguerena, Left Coast Press, 2008 ^ Kersell, John E. (1988). "Government administration in a very small microstate: Developing the Turks and Caicos Islands". Public Administration and Development. 8 (2): 169–181. doi:10.1002/pad.4230080206.  ^ "Biography from City of Cambridge's Hall of Fame". City.cambridge.on.ca. Retrieved 31 July 2011.  ^ "A major step in clean up of public life in Turks and Caicos". Foreign Office
Foreign Office
of the United Kingdom. 14 August 2009. Archived from the original on 10 October 2012.  ^ Clegg, Peter (2013). "The United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and its caribbean overseas territories: Present relations and future prospects" (PDF). Caribbean Journal of International Relations & Diplomacy. 1 (2): 53–64, page 56. Archived (PDF) from the original on 31 January 2017.  ^ a b "Turks and Caicos: Where women hold the top jobs". BBC News. 29 January 2017.  ^ "Turks and Caicos In Numbers". Beach House TCI. Retrieved 1 August 2015.  ^ "STS-100 Shuttle Mission Imagery". Spaceflight.nasa.gov. 1 May 2001. Retrieved 31 July 2011.  ^ a b "Dep Fafsa Postal Service Socialsecurity.Gov Passport Fafsa.Ed.Gov at Depstc.org" (PDF). Web.archive.org. 2011-07-25. Archived from the original on 25 July 2011. Retrieved 2017-03-22. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) ^ "Historical Fisheries Production And Trade of the Turks And Caicos Island" (PDF). Seaaroundus.org. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 August 2011. Retrieved 31 July 2011.  ^ "Turks Caicos Bank Website » Mouchoir Bank". Turkscaicosbank.com. 11 April 2008. Retrieved 31 July 2011.  ^ "Turks and Caicos, CIA – The world factbook". Cia.gov.  ^ "Grand Turk, Turks And Caicos Islands Monthly Weather". Weather.com. Retrieved 2017-03-22.  ^ "Grand Turk, Turks and Caicos Islands
Turks and Caicos Islands
Travel Weather Averages". Weatherbase. Retrieved 2017-03-22.  ^ "Monday, September 22, 2014– Daughter of eminent Jamaican lawyer Ian Ramsay sworn in as chief justice of Turks & Caicos". Jamaica Observer. Archived from the original on 14 September 2015. Retrieved 22 October 2015.  ^ "Internet Archive Wayback Machine". Web.archive.org. Archived from the original on 6 May 2013. Retrieved 2017-03-22.  ^ "Internet Archive Wayback Machine". Web.archive.org. Archived from the original on 16 October 2015. Retrieved 2017-03-22.  ^ a b "Central America and Caribbean :: TURKS AND CAICOS ISLANDS". CIA The World Factbook.  ^ "United Nations Statistics Division – Demographic and Social Statistics". Unstats.un.org. Retrieved 2017-03-22.  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 13 November 2013. Retrieved 2014-01-02.  ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 March 2016. Retrieved 2016-03-18.  ^ Ethnologue
Ethnologue
report on Languages of Turks and Caicos Islands ^ "Turks and Caicos Creole English". Ethnologue. Retrieved 2017-03-22.  ^ "Turks and Caicos Islands". Ethnologue. Retrieved 2017-03-22.  ^ Name (2015-12-02). "The Food and Cuisine of Turks and Caicos". Thesandstc.com. Retrieved 2017-03-22.  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 16 July 2011. Retrieved 2011-07-14.  ^ a b "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 13 September 2014. Retrieved 2014-07-13.  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 13 November 2009. Retrieved 2009-08-15.  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 5 April 2016. Retrieved 2016-09-14.  ^ "Tourism in Turks & Caicos". Caribbean
Caribbean
Days. Retrieved 20 February 2015.  ^ "The Turks and Caicos Music & Cultural Festival". 21 April 2008. Archived from the original on 12 June 2008. Retrieved 7 August 2008.  ^ a b "The Turks and Caicos Music & Cultural Festival News Release". 21 April 2008. Archived from the original on 4 August 2008. Retrieved 7 August 2008.  ^ "Grace Bay Club, a Turks and Caicos resort and Caribbean
Caribbean
spa". Gracebayresorts.com. Retrieved 2017-03-22.  ^ "Turks & Caicos luxury resort, The Somerset on Grace Bay". Thesomerset.com. Retrieved 2017-03-22.  ^ "Turks and Caicos All Inclusive Family Resort – Beaches Turks & Caicos Resort Villages & Spa". All Inclusive Resorts and Caribbean
Caribbean
Vacations for the Whole Family – Beaches Caribbean
Caribbean
Family Resorts. Retrieved 11 June 2015.  ^ "Turks and Caicos Resort – Seven Stars Grace Bay Hotel". Sevenstarsgracebay.com. Retrieved 2017-03-22.  ^ "The Best Value of all the Turks and Caicos Resorts". Alexandra Resort. Retrieved 11 June 2015.  ^ "Turks and Caicos Resort, Luxury Caribbean
Caribbean
Beach Resort Turks and Caicos Resort, Luxury Caribbean
Caribbean
Beach Resort". Thewestbayclub.com. Archived from the original on 9 July 2017. Retrieved 22 March 2017.  ^ "Science: UK Overseas Territories – Turks and Caicos Islands". Kew. Archived from the original on 8 November 2012. Retrieved 29 December 2012.  ^ "Science: UK Overseas Territories: Biodiversity". Kew. Archived from the original on 2 May 2013. Retrieved 29 December 2012.  ^ " Turks and Caicos Islands
Turks and Caicos Islands
– UNESCO World Heritage Centre". Whc.unesco.org. 27 January 2012. Retrieved 29 December 2012.  ^ " Providenciales
Providenciales
International Airport, Turks and Caicos Islands, United Kingdom". airport-technology.com. Retrieved 9 August 2014. [unreliable source?] ^ "Government breaks ground on $10million expansion for Providenciales International Airport". suntci.com. Retrieved 9 August 2014.  ^ "Turks and Caicos Islands: Getting Around". frommers.com. Retrieved 9 August 2014.  ^ "Railways in the United Kingdom". Sinfin.net. Retrieved 31 July 2011.  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 12 February 2015. Retrieved 2015-06-11.  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 13 June 2015. Retrieved 2015-06-11.  ^ "Government – Turks and Caicos Information – TCI Mall". Tcimall.tc. Retrieved 2017-03-22.  ^ özgürKöy (6 April 2009). "suntci.com". suntci.com. Retrieved 25 November 2011.  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 11 December 2011. Retrieved 2011-11-25.  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 5 December 2011. Retrieved 2011-11-25.  ^ "S3 Magazine". s3magazine.com. Retrieved 25 November 2011.  ^ "History of the Turks and Caicos Islands". Visit Turks & Caicos Islands. Retrieved 20 February 2015.  ^ Frasketi, Jr., Joseph J. "The Grand Turk Island
Grand Turk Island
Connection with". Joe Frasketi's Space and other Topical Covers. Retrieved 20 February 2015. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ a b "ICC Members: Turks and Caicos Islands". International Cricket Council. Archived from the original on 7 November 2012. Retrieved 7 October 2012.  ^ "Other Matches played by Turks and Caicos Islands". CricketArchive. Retrieved 7 October 2012.  ^ " Twenty20
Twenty20
Matches played by Turks and Caicos Islands". CricketArchive. Retrieved 7 October 2012.  ^ "The FIFA/Coca-Cola World Ranking – Ranking Table". FIFA.com. Retrieved 29 December 2012.  ^ "About the Turks and Caicos Government". Visit Turks and Caicos Islands. Retrieved 27 January 2017. 

Bibliography[edit]

Boultbee, Paul G. Turks and Caicos Islands. Oxford: ABC-Clio Press, 1991.

External links[edit]

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Asia

17th and 18th century 19th century 20th century

1685–1824 Bencoolen 1702–1705 Pulo Condore 1757–1947 Bengal 1762–1764 Manila and Cavite 1781–1784 and 1795–1819 Padang 1786–1946 Penang 1795–1948 Ceylon 1796–1965 Maldives

1811–1816 Java 1812–1824 Banka and Billiton 1819–1826 Malaya 1824–1948 Burma 1826–1946 Straits Settlements 1839–1967 Aden 1839–1842 Afghanistan 1841–1997 Hong Kong 1841–1946 Sarawak 1848–1946 Labuan 1858–1947 India 1874–1963 Borneo

1879–1919 Afghanistan (protectorate) 1882–1963 North Borneo 1885–1946 Unfederated Malay States 1888–1984 Brunei 1891–1971 Muscat and Oman 1892–1971 Trucial States 1895–1946 Federated Malay States 1898–1930 Weihai 1878–1960 Cyprus

1907–1949 Bhutan (protectorate) 1918–1961 Kuwait 1920–1932 Mesopotamia8 1921–1946 Transjordan8 1923–1948 Palestine8 1945–1946 South Vietnam 1946–1963 North Borneo 1946–1963 Sarawak 1946–1963 Singapore 1946–1948 Malayan Union 1948–1957 Federation of Malaya Since 1960 Akrotiri and Dhekelia
Akrotiri and Dhekelia
(before as part of Cyprus) Since 1965 British Indian Ocean Territory
British Indian Ocean Territory
(before as part of Mauritius and the Seychelles)

8 League of Nations mandate. Iraq's mandate was not enacted and replaced by the Anglo-Iraqi Treaty

Oceania

18th and 19th centuries 20th century

1788–1901 New South Wales 1803–1901 Van Diemen's Land/Tasmania 1807–1863 Auckland Islands9 1824–1980 New Hebrides 1824–1901 Queensland 1829–1901 Swan River/Western Australia 1836–1901 South Australia since 1838 Pitcairn Islands

1841–1907 New Zealand 1851–1901 Victoria 1874–1970 Fiji10 1877–1976 Western Pacific Territories 1884–1949 Papua 1888–1901 Rarotonga/Cook Islands9 1889–1948 Union Islands9 1892–1979 Gilbert and Ellice Islands11 1893–1978 Solomon Islands12

1900–1970 Tonga 1900–1974 Niue9 1901–1942 *Australia 1907–1947 *New Zealand 1919–1942 and 1945–1968 Nauru 1919–1949 New Guinea 1949–1975 Papua and New Guinea13

9. Now part of the *Realm of New Zealand. 10. Suspended member. 11. Now Kiribati
Kiribati
and *Tuvalu. 12. Now the *Solomon Islands. 13. Now *Papua New Guinea.

Antarctica and South Atlantic

Since 1658 Saint Helena14 Since 1815 Ascension Island14 Since 1816 Tristan da Cunha14 Since 1908 British Antarctic Territory15 1841–1933 Australian Antarctic Territory
Australian Antarctic Territory
(transferred to the Commonwealth of Australia) 1841–1947 Ross Dependency
Ross Dependency
(transferred to the Realm of New Zealand)

14. Since 2009 part of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha; Ascension Island
Ascension Island
(1922–) and Tristan da Cunha
Tristan da Cunha
(1938–) were previously dependencies of Saint Helena. 15. Both claimed in 1908; territories formed in 1962 (British Antarctic Territory) and 1985 (South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands).

v t e

English-speaking world

Click on a coloured area to see an article about English in that country or region

Further links

Articles

English-speaking world History of the English language British Empire English in the Commonwealth of Nations Anglosphere

Lists

List of countries by English-speaking population List of countries where English is an official language

 

Countries and territories where English is the national language or the native language of the majority

Africa

Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha

Americas

Anguilla Antigua
Antigua
and Barbuda The Bahamas Barbados Belize Bermuda British Virgin Islands Canada Cayman Islands Dominica Falkland Islands Grenada Guyana Jamaica Montserrat Saba Saint Kitts
Saint Kitts
and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Sint Eustatius Sint Maarten South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands Trinidad and Tobago Turks and Caicos Islands United States United States
United States
Virgin Islands

Europe

Guernsey Ireland Isle of Man Jersey United Kingdom

Oceania

Australia New Zealand Norfolk Island Pitcairn Islands

 

Countries and territories where English is an official language, but not the majority first language

Africa

Botswana Cameroon The Gambia Ghana Kenya Lesotho Liberia Malawi Mauritius Namibia Nigeria Rwanda Sierra Leone Somaliland South Africa South Sudan Sudan Swaziland Tanzania Uganda Zambia Zimbabwe

Americas

Puerto Rico

Asia

Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Hong Kong Special
Special
Administrative Region India Pakistan Philippines Singapore

Europe

Gibraltar Malta

Oceania

American Samoa Cook Islands Fiji Guam Kiribati Marshall Islands Micronesia Nauru Niue Northern Mariana Islands Palau Papua New Guinea Samoa Solomon Islands Tokelau Tuvalu Vanuatu

Dependencies shown in italics.

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Geography of North America

Sovereign states

Antigua
Antigua
and Barbuda Bahamas Barbados Belize Canada Costa Rica Cuba Dominica Dominican Republic El Salvador Grenada Guatemala Haiti Honduras Jamaica Mexico Nicaragua Panama Saint Kitts
Saint Kitts
and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Trinidad and Tobago United States

Dependencies and other territories

Anguilla Aruba Bermuda Bonaire British Virgin Islands Cayman Islands Curaçao Greenland Guadeloupe Martinique Montserrat Navassa Island Puerto Rico Saint Barthélemy Saint Martin Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saba Sint Eustatius Sint Maarten Turks and Caicos Islands United States
United States
Virgin Islands

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Climate of North America

Sovereign states

Antigua
Antigua
and Barbuda Bahamas Barbados Belize Canada Costa Rica Cuba Dominica Dominican Republic El Salvador Grenada Guatemala Haiti Honduras Jamaica Mexico Nicaragua Panama Saint Kitts
Saint Kitts
and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Trinidad and Tobago United States

Dependencies and other territories

Anguilla Aruba Bermuda Bonaire British Virgin Islands Cayman Islands Curaçao Greenland Guadeloupe Martinique Montserrat Puerto Rico Saint Barthélemy Saint Martin Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saba Sint Eustatius Sint Maarten Turks and Caicos Islands United States
United States
Virgin Islands

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 135455

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