Islam (state religion; 99.1% Sunni
others (1%; including Christian, Jewish, Shia, Bahá'í)
Unitary semi-presidential republic
Beji Caid Essebsi
• Head of Government
Assembly of the Representatives of the People
Husainid Dynasty inaugurated
15 July 1705
• Independence from France
20 March 1956
25 July 1957
• Revolution Day
14 January 2011
163,610 km2 (63,170 sq mi) (91st)
• Water (%)
• 2016 estimate
63/km2 (163.2/sq mi) (133rd)
• Per capita
• Per capita
high · 97th
Tunisian dinar (TND)
Drives on the
ISO 3166 code
Tunisia (/tuːˈniːʒə/; Arabic: تونس Tūnis; Berber:
Tunes, ⵜⵓⵏⴻⵙ; French: Tunisie), officially the
Tunisia, (Arabic: الجمهورية التونسية
al-Jumhūrīya at-Tūnisīya) is a sovereign state in Northwest
Africa, covering 165,000 square kilometres (64,000 square miles). Its
northernmost point, Cape Angela, is the northernmost point on the
African continent. It is bordered by
Algeria to the west and
Libya to the southeast, and the
Mediterranean Sea to the
north and east. Tunisia's population was estimated to be just under
11.93 million in 2016. Tunisia's name is derived from its capital
city, Tunis, which is located on its northeast coast.
Tunisia contains the eastern end of the Atlas
Mountains, and the northern reaches of the
Sahara desert. Much of the
rest of the country's land is fertile soil. Its 1,300 kilometres (810
miles) of coastline include the African conjunction of the western and
eastern parts of the
Mediterranean Basin and, by means of the Sicilian
Strait and Sardinian Channel, feature the African mainland's second
and third nearest points to Europe after Gibraltar.
Tunisia is a unitary semi-presidential representative democratic
republic. It is considered to be the only full democracy in the Arab
World. It has a high human development index. It has an
association agreement with the European Union; is a member of La
Francophonie, the Union for the Mediterranean, the
Arab League, the OIC, the Greater
Arab Free Trade Area, the
Community of Sahel-Saharan States, the African Union, the Non-Aligned
Movement, the Group of 77; and has obtained the status of major
non-NATO ally of the United States. In addition,
Tunisia is also a
member state of the
United Nations and a state party to the Rome
Statute of the International Criminal Court. Close relations with
Europe – in particular with France and with
Italy – have been forged through economic cooperation,
privatisation and industrial modernization.
In ancient times,
Tunisia was primarily inhabited by Berbers.
Phoenician immigration began in the 12th century BC; these immigrants
founded Carthage. A major mercantile power and a military rival of the
Carthage was defeated by the
Romans in 146 BC. The
Romans, who would occupy
Tunisia for most of the next eight hundred
Christianity and left architectural legacies like
El Djem amphitheater. After several attempts starting in 647, the
Muslims conquered the whole of
Tunisia by 697, followed by the Ottoman
Empire between 1534 and 1574. The Ottomans held sway for over three
hundred years. The French colonization of
Tunisia occurred in 1881.
Tunisia gained independence with
Habib Bourguiba and declared the
Republic in 1957. In 2011, the
Tunisian Revolution resulted
in the overthrow of President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, followed by
parliamentary elections. The country voted for parliament again on 26
October 2014, and for President on 23 November 2014.
2.2 Middle Ages
2.3 Ottoman Tunisia
2.5 Post-independence (1956–2011)
2.6 Post-revolution (since 2011)
4.1 Human rights
4.3 Administrative divisions
5.4 Water supply and sanitation
6.1 Ethnic groups
6.3 Major cities
8 See also
10 External links
See also: Etymology of Tunis
Tunisia is derived from Tunis; a central urban hub and the
capital of modern-day Tunisia. The present form of the name, with its
Latinate suffix -ia, evolved from French Tunisie., in turn
generally associated with the Berber root ⵜⵏⵙ, transcribed tns,
which means "to lay down" or "encampment". It is sometimes also
associated with the
Punic goddess Tanith (aka Tunit), ancient
city of Tynes.
The French derivative Tunisie was adopted in some European languages
with slight modifications, introducing a distinctive name to designate
the country. Other languages remained untouched, such as the Russian
Туни́с (Tunís) and Spanish Túnez. In this case, the same name
is used for both country and city, as with the
Arabic تونس, and
only by context can one tell the difference.
Before Tunisia, the territory's name was
Ifriqiya or Africa, which
gave the present day name of the continent Africa.
Main article: History of Tunisia
Main article: Capsian culture
Ruins of Dougga's World Heritage Site.
Farming methods reached the
Nile Valley from the Fertile Crescent
region about 5000 BC, and spread to the
Maghreb by about 4000 BC.
Agricultural communities in the humid coastal plains of central
Tunisia then were ancestors of today's Berber tribes.
It was believed in ancient times that
Africa was originally populated
by Gaetulians and Libyans, both nomadic peoples. According to the
Roman historian Sallust, the demigod Hercules died in
Spain and his
polyglot eastern army was left to settle the land, with some migrating
to Africa. Persians went to the West and intermarried with the
Gaetulians and became the Numidians. The Medes settled and were known
as Mauri, later Moors.
Carthaginian-held territory before the first First
The Numidians and Moors belonged to the race from which the Berbers
are descended. The translated meaning of Numidian is Nomad and indeed
the people were semi-nomadic until the reign of
Masinissa of the
At the beginning of recorded history,
Tunisia was inhabited by Berber
tribes. Its coast was settled by
Phoenicians starting as early as the
12th century BC (Bizerte, Utica). The city of
Carthage was founded in
the 9th century BC by Phoenicians. Legend says that Dido from Tyre,
now in modern-day Lebanon, founded the city in 814 BC, as retold by
the Greek writer Timaeus of Tauromenium. The settlers of Carthage
brought their culture and religion from the Phoenicians.
After the series of wars with Greek city-states of
Sicily in the 5th
Carthage rose to power and eventually became the dominant
civilization in the Western Mediterranean. The people of Carthage
worshipped a pantheon of Middle Eastern gods including
Baal and Tanit.
Tanit's symbol, a simple female figure with extended arms and long
dress, is a popular icon found in ancient sites. The founders of
Carthage also established a Tophet, which was altered in Roman times.
A Carthaginian invasion of
Italy led by
Hannibal during the Second
Punic War, one of a series of wars with Rome, nearly crippled the rise
of Roman power. From the conclusion of the
Second Punic War
Second Punic War in 202 BC,
Carthage functioned as a client state of the Roman
another 50 years.
Following the Battle of
Carthage in 149 BC,
Carthage was conquered by
Rome. After the Roman conquest, the region became one of the main
granaries of Rome and was fully Latinized.
Ruins of Carthage
During the Roman period, the area of what is now
Tunisia enjoyed a
huge development. The economy, mainly during the Empire, boomed: the
prosperity of the area depended on agriculture. Called the Granary of
the Empire, the area of actual
Tunisia and coastal Tripolitania,
according to one estimate, produced one million tons of cereals each
year, one-quarter of which was exported to the Empire. Additional
crops included beans, figs, grapes, and other fruits.
By the 2nd century, olive oil rivaled cereals as an export item. In
addition to the cultivations and the capture and transporting of
exotic wild animals from the western mountains, the principal
production and exports included the textiles, marble, wine, timber,
livestock, pottery such as African Red Slip, and wool.
The Roman amphitheater in El Djem, built during the first half of the
3rd century AD
There was even a huge production of mosaics and ceramics, exported
mainly to Italy, in the central area of
El Djem (where there was the
second biggest amphitheater in the Roman Empire).
Donatus Magnus was the founder of a
known as the Donatists. During the 5th and 6th centuries (from 430
to 533 AD), the Germanic
Vandals invaded and ruled over a kingdom in
Africa that included present-day Tripoli. The region was easily
reconquered in 533–534 AD, during the rule of Emperor Justinian I,
by the Eastern
Romans led by General Belisarius.
Main article: History of medieval Tunisia
Domes of the Great Mosque of Kairouan. Founded in 670, it dates in its
present form largely from the Aghlabid period (9th century). It is the
oldest mosque in the Maghreb.
Sometime between the second half of the 7th century and the early part
of the 8th century,
Muslim conquest occurred in the region. They
founded the first Islamic city in North Africa, Kairouan. It was there
in 670 AD that the Mosque of Uqba, or the Great Mosque of Kairouan,
was constructed;. This mosque is the oldest and most prestigious
sanctuary in the
Muslim West with the oldest standing minaret in the
world; it is also considered a masterpiece of Islamic art and
Tunis was taken in 695, re-taken by the Byzantine Eastern
697, but lost finally in 698. The transition from a Latin-speaking
Christian Berber society to a
Muslim and mostly Arabic-speaking
society took over 400 years (the equivalent process in
Egypt and the
Fertile Crescent took 600 years) and resulted in the final
Christianity and Latin in the 12th or 13th centuries.
The majority of the population were not
Muslim until quite late in the
9th century; a vast majority were during the 10th. Also, some Tunisian
Christians emigrated; some richer members of society did so after the
conquest in 698 and others were welcomed by Norman rulers to
Italy in the 11th and 12th centuries – the logical destination
because of the 1200 year close connection between the two regions.
Arab governors of
Tunis founded the Aghlabid Dynasty, which ruled
Tripolitania and eastern
Algeria from 800 to 909. Tunisia
Arab rule when extensive systems were constructed to
supply towns with water for household use and irrigation that promoted
agriculture (especially olive production). This prosperity
permitted luxurious court life and was marked by the construction of
new palace cities such as al-Abassiya (809) and Raqadda (877).
After conquering Cairo, the
Tunisia and parts of
Algeria to the local
Zirids (972–1148). Zirid Tunisia
flourished in many areas: agriculture, industry, trade, and religious
and secular learning. Management by the later Zirid emirs was
neglectful though, and political instability was connected to the
decline of Tunisian trade and agriculture.
The depredation of the Tunisian campaigns by the Banu Hilal, a warlike
Arab Bedouin tribe encouraged by the
Egypt to seize North
Africa, sent the region's rural and urban economic life into further
decline. Consequently, the region underwent rapid urbanisation as
famines depopulated the countryside and industry shifted from
agriculture to manufactures. The
Ibn Khaldun wrote
that the lands ravaged by
Banu Hilal invaders had become completely
The main Tunisian cities were conquered by the
the Kingdom of
Africa in the 12th century, but following the conquest
Tunisia in 1159–1160 by the
Normans were evacuated
to Sicily. Communities of Tunisian Christians would still exist in
Tunisia up to the 14th century. The
Almohads initially ruled over
Tunisia through a governor, usually a near relative of the Caliph.
Despite the prestige of the new masters, the country was still unruly,
with continuous rioting and fighting between the townsfolk and
Arabs and Turks, the latter being subjects of the Muslim
Armenian adventurer Karakush. Also,
Tunisia was occupied by Ayyubids
between 1182 and 1183 and again between 1184 and 1187.
The greatest threat to Almohad rule in
Tunisia was the Banu Ghaniya,
relatives of the Almoravids, who from their base in
Mallorca tried to
restore Almoravid rule over the Maghreb. Around 1200 they succeeded in
extending their rule over the whole of
Tunisia until they were crushed
by Almohad troops in 1207. After this success, the
Walid Abu Hafs as the governor of Tunisia.
Tunisia remained part of
the Almohad state, until 1230 when the son of Abu Hafs declared
himself independent. During the reign of the Hafsid dynasty, fruitful
commercial relationships were established with several Christian
Mediterranean states. In the late 16th century the coast became a
pirate stronghold (see: Barbary States).
Main article: Ottoman Tunisia
In the last years of the Hafsid dynasty,
Spain seized many of the
coastal cities, but these were recovered by the Ottoman Empire.
Tunis by Charles V and liberation of
slaves in 1535
The first Ottoman conquest of
Tunis took place in 1534 under the
command of Barbarossa Hayreddin Pasha, the younger brother of Oruç
Reis, who was the
Kapudan Pasha of the Ottoman Fleet during the reign
of Suleiman the Magnificent. However, it wasn't until the final
Ottoman reconquest of
Spain in 1574 under Kapudan Pasha
Uluç Ali Reis
Uluç Ali Reis that the Ottomans permanently acquired the former
Hafsid Tunisia, retaining it until the
French conquest of Tunisia
French conquest of Tunisia in
Initially under Turkish rule from Algiers, soon the Ottoman Porte
appointed directly for
Tunis a governor called the
Pasha supported by
janissary forces. Before long, however,
Tunisia became in effect an
autonomous province, under the local Bey. Under its Turkish governors,
Tunisia attained virtual independence. The Hussein dynasty
of Beys, established in 1705, lasted until 1957. This evolution of
status was from time to time challenged without success by Algiers.
During this era the governing councils controlling
largely composed of a foreign elite who continued to conduct state
business in the Turkish language.
Attacks on European shipping were made by corsairs, primarily from
Algiers, but also from
Tunis and Tripoli, yet after a long period of
declining raids the growing power of the European states finally
forced its termination. Under the Ottoman Empire, the boundaries of
Tunisia contracted; it lost territory to the west (Constantine) and to
the east (Tripoli).
Medina quarter of Tunis
Great epidemics ravaged
Tunisia in 1784–1785, 1796–1797 and
In the 19th century, the rulers of
Tunisia became aware of the ongoing
efforts at political and social reform in the Ottoman capital. The Bey
Tunis then, by his own lights but informed by the Turkish example,
attempted to effect a modernizing reform of institutions and the
economy. Tunisian international debt grew unmanageable. This was
the reason or pretext for French forces to establish a Protectorate in
Main article: French protectorate of Tunisia
British tank moves through
Tunis during the liberation, 8 May 1943
Tunisia declared itself bankrupt and an international
financial commission took control over its economy. In 1881, using the
pretext of a Tunisian incursion into Algeria, the French invaded with
an army of about 36,000 and forced the
Bey to agree to the terms of
Treaty of Bardo
Treaty of Bardo (Al Qasr as Sa'id). With this treaty,
Tunisia was officially made a French protectorate, over the objections
of Italy. Under French colonization, European settlements in the
country were actively encouraged; the number of French colonists grew
from 34,000 in 1906 to 144,000 in 1945. In 1910 there were 105,000
Italians in Tunisia.
During World War II, French
Tunisia was ruled by the collaborationist
Vichy government located in Metropolitan France. The antisemitic
Jews enacted by the Vichy was also implemented in Vichy
Africa and overseas French territories. Thus, the persecution,
and murder of the
Jews from 1940 to 1943 was part of the Shoah in
From November 1942 until May 1943, Vichy
Tunisia was occupied by Nazi
Germany. SS Commander
Walter Rauff continued to implement the Final
Solution there. From 1942–1943,
Tunisia was the scene of the Tunisia
Campaign, a series of battles between the Axis and Allied forces. The
battle opened with initial success by the German and Italian forces,
but the massive supply and numerical superiority of the Allies led to
the Axis surrender on 13 May 1943.
Main article: History of modern Tunisia
Tunisia achieved independence from
France in 1956 with Habib Bourguiba
as Prime Minister. A year later,
Tunisia was declared a republic, with
Bourguiba as the first President. From independence in 1956 until
the 2011 revolution, the government and the Constitutional Democratic
Rally (RCD), formerly
Neo Destour and the Socialist Destourian Party,
were effectively one. Following a report by Amnesty International, The
Tunisia "one of the most modern but repressive
countries in the
In November 1987, doctors declared Bourguiba unfit to rule and, in a
bloodless coup d'état, Prime Minister
Zine El Abidine Ben Ali
Zine El Abidine Ben Ali assumed
the presidency in accordance with Article 57 of the Tunisian
constitution. The anniversary of Ben Ali's succession, 7 November,
was celebrated as a national holiday. He was consistently re-elected
with enormous majorities every five years (well over 80 percent of the
vote), the last being 25 October 2009, until he fled the country
amid popular unrest in January 2011.
Ben Ali and his family were accused of corruption and plundering
the country's money. Economic liberalisation provided further
opportunities for financial mismanagement, while corrupt members
of the Trabelsi family, most notably in the cases of
Imed Trabelsi and
Belhassen Trabelsi, controlled much of the business sector in the
country. The First Lady
Leila Ben Ali was described as an
"unabashed shopaholic" who used the state airplane to make frequent
unofficial trips to Europe's fashion capitals.
Tunisia refused a
French request for the extradition of two of the President's nephews,
from Leila's side, who were accused by the French State prosecutor of
having stolen two mega-yachts from a French marina. Ben Ali's
Sakher El Materi was rumoured as being primed to eventually
take over the country.
Independent human rights groups, such as Amnesty International,
Freedom House, and Protection International, documented that basic
human and political rights were not respected. The regime
obstructed in any way possible the work of local human rights
organizations. In 2008, in terms of Press freedom,
ranked 143rd out of 173.
Post-revolution (since 2011)
See also: Tunisian Revolution
Tunis on 14 January 2011 during the Tunisian Revolution.
The Tunisian Revolution was an intensive campaign of civil
resistance that was precipitated by high unemployment, food inflation,
corruption, a lack of freedom of speech and other political
freedoms and poor living conditions. Labour unions were said to be
an integral part of the protests. The protests inspired the Arab
Spring, a wave of similar actions throughout the
The catalyst for mass demonstrations was the death of Mohamed
Bouazizi, a 26-year-old Tunisian street vendor, who set himself afire
on 17 December 2010 in protest at the confiscation of his wares and
the humiliation inflicted on him by a municipal official named Faida
Hamdy. Anger and violence intensified following Bouazizi's death on 4
January 2011, ultimately leading longtime President Zine El Abidine
Ben Ali to resign and flee the country on 14 January 2011, after 23
years in power.
Protests continued for banning of the ruling party and the eviction of
all its members from the transitional government formed by Mohammed
Ghannouchi. Eventually the new government gave in to the demands. A
Tunis court banned the ex-ruling party RCD and confiscated all its
resources. A decree by the minister of the interior banned the
"political police", special forces which were used to intimidate and
persecute political activists.
On 3 March 2011, the president announced that elections to a
Constituent Assembly would be held on 23 October 2011.[citation
needed] International and internal observers declared the vote free
and fair. The Ennahda Movement, formerly banned under the Ben Ali
regime, won a plurality of 90 seats out of a total of 217. On 12
December 2011, former dissident and veteran human rights activist
Moncef Marzouki was elected president.
In March 2012, Ennahda declared it will not support making sharia the
main source of legislation in the new constitution, maintaining the
secular nature of the state. Ennahda's stance on the issue was
criticized by hardline Islamists, who wanted strict sharia, but was
welcomed by secular parties. On 6 February 2013, Chokri Belaid,
the leader of the leftist opposition and prominent critic of Ennahda,
In 2014, President
Moncef Marzouki established Tunisia's Truth and
Dignity Commission, as a key part of creating a national
Tunisia was hit by two terror attacks on foreign tourists in 2015,
first killing 22 people at the Bardo National Museum, and later
killing 38 people at the
Sousse beachfront. Tunisian president, Beji
Caid Essebsi, renewed the state of emergency in October for three more
Tunisian National Dialogue Quartet
Tunisian National Dialogue Quartet won the 2015 Nobel Peace Prize
for its work in building a peaceful, pluralistic political order in
Main article: Geography of Tunisia
Tunisia map of Köppen climate classification.
View of the central Tunisian plateau at Téboursouk
Tunisia is situated on the
Mediterranean coast of North Africa, midway
between the Atlantic Ocean and the
Nile Delta. It is bordered by
Algeria on the west and southwest and
Libya on the south east. It lies
between latitudes 30° and 38°N, and longitudes 7° and 12°E. An
abrupt southward turn of the
Mediterranean coast in northern Tunisia
gives the country two distinctive
Mediterranean coasts, west-east in
the north, and north-south in the east.
Though it is relatively small in size,
Tunisia has great environmental
diversity due to its north-south extent. Its east-west extent is
limited. Differences in Tunisia, like the rest of the Maghreb, are
largely north-south environmental differences defined by sharply
decreasing rainfall southward from any point. The Dorsal, the eastern
extension of the Atlas Mountains, runs across
Tunisia in a
northeasterly direction from the Algerian border in the west to the
Cape Bon peninsula in the east. North of the Dorsal is the Tell, a
region characterized by low, rolling hills and plains, again an
extension of mountains to the west in Algeria. In the Khroumerie, the
northwestern corner of the Tunisian Tell, elevations reach 1,050
metres (3,440 ft) and snow occurs in winter.
The Sahel, a broadening coastal plain along Tunisia's eastern
Mediterranean coast, is among the world's premier areas of olive
cultivation. Inland from the Sahel, between the Dorsal and a range of
hills south of Gafsa, are the Steppes. Much of the southern region is
semi-arid and desert.
Tunisia has a coastline 1,148 kilometres (713 mi) long. In
maritime terms, the country claims a contiguous zone of 24 nautical
miles (44.4 km; 27.6 mi), and a territorial sea of 12
nautical miles (22.2 km; 13.8 mi).
Tunisia's climate is
Mediterranean in the north, with mild rainy
winters and hot, dry summers. The south of the country is desert.
The terrain in the north is mountainous, which, moving south, gives
way to a hot, dry central plain. The south is semiarid, and merges
into the Sahara. A series of salt lakes, known as chotts or shatts,
lie in an east-west line at the northern edge of the Sahara, extending
Gulf of Gabes
Gulf of Gabes into Algeria. The lowest point is Chott el
Djerid at 17 metres (56 ft) below sea level and the highest is
Jebel ech Chambi
Jebel ech Chambi at 1,544 metres (5,066 ft).
Climate data for Climate data for
Tunisia in general
Average high °C (°F)
Average low °C (°F)
Average rainfall mm (inches)
Main article: Politics of Tunisia
Beji Caid Essebsi
President since 2014
Prime Minister since 2016
Tunisia is a representative democracy and a republic with a president
serving as head of state, prime minister as head of government, a
unicameral parliament, and a civil law court system. The Constitution
of Tunisia, adopted 26 January 2014, guarantees rights for women and
states that the President's religion "shall be Islam". In October 2014
Tunisia held its first elections under the new constitution following
The number of legalized political parties in
Tunisia has grown
considerably since the revolution. There are now over 100 legal
parties, including several that existed under the former regime.
During the rule of Ben Ali, only three functioned as independent
opposition parties: the PDP, FDTL, and Tajdid. While some older
parties are well-established and can draw on previous party
structures, many of the 100-plus parties extant as of February 2012
Rare for the
Arab world, women held more than 20% of seats in the
country's pre-revolution bicameral parliament. In the 2011
constituent assembly, women held between 24% and 31% of all
Tunisia is included in the European Union's European Neighbourhood
Policy (ENP), which aims at bringing the EU and its neighbours closer.
On 23 November 2014
Tunisia held its first Presidential Election
Arab Spring in 2011.
The Tunisian legal system is heavily influenced by French civil law,
while the Law of Personal Status is based on Islamic law. Sharia
courts were abolished in 1956.
A Code of Personal Status was adopted shortly after independence in
1956, which, among other things, gave women full legal status
(allowing them to run and own businesses, have bank accounts, and seek
passports under their own authority). The code outlawed the practices
of polygamy and repudiation and a husband's right to unilaterally
divorce his wife. Further reforms in 1993 included a provision to
allow Tunisian women to transmit citizenship even if they are married
to a foreigner and living abroad. The Law of Personal Status is
applied to all Tunisians regardless of their religion. The Code
of Personal Status remains one of the most progressive civil codes in
Africa and the
Main article: Human rights in Tunisia
After the revolution, a number of Salafist groups emerged and in some
occasions have violently repressed artistic expression that is viewed
to be hostile to Islam.
Since the revolution, some non-governmental organizations have
reconstituted themselves and hundreds of new ones have emerged. For
instance, the Tunisian Human Rights League, the first human rights
Africa and the
Arab world, operated under restrictions
and state intrusion for over half of its existence, but is now
completely free to operate. Some independent organizations, such as
the Tunisian Association of Democratic Women, the Association of
Tunisian Women for Research and Development, and the Bar Association
also remain active.
Homosexuality is illegal in
Tunisia and can be punished by up to three
years in prison. On December 7, 2016, two Tunisian men were
arrested on suspicion of homosexual activity in Sousse. According
to 2013 survey by the Pew Research Center, 94% of Tunisians believe
that homosexuality should not be accepted by society.
The Tunisian regime has been criticised[by whom?] for its policy on
recreational drug use, for instance automatic 1-year prison sentences
for consuming cannabis. Prisons are crowded and drug offenders
represent nearly a third of the prison population.
Tunisia became the first
Arab country to outlaw domestic
violence against women, which was previously not a crime. Also,
the law allowing rapists to escape punishment by marrying the victim
was abolished. According to Human Rights Watch, 47% of Tunisian
women have been subject to domestic violence.
Main article: Tunisian Armed Forces
Tunisian Armed Forces
As of 2008[update],
Tunisia had an army of 27,000 personnel equipped
with 84 main battle tanks and 48 light tanks. The navy had 4,800
personnel operating 25 patrol boats and 6 other craft. The Tunisian
Air Force has 154 aircraft and 4 UAVs. Paramilitary forces consisted
of a 12,000-member national guard. Tunisia's military spending
was 1.6% of GDP as of 2006[update]. The army is responsible for
national defence and also internal security.
Tunisia has participated
in peacekeeping efforts in the DROC and Ethiopia/Eritrea. United
Nations peacekeeping deployments for the Tunisian armed forces have
Cambodia (UNTAC), Namibia (UNTAG), Somalia, Rwanda, Burundi,
Sahara (MINURSO) and the 1960s mission in the Congo, ONUC.
The military has historically played a professional, apolitical role
in defending the country from external threats. Since January 2011 and
at the direction of the executive branch, the military has taken on
increasing responsibility for domestic security and humanitarian
Governorates of Tunisia
Governorates of Tunisia and Delegations of Tunisia
Tunisia is subdivided into 24 governorates (Wilaya), which are further
divided into 264 "delegations" or "districts" (mutamadiyat), and
further subdivided into municipalities (baladiyats) and sectors
Main article: Economy of Tunisia
A proportional representation of Tunisia's exports.
Tunisia is an export-oriented country in the process of liberalizing
and privatizing an economy that, while averaging 5% GDP growth since
the early 1990s, has suffered from corruption benefiting politically
connected elites. Tunisia's Penal Code criminalises several forms
of corruption, including active and passive bribery, abuse of office,
extortion and conflicts of interest, but the anti-corruption framework
is not effectively enforced. However, according to the Corruption
Perceptions Index published annually by Transparency International,
Tunisia was ranked the least corrupt
Arab African-country in 2016,
with a score of 41.
Tunisia has a diverse economy, ranging from
agriculture, mining, manufacturing, and petroleum products, to
tourism. In 2008 it had a GDP of US$41 billion (official exchange
rates), or $82 billion (purchasing power parity).
The agricultural sector accounts for 11.6% of the GDP, industry 25.7%,
and services 62.8%. The industrial sector is mainly made up of
clothing and footwear manufacturing, production of car parts, and
electric machinery. Although
Tunisia managed an average 5% growth over
the last decade it continues to suffer from a high unemployment
especially among youth.
Tunisia was in 2009 ranked the most competitive economy in
the 40th in the world by the World Economic Forum.
managed to attract many international companies such as Airbus
Tourism accounted for 7% of GDP and 370,000 jobs in 2009.
European Union remains Tunisia's first trading partner, currently
accounting for 72.5% of Tunisian imports and 75% of Tunisian exports.
Tunisia is one of the European Union's most established trading
partners in the
Mediterranean region and ranks as the EU's 30th
largest trading partner.
Tunisia was the first
to sign an Association Agreement with the European Union, in July
1995, although even before the date of entry came into force, Tunisia
started dismantling tariffs on bilateral EU trade.
the tariffs dismantling for industrial products in 2008 and therefore
was the first
Mediterranean country to enter in a free trade area with
Tunis Sports City is an entire sports city currently being constructed
in Tunis, Tunisia. The city that will consist of apartment buildings
as well as several sports facilities will be built by the Bukhatir
Group at a cost of $5 Billion. The
Tunis Financial harbour will
deliver North Africa's first offshore financial centre at
Tunis Bay in
a project with an end development value of US$3 billion. The
Tunis Telecom City is a US$3 billion project to create an IT hub in
Tunisia Economic City is a city being constructed near
Enfidha. The city will consist of residential, medical, financial,
industrial, entertainment and touristic buildings as well as a port
zone for a total cost of US$80 Billion. The project is financed by
Tunisian and foreign enterprises.
On 29 and 30 November,
Tunisia held an investment conference
Tunisia2020 to attract $30 billion in investment projects.
Main article: Tourism in Tunisia
Sidi Bou Said: a major tourist destination
The front of the capitol at ruins of Dougga, another tourist
destination, qualified as
World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site by
UNESCO in 1997.
Among Tunisia's tourist attractions are its cosmopolitan capital city
of Tunis, the ancient ruins of Carthage, the
Muslim and Jewish
quarters of Jerba, and coastal resorts outside of Monastir. According
to The New York Times,
Tunisia is "known for its golden beaches, sunny
weather and affordable luxuries." 
Sources of electricity production in Tunisia
Thermal steam (44%)
Combined Cycle (43%)
Gas turbine (11%)
Wind, Hydroelectric, Solar (2%)
The majority of the electricity used in
Tunisia is produced locally,
by state-owned company STEG (Société Tunisienne de l'Electricité et
du Gaz). In 2008, a total of 13,747
GWh was produced in the
Oil production of
Tunisia is about 97,600 barrels per day
(15,520 m3/d). The main field is El Bourma.
Oil production began in 1966 in Tunisia. Currently there are 12 oil
Tunisia had plans for two nuclear power stations, to be operational by
2019. Both facilities are projected to produce 900–1000 MW. France
is set to become an important partner in Tunisia's nuclear power
plans, having signed an agreement, along with other partners, to
deliver training and technology. As of 2015[update], Tunisia
has abandoned these plans. Instead,
Tunisia is considering other
options to diversify its energy mix, such as renewable energies, coal,
shale gas, liquified natural gas and constructing a submarine power
interconnection with Italy.
According to the Tunisian Solar Plan (which is Tunisia's Renewable
Energy Strategy not limited to solar, contrary to what its title may
suggest, proposed by the National Agency for Energy Conservation),
Tunisia's objective is to reach a share of 30% of renewable energies
in the electricity mix by 2030, most of which should be accounted for
by wind power and photovoltaics. As of 2015[update],
a total renewable capacity of 312 MW (245 MW wind, 62 MW hydropower,
15 MW photovoltaics.)
Main article: Transport in Tunisia
The country maintains 19,232 kilometres (11,950 mi) of roads,
with three highways: the A1 from
Sfax (works ongoing for
Sfax-Libya), A3 Tunis-Beja (works ongoing Beja – Boussalem, studies
ongoing Boussalem – Algeria) and A4
Tunis – Bizerte. There are 29
airports in Tunisia, with
Carthage International Airport and
Djerba–Zarzis International Airport
Djerba–Zarzis International Airport being the most important ones. A
Enfidha – Hammamet International Airport opened in
2011. The airport is located north of
Enfidha and is to
mainly serve the resorts of Hamammet and Port El Kantaoui, together
with inland cities such as Kairouan. Five airlines are headquartered
in Tunisia: Tunisair, Syphax airlines, Karthago Airlines, Nouvelair,
Tunisair Express. The railway network is operated by
amounts to 2,135 kilometres (1,327 mi) in total. The Tunis
area is served by a
Light rail network named Metro Leger which is
managed by Transtu.
Water supply and sanitation
Main article: Water supply and sanitation in Tunisia
Tunisia has achieved the highest access rates to water supply and
sanitation services in the Middle East and North Africa. As of
2011[update], access to safe drinking water became close to universal
approaching 100% in urban areas and 90% in rural areas. Tunisia
provides good quality drinking water throughout the year.
Responsibility for the water supply systems in urban areas and large
rural centres is assigned to the Sociéte Nationale d'Exploitation et
de Distribution des Eaux (SONEDE), a national water supply authority
that is an autonomous public entity under the Ministry of Agriculture.
Planning, design and supervision of small and medium water supplies in
the remaining rural areas are the responsibility of the Direction
Générale du Génie Rurale (DGGR).
In 1974, ONAS was established to manage the sanitation sector. Since
1993, ONAS has had the status of a main operator for protection of
water environment and combating pollution.
The rate of non-revenue water is the lowest in the region at 21% in
Main article: Demographics of Tunisia
Arabs leaving mosque in
Tunis c. 1899
According to the CIA, as of 2017,
Tunisia has a population of
11,403,800 inhabitants. The government has supported a successful
family planning program that has reduced the population growth rate to
just over 1% per annum, contributing to Tunisia's economic and social
According to the 1956 Tunisian census,
Tunisia had a population at the
time of 3,783,000 residents, primarily consisting of
and self identified Arabs. The proportion of speakers of Berber
dialects was much lower, at 2% of the population. The proportion
of the self identified
Arabs is now estimated at <40% to
98%, and that of
Berbers at 1% to over 60%. Amazighs
are concentrated in the Dahar mountains and on the island of
the south-east and in the
Khroumire mountainous region in the
north-west. That said, an important number of genetic and other
historical studies point out to the predominance of the Amazighs in
Tunisia. Most Tunisian who self identify as
Arabs are in fact from
Amazigh decent and can be referred to as Arabized Berbers.
An Ottoman influence has been particularly significant in forming the
Turco-Tunisian community. Other peoples have also migrated to Tunisia
during different periods of time, including West Africans, Greeks,
Phoenicians (Punics), Jews, and French settlers. By 1870
the distinction between the Arabic-speaking mass and the Turkish elite
From the late 19th century to after World War II,
Tunisia was home to
large populations of French and Italians (255,000 Europeans in
1956), although nearly all of them, along with the Jewish
population, left after
Tunisia became independent. The history of the
Tunisia goes back some 2,000 years. In 1948 the Jewish
population was an estimated 105,000, but by 2013 only about 900
The first people known to history in what is now
Tunisia were the
Berbers. Numerous civilizations and peoples have invaded, migrated to,
or have been assimilated into the population over the millennia, with
influences of population from Phoenicians/Carthaginians, Romans,
Vandals, Arabs, Spaniards, Ottoman Turks and Janissaries, and French.
There was a continuing inflow of nomadic
Arab tribes from Arabia.
Reconquista and expulsion of non-Christians and Moriscos
from Spain, many Spanish
Jews also arrived. According to
Matthew Carr, "As many as eighty thousand Moriscos settled in Tunisia,
most of them in and around the capital, Tunis, which still contains a
quarter known as Zuqaq al-Andalus, or Andalusia Alley."
Main article: Languages of Tunisia
Arabic is the official language, and Tunisian Arabic, known as
Tounsi, is the national, vernacular variety of
Arabic and is used
by the public. There is also a small minority of speakers of
Berber languages known collectively as Jebbali or Shelha.
French also plays a major role in Tunisian society, despite having no
official status. It is widely used in education (e.g., as the language
of instruction in the sciences in secondary school), the press, and
business. In 2010, there were 6,639,000 French-speakers in Tunisia, or
about 64% of the population. Italian is understood and spoken by
a small part of the Tunisian population. Shop signs, menus and
road signs in
Tunisia are generally written in both
Largest cities or towns in Tunisia
1 056 247
Main article: Religion in Tunisia
Al-Zaytuna Mosque in Tunis.
The majority of Tunisia's population (around 98%) are
about 2% follow
Judaism or other religions. The
bulk of Tunisians belong to the
Maliki School of Sunni
Islam and their
mosques are easily recognizable by square minarets. However, the Turks
brought with them the teaching of the
Hanafi School during the Ottoman
rule, which still survives among the Turkish descended families today,
and their mosques traditionally have octagonal minarets. Sunnis
form the majority with non-denominational
Muslims being the second
largest group of Muslims, followed by
Tunisia has a sizable
Christian community of around over 25,000
Catholics (22,000) and to a lesser degree
Protestants. Berber Christians continued to live in
Tunisia up until
the early 15th century. International Religious Freedom Report
for 2007 estimates thousands of Tunisian
Muslims have convert to
Judaism is the country's third largest
religion with 900 members. One-third of the Jewish population lives in
and around the capital. The remainder lives on the island of Djerba
with 39 synagogues where the Jewish community dates back 2,500 years,
Sfax and Hammam-Lif.
Djerba, an island in the Gulf of Gabès, is home to El Ghriba
synagogue, which is one of the oldest synagogues in the world and the
oldest uninterruptedly used. Many
Jews consider it a pilgrimage site,
with celebrations taking place there once every year due to its age
and the legend that the synagogue was built using stones from
Solomon's temple. In fact,
Tunisia along with
Morocco has been
said to be the
Arab countries most accepting of their Jewish
The constitution declares
Islam as the official state religion and
requires the President to be Muslim. Aside from the president,
Tunisians enjoy a significant degree of religious freedom, a right
enshrined and protected in its constitution, which guarantees the
freedom of thoughts, beliefs and to practice one's religion.
The country has a secular culture where religion is separated from not
only political, but in public life. During the pre-revolution era
there were at some point restrictions in the wearing of Islamic head
scarves (hijab) in government offices and on public streets and public
gatherings. The government believed the hijab is a "garment of foreign
origin having a partisan connotation". There were reports that the
Tunisian police harassed men with "Islamic" appearance (such as those
with beards), detained them, and sometimes compelled men to shave
their beards off.
In 2006, the former Tunisian president declared that he would "fight"
the hijab, which he refers to as "ethnic clothing".
restricted from holding communal prayers or classes. After the
revolution however, a moderate Islamist government was elected leading
to more freedom in the practice of religion. It has also made room for
the rise of fundamentalist groups such as the Salafists, who call for
a strict interpretation of
Sharia law. The fall in favour of the
moderate Islamist government of Ennahdha was partly due to that,
modern Tunisian governments intelligence objectives are to suppress
fundamentalist groups before they can pass to act.
Individual Tunisians are tolerant of religious freedom and generally
do not inquire about a person's personal beliefs. Those who
violate the rules of work and eating during the Islamic month of
Ramadan may be arrested and jailed.
In 2017 a handful of men were arrested for eating in public during
Ramadan, they were convicted of committing “a provocative act of
public indecency” and sentenced to month-long jail sentences. The
Tunisia has a role as a "guardian of religion" which was used
to justify the arrests.
Main article: Education in Tunisia
Sadiki College in Tunis.
Literacy rate of
Tunisia population, plus 15, 1985–2015 by UNESCO
Institute of Statistics
The total adult literacy rate in 2008 was 78% and this rate goes
up to 97.3% when considering only people from 15 to 24 years old.
Education is given a high priority and accounts for 6% of GNP. A basic
education for children between the ages of 6 and 16 has been
compulsory since 1991.
Tunisia ranked 17th in the category of "quality
of the [higher] educational system" and 21st in the category of
"quality of primary education" in The Global Competitiveness Report
2008-9, released by The World Economic Forum.
While children generally acquire Tunisian
Arabic at home, when they
enter school at age 6, they are taught to read and write in Standard
Arabic. From the age of 7, they are taught French while English is
introduced at the age of 8.
The four years of secondary education are open to all holders of
Diplôme de Fin d'Etudes de l'Enseignement de Base where the students
focus on entering university level or join the workforce after
completion. The Enseignement secondaire is divided into two stages:
general academic and specialized. The higher education system in
Tunisia has experienced a rapid expansion and the number of students
has more than tripled over the past 10 years from approximately
102,000 in 1995 to 365,000 in 2005. The gross enrollment rate at the
tertiary level in 2007 was 31 percent, with gender parity index of GER
Main article: Health in Tunisia
In 2010, spending on healthcare accounted for 3.37% of the country's
GDP. In 2009, there were 12.02 physicians and 33.12 nurses per 10,000
inhabitants. The life expectancy at birth was 74.60 years in
2010, or 72.60 years for males and 76.70 years for females.
Infant mortality in 2004 was 25 per 1,000.
Main article: Culture of Tunisia
The culture of
Tunisia is mixed due to its long established history of
outside influence from people ‒ such as Phoenicians, Romans,
Vandals, Byzantines, Arabs, Turks, Italians, Spaniards, and the French
‒ who all left their mark on the country.
The birth of Tunisian contemporary painting is strongly linked to the
School of Tunis, established by a group of artists from
by the desire to incorporate native themes and rejecting the influence
of Orientalist colonial painting. It was founded in 1949 and brings
together French and Tunisian Muslims, Christians and Jews. Pierre
Boucherle was its main instigator, along with Yahia Turki, Abdelaziz
Gorgi, Moses Levy, Ammar Farhat, and Jules Lellouche. Given its
doctrine, some members have therefore turned to the sources of
Muslim art: such as miniature Islamic architecture,
etc. Expressionist paintings by Amara Debbache, Jellal Ben Abdallah,
and Ali Ben Salem are recognized while abstract art captures the
imagination of painters like Edgar Naccache, Nello Levy, and Hedi
After independence in 1956, the art movement in
Tunisia was propelled
by the dynamics of nation building and by artists serving the state. A
Ministry of Culture was established, under the leadership of ministers
Habib Boularès who oversaw art and education and power.
Artists gained international recognition such as
Hatem El Mekki or
Zoubeir Turki and influenced a generation of new young painters. Sadok
Gmech draws his inspiration from national wealth while Moncef Ben Amor
turns to fantasy. In another development, Youssef Rekik reused the
technique of painting on glass and founded
Nja Mahdaoui calligraphy
with its mystical dimension.
There are currently fifty art galleries housing exhibitions of
Tunisian and international artists. These galleries include
Gallery Yahia in
Carthage Essaadi gallery.
A new exposition opened in an old monarchal palace in Bardo dubbed the
"awakening of a nation." The exposition boasts documents and artifacts
from the Tunisian reformist monarchal rule in mid 19th century.
Main article: Tunisian literature
Tunisian literature exists in two forms:
Arabic and French except for
one author and translator.
Arabic literature dates back to the 7th
century with the arrival of
Arab civilization in the region. It is
more important in both volume and value than French literature,
introduced during the French protectorate from 1881.
Among the literary figures include Ali Douagi, who has produced more
than 150 radio stories, over 500 poems and folk songs and nearly 15
plays, Khraief Bashir, an
Arabic novelist who published many
notable books in the 1930s and which caused a scandal because the
dialogues were written in Tunisian dialect, and others such as
Moncef Ghachem, Mohamed Salah Ben Mrad, or Mahmoud Messadi.
As for poetry, Tunisian poetry typically opts for nonconformity and
innovation with poets such as Aboul-Qacem Echebbi.
As for literature in French, it is characterized by its critical
approach. Contrary to the pessimism of Albert Memmi, who predicted
Tunisian literature was sentenced to die young, a high
number of Tunisian writers are abroad including Abdelwahab Meddeb,
Bakri Tahar, Mustapha Tlili, Hele Beji, or Mellah Fawzi. The themes of
wandering, exile and heartbreak are the focus of their creative
The national bibliography lists 1249 non-school books published in
2002 in Tunisia, with 885 titles in Arabic. In 2006 this figure
had increased to 1,500 and 1,700 in 2007. Nearly a third of the
books are published for children.
In 2014 Tunisian American creative nonfiction scribe and translator
Med-Ali Mekki who wrote many books, not for publication but just for
his own private reading translated the new Constitution of the
Arabic to English for the first time in
Tunisian bibliographical history, the book was published worldwide the
following year and it was the Internet's most viewed and downloaded
Main article: Music of Tunisia
Rachidia orchestra playing traditional music in
Ya laimi àazzine by Saliha (1914–1958)
At the beginning of the 20th century, musical activity was dominated
by the liturgical repertoire associated with different religious
brotherhoods and secular repertoire which consisted of instrumental
pieces and songs in different Andalusian forms and styles of origins,
essentially borrowing characteristics of musical language. In 1930
"The Rachidia" was founded well known thanks to artists from the
Jewish community. The founding in 1934 of a musical school helped
Arab Andalusian music largely to a social and cultural revival
led by the elite of the time who became aware of the risks of loss of
the musical heritage and which they believed threatened the
foundations of Tunisian national identity. The institution did not
take long to assemble a group of musicians, poets, scholars. The
creation of Radio
Tunis in 1938 allowed musicians a greater
opportunity to disseminate their works.
Notable Tunisian musicians include Saber Rebaï, Dhafer Youssef,
Sonia M'barek and Latifa, Salah El Mahdi, Anouar
Brahem, and Lotfi Bouchnak.
Main article: Media of Tunisia
The TV media has long remained under the domination of the
Establishment of the Broadcasting Authority
Tunisia (ERTT) and its
predecessor, the Tunisian Radio and Television, founded in 1957. On 7
November 2006, President Zine el-Abidine Ben Ali announced the
demerger of the business, which became effective on 31 August 2007.
Until then, ERTT managed all public television stations (Télévision
Tunisienne 1 as well as Télévision Tunisienne 2 which had replaced
the defunct RTT 2) and four national radio stations (Radio Tunis,
Tunisia Radio Culture, Youth and Radio RTCI) and five regional Sfax,
Monastir, Gafsa, Le Kef and Tataouine. Most programs are in
some are in French. Growth in private sector radio and television
broadcasting has seen the creation of numerous operations including
Radio Mosaique FM, Jawhara FM, Zaytuna FM,
Hannibal TV, Ettounsiya TV,
and Nessma TV.
In 2007, some 245 newspapers and magazines (compared to only 91 in
1987) are 90% owned by private groups and independents. The
Tunisian political parties have the right to publish their own
newspapers, but those of the opposition parties have very limited
editions (like Al Mawkif or Mouwatinoun). Before the recent democratic
transition, although freedom of the press was formally guaranteed by
the constitution, almost all newspapers have in practice followed the
government line report. Critical approach to the activities of the
president, government and the
Constitutional Democratic Rally
Constitutional Democratic Rally Party
(then in power) were suppressed. In essence, the media was dominated
by state authorities through the Agence
Tunis Afrique Presse. This has
changed since, as the media censorship by the authorities have been
largely abolished, and self-censorship has significantly
decreased. Nonetheless, the current regulatory framework and
social and political culture mean that the future of press and media
freedom is still unclear.
Main article: Sport in Tunisia
Olympique Radès Stadium
Football is the most popular sport in Tunisia. The
football team, also known as "The Eagles of Carthage," won the 2004
African Cup of Nations (ACN), which was held in Tunisia.
They also represented
Africa in the 2005 FIFA Cup of Confederations,
which was held in Germany, but they could not go beyond the first
The premier football league is the "Tunisian Ligue Professionnelle 1".
The main clubs are Espérance Sportive de Tunis, Étoile Sportive du
Sahel, Club Africain, and Club Sportif Sfaxien.
Tunisia national handball team
Tunisia national handball team has participated in several
handball world championships. In 2005,
Tunisia came fourth. The
national league consists of about 12 teams, with ES. Sahel and
Tunis dominating. The most famous Tunisian handball player
is Wissem Hmam. In the 2005 Handball Championship in Tunis, Wissem
Hmam was ranked as the top scorer of the tournament. The Tunisian
national handball team won the African Cup eight times, being the team
dominating this competition. The Tunisians won the 2010 African Cup in
Egypt by defeating the host country.
In recent years,
Tunisia's national basketball team
Tunisia's national basketball team has emerged as a
top side in Africa. The team won the
2011 Afrobasket and hosted
Africa's top basketball event in 1965, 1987 and 2015.
Victor Perez ("Young") was world champion in the flyweight
weight class in 1931 and 1932.
In the 2008 Summer Olympics, Tunisian
Oussama Mellouli won a gold
medal in 1,500 metres (4,900 feet) freestyle. In the 2012 Summer
Olympics, he won a bronze medal in the 1,500 metres (4,900 feet)
freestyle and a gold medal in the 15 kilometres (9.3 miles) marathon.
Tunisia participated for the seventh time in her history in
the Summer Paralympic Games. She finished the competition with 19
medals; 9 golds, 5 silvers and 5 bronzes.
Tunisia was classified 14th
on the Paralympics medal table and 5th in Athletics.
Tunisia was suspended from
Davis Cup play for the year 2014, because
the Tunisian Tennis Federation was found to have ordered Malek Jaziri
not to compete against an Israeli tennis player, Amir Weintraub.
Francesco Ricci Bitti said: "There is no room for
prejudice of any kind in sport or in society. The ITF Board decided to
send a strong message to the Tunisian Tennis Federation that this kind
of action will not be tolerated."
Index of Tunisia-related articles
Outline of Tunisia
Tunisia Constitution, Article 4" (PDF). 26 January 2014. Archived
from the original (PDF) on 9 February 2014. Retrieved 10 February
^ "Tunisian Constitution, Article 1" (PDF). 26 January 2014. Archived
from the original (PDF) on 9 February 2014. Retrieved 10 February
2014. Translation by the University of Bern: "
Tunisia is a free
State, independent and sovereign; its religion is the Islam, its
language is Arabic, and its form is the Republic."
^ Arabic, Tunisian Spoken. Ethnologue (19 February 1999). Retrieved on
5 September 2015.
^ "Tamazight language". Encyclopædia Britannica.
^ "Nawaat – Interview avec l' Association Tunisienne de Culture
^ "An outline of the Shilha (Berber) vernacular of Douiret (Southern
Amazigh and the Fight for Recognition – Tunisialive".
^ a b c d Tej K. Bhatia, William C. Ritchie (2006). The Handbook of
Bilingualism. John Wiley & Sons. p. 860.
ISBN 0631227350. Retrieved 15 August 2017. CS1 maint: Uses
authors parameter (link)
^ a b c d e f g h i j k "Tunisia". CIA World Factbook. Archived from
the original on 16 October 2012. Retrieved 15 October 2012.
^ a b "Q&A: The Berbers". BBC News. 12 March 2004. Retrieved 19
UNESCO 2009, 9
^ Frosini, Justin; Biagi, Francesco (2014). Political and
Constitutional Transitions in North Africa: Actors and Factors.
Routledge. p. 4. ISBN 978-1-317-59745-2.
^ Choudhry, Sujit; Stacey, Richard (2014) "Semi-presidential
Tunisia and Egypt". International Institute for
Democracy and Electoral Assistance. Retrieved 7 January 2016.
^ a b "National Institute of Statistics-Tunisia". National Institute
of Statistics-Tunisia. 12 September 2016. Archived from the original
on 4 September 2014. Retrieved 12 September 2016.
^ a b c d "Tunisia". International Monetary Fund.
^ "GINI index". World Bank. Retrieved 19 January 2013.
^ a b "2016 Human Development Report" (PDF). United Nations
Development Programme. 2016. Retrieved 4 April 2016.
^ "Report on the Delegation of تونس". Internet Corporation for
Assigned Names and Numbers. 2010. Retrieved 8 November 2010.
Tunisia Country report Freedom in the World 2015".
freedomhouse.org. Retrieved 12 September 2016.
^ "Tethered by history". The Economist. ISSN 0013-0613. Retrieved
12 September 2016.
^ Tunisie – France-Diplomatie – Ministère des Affaires
étrangères et du Développement international. Diplomatie.gouv.fr.
Retrieved on 5 September 2015.
^ (in French) Pourquoi l'Italie de Matteo Renzi se tourne vers la
Tunisie avant l'Europe JOL Journalism Online Press. Jolpress.com (28
February 2014). Retrieved on 5 September 2015.
^ Ghanmi, Monia (12 September 2014) "La Tunisie renforce ses relations
avec l'Italie". Magharebia
^ "Tunisie : les législatives fixées au 26 octobre et la
présidentielle au 23 novembre". Jeune Afrique. 25 June 2014.
Tunisia holds first post-revolution presidential poll". BBC News.
23 November 2014.
^ a b c Room, Adrian (2006). Placenames of the World: Origins and
Meanings of the Names for 6,600 Countries, Cities, Territories,
Natural Features, and Historic Sites. McFarland. p. 385.
^ Rossi, Peter M.; White, Wayne Edward (1980). Articles on the Middle
East, 1947–1971: A Cumulation of the Bibliographies from the Middle
East Journal. Pierian Press, University of Michigan.
^ Taylor, Isaac (2008). Names and Their Histories: A Handbook of
Historical Geography and Topographical Nomenclature. BiblioBazaar,
LLC. p. 281. ISBN 0-559-29668-1.
^ Houtsma, Martijn Theodoor (1987). E.J. Brill's First Encyclopaedia
of Islam, 1913–1936. Brill. p. 838.
^ Livy, John Yardley & Hoyos, Dexter (2006). Hannibal's War: Books
Twenty-one to Thirty. Oxford University Press. p. 705.
ISBN 0-19-283159-3. and others associated with the word
"تؤنس" (different from تونس) in
Arabic which is a verb that
means to socialize and to be friendly.
^ Banjamin Isaac, The Invention of Racism in Classical Antiquity,
Princeton University Press, 2013 p.147
Carthage and the Numidians".
Hannibalbarca.webspace.virginmedia.com. Archived from the original on
31 March 2012. Retrieved 28 October 2011.
^ "LookLex /
Dougga / Numidian Wall". Looklex.com. Retrieved
28 October 2011.
^ "Numidians (DBA II/40) and Moors (DBA II/57)". Fanaticus.org. 12
December 2001. Retrieved 28 October 2011.
^ "LookLex /
Tunisia / Chemtou / Numidian Altar & Roman Temple".
Looklex.com. Retrieved 28 October 2011.
^ "Numidia (ancient region, Africa)". Britannica Online Encyclopedia.
Retrieved 28 October 2011.
^ "The City of Carthage: From Dido to the
Arab Conquest" (PDF).
Retrieved 8 January 2013.
^ Planet, Lonely. "
History of Tunisia
History of Tunisia –
Lonely Planet Travel
Information". www.lonelyplanet.com. Retrieved 2017-07-07.
^ "Donatist". Encyclopædia Britannica.
^ John Bagnell Bury, History of the Later Roman Empire from the Death
of Theodosius I. to the Death of Justinian, Part 2, Courier
Corporation, 1958 pp.124–148
^ Davidson, Linda Kay; Gitlitz, David Martin (2002). Pilgrimage: From
the Ganges to Graceland : An Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. p. 302.
^ Bosworth, Clifford Edmund (2007). Historic Cities of the Islamic
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