Arabic : تونس _ Tūnis _; Berber : ⵜⵓⵏⴻⵙ
_tunes_; French : _Tunisie_), officially the REPUBLIC OF TUNISIA
Arabic : الجمهورية التونسية _ al-Jumhūrīya
at-Tūnisīya _; Berber : ⵜⴰⴳⴷⵓⴷⴰ ⵏ ⵜⵓⵏⴻⵙ
_tagduda n tunes_) is a country in North
Africa , covering 165,000
square kilometres (64,000 square miles). Its northernmost point, Cape
Angela , is the northernmost point on the African continent. It is
Algeria to the west and southwest,
Libya to the southeast,
Mediterranean Sea to the north and east. Tunisia's population
was estimated to be just under 11 million in 2014. Tunisia's name is
derived from its capital city,
Tunis , which is located on Tunisia's
Tunisia contains the eastern end of the Atlas
Mountains and the northern reaches of the
Sahara desert. Much of the
rest of the country's land is fertile soil. Its 1,300 kilometres (810
miles) of coastline includes the African conjunction of the western
and eastern parts of the
Mediterranean Basin and, by means of the
Sicilian Strait and Sardinian Channel, features the African mainland's
second and third nearest points to Europe after
Tunisia is a unitary semi-presidential representative democratic
republic . It is considered to be the only full democracy in the Arab
World. It has a high human development index . It has an
association agreement with the
European Union ; is a member of La
Francophonie , the
Union for the Mediterranean
Union for the Mediterranean , the
Union , the
Arab League , the
OIC , the
Greater Arab Free Trade Area ,
Community of Sahel-Saharan States , the
African Union , the
Non-Aligned Movement , the
Group of 77 ; and has obtained the status
of major non-NATO ally of the United States. In addition,
also a member state of the
United Nations and a state party to the
Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court . Close relations
with Europe – in particular with
France and with
Italy – have
been forged through economic cooperation, privatisation and industrial
In ancient times,
Tunisia was primarily inhabited by
Phoenician immigration began in the 12th century BC; these immigrants
Carthage . A major mercantile power and a military rival of
Carthage was defeated by the
Romans in 146 BC.
The Romans, who would occupy
Tunisia for most of the next eight
hundred years, introduced
Christianity and left architectural legacies
El Djem amphitheater. After several attempts starting in 647,
Arabs conquered the whole of
Tunisia by 697, followed by the
Ottomans between 1534 and 1574. The Ottomans held sway for over three
hundred years. The French colonization of
Tunisia occurred in 1881.
Tunisia gained independence with
Habib Bourguiba and declared the
Republic in 1957. In 2011, the
Tunisian Revolution resulted
in the overthrow of President
Zine El Abidine Ben Ali , followed by
parliamentary elections . The country voted for parliament again on 26
October 2014, and for President on 23 November 2014.
* 1 Etymology
* 2 History
* 2.1 Antiquity
* 2.2 Middle Ages
* 2.4 French
* 2.5 Post-independence (1956–2011)
* 2.6 Post-revolution (since 2011)
* 3 Geography
* 3.1 Climate
* 4 Politics
* 4.1 Human rights
* 4.2 Military
* 4.3 Administrative divisions
* 5 Economy
* 5.1 Tourism
* 5.2 Energy
* 5.3 Transport
* 5.4 Water supply and sanitation
* 6 Demographics
* 6.2 Languages
* 6.3 Major cities
* 6.4 Religion
* 6.5 Education
* 6.6 Health
* 7 Culture
* 7.1 Painting
* 7.2 Literature
* 7.3 Music
* 7.4 Media
* 7.5 Sports
* 8 See also
* 9 References
* 10 External links
See also: Etymology of
The word _Tunisia_ is derived from
Tunis ; a central urban hub and
the capital of modern-day Tunisia. The present form of the name, with
its Latinate suffix _-ia_, evolved from French _Tunisie_. The French
derivative _Tunisie_ was adopted in some European languages with
slight modifications, introducing a distinctive name to designate the
country. Other languages remained untouched, such as the Russian
Туни́с (_Tunís_) and Spanish _Túnez_. In this case, the same
name is used for both country and city, as with the
and only by context can one tell the difference.
The name _Tunis_ can be attributed to different origins. It is
generally associated with the Berber root ⵜⵏⵙ, transcribed
_tns_, which means "to lay down" or "encampment". It is sometimes
also associated with the
Punic goddess _Tanith (aka Tunit) _,
ancient city of _Tynes_.
Before Tunisia, the territory's name was
Africa , which
gave the present day name of the continent Africa.
History of Tunisia
This section NEEDS ADDITIONAL CITATIONS FOR VERIFICATION . Please
help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources .
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (July 2017)_ _(Learn
how and when to remove this template message )_
Capsian culture Ruins of Dougga\'s World Heritage
Farming methods reached the
Nile Valley from the Fertile Crescent
region about 5000 BC, and spread to the
Maghreb by about 4000 BC.
Agricultural communities in the humid coastal plains of central
Tunisia then were ancestors of today's Berber tribes.
It was believed in ancient times that
Africa was originally populated
by Gaetulians and Libyans, both nomadic peoples. According to the
Sallust , the demigod Hercules died in
Spain and his
polyglot eastern army was left to settle the land, with some migrating
to Africa. Persians went to the West and intermarried with the
Gaetulians and became the Numidians. The Medes settled and were known
as Mauri, later Moors. Carthaginian -held territory before the
The Numidians and Moors belonged to the race from which the Berbers
are descended. The translated meaning of Numidian is Nomad and indeed
the people were semi-nomadic until the reign of
Masinissa of the
At the beginning of recorded history,
Tunisia was inhabited by Berber
tribes. Its coast was settled by
Phoenicians starting as early as the
12th century BC (
Bizerte , Utica ). The city of
Carthage was founded
in the 9th century BC by Phoenicians. Legend says that Dido from Tyre,
now in modern-day Lebanon, founded the city in 814 BC, as retold by
the Greek writer Timaeus of Tauromenium. The settlers of Carthage
brought their culture and religion from the Phoenicians.
After the series of wars with Greek city-states of
Sicily in the 5th
Carthage rose to power and eventually became the dominant
civilization in the Western
Mediterranean . The people of Carthage
worshipped a pantheon of Middle Eastern gods including
Baal and Tanit
. Tanit's symbol, a simple female figure with extended arms and long
dress, is a popular icon found in ancient sites. The founders of
Carthage also established a
Tophet , which was altered in Roman times.
A Carthaginian invasion of
Italy led by
Hannibal during the Second
Punic War , one of a series of wars with Rome , nearly crippled the
rise of Roman power. From the conclusion of the
Second Punic War in
Carthage functioned as a client state of the Roman Republic
for another 50 years.
Following the Battle of
Carthage in 149 BC,
Carthage was conquered by
Rome. After the Roman conquest, the region became one of the main
granaries of Rome and was fully Latinized. Ruins of
During the Roman period the area of what is now
Tunisia enjoyed a
huge development. The economy, mainly during the Empire, boomed: the
prosperity of the area depended on agriculture. Called the _Granary of
the Empire_, the area of actual
Tunisia and coastal
according to one estimate, produced one million tons of cereals each
year, one-quarter of which was exported to the Empire. Additional
crops included beans, figs, grapes, and other fruits.
By the 2nd century, olive oil rivalled cereals as an export item. In
addition to the cultivations and the capture and transporting of
exotic wild animals from the western mountains, the principal
production and exports included the textiles, marble, wine, timber,
livestock, pottery such as
African Red Slip
African Red Slip , and wool. The Roman
El Djem , built during the first half of the 3rd
There was even a huge production of mosaics and ceramics, exported
mainly to Italy, in the central area of
El Djem (where there was the
second biggest amphitheater in the Roman Empire).
Donatus Magnus was the founder of a
known as the Donatists . During the 5th and 6th centuries (from 430
to 533 AD), the Germanic
Vandals invaded and ruled over a kingdom in
Africa that included present-day Tripoli. The region was easily
reconquered in 533–534 AD, during the rule of Emperor
Justinian I ,
by the Eastern
Romans led by General
History of medieval Tunisia Domes of the Great
Kairouan . Founded in 670, it dates in its present form
largely from the Aghlabid period (9th century). It is the oldest
mosque in the
Sometime between the second half of the 7th century and the early
part of the 8th century,
Muslim conquest occurred in the region .
They founded the first Islamic city in North Africa,
Kairouan . It was
there in 670 AD that the
Mosque of Uqba , or the Great Mosque of
Kairouan, was constructed;. This mosque is the oldest and most
prestigious sanctuary in the
Muslim West with the oldest standing
minaret in the world; it is also considered a masterpiece of Islamic
art and architecture.
Arab governors of
Tunis founded the
Aghlabid Dynasty , which
Tripolitania and eastern
Algeria from 800 to 909.
Tunisia flourished under
Arab rule when extensive systems were
constructed to supply towns with water for household use and
irrigation that promoted agriculture (especially olive production).
This prosperity permitted luxurious court life and was marked by the
construction of new palace cities such as al-Abassiya (809) and
Cairo , the
Tunisia and parts of
Algeria to the local
Zirids (972–1148). Zirid Tunisia
flourished in many areas: agriculture, industry, trade, and religious
and secular learning. Management of the later Zirid emirs was
neglectful though, and political instability was connected to the
decline of Tunisian trade and agriculture.
The invasion of
Tunisia by the
Banu Hilal , a warlike
tribe encouraged by the
Egypt to seize North Africa, sent
the region's urban and economic life into further decline. The Arab
Ibn Khaldun wrote that the lands ravaged by Banu Hilal
invaders had become completely arid desert.
The coasts were held briefly by the
Sicily in the 12th
century, but following the conquest of
Tunisia in 1159–1160 by the
Almohads the last Christians in
Tunisia disappeared. The Almohads
initially ruled over
Tunisia through a governor, usually a near
relative of the Caliph. Despite the prestige of the new masters, the
country was still unruly, with continuous rioting and fighting between
the townsfolk and wandering
Arabs and Turks, the latter being subjects
Muslim Armenian adventurer Karakush. Also
Tunisia was occupied
Ayyubids between 1182 and 1183 and again between 1184 and 1187.
The greatest threat to Almohad rule in
Tunisia was the
Banu Ghaniya ,
relatives of the
Almoravids , who from their base in
Mallorca tried to
restore Almoravid rule over the Maghreb. Around 1200 they succeeded in
extending their rule over the whole of Tunisia, until they were
crushed by Almohad troops in 1207. After this success, the Almohads
installed Walid Abu Hafs as the governor of Tunisia.
part of the Almohad state, until 1230 when the son of Abu Hafs
declared himself independent. During the reign of the
Hafsid dynasty ,
fruitful commercial relationships were established with several
Mediterranean states. In the late 16th century the coast
became a pirate stronghold (see:
Barbary States ).
In the last years of the
Spain seized many of the coastal
cities, but these were recovered by the
Ottoman Empire . Conquest
Tunis by Charles V and liberation of
Christian galley slaves in
The first Ottoman conquest of
Tunis took place in 1534 under the
command of Barbarossa Hayreddin
Pasha , the younger brother of Oruç
Reis, who was the
Kapudan Pasha of the Ottoman Fleet during the reign
Suleiman the Magnificent
Suleiman the Magnificent . However, it wasn't until the final
Ottoman reconquest of
Spain in 1574 under Kapudan Pasha
Uluç Ali Reis that the Ottomans permanently acquired the former
Tunisia , retaining it until the
French conquest of Tunisia in
Initially under Turkish rule from Algiers, soon the Ottoman Porte
appointed directly for
Tunis a governor called the
Pasha supported by
janissary forces. Before long, however,
Tunisia became in effect an
autonomous province, under the local
Bey . Under its Turkish
Tunisia attained virtual independence. The
Hussein dynasty of Beys, established in 1705, lasted until 1957. This
evolution of status was from time to time challenged without success
by Algiers. During this era the governing councils controlling Tunisia
remained largely composed of a foreign elite who continued to conduct
state business in the
Turkish language .
Attacks on European shipping were made by corsairs , primarily from
Algiers, but also from
Tripoli , yet after a long period of
declining raids the growing power of the European states finally
forced its termination. Under the Ottoman Empire, the boundaries of
Tunisia contracted; it lost territory to the west (Constantine ) and
to the east (
Tripoli ). Medina quarter of
Great epidemics ravaged
Tunisia in 1784–1785, 1796–1797 and
In the 19th century, the rulers of
Tunisia became aware of the
ongoing efforts at political and social reform in the Ottoman capital
Tunis then, by his own lights but informed by the Turkish
example, attempted to effect a modernizing reform of institutions and
the economy. Tunisian international debt grew unmanageable. This was
the reason or pretext for French forces to establish a Protectorate in
FRENCH TUNISIA (1881–1956)
French protectorate of Tunisia British tank moves
Tunis during the liberation, 8 May 1943
Tunisia declared itself bankrupt and an international
financial commission took control over its economy. In 1881, using the
pretext of a Tunisian incursion into
Algeria , the French invaded with
an army of about 36,000 and forced the
Bey to agree to the terms of
Treaty of Bardo (Al Qasr as Sa'id). With this treaty,
Tunisia was officially made a French protectorate , over the
objections of Italy. Under French colonization, European settlements
in the country were actively encouraged; the number of French
colonists grew from 34,000 in 1906 to 144,000 in 1945. In 1910 there
were 105,000 Italians in
During World War II, French
Tunisia was ruled by the collaborationist
Vichy government located in Metropolitan France. The antisemitic
Jews enacted by the Vichy was also implemented in Vichy
North Africa, and overseas French territories. Thus, the persecution,
and murder of the
Jews from 1940 to 1943, was part of the Shoah in
From November 1942 until May 1943, Vichy
Tunisia was occupied by Nazi
Germany. SS Commander
Walter Rauff continued to implement the Final
Solution there. From 1942–1943,
Tunisia was the scene of the Tunisia
Campaign , a series of battles between the Axis and Allied forces. The
battle opened with initial success by the German and Italian forces,
but the massive supply and numerical superiority of the Allies led to
the Axis surrender on 13 May 1943.
History of modern Tunisia
Tunisia achieved independence from
France in 1956 with Habib
Bourguiba as Prime Minister. A year later,
Tunisia was declared a
republic, with Bourguiba as the first President . From independence
in 1956 until the 2011 revolution, the government and the
Constitutional Democratic Rally (RCD), formerly
Neo Destour and the
Socialist Destourian Party , were effectively one. Following a report
Amnesty International ,
The Guardian called
Tunisia "one of the
most modern but repressive countries in the
In November 1987, doctors declared Bourguiba unfit to rule and, in a
bloodless coup d'état, Prime Minister
Zine El Abidine Ben Ali assumed
the presidency in accordance with Article 57 of the Tunisian
constitution. The anniversary of Ben Ali's succession, 7 November,
was celebrated as a national holiday. He was consistently re-elected
with enormous majorities every five years (well over 80 percent of the
vote), the last being 25 October 2009, until he fled the country amid
popular unrest in January 2011.
Ben Ali and his family were accused of corruption and plundering the
country's money. Economic liberalisation provided further
opportunities for financial mismanagement, while corrupt members of
the Trabelsi family, most notably in the cases of
Imed Trabelsi and
Belhassen Trabelsi , controlled much of the business sector in the
country. The First Lady
Leila Ben Ali was described as an "unabashed
shopaholic " who used the state airplane to make frequent unofficial
trips to Europe's fashion capitals.
Tunisia refused a French request
for the extradition of two of the President's nephews, from Leila's
side, who were accused by the French State prosecutor of having stolen
two mega-yachts from a French marina. Ben Ali's son-in-law Sakher El
Materi was rumoured as being primed to eventually take over the
Independent human rights groups, such as
Amnesty International ,
Freedom House , and Protection International, documented that basic
human and political rights were not respected. The regime obstructed
in any way possible the work of local human rights organizations. In
2008, in terms of
Press freedom ,
Tunisia was ranked 143rd out of 173.
POST-REVOLUTION (SINCE 2011)
Tunis on 14 January 2011 during
Tunisian Revolution .
Tunisian Revolution was an intensive campaign of civil
resistance that was precipitated by high unemployment , food inflation
, corruption , a lack of freedom of speech and other political
freedoms and poor living conditions . Labour unions were said to be
an integral part of the protests. The protests inspired the Arab
Spring , a wave of similar actions throughout the
The catalyst for mass demonstrations was the death of Mohamed
Bouazizi , a 26-year-old Tunisian street vendor, who set himself afire
on 17 December 2010 in protest at the confiscation of his wares and
the humiliation inflicted on him by a municipal official. Anger and
violence intensified following Bouazizi's death on 4 January 2011,
ultimately leading longtime President
Zine El Abidine Ben Ali to
resign and flee the country on 14 January 2011, after 23 years in
Protests continued for banning of the ruling party and the eviction
of all its members from the transitional government formed by Mohammed
Ghannouchi . Eventually the new government gave in to the demands. A
Tunis court banned the ex-ruling party RCD and confiscated all its
resources. A decree by the minister of the interior banned the
"political police", special forces which were used to intimidate and
persecute political activists.
On 3 March 2011, the president announced that elections to a
Constituent Assembly would be held on 23 October 2011. International
and internal observers declared the vote free and fair. The Ennahda
Movement , formerly banned under the Ben Ali regime, won a plurality
of 90 seats out of a total of 217. On 12 December 2011, former
dissident and veteran human rights activist
Moncef Marzouki was
In March 2012, Ennahda declared it will not support making sharia the
main source of legislation in the new constitution, maintaining the
secular nature of the state. Ennahda's stance on the issue was
criticized by hardline Islamists, who wanted strict sharia, but was
welcomed by secular parties. On 6 February 2013,
Chokri Belaid , the
leader of the leftist opposition and prominent critic of Ennahda, was
In 2014, President
Moncef Marzouki established Tunisia's Truth and
Dignity Commission , as a key part of creating a national
Tunisia was hit by two terror attacks on foreign tourists in 2015,
first killing 22 people at the
Bardo National Museum , and later
killing 38 people at the
Sousse beachfront. Tunisian president, Beji
Caid Essebsi , renewed the state of emergency in October for three
Tunisian National Dialogue Quartet won the 2015 Nobel Peace Prize
for its work in building a peaceful, pluralistic political order in
Geography of Tunisia
Tunisia map of Köppen
climate classification. View of the central Tunisian plateau at
Tunisia is situated on the
Mediterranean coast of North Africa,
midway between the Atlantic Ocean and the
Nile Delta . It is bordered
Algeria on the west and southwest and
Libya on the south east. It
lies between latitudes 30° and 38°N , and longitudes 7° and 12°E .
An abrupt southward turn of the
Mediterranean coast in northern
Tunisia gives the country two distinctive
west-east in the north, and north-south in the east.
Though it is relatively small in size,
Tunisia has great
environmental diversity due to its north-south extent. Its east-west
extent is limited. Differences in Tunisia, like the rest of the
Maghreb, are largely north-south environmental differences defined by
sharply decreasing rainfall southward from any point. The Dorsal, the
eastern extension of the Atlas Mountains, runs across
Tunisia in a
northeasterly direction from the Algerian border in the west to the
Cape Bon peninsula in the east. North of the Dorsal is the Tell, a
region characterized by low, rolling hills and plains, again an
extension of mountains to the west in Algeria. In the Khroumerie , the
northwestern corner of the Tunisian Tell, elevations reach 1,050
metres (3,440 ft) and snow occurs in winter.
The Sahel , a broadening coastal plain along Tunisia's eastern
Mediterranean coast, is among the world's premier areas of olive
cultivation. Inland from the Sahel, between the Dorsal and a range of
hills south of Gafsa, are the
Steppes . Much of the southern region is
semi-arid and desert .
Tunisia has a coastline 1,148 kilometres (713 mi) long. In maritime
terms, the country claims a contiguous zone of 24 nautical miles (44.4
km; 27.6 mi), and a territorial sea of 12 nautical miles (22.2 km;
Tunisia's climate is
Mediterranean in the north, with mild rainy
winters and hot, dry summers. The south of the country is desert. The
terrain in the north is mountainous, which, moving south, gives way to
a hot, dry central plain . The south is semiarid , and merges into the
Sahara . A series of salt lakes , known as _chotts_ or _shatts_, lie
in an east-west line at the northern edge of the Sahara, extending
Gulf of Gabes
Gulf of Gabes into
Algeria . The lowest point is Chott el
Djerid at 17 metres (56 ft) below sea level and the highest is Jebel
ech Chambi at 1,544 metres (5,066 ft).
CLIMATE DATA FOR CLIMATE DATA FOR TUNISIA IN GENERAL
AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F)
AVERAGE LOW °C (°F)
AVERAGE RAINFALL MM (INCHES)
Politics of Tunisia
Beji Caid Essebsi
President since 2014
Prime Minister since 2016
Tunisia is a representative democracy and a republic with a president
serving as head of state , prime minister as head of government , a
unicameral parliament , and a civil law court system . The
Constitution of Tunisia , adopted 26 January 2014, guarantees rights
for women and states that the President's religion "shall be Islam".
In October 2014
Tunisia held its first elections under the new
constitution following the
The number of legalized political parties in
Tunisia has grown
considerably since the revolution. There are now over 100 legal
parties, including several that existed under the former regime.
During the rule of Ben Ali, only three functioned as independent
opposition parties: the PDP , FDTL , and Tajdid . While some older
parties are well-established and can draw on previous party
structures, many of the 100-plus parties extant as of February 2012
Rare for the
Arab world, women held more than 20% of seats in the
country's pre-revolution bicameral parliament. In the 2011
constituent assembly, women held between 24% and 31% of all seats.
Tunisia is included in the European Union's European Neighbourhood
Policy (ENP), which aims at bringing the EU and its neighbours closer.
On 23 November 2014
Tunisia held its first Presidential Election
Arab Spring in 2011.
The Tunisian legal system is heavily influenced by
French civil law ,
while the Law of Personal Status is based on Islamic law. Sharia
courts were abolished in 1956.
A Code of Personal Status was adopted shortly after independence in
1956, which, among other things, gave women full legal status
(allowing them to run and own businesses, have bank accounts, and seek
passports under their own authority). The code outlawed the practices
of polygamy and repudiation and a husband's right to unilaterally
divorce his wife. Further reforms in 1993 included a provision to
allow Tunisian women to transmit citizenship even if they are married
to a foreigner and living abroad. The Law of Personal Status is
applied to all Tunisians regardless of their religion. The Code of
Personal Status remains one of the most progressive civil codes in
Africa and the
Human rights in Tunisia
After the revolution, a number of Salafist groups emerged and in some
occasions have violently repressed artistic expression that is viewed
to be hostile to Islam.
Since the revolution, some non-governmental organizations have
reconstituted themselves and hundreds of new ones have emerged. For
Tunisian Human Rights League , the first human rights
Africa and the
Arab world, operated under restrictions
and state intrusion for over half of its existence, but is now
completely free to operate. Some independent organizations, such as
the Tunisian Association of Democratic Women, the Association of
Tunisian Women for Research and Development, and the Bar Association
also remain active.
Homosexuality is illegal in
Tunisia and can be punished by up to
three years in prison. On December 7, 2016, two Tunisian men were
arrested on suspicion of homosexual activity in
Sousse . According to
2013 survey by the
Pew Research Center
Pew Research Center , 94% of Tunisians believe that
homosexuality should not be accepted by society.
The Tunisian regime has been criticised for its policy on
recreational drug use, for instance automatic 1-year prison sentences
for consuming cannabis. Prisons are crowded and drug offenders
represent nearly a third of the prison population.
Tunisia became the first
Arab country to outlaw domestic
violence against women, which was previously not a crime. Also, the
law stating that if a rapist marries his victim, he escapes punishment
was also abolished. According to
Human Rights Watch , 47% of Tunisian
women have been subject to domestic violence.
Tunisian Armed Forces
Tunisian Armed Forces
As of 2008 ,
Tunisia had an army of 27,000 personnel equipped with 84
main battle tanks and 48 light tanks. The navy had 4,800 personnel
operating 25 patrol boats and 6 other craft. The Tunisian Air Force
has 154 aircraft and 4 UAVs. Paramilitary forces consisted of a
12,000-member national guard. Tunisia's military spending was 1.6% of
GDP as of 2006 . The army is responsible for national defence and also
Tunisia has participated in peacekeeping efforts in
the DROC and Ethiopia/Eritrea.
United Nations peacekeeping
deployments for the Tunisian armed forces have been in
), Namibia (
UNTAG ), Somalia, Rwanda, Burundi, Western
) and the 1960s mission in the Congo,
The military has historically played a professional, apolitical role
in defending the country from external threats. Since January 2011 and
at the direction of the executive branch, the military has taken on
increasing responsibility for domestic security and humanitarian
Governorates of Tunisia and
Delegations of Tunisia
Bizerte Kef Béja
Kasserine Gafsa Tozeur Kebili Tataouine Medenine
Sousse Nabeul Sidi Bouzid
Zaghouan Manouba Ben Arous Ariana
Tunisia is subdivided into 24 governorates , which are further
divided into 264 "delegations " or "districts " (_mutamadiyat_), and
further subdivided into municipalities (_baladiyats_) and sectors
Economy of Tunisia A proportional representation
of Tunisia's exports.
Tunisia is an export-oriented country in the process of liberalizing
and privatizing an economy that, while averaging 5% GDP growth since
the early 1990s, has suffered from corruption benefiting politically
connected elites. Tunisia's Penal Code criminalises several forms of
corruption, including active and passive bribery, abuse of office,
extortion and conflicts of interest, but the anti-corruption framework
is not effectively enforced. However according to the Corruption
Perceptions Index published annually by
Transparency International ,
Tunisia was ranked the least corrupt
Arab African-country in 2016,
with a score of 41.
Tunisia has a diverse economy, ranging from
agriculture, mining, manufacturing, and petroleum products, to tourism
. In 2008 it had a GDP of US$ 41 billion (official exchange rates ),
or $82 billion (purchasing power parity).
The agricultural sector accounts for 11.6% of the GDP, industry
25.7%, and services 62.8%. The industrial sector is mainly made up of
clothing and footwear manufacturing, production of car parts, and
electric machinery. Although
Tunisia managed an average 5% growth over
the last decade it continues to suffer from a high unemployment
especially among youth.
Tunisia was in 2009 ranked the most competitive economy in
the 40th in the world by the
World Economic Forum
World Economic Forum .
managed to attract many international companies such as
Tourism accounted for 7% of GDP and 370,000 jobs in 2009.
European Union remains Tunisia's first trading partner, currently
accounting for 72.5% of Tunisian imports and 75% of Tunisian exports.
Tunisia is one of the European Union's most established trading
partners in the
Mediterranean region and ranks as the EU's 30th
largest trading partner.
Tunisia was the first
to sign an Association Agreement with the European Union, in July
1995, although even before the date of entry came into force, Tunisia
started dismantling tariffs on bilateral EU trade.
the tariffs dismantling for industrial products in 2008 and therefore
was the first
Mediterranean country to enter in a free trade area with
Tunis Sports City is an entire sports city currently being
constructed in Tunis, Tunisia. The city that will consist of apartment
buildings as well as several sports facilities will be built by the
Bukhatir Group at a cost of $5 Billion. The
Tunis Financial harbour
will deliver North Africa's first offshore financial centre at Tunis
Bay in a project with an end development value of US$3 billion. The
Tunis Telecom City is a US$3 billion project to create an IT hub in
Tunisia Economic City is a city being constructed near
Enfidha . The city will consist of residential, medical, financial,
industrial, entertainment and touristic buildings as well as a port
zone for a total cost of US$80 Billion. The project is financed by
Tunisian and foreign enterprises.
On 29 and 30 November,
Tunisia held an investment conference
Tunisia2020 to attract $30 billion in investment projects.
Tourism in Tunisia Hammamet : a major tourist
destination The front of the capitol at ruins of Dougga,
anogher tourist destination, qualified as
World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site by
UNESCO in 1997.
Among Tunisia's tourist attractions are its cosmopolitan capital city
of Tunis, the ancient ruins of Carthage, the
Muslim and Jewish
quarters of Jerba, and coastal resorts outside of Monastir. According
to The New York Times,
Tunisia is "known for its golden beaches, sunny
weather and affordable luxuries."
SOURCES OF ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION IN TUNISIA Thermal steam (44%)
Combined Cycle (43%) Gas turbine (11%) Wind, Hydroelectric, Solar
The majority of the electricity used in
Tunisia is produced locally,
by state-owned company STEG (Société Tunisienne de l'Electricité et
du Gaz). In 2008, a total of 13,747
GWh was produced in the country.
Oil production of
Tunisia is about 97,600 barrels per day (15,520
m3/d). The main field is El Bourma.
Oil production began in 1966 in Tunisia. Currently there are 12 oil
Tunisia had plans for two nuclear power stations , to be operational
by 2019. Both facilities are projected to produce 900–1000 MW .
France is set to become an important partner in Tunisia's nuclear
power plans, having signed an agreement, along with other partners, to
deliver training and technology. As of 2015 ,
Tunisia has abandoned
these plans. Instead,
Tunisia is considering other options to
diversify its energy mix, such as renewable energies, coal, shale gas,
liquified natural gas and constructing a submarine power
interconnection with Italy.
According to the Tunisian Solar Plan (which is Tunisia's Renewable
Energy Strategy not limited to solar, contrary to what its title may
suggest, proposed by the National Agency for Energy Conservation),
Tunisia's objective is to reach a share of 30% of renewable energies
in the electricity mix by 2030, most of which should be accounted for
by wind power and photovoltaics. As of 2015 ,
Tunisia had a total
renewable capacity of 312 MW (245 MW wind, 62 MW hydropower, 15 MW
Transport in Tunisia
The country maintains 19,232 kilometres (11,950 mi) of roads, with
three highways: the A1 from
Sfax (works ongoing for
Sfax-Libya), A3 Tunis-Beja (works ongoing Beja – Boussalem, studies
ongoing Boussalem – Algeria) and A4
Tunis – Bizerte. There are 29
airports in Tunisia, with
Carthage International Airport and
Djerba–Zarzis International Airport being the most important ones. A
Enfidha – Hammamet International Airport opened in
2011. The airport is located north of
Enfidha and is to
mainly serve the resorts of Hamammet and Port El Kantaoui, together
with inland cities such as Kairouan. Five airlines are headquartered
Tunisair , Syphax airlines ,
Karthago Airlines , Nouvelair
Tunisair Express . The railway network is operated by
amounts to 2,135 kilometres (1,327 mi) in total. The
Tunis area is
served by a
Light rail network named _Metro Leger_ which is managed by
WATER SUPPLY AND SANITATION
Water supply and sanitation in Tunisia
Tunisia has achieved the highest access rates to water supply and
sanitation services in the Middle East and North Africa. As of 2011 ,
access to safe drinking water became close to universal approaching
100% in urban areas and 90% in rural areas.
Tunisia provides good
quality drinking water throughout the year.
Responsibility for the water supply systems in urban areas and large
rural centres is assigned to the _Sociéte Nationale d'Exploitation et
de Distribution des Eaux_ (SONEDE), a national water supply authority
that is an autonomous public entity under the Ministry of Agriculture.
Planning, design and supervision of small and medium water supplies in
the remaining rural areas are the responsibility of the _Direction
Générale du Génie Rurale_ (DGGR).
In 1974, ONAS was established to manage the sanitation sector. Since
1993, ONAS has had the status of a main operator for protection of
water environment and combating pollution.
The rate of non-revenue water is the lowest in the region at 21% in
Demographics of Tunisia
Bedouin women in Tunisia
(early 1900s) Tunisian students
Tunisia's population was estimated to be just under 10.8 million in
2013. The government has supported a successful family planning
program that has reduced the population growth rate to just over 1%
per annum, contributing to Tunisia's economic and social stability.
The population of Tunisia, from a sociological, historical and
genealogical standpoint, is made up of mainly
Turks . Whilst the Ottoman influence has been particularly
significant in forming the Turco-Tunisian community, other peoples
have also migrated to
Tunisia during different periods of time,
including Sub-Saharan Africans,
Jews , and French settlers. Nonetheless, by 1870 the distinction
between the Arabic-speaking mass and the Turkish elite had blurred
and today the overwhelming majority, of about 98%, simply identify
themselves collectively as Arabs. There is also a small purely Berber
(1% at most) population located in the Dahar mountains and on the
Djerba in the south-east and in the
region in the north-west.
From the late 19th century to after World War II,
Tunisia was home to
large populations of French and Italians (255,000 Europeans in 1956),
although nearly all of them, along with the Jewish population, left
Tunisia became independent. The history of the
Jews in Tunisia
goes back some 2,000 years. In 1948 the Jewish population was an
estimated 105,000, but by 2013 only about 900 remained.
The first people known to history in what is now
Tunisia were the
Berbers . Numerous civilizations and peoples have invaded, migrated
to, or have been assimilated into the population over the millennia,
with influences of population from
Carthaginians , Romans
Arabs , Spaniards , Ottoman Turks and
Janissaries , and
French . There was a continuing inflow of nomadic
Arab tribes from
Reconquista and expulsion of non-Christians and Moriscos
from Spain, many Spanish
Jews also arrived. According to
Matthew Carr, "As many as eighty thousand Moriscos settled in Tunisia,
most of them in and around the capital, Tunis, which still contains a
quarter known as Zuqaq al-Andalus, or Andalusia Alley."
Languages of Tunisia
Arabic is the official language , and Tunisian
Arabic , known as
Derja , is the national, vernacular variety of
is used by the public. There is also a small minority of speakers of
Berber languages known collectively as Jebbali or Shelha.
French also plays a major role in Tunisian society, despite having no
official status. It is widely used in education (e.g., as the language
of instruction in the sciences in secondary school), the press, and in
business. In 2010, there were 6,639,000 French-speakers in Tunisia, or
about 64% of the population. Italian is understood and spoken by a
small part of the Tunisian population. Shop signs, menus and road
Tunisia are generally written in both
Arabic and French.
Largest cities or towns in Tunisia
1 056 247
Religion in Tunisia
Al-Zaytuna Mosque in Tunis.
The majority of Tunisia's population (around 98%) are
about 2% follow
Judaism or other religions. The bulk
of Tunisians belong to the
Maliki School of Sunni
Islam and their
mosques are easily recognizable by square minarets. However, the Turks
brought with them the teaching of the
Hanafi School during the Ottoman
rule, which still survives among the Turkish descended families today,
and their mosques traditionally have octagonal minarets. Sunnis form
the majority with non-denominational
Muslims being the second largest
group of Muslims, followed by
Ibadite Amazighs .
Tunisia has a sizable
Christian community of around over 25,000
Catholics (22,000) and to a lesser degree
Protestants . Berber Christians continued to live in
Tunisia up until
the early 15th century. International Religious Freedom Report for
2007 estimates thousands of Tunisian
Muslims have convert to
Judaism is the country's third largest religion with
900 members. One-third of the Jewish population lives in and around
the capital. The remainder lives on the island of
Djerba with 39
synagogues where the Jewish community dates back 2,500 years, on Sfax
Djerba , an island in the Gulf of
Gabès , is home to El Ghriba
synagogue , which is one of the oldest synagogues in the world and the
oldest uninterruptedly used. Many
Jews consider it a pilgrimage site,
with celebrations taking place there once every year due to its age
and the legend that the synagogue was built using stones from
Solomon\'s temple . In fact,
Tunisia along with
Morocco has been said
to be the
Arab countries most accepting of their Jewish populations.
The constitution declares
Islam as the official state religion and
requires the President to be
Muslim . Aside from the president,
Tunisians enjoy a significant degree of religious freedom, a right
enshrined and protected in its constitution, which guarantees the
freedom of thoughts, beliefs and to practice one's religion.
The country has a secular culture where religion is separated from
not only political, but in public life. During the pre-revolution era
there were at some point restrictions in the wearing of Islamic head
scarves (hijab ) in government offices and on public streets and
public gatherings. The government believed the hijab is a "garment of
foreign origin having a partisan connotation". There were reports that
the Tunisian police harassed men with "Islamic" appearance (such as
those with beards), detained them, and sometimes compelled men to
shave their beards off.
In 2006, the former Tunisian president declared that he would "fight"
the hijab, which he refers to as "ethnic clothing".
restricted from holding communal prayers or classes. After the
revolution however, a moderate Islamist government was elected leading
to more freedom in the practice of religion. It has also made room for
the rise of fundamentalist groups such as the Salafists , who call for
a strict interpretation of
Sharia law. The fall in favour of the
moderate Islamist government of Ennahdha was partly due to that,
modern Tunisian governments intelligence objectives are to suppress
fundamentalist groups before they can pass to act.
Individual Tunisians are tolerant of religious freedom and generally
do not inquire about a person's personal beliefs. Those who violate
the rules of work and eating during the Islamic month of Ramadan may
be arrested and jailed.
In 2017 a handful of men were arrested for eating in public during
Ramadan, they were convicted of committing “a provocative act of
public indecency” and sentenced to month-long jail sentences. The
Tunisia has a role as a "guardian of religion" which was used
to justify the arrests.
Education in Tunisia
Sadiki College in
Literacy rate of
Tunisia population, plus 15, 1985–2015 by
UNESCO Institute of Statistics
The total adult literacy rate in 2008 was 78% and this rate goes up
to 97.3% when considering only people from 15 to 24 years old.
Education is given a high priority and accounts for 6% of GNP . A
basic education for children between the ages of 6 and 16 has been
compulsory since 1991.
Tunisia ranked 17th in the category of "quality
of the educational system" and 21st in the category of "quality of
primary education" in
The Global Competitiveness Report 2008-9,
released by The World Economic Forum.
While children generally acquire Tunisian
Arabic at home, when they
enter school at age 6, they are taught to read and write in Standard
Arabic . From the age of 7, they are taught French while English is
introduced at the age of 8.
The four years of secondary education are open to all holders of
Diplôme de Fin d'Etudes de l'Enseignement de Base where the students
focus on entering university level or join the workforce after
completion. The Enseignement secondaire is divided into two stages:
general academic and specialized. The higher education system in
Tunisia has experienced a rapid expansion and the number of students
has more than tripled over the past 10 years from approximately
102,000 in 1995 to 365,000 in 2005. The gross enrollment rate at the
tertiary level in 2007 was 31 percent, with gender parity index of GER
Health in Tunisia
In 2010, spending on healthcare accounted for 3.37% of the country's
GDP. In 2009, there were 12.02 physicians and 33.12 nurses per 10,000
inhabitants. The life expectancy at birth was 74.60 years in 2010, or
72.60 years for males and 76.70 years for females. Infant mortality
in 2004 was 25 per 1,000.
Culture of Tunisia
The culture of
Tunisia is mixed due to its long established history
of outside influence from people ‒ such as Phoenicians, Romans,
Vandals, Byzantines, Arabs, Turks, Italians, Spaniards, and the French
‒ who all left their mark on the country.
The birth of Tunisian contemporary painting is strongly linked to the
School of Tunis, established by a group of artists from
by the desire to incorporate native themes and rejecting the influence
of Orientalist colonial painting. It was founded in 1949 and brings
together French and Tunisian Muslims, Christians and Jews. Pierre
Boucherle was its main instigator, along with
Yahia Turki , Abdelaziz
Moses Levy , Ammar Farhat, and Jules Lellouche. Given its
doctrine, some members have therefore turned to the sources of
Muslim art: such as miniature Islamic architecture,
etc. Expressionist paintings by Amara Debbache, Jellal Ben Abdallah,
and Ali Ben Salem are recognized while abstract art captures the
imagination of painters like Edgar Naccache, Nello Levy, and Hedi
After independence in 1956, the art movement in
Tunisia was propelled
by the dynamics of nation building and by artists serving the state. A
Ministry of Culture was established, under the leadership of ministers
Habib Boularès who oversaw art and education and power.
Artists gained international recognition such as
Hatem El Mekki or
Zoubeir Turki and influenced a generation of new young painters. Sadok
Gmech draws his inspiration from national wealth while Moncef Ben Amor
turns to fantasy. In another development, Youssef Rekik reused the
technique of painting on glass and founded
Nja Mahdaoui calligraphy
with its mystical dimension.
There are currently fifty art galleries housing exhibitions of
Tunisian and international artists. These galleries include Gallery
Carthage Essaadi gallery.
A new exposition opened in an old monarchal palace in Bardo dubbed
the "awakening of a nation." The exposition boasts documents and
artifacts from the Tunisian reformist monarchal rule in mid 19th
Tunisian literature exists in two forms:
Arabic and French except for
one author and translator.
Arabic literature dates back to the 7th
century with the arrival of
Arab civilization in the region. It is
more important in both volume and value than French literature,
introduced during the French protectorate from 1881.
Among the literary figures include
Ali Douagi , who has produced more
than 150 radio stories, over 500 poems and folk songs and nearly 15
plays, Khraief Bashir, an
Arabic novelist who published many notable
books in the 1930s and which caused a scandal because the dialogues
were written in Tunisian dialect, and others such as Moncef Ghachem,
Mohamed Salah Ben Mrad , or Mahmoud Messaadi.
As for poetry, Tunisian poetry typically opts for nonconformity and
innovation with poets such as
Aboul-Qacem Echebbi .
As for literature in French, it is characterized by its critical
approach. Contrary to the pessimism of
Albert Memmi , who predicted
Tunisian literature was sentenced to die young, a high number of
Tunisian writers are abroad including
Abdelwahab Meddeb , Bakri Tahar,
Mustapha Tlili , Hele Beji, or Mellah Fawzi. The themes of wandering,
exile and heartbreak are the focus of their creative writing.
The national bibliography lists 1249 non-school books published in
2002 in Tunisia, with 885 titles in Arabic. In 2006 this figure had
increased to 1,500 and 1,700 in 2007. Nearly a third of the books are
published for children.
In 2014 Tunisian American creative nonfiction scribe and translator
Med-Ali Mekki who wrote many books, not for publication but just for
his own private reading translated the new Constitution of the
Arabic to English for the first time in
Tunisian bibliographical history, the book was published worldwide the
following year and it was the Internet's most viewed and downloaded
Music of Tunisia _ Rachidia orchestra playing
traditional music in
Tunis Theater Ya laimi àazzine_ by
At the beginning of the 20th century, musical activity was dominated
by the liturgical repertoire associated with different religious
brotherhoods and secular repertoire which consisted of instrumental
pieces and songs in different Andalusian forms and styles of origins,
essentially borrowing characteristics of musical language. In 1930
"The Rachidia" was founded well known thanks to artists from the
Jewish community. The founding in 1934 of a musical school help revive
Arab Andalusian music largely to a social and cultural revival led by
the elite of the time who became aware of the risks of loss of the
musical heritage and which they believed threatened the foundations of
Tunisian national identity. The institution did not take long to
assemble an elite group of musicians and poets and scholars. The
creation of Radio
Tunis in 1938 allowed musicians a greater
opportunity to disseminate their works.
Among the major Tunisian contemporary artists include
Saber Rebai ,
Dhafer Youssef ,
Belgacem Bouguenna , Sonia M\'Barek and Latifa .
Other notable musicians include
Salah El Mahdi ,
Anouar Brahem , and
Lotfi Bouchnak .
Media of Tunisia
The TV media has long remained under the domination of the
Establishment of the Broadcasting Authority
Tunisia (ERTT) and its
predecessor, the Tunisian Radio and Television, founded in 1957. On 7
November 2006, President Zine el-Abidine Ben Ali announced the
demerger of the business, which became effective on 31 August 2007.
Until then, ERTT managed all public television stations (Télévision
Tunisienne 1 as well as Télévision Tunisienne 2 which had replaced
the defunct RTT 2) and four national radio stations (Radio Tunis,
Tunisia Radio Culture, Youth and Radio RTCI) and five regional Sfax,
Monastir, Gafsa, Le Kef and Tataouine. Most programs are in
some are in French. Growth in private sector radio and television
broadcasting has seen the creation of numerous operations including
Radio Mosaique FM, Jawhara FM, Zaytuna FM,
Hannibal TV , Ettounsiya
Nessma TV .
In 2007, some 245 newspapers and magazines (compared to only 91 in
1987) are 90% owned by private groups and independents. The Tunisian
political parties have the right to publish their own newspapers, but
those of the opposition parties have very limited editions (like Al
Mawkif or Mouwatinoun). Before the recent democratic transition,
although freedom of the press was formally guaranteed by the
constitution, almost all newspapers have in practice followed the
government line report. Critical approach to the activities of the
president, government and the
Constitutional Democratic Rally Party
(then in power) were suppressed. In essence, the media was dominated
by state authorities through the Agence
Tunis Afrique Presse . This
has changed since, as the media censorship by the authorities have
been largely abolished, and self-censorship has significantly
decreased. Nonetheless, the current regulatory framework and social
and political culture mean that the future of press and media freedom
is still unclear.
Sport in Tunisia Olympique Radès Stadium
Football is the most popular sport in Tunisia. The
football team , also known as "The Eagles of Carthage," won the 2004
African Cup of Nations (ACN ), which was held in Tunisia. They also
Africa in the 2005 FIFA Cup of Confederations , which was
held in Germany, but they could not go beyond the first round.
The premier football league is the "Tunisian Ligue Professionnelle 1
". The main clubs are Espérance Sportive de
Tunis , Étoile Sportive
du Sahel ,
Club Africain , and
Club Sportif Sfaxien .
Tunisia national handball team has participated in several
handball world championships. In 2005,
Tunisia came fourth. The
national league consists of about 12 teams, with ES. Sahel and
Tunis dominating. The most famous Tunisian handball player
Wissem Hmam . In the 2005 Handball Championship in
Tunis , Wissem
Hmam was ranked as the top scorer of the tournament. The Tunisian
national handball team won the African Cup eight times, being the team
dominating this competition. The Tunisians won the 2010 African Cup in
Egypt by defeating the host country.
In recent years, Tunisia\'s national basketball team has emerged as a
top side in Africa. The team won the
2011 Afrobasket and hosted
Africa's top basketball event in 1965, 1987 and 2015.
In boxing ,
Victor Perez ("Young") was world champion in the
flyweight weight class in 1931 and 1932.
2008 Summer Olympics
2008 Summer Olympics , Tunisian
Oussama Mellouli won a gold
medal in 1,500 metres (4,900 feet) freestyle. In the 2012 Summer
Olympics , he won a bronze medal in the 1,500 metres (4,900 feet)
freestyle and a gold medal in the 15 kilometres (9.3 miles) marathon.
Tunisia participated for the seventh time in her history in
Summer Paralympic Games . She finished the competition with 19
medals; 9 golds, 5 silvers and 5 bronzes.
Tunisia was classified 14th
on the Paralympics medal table and 5th in Athletics .
Tunisia was suspended from
Davis Cup play for the year 2014, because
the Tunisian Tennis Federation was found to have ordered Malek Jaziri
not to compete against an Israeli tennis player,
Amir Weintraub . ITF
Francesco Ricci Bitti said: "There is no room for prejudice
of any kind in sport or in society. The ITF Board decided to send a
strong message to the Tunisian Tennis Federation that this kind of
action will not be tolerated."
Index of Tunisia-related articles
Outline of Tunisia
* ^ "
Tunisia Constitution, Article 4" (PDF). 26 January 2014.
Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 February 2014. Retrieved 10
* ^ "Tunisian Constitution, Article 1" (PDF). 26 January 2014.
Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 February 2014. Retrieved 10
February 2014. Translation by the University of Bern: "
Tunisia is a
free State, independent and sovereign; its religion is the Islam, its
language is Arabic, and its form is the Republic."
* ^ Arabic, Tunisian Spoken. Ethnologue (19 February 1999).
Retrieved on 5 September 2015.
* ^ "
Tamazight language". _Encyclopædia Britannica_.
* ^ "Nawaat – Interview avec l’ Association Tunisienne de
Culture Amazighe". _Nawaat_.
* ^ "An outline of the Shilha (Berber) vernacular of Douiret
* ^ "Tunisian
Amazigh and the Fight for Recognition –
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ _H_ "Tunisia". CIA World Factbook.
Archived from the original on 16 October 2012. Retrieved 15 October
* ^ Frosini, Justin; Biagi, Francesco (2014). _Political and
Constitutional Transitions in North Africa: Actors and Factors_.
Routledge. p. 4. ISBN 9781317597452 .
* ^ Choudhry, Sujit; Stacey, Richard (2014) "Semi-presidential
Tunisia and Egypt". International Institute for
Democracy and Electoral Assistance. Retrieved 7 January 2016.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ "National Institute of Statistics-Tunisia".
National Institute of Statistics-Tunisia. 12 September 2014. Archived
from the original on 4 September 2015. Retrieved 12 September 2014.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ "Tunisia". International Monetary Fund.
* ^ "GINI index". World Bank. Retrieved 19 January 2013.
* ^ _A_ _B_ "2016 Human Development Report" (PDF). United Nations
Development Programme. 2016. Retrieved 4 April 2016.
* ^ "Report on the Delegation of تونس.". Internet Corporation
for Assigned Names and Numbers. 2010. Retrieved 8 November 2010.
* ^ http://www.pm.gov.tn/pm/content/index.php?lang=en
* ^ "
Tunisia Country report Freedom in the World 2015".
_freedomhouse.org_. Retrieved 12 September 2016.
* ^ "Tethered by history". _The Economist_. ISSN 0013-0613 .
Retrieved 12 September 2016.
* ^ Tunisie – France-Diplomatie – Ministère des Affaires
étrangères et du Développement international. Diplomatie.gouv.fr.
Retrieved on 5 September 2015.
* ^ (in French) Pourquoi l\'Italie de Matteo Renzi se tourne vers
la Tunisie avant l\'Europe JOL Journalism Online Press. Jolpress.com
(28 February 2014). Retrieved on 5 September 2015.
* ^ Ghanmi, Monia (12 September 2014) "La Tunisie renforce ses
relations avec l\'Italie". _Magharebia_
* ^ "Tunisie : les législatives fixées au 26 octobre et la
présidentielle au 23 novembre". _Jeune Afrique_. 25 June 2014.
* ^ "
Tunisia holds first post-revolution presidential poll". BBC
News. 23 November 2014.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Room, Adrian (2006). _Placenames of the World:
Origins and Meanings of the Names for 6,600 Countries, Cities,
Territories, Natural Features, and Historic Sites_. McFarland. p. 385.
ISBN 0-7864-2248-3 .
* ^ Rossi, Peter M.; White, Wayne Edward (1980). _Articles on the
Middle East, 1947–1971: A Cumulation of the Bibliographies from the
Middle East Journal_. Pierian Press,
University of Michigan . p. 132.
* ^ Taylor, Isaac (2008). _Names and Their Histories: A Handbook of
Historical Geography and Topographical Nomenclature_. BiblioBazaar,
LLC. p. 281. ISBN 0-559-29668-1 .
* ^ Houtsma, Martijn Theodoor (1987). _E.J. Brill's First
Encyclopaedia of Islam, 1913–1936_. Brill. p. 838. ISBN
* ^ Livy, John Yardley & Hoyos, Dexter (2006). _Hannibal's War:
Books Twenty-one to Thirty_. Oxford University Press. p. 705. ISBN
0-19-283159-3 . and others associated with the word "تؤنس"
(different from تونس) in
Arabic which is a verb that means to
socialize and to be friendly.
* ^ Banjamin Isaac, The Invention of Racism in Classical Antiquity,
Princeton University Press, 2013 p.147
* ^ "
Carthage and the Numidians".
Hannibalbarca.webspace.virginmedia.com. Retrieved 28 October 2011.
* ^ "LookLex /
Dougga / Numidian Wall". Looklex.com.
Retrieved 28 October 2011.
* ^ "Numidians (DBA II/40) and Moors (DBA II/57)". Fanaticus.org.
12 December 2001. Retrieved 28 October 2011.
* ^ "LookLex /
Tunisia / Chemtou / Numidian Altar & Roman Temple".
Looklex.com. Retrieved 28 October 2011.
* ^ "Numidia (ancient region, Africa)". Britannica Online
Encyclopedia. Retrieved 28 October 2011.
* ^ "The City of Carthage: From Dido to the
Arab Conquest" (PDF).
Retrieved 8 January 2013.
* ^ Planet, Lonely. "
History of Tunisia -
Lonely Planet Travel
Information". _www.lonelyplanet.com_. Retrieved 2017-07-07.
* ^ "Donatist". _Encyclopædia Britannica_.
* ^ John Bagnell Bury, History of the Later Roman Empire from the
Death of Theodosius I. to the Death of Justinian, Part 2, Courier
Corporation, 1958 pp.124-148
* ^ Davidson, Linda Kay; Gitlitz, David Martin (2002). _Pilgrimage:
From the Ganges to Graceland : An Encyclopedia_. ABC-CLIO. p. 302.
ISBN 978-1-57607-004-8 .
* ^ Bosworth, Clifford Edmund (2007). _Historic Cities of the
Islamic World_. BRILL. p. 264. ISBN 978-90-04-15388-2 .
* ^ "
Kairouan inscription as World Heritage". Kairouan.org.
Archived from the original on 22 April 2012. Retrieved 2 May 2010.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Lapidus, Ira M. (2002). _A History of Islamic
Societies_. Cambridge University Press. pp. 302–303. ISBN
* ^ Ham, Anthony; Hole, Abigail; Willett, David. (2004). _Tunisia_
Lonely Planet . p. 65. ISBN 1-74104-189-9 .
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Stearns, Peter N.; Leonard Langer, William (2001).
_The Encyclopedia of World History: Ancient, Medieval, and Modern,
Chronologically Arranged_ (6 ed.).
Houghton Mifflin Harcourt . pp.
129–131. ISBN 0-395-65237-5 .
* ^ Houtsma, M. Th. (1987). _E.J. Brill\'s First Encyclopaedia of
Islam, 1913–1936_. BRILL. p. 852. ISBN 978-90-04-08265-6 .
* ^ _A_ _B_ Singh, Nagendra Kr (2000). _International encyclopaedia
of islamic dynasties_. 4: A Continuing Series. Anmol Publications PVT.
LTD. pp. 105–112. ISBN 81-261-0403-1 .
* ^ J. Ki-Zerbo; G. Mokhtar; A. Adu Boahen; I. Hrbek. _General
history of Africa_. James Currey Publishers. pp. 171–173. ISBN
* ^ "Populations Crises and Population Cycles, Claire Russell and
W.M.S. Russell". Galtoninstitute.org.uk. Archived from the original on
27 May 2013. Retrieved 19 January 2013.
* ^ Bosworth, Clifford Edmund (2004). _The New Islamic Dynasties: A
Chronological and Genealogical Manual_. Edinburgh University Press. p.
46. ISBN 978-0-7486-2137-8 .
* ^ Bosworth, Clifford Edmund (2004). _The New Islamic Dynasties: A
Chronological and Genealogical Manual_. Edinburgh University Press. p.
55. ISBN 978-0-7486-2137-8 .
* ^ Panzac, Daniel (2005). _Barbary Corsairs: The End of a Legend,
1800–1820_. BRILL. p. 309. ISBN 978-90-04-12594-0 .
* ^ Clancy-Smith, Julia A. (1997). _Rebel and Saint: Muslim
Notables, Populist Protest, Colonial Encounters (
Algeria and Tunisia,
1800–1904)_. University of California Press. p. 157. ISBN
* ^ Gearon, Eamonn (2011). _The Sahara: A Cultural History_. Oxford
University Press. p. 117. ISBN 978-0-19-986195-8 .
* ^ Ion Smeaton Munro (1933). _Through fascism to world power: a
history of the revolution in Italy_. A. Maclehose & co. p. 221.
* ^ Williamson, Gordon (1991). _Afrikakorps 1941–43_. Osprey. p.
24. ISBN 978-1-85532-130-4 .
* ^ Palmer, Michael A. (2010). _The German Wars: A Concise History,
1859–1945_. Zenith Imprint. p. 199. ISBN 978-0-7603-3780-6 .
* ^ _A_ _B_ "Habib Bourguiba: Father of Tunisia". BBC. 6 April
* ^ Ian Black, Middle East editor (13 July 2010). "Amnesty
Tunisia over human right". London: The
Guardian. Retrieved 19 January 2013. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors
list (link )
* ^ AP (7 November 1987). "A Coup Is Reported In Tunisia".
NYtimes.com. Retrieved 2 May 2010.
* ^ Yannick Vely (23 November 2009). "Ben Ali, sans discussion".
ParisMatch.com. Retrieved 2 May 2010.
* ^ Elaine Ganley; Jenny Barchfield. "Tunisians hail fall of
ex-leader\'s corrupt family". Sandiegounion-tribune.com. Archived from
the original on 16 July 2011. Retrieved 28 October 2011.
* ^ Tsourapas, Gerasimos (2015). "The Other Side of a Neoliberal
Miracle: Economic Reform and Political De- Liberalization in Ben
Ali’s Tunisia" (PDF). _
Mediterranean Politics_. 18 (1): 23–41. doi
:10.1080/13629395.2012.761475 . Retrieved 4 December 2016.
* ^ "Tunisie: comment s\'enrichit le clan Ben Ali?" (in French).
RadicalParty.org. Retrieved 2 May 2010.
* ^ "Caught in the Net: Tunisia\'s First Lady". Foreign Policy. 13
* ^ "Ajaccio – Un trafic de yachts entre la
France et la Tunisie
en procès" (in French). 30 September 2009.
* ^ Florence Beaugé (24 October 2009). "Le parcours fulgurant de
Sakhr El-Materi, gendre du président tunisien Ben Ali". LeMonde.fr.
Archived from the original on 21 January 2011. Retrieved 2 May 2010.
* ^ "Tunisia". Amnesty.org. Retrieved 2 May 2010.
* ^ "Protectionline.org". Protectionline.org. 18 January 2010.
Archived from the original on 29 April 2011. Retrieved 2 May 2010.
* ^ "Droits de l\'Homme : après le harcèlement, l\'asphyxie".
RFI.fr. 16 December 2004. Retrieved 2 May 2010.
* ^ "Dans le monde de l\'après-11 septembre, seule la paix
protège les libertés". RSF.org. 22 October 2008. Retrieved 2 May
* ^ Yasmine Ryan (26 January 2011). "How Tunisia\'s revolution
began – Features". Al Jazeera English. Retrieved 13 February 2011.
* ^ "Wikileaks might have triggered Tunis\' revolution".
_Alarabiya_. 15 January 2011. Retrieved 13 February 2011.
* ^ Spencer, Richard (13 January 2011). "
Tunisia riots: Reform or
be overthrown, US tells
Arab states amid fresh riots". _Telegraph_.
London. Retrieved 14 January 2011.
* ^ Ryan, Yasmine (14 January 2011). "Tunisia\'s bitter cyberwar".
_Al Jazeera English_. Retrieved 16 January 2011.
* ^ "Trade unions: the revolutionary social network at play in
Egypt and Tunisia". Defenddemocracy.org. Retrieved 11 February 2011.
* ^ "When fleeing Tunisia, don\'t forget the gold". Korea Times. 25
January 2011. Retrieved 19 January 2013.
* ^ El Amrani, Issandr; Lindsey, Ursula (8 November 2011). "Tunisia
Moves to the Next Stage". _Middle East Report_. Middle East Research
and Information Project .
* ^ Zavis, Alexandra (13 December 2011). "Former dissident sworn in
as Tunisia\'s president". _Los Angeles Times_. Los Angeles Times.
Retrieved 13 December 2011.
* ^ "Tunisia\'s constitution will not be based on Sharia: Islamist
party". Al Arabiya. Retrieved 18 February 2013.
* ^ Fleishman, Jeffrey (6 February 2013). "Tunisian opposition
Chokri Belaid shot dead outside his home". Los Angeles Times.
Retrieved 18 February 2013.
* ^ "The real reason
Tunisia renewed its state of emergency".
* ^ "The
Nobel Peace Prize
Nobel Peace Prize 2015". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 15
* ^ Ewan W., Anderson (2003). _International Boundaries:
Geopolitical Atlas_. Psychology Press. p. 816. ISBN 978-1-57958-375-0
* ^ "Climate of Tunisia". Bbc.co.uk. Archived from the original on
9 February 2011. Retrieved 2 May 2010.
* ^ Aldosari, Ali (2006). _Middle East, western Asia, and northern
Africa_. Marshall Cavendish. pp. 1270–. ISBN 978-0-7614-7571-2 .
* ^ "Weatherbase : Tunisia". Retrieved 13 May 2016.
* ^ "
Tunisia holds first election under new constitution". 26
October 2014. Retrieved 26 October 2014.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ "
Tunisia (03/09/12)". US Department of State. 9
March 2012. Archived from the original on 13 October 2012.
* ^ Inter-Parliamentary Union. "TUNISIA. Majlis Al-Nuwab (Chamber
of Deputies)". Inter-Parliamentary Union. Retrieved 19 January 2013.
* ^ "49 femmes élues à l\'assemblée constituante : 24% des 217
sièges". _Leaders_. 28 October 2011. Retrieved 27 October 2014.
* ^ Ben Hamadi, Monia (29 April 2014). "Tunisie: Selma Znaidi, une
femme de plus à l\'Assemblée". _Al Huffington Post_. Retrieved 27
* ^ "
Tunisia holds first post-revolution presidential poll". _BBC
News_. 23 November 2014. Retrieved 23 November 2014.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ "Tunisia" (PDF). Reunite International. Retrieved
18 February 2013.
* ^ "State Department page on Tunisia". State.gov. 19 March 2009.
Retrieved 2 May 2010.
* ^ _Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document_.
United Nations Publications. 2003. p. 190. ISBN 978-92-1-130252-3 .
Retrieved 10 February 2013.
* ^ Tamanna, Nowrin (December 2008). "Personal status laws in
Morocco and Tunisia: a comparative exploration of the possibilities
for equality-enhancing reform in Bangladesh". _Feminist Legal Studies
_. 16 (3): 323–343. doi :10.1007/s10691-008-9099-9 .
* ^ "Scores arrested after
Tunis art riots". AlJazeera. 12 June
* ^ "State Sponsored Homophobia 2016: A world survey of sexual
orientation laws: criminalisation, protection and recognition" (PDF).
_International Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans and Intersex Association
_. 17 May 2016.
* ^ "Two Men Sentenced To 8 Months In Jail For Suspicion Of Being
Gay". _Instinct Magazine_. March 14, 2017.
* ^ "The Global Divide on Homosexuality." _pewglobal_. 4 June 2013
* ^ "The Tunisian women locked up for smoking a joint". BBC. 18
* ^ _A_ _B_ "It will no longer be legal to rape a woman in Tunisia
if you marry her afterwards". _The Independent_. 2017-07-28. Retrieved
* ^ Radio, Sveriges. "Våld mot kvinnor blir olagligt i Tunisien -
Nyheter (Ekot)". Retrieved 2017-08-01.
* ^ Nyheter, SVT. "Våldtäktslagen tas bort i Tunisien". _SVT
Nyheter_ (in Swedish). Retrieved 2017-08-01.
* ^ International Institute for Strategic Studies (February 2008).
_The Military Balance 2008_. Taylor & Francis Group. ISBN
* ^ "
Tunisia – Armed forces". Nationsencyclopedia.com. 18 January
2011. Retrieved 8 January 2013.
* ^ "
Tunisia Governorates". Statoids.com. Retrieved 2 May 2010.
* ^ "Portail de l\'industrie Tunisienne" (in French).
Tunisieindustrie.nat.tn. Archived from the original on 6 January 2013.
Retrieved 19 January 2013.
* ^ "GTZ in Tunisia". _gtz.de_. GTZ. Archived from the original on
11 May 2011. Retrieved 20 October 2010.
* ^ "
Corruption Profile". _Business Anti-Corruption
Portal_. Retrieved 14 July 2015.
* ^ "The Global Competitiveness Index 2009–2010 rankings" (PDF).
_weforum.org_. Archived from the original (PDF) on 30 October 2010.
Retrieved 16 September 2009.
* ^ "
Airbus build plant in tunisia". _Eturbonews_. 29 January 2009.
Retrieved 16 September 2009.
* ^ "HP to open customer service center in Tunisia".
_africanmanager.com_. Retrieved 16 September 2009.
* ^ "Trouble in paradise: How one vendor unmasked the \'economic
miracle\'". Mobile.france24.com. 11 January 2011. Retrieved 28 October
* ^ "Bilateral relations
Tunisia EU". _europa.eu_. Retrieved 16
* ^ "
Tunis Sport City". _Sportcitiesinternational.com_. Retrieved
16 September 2009.
* ^ "
Tunis Financial Harbour". Retrieved 16 September 2009.
* ^ "Vision 3 announces
Tunis Telecom City". _www.ameinfo.com_.
Retrieved 16 September 2009.
* ^ Welcome at TEC –
Tunisia Economic City. Tunisiaec.com (4
April 2015). Retrieved on 5 September 2015.
External link in title= (help )
* ^ Glusac, Elaine (22 November 2009). "A Night, and Day, In
Tunisia at a New Resort". _The New York Times_.
* ^ Arfa, M. Othman Ben. "Effort national de maitrise de l\'energie
: contribution de la steg" (PDF). _steg.com.tn_. Archived from the
original (PDF) on 16 July 2011. Retrieved 12 November 2009.
* ^ "STEG, company website". _steg.com.tn_. Archived from the
original on 21 November 2008. Retrieved 28 October 2009.
* ^ "Oil and Gas in Tunisia". _mbendi.com_. Retrieved 9 October
* ^ "MBendi oilfields in Tunisia". _mbendi.com_. Retrieved 31
* ^ "Tunisias nuclear plans". _Reuters_. 23 April 2009.
* ^ "
Tunisia : A civil nuclear station of 1000
Megawatt and two
sites are selected". _africanmanager.com_. Retrieved 4 November 2009.
* ^ "
Tunisia Energy Situation".
* ^ http://www.oitsfax.org/files/AApresentationHDR20140323.pdf
World Health Organization ; UNICEF. "Joint Monitoring Programme
for Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation". Archived from the original
on 16 February 2008. Retrieved 27 December 2012.
* ^ (in French) Ministere du Developpement et de la Cooperation
Internationale, Banque Mondiale et Programme "Participation Privee
dans les infrastructures mediterreeanees"(PPMI):Etude sur la
participation privée dans les infrastructures en Tunisie, Volume III,
2004, accessed on 21 March 2010
* ^ "Chiffres clés". SONEDE. Retrieved 27 December 2013.
* ^ The Rotarian (1969), _Focus of Tunisia_, 115 (6), p. 56, The
population...is made up mostly of people of Arab, Berber, and Turkish
* ^ "
Tunisia - Land history - geography". _Encyclopedia
Britannica_. Retrieved 2017-07-07.
* ^ Green, Arnold H. (1978), _The Tunisian Ulama 1873–1915:
Social Structure and Response to Ideological Currents_, BRILL, p. 69,
* ^ Turchi, C; Buscemi, L; Giacchino, E; Onofri, V; Fendt, L;
Parson, W; Tagliabracci, A (2009). "Polymorphisms of mtDNA control
region in Tunisian and Moroccan populations: An enrichment of forensic
mtDNA databases with Northern
Africa data". _Forensic Science
International: Genetics_. 3 (3): 166–72. PMID 19414164 . doi
* ^ Bouhadiba, M.A. (28 January 2010). "Le Tunisien: une dimension
méditerranéenne qu\'atteste la génétique" (in French).
Lapresse.tn. Archived from the original on 22 July 2012. Retrieved 19
January 2013. CS1 maint: Unfit url (link )
* ^ "Q&A: The Berbers". BBC News. 12 March 2004. Retrieved 19
* ^ Angus Maddison (20 September 2007). _Contours of the World
Economy 1–2030 AD:Essays in Macro-Economic History: Essays in
Macro-Economic History_. OUP Oxford. p. 214. ISBN 978-0-19-922721-1 .
Retrieved 26 January 2013.
* ^ "The
Jews of Tunisia". Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved 11
* ^ Carr, Matthew (2009). _Blood and faith: the purging of Muslim
Spain_. The New Press. p. 290. ISBN 1-59558-361-0 .
* ^ Sayahi, Lotfi (24 April 2014). _Diglossia and Language Contact:
Language Variation and Change in North Africa_. Cambridge University
Press. ISBN 978-1-139-86707-8 .
* ^ Albert J. Borg; Marie Azzopardi-Alexander (1997). _Maltese_.
Routledge. p. 13. ISBN 978-0-415-02243-9 . Retrieved 24 February 2013.
The immediate source for the
Arabic vernacular spoken in
Muslim Sicily, but its ultimate origin appears to have been Tunisia.
In fact, Maltese displays some areal traits typical of Maghrebine
Arabic, although during the past eight hundred years of independent
evolution it has drifted apart from Tunisian Arabic.
* ^ "An outline of the Shilha (Berber) vernacular of Douiret
(Southern Tunisia)". Australian Digital Theses Program. 26 May 2008.
Archived from the original on 26 May 2008. Retrieved 19 January 2013.
* ^ Volk, Lucia (2015-02-11). _The Middle East in the World: An
Introduction_. Routledge. ISBN 9781317501732 .
* ^ "Le dénombrement des francophones" (PDF). Organisation
internationale de la Francophonie.
* ^ McGuinness, Justin (1 November 2002). _Footprint Tunisia
Handbook: The Travel Guide_. Globe Pequot Press. ISBN
978-1-903471-28-9 . Retrieved 26 January 2013.
* ^ "Tunisian Languages". Tunisia-tourism.org. Retrieved 13
Republic of Tunisia. citypopulation.de
Islam per beginning of the article.
* ^ Jacobs, Daniel; Morris, Peter (2002). _The Rough Guide to
Tunisia_. Rough Guides. p. 460. ISBN 1-85828-748-0 .
* ^ Chapter 1: Religious Affiliation retrieved 4 September 2013
* ^ Brugnatelli, Vermondo (2005). "Studi berberi e mediterranei.
Miscellanea offerta in onore di Luigi Serra, a cura di A.M. Di Tolla"
(PDF). _Studi Magrebini_. 3: 131–142.
* ^ Les mosquées ibadites du Maghreb. Remmm.revues.org. Retrieved
on 5 September 2015.
* ^ Fr Andrew Phillips. "The Last Christians Of North-West Africa:
Some Lessons For Orthodox Today". Orthodoxengland.org.uk. Retrieved 8
* ^ International Religious Freedom Report 2007: Tunisia. United
Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor (14 September
2007). _This article incorporates text from this source, which is in
the public domain ._
* ^ Johnstone, Patrick; Miller, Duane Alexander (2015). "Believers
in Christ from a
Muslim Background: A Global Census".
_Interdisciplinary Journal of Research on Religion_. 11: 8. Retrieved
30 October 2015.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor
(2008). "Report on Tunisia". _International Religious Freedom Report
2008_. US State Department. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list
* ^ Samuel Gruber (1 May 1999). _Synagogues_. Metro Books.
* ^ Harris, David A. (13 March 2010). "Usurping History". Aish.com.
Retrieved 2 May 2010.
* ^ "US Department of State". State.gov. 17 November 2010.
Retrieved 15 January 2011.
* ^ "Tunisia: War over hijab". Ynetnews.com. 20 June 1995.
Retrieved 19 January 2013.
* ^ "Who Are Tunisia\'s Salafis?". Foreign Policy. Retrieved 1 July
* ^ "