Qingdao (; also spelled Tsingtao
; ) is a major city in eastern Shandong Province
. Located on China's Yellow Sea
coast, it is a major nodal city of the One Belt, One Road
(OBOR) Initiative that connects Asia with Europe. It has the highest GDP of any city in the province. Administered at the sub-provincial level
, Qingdao has jurisdiction over six districts and four county-level cities. , Qingdao had a population of 9,046,200 with an urban population of 6,188,100. Lying across the Shandong Peninsula
and looking out to the Yellow Sea, it borders the prefecture-level cities
to the northeast, Weifang
to the west and Rizhao
to the southwest.
Qingdao is a major seaport
and naval base
, as well as a commercial and financial center
. It is home to electronics multinationals such as Haier
. The world's longest sea bridge, the Jiaozhou Bay Bridge
, links the main urban area of Qingdao with Huangdao
district, straddling the Jiaozhou Bay
sea areas. Its historic, German-style architecture and Tsingtao Brewery
, the second largest brewery in China are legacies of the German occupation (1898-1914)
In the 2020 Global Financial Centers Index
, Qingdao ranked 47th; the index is published by the Z/Yen Group
and China Development Institute
, the other Chinese cities on the list being Shanghai
, Hong Kong
, and Wuhan
In 2007, Qingdao was named as one of China's top ten cities by the Chinese Cities Brand Value Report, which was released at the 2007 Beijing Summit of China Cities Forum. In 2009, Qingdao was named China's most livable city by the Chinese Institute of City Competitiveness. In 2018, Qingdao held the Shanghai Cooperation Organization
summit. In 2020, Qingdao was rated as a Gamma + level global city
by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network
Qingdao is also a major city for global scientific research as tracked by the Nature Index
according to the Nature Index 2020 Science Cities
. The city is home to several notable universities
, including the Ocean University of China
, one of China's prestigious universities
as a member of Project 985
, and China University of Petroleum
(East China), a member of the Project 211
*Jiāo'ào (/): former name during the Qing dynasty
*Qindao (/, lit. "Stringed Instrument
Isle"): additional modern name for the area, referring according to locals to the shape of the coastline.
*Daocheng (/): Isle City
*Tsingtao: Postal Romanization
*Tsingtau: German romanization
used during the German concession period (1898–1914).
*Jiaozhou (/): a historical name which refers to Jiaozhou Bay
*Kiaochow, Kiauchau, and Kiautschou are alternative romanizations of Jiaozhou.
Human settlement in the area dates back 6,000 years. The Dongyi
nationality, one of the important origins of the Chinese nation, lived here and created the Dawenkou
cultures. In the Eastern Zhou Dynasty
(770 B.C. – 256 B.C.), the town of Jimo
was established, which was then the second largest one in the Shandong region. The area in which Qingdao is located today was named Jiao'ao () when it was administered by the Qing Dynasty on 14 June 1891.
German and Japanese occupations
thumb|right|Main gate of former Chinese munitions depot, taken over by the Imperial German Navy
, Kiautschou Bay, Shandong peninsula, 1898
In 1891, the Qing Empire decided to make coastal Tsingtao (then known as "Jiao'ao") a defense base against naval attack and began to improve its fortifications. Imperial German
naval officials observed and reported on this activity during a formal survey of Jiaozhou Bay
in May 1897. Subsequently, German troops seized and occupied the fortification. The preindustrial, waning Qing Empire was forced to concede the area to Germany the following year, and the Kiautschou Bay concession
, as it became known, existed from 1898 to 1914 (Li 2005, p. 81). With an area of , it was located in the imperial province of Shandong
as Shantung or Shan-tung
) on the southern coast of the Shandong
Peninsula in northern China. Jiaozhou was alternatively romanized as Kiaochow, Kiauchau, or Kiao-Chau in English, and Kiautschou in German; Qingdao was its administrative center. "The so-called ''Marktstrasse'' (Market Street) was nothing more than the old main street of the Chinese village of Tsingtao, and the buildings lining it were the former homes of fishermen and farmers. Having sold their property, they resettled their homes and fields in the villages further east."
Upon gaining control of the area, the Germans outfitted the impoverished fishing village of Tsingtao (Qingdao) with wide streets, solid housing areas, government buildings, electrification throughout, a sewer system and a safe drinking water supply, a rarity in large parts of Asia
at that time and later.
The area had the highest school density and the highest ''per capita'' student enrollment in all of China, with primary, secondary and vocational schools funded by the Imperial German
treasury and Protestant
and Roman Catholic
Commercial interests established the Germania Brewery in 1903, which later became the world-famous Tsingtao Brewery
German cultural and commercial influences extended to other areas of Shandong Province, including the establishment of diverse commercial enterprises.
Identified by the German authorities as a strategically important port, Qingdao was administered by the Imperial Department of the Navy
(''Reichsmarineamt'') rather than the Imperial Colonial Office
(''Reichskolonialamt''). The growing Imperial German Navy based their Far East Squadron
there, allowing the warships to conduct operations throughout the western Pacific
. Beginning January 1898, the marines of ''III. Seebataillon
'' were based at Tsingtao. Construction of the Jiaoji Railway
began on 23 September 1899, and was completed in 1904.
Before the outbreak of World War I
(1914–1918), ships of the German naval forces under Admiral Count von Spee
were located at central Pacific colonies on routine missions. The fleet then rendezvoused in the Marianas Islands
to plan a transit back to Germany rather than be trapped in the Pacific by more powerful and numerous Allied fleets (British and Japanese).
After a minor British naval attack on the German concession in Shandong (Kiautschou Bay concession
) in 1914, Japanese Empire
troops occupied the city and the surrounding province during the Siege of Tsingtao
after Japan's declaration of war on Germany in accordance with the Anglo-Japanese Alliance
China protested against Japan's violation of her neutrality but was not able to interfere in the military operations. The decision of the Paris Peace Conference
and the Versailles Treaty
negotiations not to restore Chinese rule over the previous foreign concessions in Qingdao after the Great War triggered the May Fourth Movement
(4 May 1919) of anti-imperialism, nationalism and cultural identity in China.
The city came under Chinese rule in December 1922, under control of the Republic of China
(R.O.C.) established 1912 after the Chinese Revolution
the year before. However, Japan maintained its economic dominance of the railway and the province as a whole. The city became a direct-controlled municipality
of the ROC Government in July 1929.
Japan re-occupied Qingdao in 1938, a year after its expansion of the Second Sino-Japanese War
(1937–1945), (a precursor to World War II
, 1939–1945) with its plans of territorial expansion into China's coast. Nationalist (Kuomintang)
ROC forces returned after the Japanese surrender
in September 1945. On 2 June 1949, during the Chinese Civil War
and shortly before the founding of the communist People’s Republic of China
on 1 October 1949 the city was taken by Chairman Mao Zedong
and his troops.
Qingdao city planning and development
The development of the Tsingtao urban space during the German-occupation (1898–1914) originated from the port. Mass urban construction began in 1898 with the relocation of Chinese dwellers along the coast. With the completion of such series of mass construction projects such as wharves, the Tsingtao-Jinan Railway Line, Tsingtao Railway Station and locomotive works, a city was starting to take shape. The area had the highest school density and highest per capita student enrollment in all of China, with primary, secondary and vocational schools funded by the Berlin treasury as well as Protestant and Roman Catholic missions. In 1910, the Germans drew up for the second time the city planning of Tsingtao (Warner 2001, p. 33). The former urban area was extended for four times highlighted by the emphasis on the development of commerce and trade. Sun Yat-sen
(1866–1925), leader of the Chinese Revolution of 1911
and subsequent first president of the Republic of China
, visited the Tsingtau area and stated in 1912, "I am impressed. The city is a true model for China's future".
The development of Tsingtao urban space continued during the first Japan-occupation period (1914–1922). In 1914, Tsingtao was taken over by the Japanese and served as a base for the exploitation of natural resources of Shandong and northern China. With the development of industry and commerce, a "New City District" was established to furnish the Japanese colonists with commercial sections and living quarters, which suggested a striking contrast to the shabby houses in the local Chinese zones (Li 2007, p. 133). In the meantime, a number of schools, hospitals and public buildings were constructed, followed by urban streets and intercity highways as well. The urban spatial layout continued to expand northward along the eastern bay area.
The development of Tsingtao urban space during the ROC-ruled period (1922–1938). This period saw the substantial progress of the urban development of Tsingtao. The government engaged itself in mass construction that gave birth to villa districts at the beach and bank groups in CBD. Plenty of public buildings and facilities for the purpose of entertainment and sports were completed. By the year of 1937, the urban population numbered 385,000(Lu 2001, p. 327). Tsingtao consequently distinguished itself as a prominent holiday resort and summer retreat.
The development of Tsingtao urban space during the second Japan-occupied period (1938–1945). Japanese armed forces returned to Tsingtao in 1938 and started to strive for the construction of the Greater Tsingtao in the following June. Accordingly, they worked out the city planning of the Greater Tsingtao and the City Planning of the Mother Town (Tsingtao City Proper), even though they had not had the opportunity to actualize either, respectively. The period in question did not witness much urban progress except for the logical construction of No. 6 Wharf, some Japanese residences and a small number of roads and streets (Lu 2001, p. 339).
After World War II, the KMT
allowed Qingdao to serve as the headquarters of the Western Pacific Fleet
of the US Navy
in 1945; however, its headquarters was transferred to the Philippines
sometime in late 1948. On 2 June 1949, the CCP
-led Red Army
entered Qingdao and the city and province have been under PRC
control since that time.
Since the 1984 inauguration of China's open-door policy to foreign trade and investment, Qingdao has rapidly developed into an ultramodern port city. It is now the headquarters of the Chinese navy's northern fleet
. An early example of the open-door policy occurred on 5 November 1984, when three United States Naval vessels visited Qingdao. This was the first US port call in more than 37 years to China. , , and and their crews were officially hosted by the Chinese People's Liberation Army Navy
Northern Qingdao, particularly Shibei
, and Chengyang
districts, are now major manufacturing centers. The city has recently experienced a strong growth period, with a new central business district created to the east of the older business district. Outside of the center of the city, there is a large industrial zone, which includes chemical processing, rubber and heavy manufacturing, in addition to a growing high-tech area. Numerous local and national service companies, rather than manufacturers, are based in the city's southern district; this, as well as local wind patterns, allows Qingdao to enjoy clean, clear air year round.
The sub-provincial city of Qingdao has 7 districts
() and 3 county-level cities
Geographically, there are four districts (Shinan, Shibei, Licang and Laoshan) constituting a peninsula on the east coast of the Jiaozhou Bay
as the core urban area, one (Chengyang) on the north coast and one (Xihai'an) on the west coast of the Yellow Sea
* Defunct - Jiaonan
city () - merged into Huangdao District
Qingdao is located on the south facing coast of the Shandong Peninsula
(german: Schantung Halbinsel). It borders three prefecture-level cities, namely Yantai
to the northeast, Weifang
to the west, and Rizhao
to the southwest. The city occupies an area totaling , and stretches in latitude from 35° 35' to 37° 09' N and in longitude from 119° 30' to 121° 00' E. The populated sections of the city are relatively flat while mountains spur up within city limits and nearby. The highest elevation in the city is located above sea level
. Of the total area of Qingdao, 15.5% is highland, while the foothill, plain and lowland areas constitute 25.1%, 37.8% and 21.7%, respectively. The city has a -long coastline. Five significant rivers exceeding in length can be found in the region.
Qingdao has a temperate, four-season, monsoon
climate that lies in the transition between the humid subtropical
''Cwa'') and humid continental
(Köppen ''Dwa'') regimes. Winters range from cool to cold and windy, but are generally dry, with a January average of . Summer is generally hot and humid, but very hot days are rare, with an August average of . Due to its proximity to the coast and location on a peninsula, compared to most inland areas of China, its spring is delayed by one month,
and the annual diurnal temperature variation
is only ; conversely, its fall is milder than inland areas in Shandong. The water temperature peaks at about in late August. Thus, swimming is possible for two months on either side. The annual mean temperature is . Extremes since 1951 have ranged from on 16 January 1958 to on 15 July 2002.
During the summer months, the beaches of Qingdao are afflicted by massive algal bloom
s. The decomposing algae release large amounts of hydrogen sulfide
gas, which produces an offensive "rotten egg" odor. Sea lettuce
blooms, which are partially caused by seaweed farming
in Jiangsu Province, led local officials to declare a "large-scale algae disaster" in 2013.
By the end of 2006, Qingdao was estimated to be the home of about 8 million inhabitants, of which around 3 million reside in the Qingdao urban area. Another estimated 5 million live in other cities under Qingdao's jurisdiction. The annual birth rate is calculated around 76,507, with a birth rate
of 10.15 per year per thousand, and a death rate
of 6.32, both calculated on an annual basis. Living standards are among the highest of leading Chinese cities due to the strong export economy and relatively high family wages.
Qingdao is home to 38 Chinese ethnic minorities
, which account for 0.14% of the city's total population.
There is a large Korean community in Qingdao. By 2009, there were approximately 100,000 Koreans working, studying and living in Qingdao, which makes Qingdao the second in terms of Korean population in China, following Beijing which has about 200,000 Koreans.
An important region in Eastern China, Shandong Province has seen substantial change in its economic landscape in recent years. Much of this development has been concentrated in Qingdao.
Qingdao has seen rapid development. With an annual growth rate of 18.9 percent in 2006, the city's GDP reached 42.3 billion, ranking first in Shandong Province and tenth out of China's top 20 cities.
per capita comprised CN¥
52,895 (US$7,616) in 2008. The GDP has grown steadily at an average pace of 16% annually. In 2006, Qingdao was ranked one of six "golden cities" by the World Bank, out of 120 Chinese cities assessed on factors including investment climate and government effectiveness.
In 2018, Qingdao's GDP reached CN¥1200.15 billion, though it shrank a little in 2019.
Internationally, Qingdao is perhaps best known for its Tsingtao Brewery
, founded by a German-British joint venture in 1903 that produces Tsingtao beer
, the best-known Chinese export beer. It is also home to Haier
, a large white goods
manufacturer, and Hisense
, a major electronics company. In 2002 guitar manufacturers Epiphone
opened a factory in Qingdao.
In 1984 the Chinese government named a district of Qingdao a Special Economic and Technology Development Zone
(SETDZ). Along with this district, the entire city had gone through amazing development of secondary
and tertiary industries
. As an important trading port in the province, Qingdao flourishes with foreign investment and international trade. South Korea
in particular made extensive investment in the city. Approximately 80,000 South Korean citizens reside there.
In terms of primary sector industries
, Qingdao has an estimated of arable land
. Qingdao has a zigzagging pattern coastline, and thus possesses an invaluable stock of fish, shrimp
, and other sea resources.
Qingdao's wind power
electricity generation performs at among the highest levels in the region.
* Qingdao Special Economic and Technological Development Area
* Qingdao Free Trade Zone
* Qingdao High-tech Industrial Zone
* Qingdao University Industrial Zone
There are a total of of roads in the Qingdao area, with nearly of expressways. These National Trunk Highway System (NTHS)
Expressways begin or pass through in Qingdao. Expressways that begin in Qingdao are in Bold:
*G15 Shenhai Expressway
*G18 Rongwu Expressway
, Inner Mongolia
*G20 Qingyin Expressway
Spur Route: G2011 Qingxin Expressway
*G22 Qinglan Expressway
These provincial expressways begin in or pass through Qingdao. Expressways that begin in Qingdao are in Bold:
*S16 Rongwei Expressway
*S19 Longqing Expressway
*S21 Xinwei Expressway
*S24 Weiqing Expressway
Other than Expressways, there are also National Highways
that pass through or begin in Qingdao. National Highways that begin in Qingdao are in bold:
On 30 June 2011, the longest bridge over water opened in Qingdao. The bridge, Haiwan Bridge
, is long and connects Qingdao to Huangdao
and Hongdao. It would easily cross the English Channel and is almost three miles () longer than the previous record-holder, the Lake Pontchartrain Causeway in the American state of Louisiana. Haiwan Bridge is supported by more than 5,000 pillars and costs about 10 billion yuan which is about 1.5 billion dollars. The bridge was designed by the Shandong Gausu Group and the construction lasted for four years. Haiwan Bridge cut the commute between the city of Qingdao and the sprawling suburb of Huangdao by 30 minutes. At least 10,000 workers toiled in two teams around the clock to build the bridge, which was constructed from opposite ends. On the same day, the Jiaozhou Bay Tunnel
opened. The tunnel brought much convenience to people by supporting public buses and making transport between the two areas more convenient.
''Also see Port of Qingdao
Qingdao (official name: Qingdao port international co. ltd.) hosts one of the world's busiest seaport
s. Cooperative relations have been established with 450 ports in 130 countries worldwide. The port of Qingdao is part of the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road
. In 2003, the annual cargo handling capacity exceeded 100 million ton
s for the first time. The number of containers reached of cargoes.
By 2011, the port had become the world’s sixth-busiest by Total Cargo Volume, having handled of cargo in that year. As of 2016, it was the 8th in the world in terms of TEUs (Twenty Foot Equivalent Units).
The ''Orient Ferry'' connects Qingdao with Shimonoseki
, Japan. There are two ferry lines connecting Qingdao with South Korea
. The ''New Golden Bridge II'' operates between Qingdao and Incheon
, and the ''Blue Sea Ferry'' operates between Qingdao and Gunsan
Qingdao port also includes a number of large adjacent ports including Dongjiakou.
Qingdao Liuting International Airport
, located away from the city center
, is served by 13 domestic and international airline
s that operate 94 routes, 12 of which are international and regional. In 2011, Qingdao Liuting International Airport was the 16th busiest
airport in the People's Republic of China with 11,716,361 passengers. A new civil aviation airport
with much larger capacities will be built in Jiaozhou District.
Qingdao's railway development was picked up during the late 1990s. It is at the beginning of the Jiaoji Railway
. Qingdao's city proper has some major railway stations, Qingdao Station
, Sifang Station
, Cangkou Station, Great-Seaport Station, Qingdaobei Railways Station, etc.
D and G series High speed trains travel on the Jiaoji High Speed Railway and reach speeds of on the Jinan-Qingdao Section. Services go to Beijing
. T The fastest train between Qingdao and Beijing is G206 / G205 times, 2 hours and 58 minutes needed
Domestic rail lines connect Qingdao with many cities in China including Beijing
Qingdao's public traffic owns 5283 large and medium-sized buses, CNG
buses .There are also 136 trolleybus
es . All of the buses and trolleybuses can be accessed using the Qingdao Public Traffic IC Card
(), which uses radio frequencies so the card does not have to physically touch the scanner. After that, all public transportation companies use Qingdaotong Card, the last company started to use this card is Zhenqing bus company located in The West Coast New Area of Qingdao (original Huangdao Distinct) in 2019.
Non air-conditioned buses cost 1 yuan (excluding the tunnel bus), The volume of road passenger transport approaches 737 million per year. The Public Transport Brand of 'Ri-Xin Bus ()' is also known in China.
There are a number of taxi companies in Qingdao including Yiqing Company, Zhongqing Company, Jiaoyun Company and, Huaqing Company.
After getting the approval from the State Council, the government announced on 18 August 2009 that Qingdao is ready to spend more than 29 billion yuan ($4.2 billion) before 2016 on its subway construction. Construction of of subway line 3 was completed before 2016 with a total investment of 29.2 billion yuan ($4.3 billion). Metro Line 3 is the first line in function and opened on 16 December 2015. In the long term, the city plans to build eight subway lines in downtown and some suburban districts, which account for in future. As of end of May 2018, the system has an operating length of , lines in operation including Line 2
, Line 3
, Line 11
, and Line 13
The Qingdao Tram (official name: Modern tram demonstration line) of Chengyang District, Qingdao, is a tram system operating in Chengyang District, Qingdao, China. It opened in 2016. The Qingdao Public Transport Group Rail Bus Co., Ltd. is responsible for operation and management. The system is only composed of 1 bus line.
Qingdao is headquarters of the North Sea Fleet
of the People's Liberation Army Navy
There are a large number of German-style buildings in Qingdao's city center
, a remarkable fact considering the German leased-territory period only lasted 16 years (1898–1914). The unique combination of German and Chinese architecture therein, combined with German demographic roots and a large Korean expatriate population, gives Qingdao a rather distinct atmosphere. An old saying described Qingdao as a city of "red tiles green trees, blue sky and blue sea." This saying indeed gives a picture of bird view of Qingdao. A larger number of areas in former foreign styles are well preserved. Although the new city area is under large-scale reconstruction, the old city area (especially the western part of Shinan District
) still retains many traditional buildings.
*James R. Lilley
, U.S. diplomat
, (was born in Qingdao)
(, musician, actor)
(was born in Qingdao)
(, born in Qingdao)
for Qingdao Huanghai
*Malcolm H. Wiener
, (was born in Qingdao)
Movies shot in Qingdao
* A Little Red Flower
* A Better Tomorrow 2018
* The Great Wall
* Underdog Fight () 2008
* Underdog Fight II () 2013
* Ocean Heaven
* Beauty Remains () 2005
During the city's leased-territory days, German
, the official language, was rigorously taught and promoted. Since the demise of Germany's colonial empire after World War I, the German language is all but gone, leaving little impact on the local languages. A local accent known as Qingdao dialect
() distinguishes the residents of the city from those of the surrounding Shandong
province. Due to the efforts by the city government to promote standard Mandarin
, most educated people can speak standard Mandarin in addition to their native dialect. With reform policies and English teaching, some young citizens have been taught English and many can converse with English-speaking foreigners. Business and traffic signs in English are becoming more and more common.
Seafood is a typical delicacy of this coastal city. The type of seafood consumed can be divided into two categories: "Great Seafood" including sea cucumber
's fin, shrimp
, and some big fish, and "Little Seafood" comprising squid
s, razor clams, clam
s, yellow croaker
The distinctive cuisine of the area is Lu Cai
, the Shandong
Notable festivals include:
*Qingdao International Horticultural Exposition 2014
is the biggest international fair that has been held in the history of the city.
*Qingdao International Beer Festival
in August/September, held annually since 1991.
Qingdao previously had a large German community and a German garrison, so three German newspapers operated in Qingdao.
German papers included ''Deutsch-Asiatische Warte
weekly newspaper published until 1906, included ''Die Welt des Ostens, Altes und Neues aus Asiens drei Kaiserreichen'', a cultural supplement),
[ the ''Tsingtauer Neueste Nachrichten'' and the ''Kiautschou Post'' (a daily paper published from 1908 to 1912, referring to the Kiautschou (Jiaozhou) Bay concession). German publishing in Qingdao ended after World War I and the beginning of the Japanese administration.] [
A 1912 publication of the United States Department of Commerce, Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce said that the ''Tageblatt für Nordchina'' of Tianjin was read in Qingdao, and that major newspapers from Shanghai were also read in Qingdao.
Qingdao attracts many tourists due to its seaside setting and temperate weather. Parks, beaches, sculptures and unique German and modern architecture line the shore. Its centrally located tourist information center, the "Qingdao Information Center for International Visitors for International Visitors," is located on Middle Hong Kong Road ().
Qingdao's major attractions include:
Western Shinan district
*Zhan Qiao (Pier, )
*Little Qingdao Isle ()
*Tian Hou Temple (), Qingdao Folk Museum
*Badaguan (), the older area of town with some surviving German and Japanese architecture.
*Lu Xun Park, named after Lu Xun, modern Chinese writer and critic, who lived and taught in the 1930s.
*Zhongshan Park, named after the style name 'Zhongshan' of Sun Yat-sen, a famous modern Chinese politician.
*Xiao Yu Shan ()
*The twin-spired St. Michael's Cathedral (; ), a notable example of Qingdao's famous Neo-romanesque architecture, designed by German architect Alfred Fräbel, completed in 1934.
*Qingdao Aquarium ()
*Jiaozhou Governor's Hall (), office building of former German governors (''Gouverneurspalast'') and former municipal government
*Xinhao Hill ()
Eastern Shinan district
*May Fourth Square (''Platz des vierten Mai''), Coastal plaza with the Wind of May sculpture
*Tsingtao Brewery (''Tsingtao-Brauerei''), founded by Germany and the most exported beer from China.
*Zhanshan Temple (''Dschanschan-Tempel''), Qingdao's oldest Buddhist temple.
*Lao Shan (Mount Lao, Lauschan, ), east of Qingdao, the most famous Taoist mountain with Taoist retreat – Great Purity Palace ().
Other districts of Qingdao
*Jiaozhou Governor's Hall (''Gouverneurspalast''), former seat of the present and previous two governments.
Qingdao is home to a large number of higher education institutions. Ocean University of China, formerly called Ocean University of Qingdao, is the most important university of maritime sciences in China. In addition, the Qingdao University, the Qingdao University of Science and Technology as well as the Qingdao Technological University have also been integral parts of higher education in Qingdao for decades. Shandong University Qingdao (SDUQ) established since 2016, belonging to Shandong University System. Other institutions include:
* China University of Petroleum, completed its relocation from Dongying to Qingdao in 2012
* Shandong University of Science and Technology, main campus is based in Qingdao since 2003
* Qingdao Agricultural University, main campus is based in Qingdao since 2007
* Qingdao Technical College
* Qingdao Binhai University, located at Huangdao.
Shandong University was located in Qingdao from 1909 to 1936. A new branch campus of the university is under construction in Aoshanwei Town, Jimo.
Korean International School of Qingdao
* Malvern College Qingdao
* Pegasus California School, Qingdao
*International School of Qingdao
* Qingdao Amerasia International School
* Qingdao No.1 International School
* Qingdao Oxford International College
* Yew Chung International School of Qingdao
* Belt&Road Collaborative Innovation College (BRCIC)
* Qingdao No. 2 High School
* Qingdao No. 58 School
* Qingdao No. 1 High School
* Qingdao No. 9 High School
* Qingdao No. 15 High School
* Qingdao No. 19 High School
*and so on
Qingdao has long been a hub of professional sports in the People's Republic of China.
*Guoxin Gymnasium (Qingdao city sports center)
*Yizhong Sports Center
*Qingdao Tiantai Stadium
2008 Olympic Summer Games
During the 2008 Summer Olympics, Qingdao and Beijing cohosted the Olympic Sailing competitions. In Qingdao, the events took place along the shoreline by the city. These events were hosted at the Qingdao International Sailing Centre and held in Fushan Bay, near the city's central business district. An international broadcasting center and purpose-built hotel were constructed for the Games.
Qingdao Clipper is a professional arena football team which is a member of the China Arena Football League.
Qingdao DoubleStar Eagles is a Chinese professional basketball team which plays in the North Division of the Chinese Basketball Association.
Qingdao Renzhou Badminton Club is a Chinese badminton club which plays in the China Badminton Super League.
The IndyCar Series signed a contract with the Qingdao city council to hold an IndyCar race in Qingdao in 2012. The subsequently canceled race was supposed to take place on a street circuit
Due to the city's position as a training center for dozens of prominent players such as Qu Bo, Zheng Long, Yu Dabao, Liu Jian and Jiang Ning, Qingdao is recognized as one of China's "soccer cities." However, due to lack of investment, the city's potential for training future stars has been reduced.
Qingdao Jonoon F.C. was founded in 1993, and is one of the founding members of the Chinese professional soccer league's second division. They won the championship in their first season in 1994 and were promoted to the Chinese Jia-A League. In 1995, they finished 11th (out of a total 12 teams) and were relegated from the top league. Only one year later, after finishing as runner-up in the second-division, they returned to the top league. They have been part of Chinese Super League from its inauguration in 2004. In 2013, they were relegated to the China League One and in 2016 relegated to the China League Two.
Qingdao Huanghai F.C. was established on 29 January 2013. In their first season in the Chinese Football Association Division Two League, they finished the first in league and got to the China League One. Up to 13 June 2016, they had been on the first and had a great chance to get into the Super League after the season. Fans in China called them "Chinese Barcelona" due to their usage of red and blue as club colors.
Due to its temperate climate, Qingdao is one of the few cities in northern China where surfing is possible. The best surfing season is during the typhoon season (June–October). The south oriented beaches of Qingdao are the most appropriate to receive swells. Shinan and Laoshan districts are reported to have the best wave and wind orientation.
Qingdao has 25 sister cities.
*List of twin towns and sister cities in China
* Gottschall, Terrell D. ''By Order of the Kaiser: Otto von Diederichs and the Rise of the Imperial German Navy 1865–1902''. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press. 2003.
* Schultz-Naumann, Joachim. ''Unter Kaisers Flagge: Deutschlands Schutzgebiete im Pazifik und in China einst und heute'' nder the Kaiser’s Flag, Germany’s Protectorates in the Pacific and in China then and today Munich: Universitas Verlag. 1985.
* ''Miscellaneous series, Issues 7–11''. United States Department of Commerce, Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, 1912.
* Walravens, Hartmut. "German Influence on the Press in China". In: ''Newspapers in International Librarianship: Papers Presented by the Newspaper Section at IFLA General Conferences''. Walter de Gruyter, 1 January 2003. , .
Also available at
the website of the Queens Library – This version does not include the footnotes visible in the Walter de Gruyter version.
** Also available in Walravens, Hartmut and Edmund King. ''Newspapers in international librarianship: papers presented by the newspapers section at IFLA General Conferences''. K.G. Saur, 2003. , .
Qingdao Government website
Category:Populated coastal places in China
Category:Port cities and towns in China