V K Prasanth[2]

(CPI(M))  • Deputy Mayor Rakhi Ravikumar  • Police chief Commissioner Lokhnath behra IPS[3]  • Member of Parliament Shashi Tharoor Area[4]  • Metropolis 214 km2 (83 sq mi)  • Metro 400 km2 (200 sq mi) Area rank 1st Elevation 10 m (30 ft) Population (2011)[4][5]  • Metropolis 957,730  • Density 4,500/km2 (12,000/sq mi)  • Metro 1,687,406 Demonym(s) Trivians Languages  • Official Language Malayalam, English[6] Time zone IST (UTC+5:30) Postal Index Number 695 XXX Area code(s) 0471 Vehicle registration HDI High Climate Am/Aw (Köppen) Website www.corporationoftrivandrum.in

Thiruvananthapuram (IPA: [t̪iruʋənən̪t̪əpurəm] (About this sound listen)), also known as Trivandrum, is the capital and the largest city of the Indian state of Kerala.[7] The city has a population of 957,730 inhabitants and a metropolitan population of 1.68 million.[8] Thiruvananthapuram is a major Information Technology hub in India, and contributes 55% of Kerala's software exports as of 2015.[9] Thiruvananthapuram is located on the west coast of India near the extreme south of the mainland. Referred by Mahatma Gandhi as the "Evergreen city of India",[10][1] the city is characterised by its undulating terrain of low coastal hills.[11] The city is classified as a Tier-II city by the government of India.[12]

Thiruvananthapuram is a major academic hub, and is home to the University of Kerala, Kerala Technological University the regional headquarters of Indira Gandhi National Open University, and many other schools and colleges. Thiruvananthapuram is also home to research centers such as the Indian Space Research Organisation's Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre, the Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology, and a campus of the Indian Institutes of Science Education and Research.[13] The city is home to media institutions like Toonz India Ltd and Tata Elxsi Ltd, and is also home to Chitranjali Film Studio, one of the first film studios in Malayalam Cinema, and Kinfra Film and Video Park at Kazhakoottom, which is India's first Infotainment Industrial park.[14]

Being India's largest city in the deep south, it is strategically prominent and hosts the Southern Air Command headquarters of the Indian Air Force, the Thumba Equatorial Rocket Launching Station and the upcoming Vizhinjam International Deepwater Motherport. Thiruvananthapuram is a major tourist centre, known for the Padmanabhaswamy Temple, the beaches of Kovalam and Varkala, the backwaters of Poovar and Anchuthengu and its Western Ghats tracts of Ponmudi and the Agastyamala.

The city is ranked among the best cities to live in India.[15][16][17] The city is selected as the best governed city in India in the survey conducted by Janaagraha Centre for citizenship and democracy.[18]


The city gets its name from the Malayalam/Tamil word thiru-anantha-puram IPA: [t̪iruʋənən̪t̪əpurəm] (About this sound listen), meaning "The City of Lord Ananta",[19] referring to the deity of the Sri Padmanabhaswamy Temple located in the city. Thiruvananthapuram is also known in literature and popular reference as Ananthapuri derived from the Sanskrit word Syanandurapuram, meaning "The City of Bliss" in Carnatic kirtanas composed by Swathi Thirunal, erstwhile Maharaja of Travancore.[20] The city was officially referred to as Trivandrum until 1991, (Trivandrum bieng the anglicised name of the town) when the government decided to reinstate the city's original name Thiruvananthapuram.[21]


Painting by Raja Ravi Varma depicting Richard Temple-Grenville, 3rd Duke of Buckingham and Chandos being greeted by Visakham Thirunal, with Ayilyam Thirunal of Travancore looking on, during Buckingham's visit to Thiruvananthapuram in early 1880

Thiruvananthapuram is an ancient region with trading traditions dating back to 1000 BCE.[22][23] It is believed that the ships of King Solomon landed in a port called Ophir (now Poovar) in Thiruvananthapuram in 1036 BCE.[24][25] The city was the trading post of spices, sandalwood and ivory.[26] However, the ancient political and cultural history of the city was almost entirely independent from that of the rest of Kerala. The early rulers of the city were the Ays. With their fall in the 10th century, the city was taken over by the rulers of Venad.[27][28]

In the late 17th century, Marthanda Varma who inherited the Kingdom of Venad expanded the kingdom by conquering kingdoms of Attingal, Kollam, Kayamkulam, Kottarakara, Kottayam, Changanassery, Meenachil, Poonjar and Ambalapuzha. In 1729, Marthanda Varma founded the princely state of Thiruvithamkoor and Thiruvananthapuram was made the capital in 1745 after shifting the capital from Padmanabhapuram in Kanyakumari district.[29] The kingdom of Travancore was dedicated by Marthanda Varma to the deity Sri. Padmanabha (Lord Vishnu). The rulers of Travancore ruled the kingdom as the servants of Sri. Padmanabha.[30]

The city developed into a major intellectual and artistic centre during this period. The golden age in the city's history was during the mid 19th century under the reign of Maharaja Swathi Thirunal and Maharaja Ayilyam Thirunal. This era saw the establishment of the first English school (1834), the Observatory (1837), the General Hospital (1839), the Oriental Research Institute & Manuscripts Library and the University College (1873). The first mental hospital in the state was started during the same period. Sanskrit College, Ayurveda College, Law College and a second grade college for women were started by Moolam Thirunal (1885–1924).[31]

The early 20th century was an age of tremendous political and social changes in the city. The Sree Moolam Assembly, established in 1904, was the first democratically elected legislative council in any Indian state.[32] Despite not being under direct control of the British Empire at any time, the city featured prominently in India's freedom struggle. The Indian National Congress had a very active presence in Thiruvananthapuram. A meeting of the Indian National Congress presided by Dr. Pattabhi Sitaramaiah was held here in 1938.

Kowdiar Palace built in 1915 was the official residence of the Travancore Royal Family.[33]

The Thiruvananthapuram Municipality came into existence in 1920. The municipality was converted into a Corporation on 30 October 1940, during the period of Chitra Thirunal Bala Rama Varma, who took over in 1931.[34] The city witnessed many-sided progress during his period. The promulgation of "Temple Entry Proclamation" (1936) was an act that underlined social emancipation. This era also saw the establishment of the University of Travancore in 1937, which later became Kerala University.[35]

With the end of the British rule in 1947, Travancore chose to join the Indian union. The first popular ministry headed by Pattom Thanu Pillai was installed in office on 24 March 1948. In 1949, Thiruvananthapuram became the capital of Thiru-Kochi, the state formed by the integration of Travancore with its northern neighbour Kochi.[36] The king of Travancore, Chitra Thirunal Bala Rama Varma, became the Rajpramukh of the Travancore-Cochin Union from 1 July 1949 until 31 October 1956. When the state of Kerala was formed on 1 November 1956, Thiruvananthapuram became its capital.[37]

With the establishment of Thumba Equatorial Rocket Launching Station (TERLS) in 1962, Thiruvananthapuram became the cradle of India's ambitious space programme. The first Indian space rocket was developed and launched from the Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre (VSSC) in the outskirts of the city in 1963. Several establishments of the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) were later established in Thiruvananthapuram.[38]

A major milestone in the city's recent history was the establishment of Technopark—India's first IT park—in 1995.[39] Technopark has developed into the largest IT park in India in geographical area,[40] employing around 40,000 people in 300 companies.[41]

Geography and climate


View of Pattom, the north eastern part of the city. The Western Ghats mountain range is seen in the background

Thiruvananthapuram is built on seven hills[42] by the sea shore and is located at 8°30′N 76°54′E / 8.5°N 76.9°E / 8.5; 76.9 on the west coast, near the southern tip of mainland India.[43] The city situated on the west coast of India, and is bounded by Laccadive Sea to its west and the Western Ghats to its east. The average elevation of the city is 16 ft (4.9 m) above sea level.[44] The Geological Survey of India has identified Thiruvananthapuram as a moderately earthquake-prone urban centre and categorised the city in the Seismic III Zone.[45] Thiruvananthapuram lies on the shores of Karamana and Killi rivers. Vellayani, Thiruvallam and Aakulam backwaters lies in the city.[46] The Soil type in the middle part of the city is dark brown loamy laterite soil high in phosphates. Laterisation is a result of the heavy rainfall and humid conditions. On western coastal regions of the city, sandy loam soil is found and on eastern hilly parts of the district, rich dark brown loam of granite origin is found.[47]

The Thiruvananthapuram Corporation is spread over 214.86 km2 (82.96 sq mi).[48] The wider Thiruvananthapuram metropolitan area comprises Thiruvananthapuram corporation, 3 municipalities and 27 panchayats, as of 2011.[49] Being the largest city in India's southern tip region, it is important for both military logistics and civil aviation in the southern part of the country. Thiruvananthapuram is the headquarters of the Southern Air Command (SAC) of the Indian Air Force.[50]


The city has a climate that borders between a tropical savanna climate and a tropical monsoon climate. As a result, it does not experience distinct seasons. The mean maximum temperature 34 °C and the mean minimum temperature is 21 °C. The humidity is high and rises to about 90% during the monsoon season.[51] Thiruvananthapuram is the first city along the path of the south-west monsoons and gets its first showers in early June. The city gets heavy rainfall of around 1700 mm per year. The city also gets rain from the receding north-east monsoons which hit the city by October. The dry season sets in by December. December, January and February are the coolest months while March, April and May are the hottest. The lowest temperature in the city core recorded during winter was 16.4 °C on, and the highest temperature recorded in summer is 38.0 °C.[52]

Climate data for Thiruvananthapuram City (1971–2000)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 35.5
Average high °C (°F) 32.0
Average low °C (°F) 22.1
Record low °C (°F) 16.4
Average precipitation mm (inches) 15.9
Average precipitation days 1.0 1.7 2.3 6.5 9.7 16.6 13.4 10.3 8.7 11.7 9.2 4.2 95.4
Average relative humidity (%) 69 70 72 77 79 85 84 83 82 83 82 74 78
Mean monthly sunshine hours 262.8 242.3 250.7 214.0 197.3 133.5 149.7 166.6 173.4 170.8 166.3 216.6 2,344
Source #1: India Meteorological Department (record high and low up to 2010)[52][53]
Source #2: NOAA (sun and humidity, 1971–1990)[54]


Others include Sikhism, Buddhism & Other religions (0.06%)
Religion in Thiruvananthapuram [55]
Religion Percent
Not Stated

According to provisional results of the 2011 national census, Corporation of Thiruananthapuram, which occupies an area of 214 km2 (83 sq mi), had a population of 957,730;[4] its population density was 4,454/km2 (11,540/sq mi).[4] The Urban Agglomeration had a population of 1,687,406 in 2011.[5] The sex ratio is 1,040 females for every 1,000 males, which is higher than the national average.[4] Thiruvananthapuram's literacy rate of 93.72%[56] exceeds the all-India average of 74%.[57]

Malayalees form the majority of Thiruvananthapuram's population. Among Thiruvananthapuram's smaller communities are Tamils, Punjabis and Russians.[58][59] According to the 2011 census, 68.5% of the population is Hindu, 16.7% Christian and 13.7% Muslims.[60] The remainder of the population includes Jains, Jews, Sikhs, Buddhists and other religions which accounts for 0.06% of the population; 0.85% did not state a religion in the census.[60]

Malayalam, the official state language, is the dominant language in Thiruvananthapuram. English is also used, particularly by the white-collar workforce. Tamil and Hindi are spoken by a sizeable minority. The city also has a few Tulu, Kannada, Konkani, Dhivehi, Telugu, and Urdu speakers. As per 2001 census, the population below the poverty line in the city was 11,667.[61]

Thiruvananthapuram has witnessed massive migrations of workers from the North of India, mainly West Bengal, Bihar, Punjab, Haryana, Madhya Pradesh, etc. and from the neighbouring countries like Sri Lanka, Maldives, Nepal and Bangladesh.[62]


The Corporation of Thiruvananthapuram or TMC oversees and manages the civic infrastructure of the city's 100 wards.[63] Each ward elects a councillor to the Corporation of Thiruvananthapuram. TMC has the power to act as the local government of the city.[64] TMC is headed by the Mayor, who is elected from among the councilors. The Mayor is responsible for the overall, supervision and control of the administrative functions of the TMC. The corporation discharges its functions through the standing committees.[64] The corporation secretary is an officer appointed by the government, who serve as the administrative head administrative head of the TMC and implements the Council decisions based on the resolutions adopted by the council. The functions of the Municipal Corporation are managed by seven departments—engineering, health, general administration, council, accounts and revenue.[65] For decentralized function of TMC, eleven Zonal Offices are created. The zonal offices are in Fort, Kadakampally, Nemom, Ulloor, Attipra, Thiruvallom, Kazhakkuttom, Sreekaryam, Kudappanakunnu, Vattiyoorkavu and Vizhinjam.[66] The functions of the TMC include water supply, drainage and sewerage, sanitation, solid waste management, and building regulation.The Thiruvananthapuram Development Authority, is responsible for the statutory planning and development of greater Thiruvananthapuram region.[67]

As the seat of the Government of Kerala, Thiruvananthapuram is home to not only the offices of the local governing agencies, but also the Kerala Legislative Assembly; and the state secretariat, which is housed in the Kerala Government Secretariat complex. Thiruvananthapuram has two parliamentary constituencies—Attingal and Thiruvananthapuram—and elects 5 Members of the Legislative Assembly (MLAs) to the state legislature.[68]

The Kerala Government Secretariat is the seat of administration of the Government of Kerala

Law and order

The Thiruvananthapuram City Police is the main law enforcement agency in the city. It is headed by a commissioner of police.[69] The Thiruvananthapuram city police is a division of the Kerala Police, and the administrative control lies with the Kerala Home Ministry. Thiruvananthapuram city police is the largest police division in Kerala and it consists of 10 Circle Offices and 21 Police Stations and a sanctioned strength of 3500 police personnel.[70] The Central Prison is the oldest prison in Kerala and the headquarters of Kerala prisons and correctional services.[71]

Military and diplomatic establishments

Southern Air Command of the Indian Air Force is headquartered in the city.[72][73] There are two state armed police battalions and a unit of the Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF) based in Thiruvananthapuram.[74] The CRPF has a Group Head Quarters (GHQ) located at Pallipuram.[75] There is also a large army cantonment in Pangode which houses some regiments of the Indian Army.[76] Consulate of United Arab Emirates[77], Consulate of Maldives[78] and Honorary Consulate of Sri Lanka, Russia and Germany function in the city.[79][80]

Utility services

The Kerala Water Authority supplies the city with water that is sourced from the Karamana River;[81] most of it drawn from Aruvikkara and Peppara reservoirs and is treated and purified at the Aruvikkara pumping stations.[82] The Wellington Water Works, commissioned in 1933 is one of the oldest city water supply scheme in India.[83] The sewage water is treated at Muttathara sewage treatment plant, which handles 32 million liters per day.[84][85] The city area is divided into seven blocks for the execution of the sewage system.[86] Electricity is supplied by the Kerala State Electricity Board.[87] Fire services are handled by the Kerala Fire And Rescue Services.[88]


View of Technovalley, in the north western part of the city at night.
View of Technovalley, in the north western part of the city at night.
A part of Infosys campus. Thiruvananthapuram is a major IT Hub in India.

Thiruvananthapuram's economy comprises Information Technology, education, plantations, aerospace, commercial and tourism related activities.[89] Thiruvananthapuram district contributes 10.31%, of the state's GDP.[90] With an economic growth of 13.83%, Thiruvananthapuram is the fastest-growing district in Kerala.[90] Thiruvananthapuram was listed as one of the top 10 cities in India on Vibrancy and Consumption Index by a study conducted by global financial services firm Morgan Stanley.[91] State and central government employees make up a large percentage of the city's workforce.[90]

A building in Technopark

Thiruvananthapuram is a major aerospace reserch center in India. The Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre, the biggest and lead centre of ISRO[92], and several space-related state owned ISRO centers such as Thumba Equatorial Rocket Launching Station, Liquid Propulsion Systems Centre, and ISRO Inertial Systems Unit are all based in Thiruvananthapuram.[93] The BrahMos Aerospace Trivandrum Limited is one of the leading missile integration and defence production units in India.[94] The city's other major industries include Travancore Titanium Products, Kerala Automobiles Limited, MILMA, English Indian Clays, Keltron, Trivandrum Rubber Works and HLL Lifecare Limited.

Thiruvananthapuram is a major IT and ITES hub in India. The city contributes around 55% of Kerala's total software exports.[90][95] Trivandrum houses major information technology (IT) giants like Oracle Corporation, Allianz Tata Consultancy Services, Infosys, Toonz Animation India, UST Global, Ernst & Young, Flytxt, Navigant, Tata Elxsi, McKinsey & Company and Quest Global.[96] Technopark is the largest information technology park India in terms of built up area.[97] It is the largest employment base campus in Kerala with 52,000 IT/ITES professionals and about 400 companies.[90][96] Other IT, media and industrial campuses include Kinfra Film and Video Park, Kinfra Apparel Park and Chithranjali Film Complex.[98][99] Several new IT, biotechnology and Industrial campuses like Technocity and Bio 360 Life sciences park are under construction.[100][101]

Tourism is also a major contributor to the economy of Thiruvananthapuram.[102][103][104] The presence of natural attractions like beaches, backwaters, hills, plantations and attractions like heritage, history, ayurveda, medical tourism and knowledge centres attract large number of tourists to the city.[105] The city seen a remarkably high surge of investments in the real estate, infrastructure and retail sectors in 2016-17.[106]

Port related activity is low mainly due to the underdevelopment of ports. Vizhinjam International Seaport is a transshipment port currently under construction.[107] Vizhinjam port's location is close to the international shipping routes and it is just 10-12 nautical miles from the busy Persian Gulf-Malacca shipping lane.[108] The port also has a natural depth of 18 to 20 metres which can allow handling very large container ships.[109] The berths at Vizhinjam port are designed to cater to vessels of up to 24,000 TEU.[110]


Harvesting lotus leaves from Vellayani Lake.

Thiruvananthapuram is a major tourist hub in India.[103] Kovalam and Varkala are popular beach towns located near the city. Other important beaches include Poovar, Shankumugham Beach, Azhimala Beach, Vizhinjam Beach and Veli Beach. The Padmanabhaswamy Temple is one of the richest temples in the world.[111] Other places of interest include Agasthyamala rain forests, Neyyar Wildlife Sanctuary, Kallar, Braemore, Ponmudi hills, Poovar, Anchuthengu backwaters, Varkala Cliffs and Kappil-Edava lakes. The city is also known for its unique style of architecture involving Kerala Architecture with British and Dravidian influences.[112] Napier museum, Zoo, Padmanabha Swamy temple, Kuthira Malika palace and Kilimanoor palace are examples for this.

The main museums include, Kerala Science and Technology Museum, Napier Museum, Kerala Soil Museum and Koyikkal Palace Museum. Agasthyamala Biosphere Reserve is listed in UNESCO's World Network of Biosphere Reserves.[113]


Established in 1855, the Napier Museum contains a vast collection of Ancient paintings and archaeological artifacts
Attukal Pongala festival marks the world's largest gathering of women

Thiruvananthapuram is known as the "Evergreen City of India" because of its green landscapes and the presence of many public parks.[1][114] Thiruvananthapuram has historically been a cultural hub in South India due to the active interest of the rulers of erstwhile Travancore in the development of arts, architecture and liberal customs. As a testimony to this, renowned artists like Maharaja Swathi Thirunal and Raja Ravi Varma hail from the city.[115][116] Prominent social reformers such as Sri Narayana Guru, Chattampi Swamikal, Ayyankali, Vakkom Moulavi and C. V. Raman Pillai also are from Thiruvananthapuram.[117]

Two of the three Malayalam triumvirate poets, Ulloor S. Parameswara Iyer and Kumaran Asan are from Thiruvananthapuram.[118][119] Annual literature festivals like the Kovalam Literary Festival, are held in the city.[120] Literary development is further aided by state institutions such as the State Central Library, one of the oldest public library in India, which was established in 1829,[121] and other major libraries including the Thiruvananthapuram Corporation Central library, and the Kerala University Library.[122] Thiruvananthapuram has been a hub of classical music, since the days of Maharaja of Travancore, Swathi Thirunal.[123][124] Thiruvananthapuram is known for many music festivals like the Navarathri Music Festival, one of the oldest festival of its kind in South India, [123] Swathi Sangeethotsavam, Soorya Music fest, Neelakanta Sivan Music Fest and many other music festivals are organised by various cultural groups.[123] The 111 day long Soorya Festival is the biggest art and cultural event in Kerala.[125][126] The Soorya Festival features various art forms and events, including film festivals, theater festivals, dance, music, painting and photography exhibitions.[125]

16th IFFK 2011 banner at Kairali Theater Complex

The Malayalam film Industry was started in Thiruvananthapuram. The first Malayalam feature film, Vigathakumaran directed by J. C. Daniel was released in Thiruvananthapuram.[127] J. C. Daniel is considered as the father of Malayalam film industry. He also established the first film studio of Kerala, the Travancore National Pictures at Thiruvananthapuram in 1926.[128][129] The International Film Festival of Kerala (IFFK), which is held every year on December is one of Asia’s largest film festival in terms of viewer participation.[130][131] In addition to various film festivals, the presence of film certification body like the Central Board of Film Certification's regional office, many movie studios and production facilities like the Uma Studio, Chitranjali Studio, Merryland Studio, Kinfra Film and Video Park and Vismayas Max contributed to the growth of Thiruvananthapuram as a centre of cinema.[132][133]

Apart from the famous Padmanabhaswamy Temple, the city's architecture is championed by the Napier Museum and Thiruvananthapuram Zoo, one of the oldest zoo's in India.[134] Other architecture landmarks include Kuthira Malika Palace, Kowdiar Palace, Attukal temple, Beemapally Mosque, Connemara Market, and the Mateer Memorial Church. Thiruvananthapuram was the main centre of Laurie Baker's architecture.[135]

Along with the major festivals of Onam, Vishu, Navarathri, Christian and Islamic festivals like Christmas, Eid ul-Fitr and Milad-e-sherif, the diverse ethnic populace of the city celebrates several local festivals like Attukal Pongala[136], Beemapally Uroos[137], Vettukaad Church Festival[138], Padmanabhaswamy Temple Aaraattu and Lakshadeepam festival.[139] During Onam festival, the state government conducts several cultural events for a week in the city.[140] The Attukal Pongala festival attracts millions women devotees across India and abroad. It is the largest gathering of women in the world.[141][142] International multicultural festivals are organised in the city by Germany's Goethe Zentrum, France's Alliance Francaise and Russia's Gorky Bhavan centres by hosting a wide range of events and programmes throughout the year.[143][144][145]

The general cuisine of the people is Keralite cuisine, which is generally characterised by an abundance of coconut and spices. Other South Indian cuisines, as well as Chinese and North Indian cuisines are popular.[146] Being an important tourist destination, Thiruvananthapuram have a number of restaurants that offer international cuisine, like Arabic, Thai, Mexican etc.[147][148]


A KSRTC bus in the city
Kowdiar road; also known as the royal road or "Raja Veedhi", as it leads to the Kowdiar Palace
Another road in the city
Thiruvananthapuram Central Railway Station is the busiest railway station in Kerala
Thiruvananthapuram International Airport

Public transport

The majority of bus services are conducted by Government operators. There are also private operators.[149] The city buses operated by Kerala State Road Transport Corporation (KSRTC) are an important and reliable means of public transport available in the city. The main bus stations in the city are the Central Bus Station in Thampanoor, where most of the long distance buses ply from, and city bus station in East Fort, where most city buses ply from.[150][151] Three-wheeled, yellow and black auto-rickshaws and taxis, are other popular forms of public transport.[152][153] Thiruvananthapuram Light Metro is a fully elevated metro rail - rapid transit system planned to ease the congestion in the city.[154][155]


Thiruvananthapuram has a well-developed road transport infrastructure.[154] The roads in the city are maintained by the Trivandrum Roads Development Company Limited (TRDCL) and Kerala PWD.[156] TRDCL manages the 42 KM city roads which come under the Thiruvananthapuram City Roads Improvement Project (TRCIP), which is the first urban road project in India.[157][158] TRCIP is a Public–private partnership project to improve and maintain the existing road network in the city to cater for the needs of rapid urbanization.[157] TRCIP has won the International Road Federation's Global Road Achievement Awards in 2015.[159] TCRIP has also been selected by United Nations as a replicable Public Private Partnership model.[160] It was one of the 12 Public–private partnership project case studies from across the world which fulfill the Sustainable Development Goals of the UN Agenda 2030.[161][162]

Thiruvananthapuram is served by National Highway 66 of India's National Highways system.[163] The city is connected to the North-South Corridor of the National Highway system at Aralvaimozhi, which is 80KM south of the city.[164] The State Highway 1, which commonly known as the Main Central Road is an arterial highway in the city. Other major highways in the city are State Highway 2 and State Highway 45.[165] The Mahatma Gandhi road is the main arterial road in the city.[166][167] Another important road is the Kowdiar road which is also known as the royal road, as it leads to the Kowdiar Palace.[168]


Thiruvananthapuram is a divisional headquarters in the Southern Railway zone of the Indian Railways.[169] Long-distance trains originate from Thiruvananthapuram Central and Kochuveli railway terminal. Kochuveli railway terminal is developed to ease congestion on central station and it act as satellite station to Thiruvananthapuram Central.[170] Thiruvananthapuram Central is the busiest railway station In Kerala.[171] Other railway station in the city are Thiruvananthapuram Pettah, Nemom railway station, Veli railway station and Kazhakoottam railway station. Being the southernmost municipal corporation in India, many longest train services of Indian Railways originate from Thiruvananthapuram like Thiruvananthapuram - Silchar Superfast Express and Kochuveli - Amritsar Weekly Express. There are plans to develop a railway terminal at Nemom railway station to reduce congestion at Thiruvananthapuram Central.[172]


Thiruvananthapuram is served by the Thiruvananthapuram International Airport, located at Chakai, only about 6.7 kilometres (4.2 mi) from the city centre. The airport started operations from 1935 and is the first airport in Kerala.[173] Being one of the gateways to the state, it has direct connectivity to all the major cities in India as well as Middle East, Malaysia, Singapore, Maldives and Sri Lanka. As the city is headquarters of the Southern Air Command (SAC) of the Indian Air Force, Thiruvananthapuram International Airport caters to the Indian Air Force (IAF) and the Coast Guard for their strategic operations.[174] IAF have an exclusive apron to handle all their operations. Trivandrum airport also caters to the Rajiv Gandhi Academy for Aviation Technology which carries out pilot training activities.[175]


Small cruise ships often dock the Vizhinjam Harbour.[176] A cruise terminal is under construction at Vizhinjam Transshipment Terminal.[177][178] Vizhinjam seaport has been designated by the government as an authorized immigration check-post for entry and exit from India for international ships and cruises.[179]


Model School Trivandrum, founded in 1885 is one of the oldest schools in Kerala.[180]
Clock Tower at the University of Kerala
Main gate of Medical college
The Oriental Research Institute & Manuscripts Library is situated in the Kariavattom Campus of University of Kerala

Primary and secondary education

Schools in Thiruvananthapuram are classified as aided, unaided and Government schools.[181][182] The government schools are run directly by the Kerala State Education Board and follow the syllabus prescribed by the state government.[183] The aided schools also follow the state syllabus. Malayalam and English are the primary languages of instruction; Tamil and Hindi are also used.[183] The schools are affiliated with The State Council of Educational Research and Training (SCERT), Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE), Indian Certificate of Secondary Education (ICSE), International General Certificate of Secondary Education (IGCSE) and National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS). In the National Achievement Survey conducted by National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT), Thiruvananthapuram is ranked as best in Kerala.[184][185]

The notable schools in the city include St. Mary's Higher Secondary School, which is considered as one of the largest schools in Asia, with the total number of students exceeding 12,000,[186][187] Government Model Boys Higher Secondary School, Government Higher Secondary School for Girls, SMV School, Trivandrum International School, Chinmaya Vidyalayas, Kendriya Vidyalayas, Loyola School, Christ Nagar School, Sarvodaya Vidyalaya, Nirmala Bhavan Higher Secondary School, Arya Central School, Jyothi Nilayam School, St. Joseph's Higher Secondary School, St. Thomas Residential School, The Oxford School and VSSC Central School.[188]

Higher education and research

Thiruvananthapuram is a major educational and research hub with various institutions in the fields of space science, information technology, physical science, bio-technology, engineering and medicine. There are 3 universities in Thiruvananthapuram : two state universities and one deemed university. The state universities are the University of Kerala and APJ Abdul Kalam Technological University. Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology (IIST), is a government-aided institute and deemed university.[189] IIST is the first of its kind in the country, to offer graduate courses and research in space sciences, space technology and space applications.[190] The city also houses two Institutes of National Importance; Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology (SCTIMST) and Indian Institute of Science Education and Research (IISER).[191] Thiruvananthapuram is one of the regional headquarters of Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU).[192]

The city houses several prominent legal education institutions. The Government Law College, formed in 1875, is one of the oldest legal education institutions in India.[193] The Kerala Law Academy is another major legal education institution.[194] The major Business schools include Asian School of Business, CET School of Management and Institute of Management in Kerala (IMK).[195][196][197] There are over 23 engineering education institutions in Thiruvanathapuram.[198] Apart from IIST and IISER, the other major engineering education institutions includes, College of Engineering, Trivandrum (CET), which is the first engineering college in Kerala,[199] Sree Chitra Thirunal College of Engineering (SCT), ER & DCI Institute of Technology, University College of Engineering, Government Engineering College (GEC) and Mar Baselios College of Engineering and Technology.[198] The University College Thiruvananthapuram established in 1866 and H.H. The Maharaja’s College for Women established in 1864 are two of the oldest institutions of higher education in India.[200][201]

Other prominent undergraduate and postgraduate colleges include the Government Arts College, Mahatma Gandhi College, Mar Ivanios College, Government Sanskrit College, Loyola College of Social Sciences, St. Xavier's College and All Saints College.[202] Major fine arts colleges are Swathi Thirunal College of Music, which is the first music academy in Kerala.[203] and College of Fine Arts Trivandrum.[204] The Government Medical College, Thiruvananthapuram is the first and a major medical school in Kerala.[205] Other major medical schools apart from SCTIMST includes, SUT Academy of Medical Sciences, Sree Gokulam Medical College and Government Ayurveda College.[206] The Lakshmibai National College of Physical Education is one of the two physical education academic institutes of the Sports Authority of India (SAI).[207]

The premier research institutes in Thiruvananthapuram includes, Indian Institute of Information Technology and Management, Kerala (IIITMK),[208] National Institute of Speech and Hearing (NISH),[209] Rajiv Gandhi Centre for Biotechnology,[210] Centre for Development of Imaging Technology (C-Dit),[211] Centre for Development Studies (CDS),[212] Jawaharlal Nehru Tropical Botanic Garden and Research Institute[213], National Centre for Earth Science Studies (NCESS),[214] Centre for Development of Advanced Computing (C-DAC)[215] and Oriental Research Institute & Manuscripts Library.[216]


Thiruvananthapuram has numerous newspaper publications, television and radio stations. Most of the media houses in Kerala are based in Thiruvananthapuram. The first Malayalam channel, Doordarshan Malayalam began broadcasting from the city in 1981.[217] Asianet, the first private channel in Malayalam, also began its telecasting from the city in 1993.[218] The other Malayalam channels based in the city include Asianet News, Amrita TV, Kappa TV, Kairali TV, Kairali We, Mathrubhumi News, Kaumudy TV, JaiHind TV, News18 Kerala and People TV.[219] All major Malayalam channels, including Asianet, Janam TV, Jeevan TV, MediaOne TV and Manorama News have production facilities or offices in the city.[219] TV channels are accessible via cable subscription, direct-broadcast satellite services, or internet-based television.[220][221][222] Prominent Direct-to-Home (DTH) entertainment services in Thiruvananthapuram include Sun Direct DTH, DD Direct+, Videocon d2h, Dish TV, Reliance Digital TV, Airtel digital TV and Tata Sky.

Major Malayalam newspapers available are Mathrubhumi, Malayala Manorama, Kerala Kaumudi, Deshabhimani, Madhyamam, Janmabhumi, Chandrika, Thejas, Siraj Daily, Deepika and Rashtra Deepika. The English language newspapers with editions from Thiruvananthapuram are The New Indian Express, The Hindu, The Deccan Chronicle and The Times of India.[219]

All India Radio, the national state-owned radio broadcaster, airs Medium wave and Shortwave radio stations in the city.[223][224] The Vividh Bharati of All India Radio also airs an FM radio station known as Ananthapuri FM.[225][226] Other FM radio channels broadcast from Thiruvananthapuram are Big FM 92.7 MHz,[227] Club FM 94.3 MHz,[228] Radio Mirchi 98.3 MHz,[229] Red FM 93.5 MHz[227] and Radio DC 90.4 MHz.[230]


Sports Hub (Greenfield Stadium) during the India vs New Zealand T20
A football match in CSN Stadium
Badminton at TOSS Academy

The most popular sports in Thiruvananthapuram are cricket and football. The city hosted the first international cricket match in Kerala at the University Stadium in 1984.[231] The city also hosted the first Twenty20 International cricket match in Kerala.[232] The Kerala Cricket Association is headquartered in Thiruvananthapuram.[233] Prominent cricketers from Thiruvananthapuram include Sanju Samson, Raiphi Gomez, Ryan Ninan, Aneil Nambiar, K. N. Ananthapadmanabhan, Rohan Prem, Udiramala Subramaniam, P. M. K. Mohandas, Bhaskar Pillai and Padmanabhan Prasanth. The Sports Hub, University Stadium,[234] St Xavier's College Ground,[235] KCA Cricket Stadium Mangalapuram,[236] Medical College ground[237] and Vellyani Agricultural College Ground[238] are the main cricket grounds in the city. The Sports Hub, Trivandrum, commonly known as Greenfield Stadium is one of the largest cricket and football stadiums in India.[239] Thiruvananthapuram hosted the 2015 SAFF Championship at the Greenfield Stadium.[240] SBI Kerala, Titanium FC, KSED and Kovalam FC are the major football clubs based in Thiruvananthapuram.[241][242] Football is usually played in the Greenfield stadium, Chandrasekharan Nair Stadium and University Stadium.[243]

The city has facilities to host most type of sports.[244] As a result, Thiruvananthapuram is usually selected as the main venue for hosting events like the National Games.[245] Athletic competitions are usually held at the University Stadium, Chandrasekharan Nair Stadium and Central Stadium.[246] The Trivandrum Marathon is a marathon organised by the Trivandrum runners club every year.[247] There will be two main races; a half marathon of 21km and a full marathon of 42.19km. A special 2km fun run is also organised for public participation.[248] TrivandRun is another marathon conducted every January in the city.[249]

Jimmy George Indoor Stadium is a major indoor stadium in the state. It is used for conducting basketball, volleyball, table tennis, gymnastics, aquatics and martial arts.[244] The stadium has the first altitude-simulated training facility in South India, known as Astra.[250] The major sports training and coaching institutions include the Lakshmibai National College of Physical Education (LNCPE), TOSS Academy and the Tenvic Sports Coaching Academy at the Sports Hub.[251]

Basketball tournaments are usually conducted by the schools in the city.[252] Trivandrum hosted the 61st National Shooting Championship at the Vattiyoorkavu Shooting Range.[253] Surfing is also a popular sport in the beaches. Many Surfing and Stand Up Paddle tournaments organised in the city.[254] The surf competitions are usually held in Kovalam Beach and Varkala Beach.[255] Paragliding is another adventure sport usually seen in Varkala Beach.[256]

The SAI Trivandrum golf club, established in 1850, is one of the oldest golf course in India. [257] It is currently leased out to the Sports Authority of India.[257]

Sister cities

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Further reading

External links