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Twipra Kingdom (Sanskrit: Tripura, Anglicized: Tippera) was one of the largest historical kingdoms of the Tipra people in the North-east India. The Tipra Kingdom was established around the confluence of the Brahmaputra river
Brahmaputra river
(Twima[clarification needed]) with the Meghna
Meghna
and Surma rivers in today's Central Bangladesh
Bangladesh
area. The capital was called Khorongma (Kholongma) and was along the Meghna
Meghna
river in the Sylhet
Sylhet
Division of present-day Bangladesh.

Contents

1 Geography 2 History

2.1 Early history 2.2 Islamic invasions 2.3 British India

3 See also 4 References 5 External links

Geography[edit] The present political areas which were part of the Tipra Kingdom are:

Sylhet, Dhaka
Dhaka
and Chittagong
Chittagong
Divisions of Bangladesh Cachar
Cachar
Valley of Assam Mizoram
Mizoram
and Tripura
Tripura
states of India

The Tipra Kingdom in all its various ages comprised the areas with the borders:

Khasi Hills in the North Manipur
Manipur
Hills in the North-East Arakan Hills of Burma in the East The Bay of Bengal
Bay of Bengal
to the South The Brahmaputra river
Brahmaputra river
to the West

History[edit] Early history[edit] A list of legendary Tripuri kings is given in the Rajmala chronicle,a 15th-century chronicle in Bengali verse written by the court pandits of Dharma Manikya (r. 1431). The chronicle traces the king's ancestry to the mythological Lunar Dynasty. In the 8th century, the Kingdom shifted its capital eastwards along the Surma river in Sylhet
Sylhet
near present Kailasahar
Kailasahar
town of North Tripura.[citation needed] The religion of the Tipra had 14 deities known as "Chibrwi Mwtai" (in Kokborok language) and is still preserved in the Chibrwi Mwtai nok in Old Agartala, which is maintained by the Tipra priests known as Chontai/Ochai's, who oversee the festivals of the Kharchi and Ker according to traditions. It was similar to the Chinese folk religions. Islamic invasions[edit] The earliest historical records concerning the Twipra kingdom concern the 13th century, when it first came under pressure from the Islamic conquests in India. This is also the time of origin of the Manikya Dynasty, started when Ratna Fa adopted the title Manikya, which was held by all Kings of Tripura
Tripura
until the death of Bir Bikram Kishore Manikya in 1947. Ratna Fa shifted the capital to Rangamati on the banks of the river Gumti, now in South Tripura. Twipra was first overrun by the Muslims under Tughril
Tughril
in 1279, but it managed to maintain its independence during the 14th through 19th centuries, until the British arrived. Tripura
Tripura
was one of the states that pushed back successive waves of invasions from Turks, Ethipian Muslims, Afghans, and Mughals. On many occasions, Tripurans also pushed back Burmese and Arakanese invasions from the East. The Hill territories of Tripura, comprising present day Tripura
Tripura
state, Sylhet hills of Assam
Assam
state, Cachar
Cachar
hills of Assam
Assam
state, Mizoram
Mizoram
state, and Chittagong
Chittagong
Hill Tracts, remained free and independent before the British takeover. The plains of Tripura, however, fell to the attacks from Mughals. The plains territories comprise today's South East Dhaka and Comilla areas. While the plains areas were thus Islamized, the Hills of Tripura
Tripura
served as a continuous bulwark against penetration to the East. The Tripura
Tripura
Hill Kings were major sponsors of Hindu traditions and customs. In the modern age they are remembered as one of the longest and most stable dynasties from the Indian East. Dhanya Manikya
Dhanya Manikya
(r. 1463 to 1515) expanded Twipra's territorial domain well into Eastern Bengal. Rangamati was renamed Udaipur after Udai Manikya. The kingdom flourished in the 16th and 17th centuries, Kings such as Govinda Manikya putting up a defense against the pressure of the Muslim kingdoms to the west, until the final conquest of the plains areas by a renegade Tripuri prince backed by Mughal governors of Eastern Bengal plains. After this, plains Twipra was a Mughal client kingdom, with the Mughal rulers taking influence on the appointment of its kings.However the Mughals could never penetrate the Hill territories to the East.The plains,on the other hand were Islamized through conversion of the Bengali people living there.[citation not found] British India[edit] Main article: Tripura
Tripura
(princely state) In British India, the kings retained an estate in British India, known as Tippera
Tippera
district or Chakla Roshnabad (now the greater Comilla region of Bangladesh), in addition to the independent area known as Hill Tippera, the present-day state of Tripura. Bir Chandra Manikya (1862–1896) modelled his administration on the pattern of British India, and enacted reforms including the formation of Agartala Municipal Corporation. The last king was Kirit Bikram Kishore, son of Bir Bikram Kishore Debbarma, who ruled for two years, 1947-1949. In 1949, Tripura
Tripura
became part of the Republic of India. The Tripuri "heir apparent" is Kirit Pradyot Deb Barma (born 1978), the son of the last king, who is sometimes given the courtesy title of "Maharaja". See also[edit]

History of Tripura Tripura
Tripura
(princely state) Tripuri people

References[edit]

Tripura Buranji 17th Century Ahom Chronicle. Progressive Tripura, 1930 Rajmala, royal chronicle of Tripura
Tripura
Kings. Hill Tippera
Tippera
- History The Imperial Gazetteer of India, 1909, v. 13, p. 118.

External links[edit]

Information on the kingdom of Tripura
Tripura
at the University of Queensland Tripura
Tripura
kingdom at Royal ark About Tippera
Tippera
District Present day Comilla District
Comilla District
of Bangladesh

v t e

Gun salute
Gun salute
Princely states during the British Raj

21-gun salute

Baroda Gwalior Hyderabad Jammu & Kashmir Mysore

19-gun salute

Bhopal Indore Kalat Kolhapur Travancore Udaipur

17-gun salute

Bahawalpur Bharatpur Bikaner Bundi Cochin Cutch Jaipur Jodhpur Karauli Kota Patiala Pudukkottai Rewa Tonk

15-gun salute

Alwar Banswara Datia Dewas Dhar Dholpur Dungarpur Idar Jaisalmer Khairpur Kishangarh Orchha Pratapgarh Rampur Sikkim Sirohi

13-gun salute

Benares Bhavnagar Cooch Behar Dhrangadhra Jaora Jhalawar Jind Junagadh Kapurthala Nabha Nawanagar Palanpur Porbandar Rajpipla Ratlam Tripura

11-gun salute

Ajaigarh Alirajpur Baoni Barwani Bijawar Bilaspur Cambay Chamba Charkhari Chhatarpur Chitral Faridkot Tehri Garhwal Gondal Janjira/Jafrabad Jhabua Malerkotla Mandi Manipur Morvi Narsinghgarh Panna Radhanpur Rajgarh Sailana Samthar Sirmur Sitamau Suket Wankaner

9-gun salute

Balasinor Banganapalle Bansda Baraundha Baria Bhor Chhota Udaipur Danta Dharampur Dhrol Jawhar Kalahandi Khilchipur Limbdi Loharu Lunavada Maihar Mayurbhanj Mudhol Nagod Palitana Patna Rajkot Sachin Sangli Sant Sawantwadi Shahpura Sonepur Wadhwan Yawnghwe

List of princely states of British India
India
(alphabetical)

.