Traditional Chinese medicine
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM; simplified Chinese: 中医;
traditional Chinese: 中醫; pinyin: Zhōngyī) is a style of
traditional medicine built on a foundation of more than 2,500 years of
Chinese medical practice that includes various forms of herbal
medicine, acupuncture, massage (tui na), exercise (qigong), and
dietary therapy, but recently also influenced by modern Western
medicine. TCM is widely used in Greater China (where it
has long been the standard system of medicine), and is becoming
increasingly popular and recognized worldwide (where it is primarily
approached as alternative medicine).
One of the basic tenets of TCM is that "the body's vital energy (chi
or qi) circulates through channels, called meridians, that have
branches connected to bodily organs and functions." Concepts of the
body and of disease used in TCM reflect its ancient origins and its
emphasis on dynamic processes over material structure, similar to
European humoral theory. Scientific investigation has not found
histological or physiological evidence for traditional Chinese
concepts such as qi, meridians, and acupuncture points.[a] The TCM
theory and practice are not based upon scientific knowledge, and there
is disagreement between TCM practitioners on what diagnosis and
treatments should be used for any given patient. The effectiveness
of Chinese herbal medicine remains poorly researched and
documented. There are concerns over a number of potentially toxic
plants, animal parts, and mineral Chinese medicinals. There are
also concerns over illegal trade and transport of endangered species
including rhinoceroses and tigers, and the welfare of specially farmed
animals including bears. A review of cost-effectiveness research
for TCM found that studies had low levels of evidence, but so far have
not shown benefit outcomes. Pharmaceutical research has explored
the potential for creating new drugs from traditional remedies, with
few successful results. A Nature editorial described TCM as
"fraught with pseudoscience", and said that the most obvious reason
why it hasn't delivered many cures is that the majority of its
treatments have no logical mechanism of action. Proponents propose
that research has so far missed key features of the art of TCM, such
as unknown interactions between various ingredients and complex
interactive biological systems.
The doctrines of Chinese medicine are rooted in books such as the
Yellow Emperor's Inner Canon and the Treatise on Cold Damage, as well
as in cosmological notions such as yin-yang and the five phases.
Starting in the 1950s, these precepts were standardized in the
People's Republic of China, including attempts to integrate them with
modern notions of anatomy and pathology. In the 1950s, the Chinese
government promoted a systematized form of TCM.
While health is perceived as the harmonious interaction of these
entities and the outside world, disease is interpreted as a disharmony
in interaction. TCM diagnosis aims to trace symptoms to patterns of an
underlying disharmony, by measuring the pulse, inspecting the tongue,
skin, and eyes, and looking at the eating and sleeping habits of the
person as well as many other things.
1.1 Indian influence
1.2 Historical physicians
2 Philosophical background
2.1 Yin and yang
2.2 Five Phases theory
3 Model of the body
4 Concept of disease
4.1 Disease entities
4.2.1 Six Excesses
4.2.2 Typical examples of patterns
4.2.3 Eight principles of diagnosis
4.2.4 Considerations of disease causes
5.1 Tongue and pulse
6 Herbal medicine
6.2 Raw materials
6.2.1 Animal substances
6.2.2 Human body parts
6.3 Traditional categorization
6.4.1 Drug research
Acupuncture and moxibustion
8 Tui na
10 Other therapies
10.2 Gua Sha
10.4 Chinese food therapy
11.3 Hong Kong
11.6 United States
12 See also
15 Further reading
16 External links
The Compendium of Materia Medica is a pharmaceutical text written by
Li Shizhen (1518–1593 AD) during the
Ming Dynasty of China. This
edition was published in 1593.
Acupuncture chart from Hua Shou (fl. 1340s, Yuan Dynasty). This image
from Shi si jing fa hui (Expression of the Fourteen Meridians).
(Tokyo: Suharaya Heisuke kanko, Kyoho gan 1716).
Traces of therapeutic activities in China date from the Shang dynasty
(14th–11th centuries BCE). Though the Shang did not have a
concept of "medicine" as distinct from other fields, their
oracular inscriptions on bones and tortoise shells refer to illnesses
that affected the Shang royal family: eye disorders, toothaches,
bloated abdomen, etc., which Shang elites usually attributed
to curses sent by their ancestors. There is no evidence that the
Shang nobility used herbal remedies. According to a 2006 overview,
the "Documentation of Chinese materia medica (CMM) dates back to
around 1,100 BCE when only dozens of drugs were first described. By
the end of the 16th century, the number of drugs documented had
reached close to 1,900. And by the end of the last century, published
records of CMM had reached 12,800 drugs."
Stone and bone needles found in ancient tombs led
Joseph Needham to
speculate that acupuncture might have been carried out in the Shang
dynasty. This being said, most historians now make a
distinction between medical lancing (or bloodletting) and acupuncture
in the narrower sense of using metal needles to treat illnesses by
stimulating specific points along circulation channels ("meridians")
in accordance with theories related to the circulation of
Qi. The earliest evidence for acupuncture in this sense
dates to the second or first century BCE.
The Yellow Emperor's Inner Canon, the oldest received work of Chinese
medical theory, was compiled around the first century BCE on the basis
of shorter texts from different medical lineages. Written
in the form of dialogues between the legendary
Yellow Emperor and his
ministers, it offers explanations on the relation between humans,
their environment, and the cosmos, on the contents of the body, on
human vitality and pathology, on the symptoms of illness, and on how
to make diagnostic and therapeutic decisions in light of all these
factors. Unlike earlier texts like Recipes for Fifty-Two Ailments,
which was excavated in the 1970s from a tomb that had been sealed in
168 BCE, the Inner Canon rejected the influence of spirits and the use
of magic. It was also one of the first books in which the
cosmological doctrines of Yinyang and the Five Phases were brought to
a mature synthesis.
The Treatise on Cold Damage Disorders and Miscellaneous Illnesses was
Zhang Zhongjing sometime between 196 and 220 CE; at the
end of the Han dynasty. Focusing on drug prescriptions rather than
acupuncture, it was the first medical work to combine Yinyang
and the Five Phases with drug therapy. This formulary was also the
earliest public Chinese medical text to group symptoms into clinically
useful "patterns" (zheng 證) that could serve as targets for therapy.
Having gone through numerous changes over time, the formulary now
circulates as two distinct books: the Treatise on Cold Damage
Disorders and the Essential Prescriptions of the Golden Casket, which
were edited separately in the eleventh century, under the Song
In the centuries that followed, several shorter books tried to
summarize or systematize its contents of the book Yellow Emperor's
Inner Canon. The Canon of Problems (probably second century CE) tried
to reconcile divergent doctrines from the Inner Canon and developed a
complete medical system centered on needling therapy. The AB Canon
Moxibustion (Zhenjiu jiayi jing 針灸甲乙經,
Huangfu Mi sometime between 256 and 282 CE) assembled a
consistent body of doctrines concerning acupuncture; whereas the
Canon of the Pulse (Maijing 脈經; ca. 280) presented itself as a
"comprehensive handbook of diagnostics and therapy."
In 1950, Chairman
Mao Zedong made a speech in support of traditional
Chinese medicine (TCM) which was influenced by political
necessity. Zedong believed he and the Chinese Communist Party
should promote TCM but he did not personally believe in TCM and he did
not use it. In 1952, the president of the Chinese Medical
Association said that, "This One Medicine, will possess a basis in
modern natural sciences, will have absorbed the ancient and the new,
the Chinese and the foreign, all medical achievements—and will be
China’s New Medicine!"
Indian medicine penetrated into the Chinese world between the 4th and
Ayurveda greatly influenced traditional Chinese
medicine during its formation 
Accupunture may have
origin in ancient India Indian medical
knowledge of internal medicine, surgery, obstetrics, gynecology,
Otorhinolaryngology and dentistry was
brought to China.
Kashyapa Samhita was translated into Chinese during
the Middle Ages.
Kashyapa Samhita specially deals with
pediatrics, gynecology, and obstetrics Another Indian medical work
Kumara Tantra of Ravana, which mainly deals with paediatric diseases,
was translated into Chinese. According to book of sui and Book of
Tang eleven Indian medical works were translated into Chinese.
Indian monks introduced surgery in China. Before the arrival of
Buddhism surgical techniques were unknown within China Indian
monks and translators themselves had a good understanding of medicine.
An Shigao translated an Indian medical work into Chinese which dealt
with 404 diseases
Yijing (monk) went to
India and brought back
some 400 Buddhist translated texts which includes many medical works
like Arsaprasamanasutra (A classic on curing all hemorrhoid-related
diseases). Yijing highlight India's superior medical
knowledge, he praised the practise of
Fasting among Indians, which
they believed could cure imbalances of body within a matter of days.
In China he Introduced hygiene practised in India. Formulae for
lung diseases were imported from
India during the Tang dynasty. Indian
ophthalmologists also practiced medicine in China.
Liu Yuxi wrote
a poem about Indian Brahman who was an expert in removing cataracts
with a golden needle. Influence of Buddhists four element theory
is clearly seen in
Tao Hongjing writings. Indian medicine has a
profound influence on Physician Sun Simiao's medical work. In his
work, he attributes many formulae to Jivaka Komarabhacca.
Sun Simiao mention many Indian surgical techniques for treatment of
cataracts, glaucoma and other eye diseases Wang Tao also
incorporated Indian ideas of medicine
Ishinpō of Tanba
Yasuyori records over ninety articles attributed to Indian physician
These include Zhang Zhongjing, Hua Tuo, Sun Simiao, Tao Hongjing,
Zhang Jiegu, and Li Shizhen.
Traditional Chinese medicine
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is a broad range of medicine
practices sharing common concepts which have been developed in China
and are based on a tradition of more than 2,000 years, including
various forms of herbal medicine, acupuncture, massage (Tui na),
exercise (qigong), and dietary therapy. It is primarily used as a
complementary alternative medicine approach. TCM is widely used in
China and it is also used in the West. Its philosophy is based on
Yinyangism (i.e., the combination of Five Phases theory with Yin-yang
theory), which was later absorbed by Daoism.
Yin and yang
Yin and yang symbol for balance. In Traditional Chinese Medicine, good
health is believed to be achieved by a balance between yin and yang.
Yin and yang
Main article: Yin and yang
Yin and yang
Yin and yang are ancient Chinese concepts which can be traced back to
the Shang dynasty (1600–1100 BC). They represent two
abstract and complementary aspects that every phenomenon in the
universe can be divided into. Primordial analogies for these
aspects are the sun-facing (yang) and the shady (yin) side of a
hill. Two other commonly used representational allegories of yin
and yang are water and fire. In the ying-yang theory, detailed
attributions are made regarding the yin or yang character of things:
Degree of humidity
The concept of yin and yang is also applicable to the human body; for
example, the upper part of the body and the back are assigned to yang,
while the lower part of the body are believed to have the yin
Yin and yang
Yin and yang characterization also extends to the
various body functions, and – more importantly – to disease
symptoms (e.g., cold and heat sensations are assumed to be yin and
yang symptoms, respectively). Thus, yin and yang of the body are
seen as phenomena whose lack (or over-abundance) comes with
characteristic symptom combinations:
Yin vacuity (also termed "vacuity-heat"): heat sensations, possible
sweating at night, insomnia, dry pharynx, dry mouth, dark urine, and a
"fine" and rapid pulse.
Yang vacuity ("vacuity-cold"): aversion to cold, cold limbs, bright
white complexion, long voidings of clear urine, diarrhea, pale and
enlarged tongue, and a slightly weak, slow and fine pulse.
TCM also identifies drugs believed to treat these specific symptom
combinations, i.e., to reinforce yin and yang.
Interactions of Wu Xing
Five Phases theory
Main article: Wu Xing
Five Phases (五行, pinyin: wǔ xíng), sometimes also translated as
the "Five Elements" theory, presumes that all phenomena of the
universe and nature can be broken down into five elemental qualities
– represented by wood (木, pinyin: mù), fire (火pinyin: huǒ),
earth (土, pinyin: tǔ), metal (金, pinyin: jīn), and water (水,
pinyin: shuǐ). In this way, lines of correspondence can be drawn:
above bridge of nose
between eyes, lower part
bridge of nose
between eyes, middle part
cheeks (below cheekbone)
inner/outer corner of the eye
upper and lower lid
Strict rules are identified to apply to the relationships between the
Five Phases in terms of sequence, of acting on each other, of
counteraction, etc. All these aspects of Five Phases theory
constitute the basis of the zàng-fǔ concept, and thus have great
influence regarding the TCM model of the body. Five Phase theory
is also applied in diagnosis and therapy.
Correspondences between the body and the universe have historically
not only been seen in terms of the Five Elements, but also of the
"Great Numbers" (大數, pinyin: dà shū) For example, the number
of acu-points has at times been seen to be 365, corresponding with the
number of days in a year; and the number of main meridians–12–has
been seen as corresponding with the number of rivers flowing through
the ancient Chinese empire.
Model of the body
Main article: TCM model of the body
Old Chinese medical chart on acupuncture meridians
TCM "holds that the body's vital energy (chi or qi) circulates through
channels, called meridians, that have branches connected to bodily
organs and functions." Its view of the human body is only
marginally concerned with anatomical structures, but focuses primarily
on the body's functions (such as digestion, breathing,
temperature maintenance, etc.):
"The tendency of Chinese thought is to seek out dynamic functional
activity rather than to look for the fixed somatic structures that
perform the activities. Because of this, the Chinese have no system of
anatomy comparable to that of the West."
— Ted Kaptchuk, The Web That Has No Weaver
These functions are aggregated and then associated with a primary
functional entity – for instance, nourishment of the tissues and
maintenance of their moisture are seen as connected functions, and the
entity postulated to be responsible for these functions is xuě
(blood). These functional entities thus constitute concepts rather
than something with biochemical or anatomical properties.
The primary functional entities used by traditional Chinese medicine
are qì, xuě, the five zàng organs, the six fǔ organs, and the
meridians which extend through the organ systems. These are all
theoretically interconnected: each zàng organ is paired with a fǔ
organ, which are nourished by the blood and concentrate qi for a
particular function, with meridians being extensions of those
functional systems throughout the body.
Concepts of the body and of disease used in TCM have notions of a
pre-scientific culture, similar to European humoral theory. TCM is
characterized as full of pseudoscience. Some practitioners no
longer consider yin and yang and the idea of an energy flow to
apply. Scientific investigation has not found any histological or
physiological evidence for traditional Chinese concepts such as qi,
meridians, and acupuncture points.[a] It is a generally held belief
within the acupuncture community that acupuncture points and meridians
structures are special conduits for electrical signals but no research
has established any consistent anatomical structure or function for
either acupuncture points or meridians.[a] The scientific evidence
for the anatomical existence of either meridians or acupuncture points
is not compelling.
Stephen Barrett of
Quackwatch writes that, "TCM
theory and practice are not based upon the body of knowledge related
to health, disease, and health care that has been widely accepted by
the scientific community. TCM practitioners disagree among themselves
about how to diagnose patients and which treatments should go with
which diagnoses. Even if they could agree, the TCM theories are so
nebulous that no amount of scientific study will enable TCM to offer
TCM has been the subject of controversy within China. In 2006, the
Zhang Gongyao triggered a national debate when he
published an article entitled "Farewell to Traditional Chinese
Medicine," arguing that TCM was a pseudoscience that should be
abolished in public healthcare and academia. The Chinese
government however, interested in the opportunity of export revenues,
took the stance that TCM is a science and continued to encourage its
Main article: Qi
TCM distinguishes many kinds of qi (simplified Chinese: 气;
traditional Chinese: 氣; pinyin: qì). In a general sense, qi is
something that is defined by five "cardinal functions":
Actuation (simplified Chinese: 推动; traditional Chinese: 推動;
pinyin: tuīdòng) – of all physical processes in the body,
especially the circulation of all body fluids such as blood in their
vessels. This includes actuation of the functions of the zang-fu
organs and meridians.
Warming (Chinese: 溫煦; pinyin: wēnxù) – the body, especially
Defense (Chinese: 防御; pinyin: fángyù) – against Exogenous
Containment (simplified Chinese: 固摄; traditional Chinese: 固攝;
pinyin: gùshè) – of body fluids, i.e., keeping blood, sweat,
urine, semen, etc. from leakage or excessive emission.
Transformation (simplified Chinese: 气化; traditional Chinese:
氣化; pinyin: qìhuà) – of food, drink, and breath into qi, xue
(blood), and jinye (“fluids”), and/or transformation of all of the
latter into each other.
Vacuity of qi will be characterized especially by pale complexion,
lassitude of spirit, lack of strength, spontaneous sweating, laziness
to speak, non-digestion of food, shortness of breath (especially on
exertion), and a pale and enlarged tongue.
Qi is believed to be partially generated from food and drink, and
partially from air (by breathing). Another considerable part of it is
inherited from the parents and will be consumed in the course of life.
TCM uses special terms for qi running inside of the blood vessels and
for qi that is distributed in the skin, muscles, and tissues between
those. The former is called yíng-qì (simplified Chinese: 营气;
traditional Chinese: 營氣); its function is to complement xuè and
its nature has a strong yin aspect (although qi in general is
considered to be yang). The latter is called weì-qì (simplified
Chinese: 卫气; traditional Chinese: 衛氣); its main function is
defence and it has pronounced yang nature.
Qi is said to circulate in the meridians. Just as the qi held by each
of the zang-fu organs, this is considered to be part of the
'principal' qi (simplified Chinese: 元气; traditional Chinese:
元氣; pinyin: yuánqì) of the body (also called 真氣 Chinese:
真气; pinyin: zhēn qì, ‘’true‘’ qi, or 原氣 Chinese:
原气; pinyin: yuán qì, ‘’original‘’ qi).
In contrast to the majority of other functional entities, xuè (血,
"blood") is correlated with a physical form – the red liquid running
in the blood vessels. Its concept is, nevertheless, defined by its
functions: nourishing all parts and tissues of the body, safeguarding
an adequate degree of moisture, and sustaining and soothing both
consciousness and sleep.
Typical symptoms of a lack of xuě (usually termed "blood vacuity"
[血虚, pinyin: xuě xū]) are described as: Pale-white or
withered-yellow complexion, dizziness, flowery vision, palpitations,
insomnia, numbness of the extremities; pale tongue; "fine" pulse.
Closely related to xuě are the jīnyė (津液, usually translated as
"body fluids"), and just like xuě they are considered to be yin in
nature, and defined first and foremost by the functions of nurturing
and moisturizing the different structures of the body. Their other
functions are to harmonize yin and yang, and to help with the
secretion of waste products.
Jīnyė are ultimately extracted from food and drink, and constitute
the raw material for the production of xuě; conversely, xuě can also
be transformed into jīnyė. Their palpable manifestations are all
bodily fluids: tears, sputum, saliva, gastric acid, joint fluid,
sweat, urine, etc.
Main article: Zang-fu
The zàng-fǔ (simplified Chinese: 脏腑; traditional Chinese:
臟腑) constitute the centre piece of TCM's systematization of bodily
functions. Bearing the names of organs, they are, however, only
secondarily tied to (rudimentary) anatomical assumptions (the fǔ a
little more, the zàng much less). As they are primarily defined
by their functions, they are not equivalent to the anatomical
organs–to highlight this fact, their names are usually capitalized.
The term zàng (臟) refers to the five entities considered to be yin
in nature–Heart, Liver, Spleen, Lung, Kidney–, while fǔ (腑)
refers to the six yang organs–Small Intestine, Large Intestine,
Gallbladder, Urinary Bladder, Stomach and Sānjiaō.
The zàng's essential functions consist in production and storage of
qì and xuě; they are said to regulate digestion, breathing, water
metabolism, the musculoskeletal system, the skin, the sense organs,
aging, emotional processes, and mental activity, among other
structures and processes. The fǔ organs' main purpose is merely
to transmit and digest (傳化, pinyin: chuán-huà) substances
such as waste and food.
Since their concept was developed on the basis of Wǔ Xíng
philosophy, each zàng is paired with a fǔ, and each zàng-fǔ pair
is assigned to one of five elemental qualities (i.e., the Five
Elements or Five Phases). These correspondences are stipulated as:
Fire (火) = Heart (心, pinyin: xīn) and Small Intestine (小腸,
pinyin: xiaǒcháng) (and, secondarily, Sānjiaō [三焦, "Triple
Burner"] and Pericardium [心包, pinyin: xīnbaò])
Earth (土) = Spleen (脾, pinyin: pí) and Stomach (胃, pinyin:
Metal (金) = Lung (肺, pinyin: feì) and Large Intestine (大腸,
Water (水) = Kidney (腎, pinyin: shèn) and Bladder (膀胱, pinyin:
Wood (木) = Liver (肝, pinyin: gān) and Gallbladder (膽, pinyin:
The zàng-fǔ are also connected to the twelve standard
meridians–each yang meridian is attached to a fǔ organ, and five of
the yin meridians are attached to a zàng. As there are only five
zàng but six yin meridians, the sixth is assigned to the Pericardium,
a peculiar entity almost similar to the Heart zàng.
Acupuncture chart from the
Ming Dynasty (c. 1368–1644)
Main article: Meridian (Chinese medicine)
The meridians (经络, pinyin: jīng-luò) are believed to be channels
running from the zàng-fǔ in the interior (里, pinyin: lǐ) of the
body to the limbs and joints ("the surface" [表, pinyin: biaǒ]),
transporting qi and xuĕ. TCM identifies 12 "regular" and 8
"extraordinary" meridians; the Chinese terms being 十二经脉
(pinyin: shí-èr jīngmài, lit. "the Twelve Vessels") and
奇经八脉 (pinyin: qí jīng bā mài) respectively. There's
also a number of less customary channels branching from the "regular"
Concept of disease
In general, disease is perceived as a disharmony (or imbalance) in the
functions or interactions of yin, yang, qi, xuĕ, zàng-fǔ, meridians
etc. and/or of the interaction between the human body and the
environment. Therapy is based on which "pattern of disharmony" can
be identified. Thus, "pattern discrimination" is the most
important step in TCM diagnosis. It is also known to be the
most difficult aspect of practicing TCM.
In order to determine which pattern is at hand, practitioners will
examine things like the color and shape of the tongue, the relative
strength of pulse-points, the smell of the breath, the quality of
breathing or the sound of the voice. For example, depending
on tongue and pulse conditions, a TCM practitioner might diagnose
bleeding from the mouth and nose as: "Liver fire rushes upwards and
scorches the Lung, injuring the blood vessels and giving rise to
reckless pouring of blood from the mouth and nose." He might then
go on to prescribe treatments designed to clear heat or supplement the
In TCM, a disease has two aspects: "bìng" and "zhèng". The
former is often translated as "disease entity", "disease
category", "illness", or simply "diagnosis". The latter,
and more important one, is usually translated as "pattern" (or
sometimes also as "syndrome"). For example, the disease entity of
a common cold might present with a pattern of wind-cold in one person,
and with the pattern of wind-heat in another.
From a scientific point of view, most of the disease entitites (病,
pinyin: bìng) listed by TCM constitute mere symptoms. Examples
include headache, cough, abdominal pain, constipation etc.
Since therapy will not be chosen according to the disease entity but
according to the pattern, two people with the same disease entity but
different patterns will receive different therapy. Vice versa,
people with similar patterns might receive similar therapy even if
their disease entities are different. This is called
异病同治，同病异治 (pinyin: yì bìng tóng zhì, tóng bìng
yì zhì,"different diseases, same treatment; same disease,
In TCM, "pattern" (证, pinyin: zhèng) refers to a "pattern of
disharmony" or "functional disturbance" within the functional entities
TCM model of the body is composed of. There are disharmony
patterns of qi, xuě, the body fluids, the zàng-fǔ, and the
meridians. They are ultimately defined by their symptoms and
"signs" (i.e., for example, pulse and tongue findings).
In clinical practice, the identified pattern usually involves a
combination of affected entities (compare with typical examples of
patterns). The concrete pattern identified should account for all the
symptoms a person has.
The Six Excesses (六淫, pinyin: liù yín, sometimes also
translated as "Pathogenic Factors", or "Six Pernicious
Influences"; with the alternative term of 六邪, pinyin: liù
xié, – "Six Evils" or "Six Devils") are allegorical terms used
to describe disharmony patterns displaying certain typical
symptoms. These symptoms resemble the effects of six climatic
factors. In the allegory, these symptoms can occur because one or
more of those climatic factors (called 六气, pinyin: liù qì, "the
six qi") were able to invade the body surface and to proceed to
the interior. This is sometimes used to draw causal relationships
(i.e., prior exposure to wind/cold/etc. is identified as the cause of
a disease), while other authors explicitly deny a direct
cause-effect relationship between weather conditions and
disease, pointing out that the Six Excesses are primarily
descriptions of a certain combination of symptoms translated into
a pattern of disharmony. It is undisputed, though, that the Six
Excesses can manifest inside the body without an external
cause. In this case, they might be denoted "internal", e.g.,
"internal wind" or "internal fire (or heat)".
The Six Excesses and their characteristic clinical signs are:
Wind (风, pinyin: fēng): rapid onset of symptoms, wandering location
of symptoms, itching, nasal congestion, "floating" pulse; tremor,
Cold (寒, pinyin: hán): cold sensations, aversion to cold, relief of
symptoms by warmth, watery/clear excreta, severe pain, abdominal pain,
contracture/hypertonicity of muscles, (slimy) white tongue fur,
"deep"/"hidden" or "string-like" pulse, or slow pulse.
Fire/Heat (火, pinyin: huǒ): aversion to heat, high fever, thirst,
concentrated urine, red face, red tongue, yellow tongue fur, rapid
pulse. (Fire and heat are basically seen to be the same)
Dampness (湿, pinyin: shī): sensation of heaviness, sensation of
fullness, symptoms of Spleen dysfunction, greasy tongue fur,
Dryness (燥, pinyin: zào): dry cough, dry mouth, dry throat, dry
lips, nosebleeds, dry skin, dry stools.
Summerheat (暑, pinyin: shǔ): either heat or mixed damp-heat
Six-Excesses-patterns can consist of only one or a combination of
Excesses (e.g., wind-cold, wind-damp-heat). They can also
transform from one into another.
Typical examples of patterns
For each of the functional entities (qi, xuĕ, zàng-fǔ, meridians
etc.), typical disharmony patterns are recognized; for example: qi
vacuity and qi stagnation in the case of qi; blood vacuity, blood
stasis, and blood heat in the case of xuĕ; Spleen qi vacuity,
Spleen yang vacuity, Spleen qi vacuity with down-bearing qi, Spleen qi
vacuity with lack of blood containment, cold-damp invasion of the
Spleen, damp-heat invasion of Spleen and Stomach in case of the Spleen
zàng; wind/cold/damp invasion in the case of the meridians.
TCM gives detailed prescriptions of these patterns regarding their
typical symptoms, mostly including characteristic tongue and/or pulse
findings. For example:
"Upflaming Liver fire" (肝火上炎, pinyin: gānhuǒ shàng yán):
Headache, red face, reddened eyes, dry mouth, nosebleeds,
constipation, dry or hard stools, profuse menstruation, sudden
tinnitus or deafness, vomiting of sour or bitter fluids, expectoration
of blood, irascibility, impatience; red tongue with dry yellow fur;
slippery and string-like pulse.
Eight principles of diagnosis
The process of determining which actual pattern is on hand is called
辩证 (pinyin: biàn zhèng, usually translated as "pattern
diagnosis", "pattern identification" or "pattern
discrimination"). Generally, the first and most important step in
pattern diagnosis is an evaluation of the present signs and symptoms
on the basis of the "Eight Principles" (八纲, pinyin: bā
gāng). These eight principles refer to four pairs of
fundamental qualities of a disease: exterior/interior, heat/cold,
vacuity/repletion, and yin/yang. Out of these, heat/cold and
vacuity/repletion have the biggest clinical importance. The
yin/yang quality, on the other side, has the smallest importance and
is somewhat seen aside from the other three pairs, since it merely
presents a general and vague conclusion regarding what other qualities
are found. In detail, the Eight Principles refer to the following:
Yin and yang
Yin and yang are universal aspects all things can be classified under,
this includes diseases in general as well as the Eight Principles'
first three couples. For example, cold is identified to be a yin
aspect, while heat is attributed to yang. Since descriptions of
patterns in terms of yin and yang lack complexity and clinical
practicality, though, patterns are usually not labelled this way
anymore. Exceptions are vacuity-cold and repletion-heat patterns,
who are sometimes referred to as "yin patterns" and "yang patterns"
Exterior (表, pinyin: biǎo) refers to a disease manifesting in the
superficial layers of the body – skin, hair, flesh, and
meridians. It is characterized by aversion to cold and/or wind,
headache, muscle ache, mild fever, a "floating" pulse, and a normal
Interior (里, pinyin: lǐ) refers to disease manifestation in the
zàng-fǔ, or (in a wider sense) to any disease that can not be
counted as exterior. There are no generalized characteristic
symptoms of interior patterns, since they'll be determined by the
affected zàng or fǔ entity.
Cold (寒, pinyin: hán) is generally characterized by aversion to
cold, absence of thirst, and a white tongue fur. More detailed
characterization depends on whether cold is coupled with vacuity or
Heat (热, pinyin: rè) is characterized by absence of aversion to
cold, a red and painful throat, a dry tongue fur and a rapid and
floating pulse, if it falls together with an exterior pattern. In
all other cases, symptoms depend on whether heat is coupled with
vacuity or repletion.
Deficiency (虚, pinyin: xū), can be further differentiated into
deficiency of qi, xuě, yin and yang, with all their respective
characteristic symptoms. Yin deficiency can also cause
Excess (实, pinyin: shí) generally refers to any disease that can't
be identified as a deficient pattern, and usually indicates the
presence of one of the Six Excesses, or a pattern of stagnation
(of qi, xuě, etc.). In a concurrent exterior pattern, excess is
characterized by the absence of sweating.
After the fundamental nature of a disease in terms of the Eight
Principles is determined, the investigation focuses on more specific
aspects. By evaluating the present signs and symptoms against the
background of typical disharmony patterns of the various entities,
evidence is collected whether or how specific entities are
affected. This evaluation can be done
in respect of the meridians (经络辩证, pinyin: jīng-luò biàn
in respect of qi (气血辩证, pinyin: qì xuè biàn zhèng)
in respect of xuè (气血辩证, pinyin: qì xuè biàn zhèng)
in respect of the body fluids (津液辩证, pinyin: jīn-yė biàn
in respect of the zàng-fǔ (脏腑辩证, pinyin: zàng-fǔ biàn
zhèng) – very similar to this, though less specific, is
disharmony pattern description in terms of the Five Elements
[五行辩证, pinyin: wǔ xíng biàn zhèng])
There are also three special pattern diagnosis systems used in case of
febrile and infectious diseases only ("Six Channel system" or "six
division pattern" [六经辩证, pinyin: liù jīng biàn zhèng];
"Wei Qi Ying Xue system" or "four division pattern"
[卫气营血辩证, pinyin: weì qì yíng xuè biàn zhèng]; "San
Jiao system" or "three burners pattern" [三焦辩证, pinyin:
sānjiaō biàn zhèng]).
Considerations of disease causes
Although TCM and its concept of disease do not strongly differentiate
between cause and effect, pattern discrimination can include
considerations regarding the disease cause; this is called
病因辩证 (pinyin: bìngyīn biàn zhèng, "disease-cause pattern
There are three fundamental categories of disease causes (三因,
pinyin: sān yīn) recognized:
external causes: these include the Six Excesses and "Pestilential
internal causes: the "Seven Affects" (七情, pinyin: qì qíng,
sometimes also translated as "Seven Emotions") – joy, anger,
brooding, sorrow, fear, fright and grief. These are believed to be
able to cause damage to the functions of the zàng-fú, especially of
non-external-non-internal causes: dietary irregularities (especially:
too much raw, cold, spicy, fatty or sweet food; voracious eating; too
much alcohol), fatigue, sexual intemperance, trauma, and parasites
(虫, pinyin: chóng).
In TCM, there are five diagnostic methods: inspection, auscultation,
olfaction, inquiry, and palpation.
Inspection focuses on the face and particularly on the tongue,
including analysis of the tongue size, shape, tension, color and
coating, and the absence or presence of teeth marks around the edge.
Auscultation refers to listening for particular sounds (such as
Olfaction refers to attending to body odor.
Inquiry focuses on the "seven inquiries", which involve asking the
person about the regularity, severity, or other characteristics of:
chills, fever, perspiration, appetite, thirst, taste, defecation,
urination, pain, sleep, menses, leukorrhea.
Palpation which includes feeling the body for tender A-shi points, and
the palpation of the wrist pulses as well as various other pulses, and
palpation of the abdomen.
Tongue and pulse
Examination of the tongue and the pulse are among the principal
diagnostic methods in TCM. Certain sectors of the tongue's surface are
believed to correspond to the zàng-fŭ. For example, teeth marks on
one part of the tongue might indicate a problem with the Heart, while
teeth marks on another part of the tongue might indicate a problem
with the Liver.
Pulse palpation involves measuring the pulse both at a superficial and
at a deep level at three different locations on the radial artery
(Cun, Guan, Chi, located two fingerbreadths from the wrist crease, one
fingerbreadth from the wrist crease, and right at the wrist crease,
respectively, usually palpated with the index, middle and ring finger)
of each arm, for a total of twelve pulses, all of which are thought to
correspond with certain zàng-fŭ. The pulse is examined for several
characteristics including rhythm, strength and volume, and described
with qualities like "floating, slippery, bolstering-like, feeble,
thready and quick"; each of these qualities indicate certain disease
patterns. Learning TCM pulse diagnosis can take several years.
Main article: Chinese herbology
See also: List of traditional Chinese medicines
Assorted dried plant and animal parts used in traditional Chinese
medicines, clockwise from top left corner: dried Lingzhi (lit. "spirit
mushrooms"), ginseng, Luo Han Guo, turtle shell underbelly (plastron),
and dried curled snakes.
Chinese red ginseng roots
A bile bear in a “crush cage” on Huizhou Farm, China.
Dried seahorses are extensively used in traditional medicine in China
The term "herbal medicine" is somewhat misleading in that, while plant
elements are by far the most commonly used substances in TCM, other,
non-botanic substances are used as well: animal, human, and mineral
products are also utilized. Thus, the term "medicinal" (instead
of herb) is usually preferred.
Typically, one batch of medicinals is prepared as a decoction of about
9 to 18 substances. Some of these are considered as main herbs,
some as ancillary herbs; within the ancillary herbs, up to three
categories can be distinguished.
There are roughly 13,000 medicinals used in China and over 100,000
medicinal recipes recorded in the ancient literature. Plant
elements and extracts are by far the most common elements used.
In the classic Handbook of Traditional Drugs from 1941, 517 drugs were
listed – out of these, 45 were animal parts, and 30 were
Some animal parts used as medicinals can be considered rather strange
such as cows' gallstones, hornet's nest, leech, and
scorpion. Other examples of animal parts include horn of the
antelope or buffalo, deer antlers, testicles and penis bone of the
dog, and snake bile. Some TCM textbooks still recommend
preparations containing animal tissues, but there has been little
research to justify the claimed clinical efficacy of many TCM animal
Some medicinals can include the parts of endangered species, including
tiger bones and rhinoceros horn which is used for many
ailments (though not as an aphrodisiac as is commonly misunderstood in
the West). The black market in rhinoceros horn (driven not just
by TCM but also unrelated status-seeking) has reduced the world's
rhino population by more than 90 percent over the past 40 years. 
Concerns have also arisen over the use of pangolin scales, turtle
plastron, seahorses, and the gill plates of mobula and manta
rays. Poachers hunt restricted or endangered species animals to
supply the black market with TCM products. There is no
scientific evidence of efficacy for tiger medicines. Concern over
China considering to legalize the trade in tiger parts prompted the
171-nation Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species
(CITES) to endorse a decision opposing the resurgence of trade in
tigers. Fewer than 30,000 saiga antelopes remain, which are
exported to China for use in traditional fever therapies.
Organized gangs illegally export the horn of the antelopes to
China. The pressures on seahorses (Hippocampus spp.) used in
traditional medicine is enormous; tens of millions of animals are
unsustainably caught annually. Many species of syngnathid are
currently part of the
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species or national
Since TCM recognizes bear bile as a medicinal, more than 12,000
asiatic black bears are held in bear farms. The bile is extracted
through a permanent hole in the abdomen leading to the gall bladder,
which can cause severe pain. This can lead to bears trying to kill
themselves. As of 2012, approximately 10,000 bears are farmed in China
for their bile. This practice has spurred public outcry across
the country. The bile is collected from live bears via a surgical
procedure. The deer penis is believed to have therapeutic
benefits according to traditional Chinese medicine. It is
typically very big and, proponents believe, in order to preserve its
properties, it should be extracted from a living deer. Medicinal
tiger parts from poached animals include tiger penis, believed to
improve virility, and tiger eyes. The illegal trade for tiger
parts in China has driven the species to near-extinction because of
its popularity in traditional medicine. Laws protecting even
critically endangered species such as the
Sumatran tiger fail to stop
the display and sale of these items in open markets. Shark fin
soup is traditionally regarded in Chinese medicine as beneficial for
health in East Asia, and its status as an elite dish has led to huge
demand with the increase of affluence in China, devastating shark
populations. The shark fins have been a part of traditional
Chinese medicine for centuries. Shark finning is banned in many
countries, but the trade is thriving in Hong Kong and China, where the
fins are part of shark fin soup, a dish considered a delicacy, and
used in some types of traditional Chinese medicine.
The tortoise (
Freshwater turtle - guiban) and the turtle (Chinese
softshell turtle - biejia) species used in traditional Chinese
medicine are raised on farms, while restrictions are made on the
accumulation and export of other endangered species. However,
issues concerning the overexploitation of Asian turtles in China have
not been completely solved. Australian scientists have developed
methods to identify medicines containing DNA traces of endangered
species. Finally, although not an endangered species, sharp rises
in exports of donkeys and donkey hide from Africa to China to make the
traditional remedy ejiao have prompted export restrictions by some
Human body parts
Main article: Traditional Chinese medicines derived from the human
Dried human placenta (Ziheche (紫河车) is used in traditional
Medicine also includes some human parts: the
Materia medica (Bencao Gangmu) describes the use of 35 human
body parts and excreta in medicines, including bones, fingernail,
hairs, dandruff, earwax, impurities on the teeth, feces, urine, sweat,
organs, but most are no longer in use.
Human placenta has been used an ingredient in certain traditional
Chinese medicines, including using dried human placenta, known as
"Ziheche", to treat infertility, impotence and other conditions.
The consumption of the human placenta is a potential source of
The traditional categorizations and classifications that can still be
found today are:
The classification according to the Four Natures (四气, pinyin: sì
qì): hot, warm, cool, or cold (or, neutral in terms of
temperature) and hot and warm herbs are used to treat cold
diseases, while cool and cold herbs are used to treat heat
The classification according to the Five Flavors, (五味, pinyin: wǔ
wèi, sometimes also translated as Five Tastes): acrid, sweet, bitter,
sour, and salty. Substances may also have more than one flavor, or
none (i.e., a "bland" flavor). Each of the Five Flavors
corresponds to one of zàng organs, which in turn corresponds to one
of the Five Phases. A flavor implies certain properties and
therapeutic actions of a substance; e.g., saltiness drains downward
and softens hard masses, while sweetness is supplementing,
harmonizing, and moistening.
The classification according to the meridian – more precisely, the
zàng-fu organ including its associated meridian – which can be
expected to be primarily affected by a given medicinal.
The categorization according to the specific function mainly include:
exterior-releasing or exterior-resolving,
heat-clearing, downward-draining, or precipitating
promoting the movement of water and percolating dampness or
qi-regulating or qi-rectifying, dispersing food
accumulation or food-dispersing, worm-expelling,
stopping bleeding or blood-stanching, quickening the Blood
and dispelling stasis or blood-quickening, transforming
phlegm, stopping coughing and calming wheezing or
phlegm-transforming and cough- and panting-suppressing,
Spirit-quieting, calming the liver and expelling wind or
liver-calming and wind-extinguishingl orifice-openingl
supplementing which includes qi-supplementing,
blood-nourishing, yin-enriching, and yang-fortifying,
astriction-promoting or securing and astringing,
vomiting-inducing, and substances for external
As of 2007[update] there were not enough good-quality trials of herbal
therapies to allow their effectiveness to be determined. A high
percentage of relevant studies on traditional Chinese medicine are in
Chinese databases. Fifty percent of systematic reviews on TCM did not
search Chinese databases, which could lead to a bias in the
results. Many systematic reviews of TCM interventions published
in Chinese journals are incomplete, some contained errors or were
misleading. The herbs recommended by traditional Chinese
practitioners in the US are unregulated.
A 2013 review found the data too weak to support use of Chinese herbal
medicine (CHM) for benign prostatic hyperplasia. A 2013 review
found the research on the benefit and safety of CHM for idiopathic
sudden sensorineural hearing loss is of poor quality and cannot be
relied upon to support their use. A 2013
Cochrane review found
inconclusive evidence that CHM reduces the severity of eczema.
The traditional medicine ginger, which has shown anti-inflammatory
properties in laboratory experiments, has been used to treat
rheumatism, headache and digestive and respiratory issues, though
there is no firm evidence supporting these uses. A 2012 Cochrane
review found no difference in decreased mortality when Chinese herbs
were used alongside Western medicine versus Western medicine
exclusively. A 2012
Cochrane review found insufficient evidence
to support the use of TCM for people with adhesive small bowel
obstruction. A 2011 review found low quality evidence that
suggests CHM improves the symptoms of Sjogren's syndrome. A 2010
review found TCM seems to be effective for the treatment of
fibromyalgia but the findings were of insufficient methodological
rigor. A 2009
Cochrane review found insufficient evidence to
recommend the use of TCM for the treatment of epilepsy. A 2008
Cochrane review found promising evidence for the use of Chinese herbal
medicine in relieving painful menstruation, but the trials assessed
were of such low methodological quality that no conclusion could be
drawn about the remedies' suitability as a recommendable treatment
Turmeric has been used in traditional Chinese medicine
for centuries to treat various conditions. This includes jaundice
and hepatic disorders, rheumatism, anorexia, diabetic wounds, and
menstrual complications. Most of its effects have been attributed
to curcumin. Research that curcumin shows strong
anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities have instigated mechanism
of action studies on the possibility for cancer and inflammatory
diseases prevention and treatment. It also exhibits
immunomodulatory effects. A 2005
Cochrane review found
insufficient evidence for the use of CHM in HIV-infected people and
people with AIDS. A 2010
Cochrane review found insufficient
evidence to support the use of Traditional Chinese Herbal Products
(THCP) in the treatment of angina. A 2010
Cochrane review found
no evidence supporting the use of TCHM for stopping bleeding from
haemorrhoids. There was some weak evidence of pain relief.
Further information: Arsenic trioxide, Artemisinin, Huperzine A, and
Artemisia annua is traditionally used to treat fever. It has been
found to have antimalarial properties.
With an eye to the enormous Chinese market, pharmaceutical companies
have explored the potential for creating new drugs from traditional
remedies. A Nature editorial described TCM as "fraught with
pseudoscience", and stated that having "no rational mechanism of
action for most of its therapies" is the "most obvious answer" to why
its study didn't provide a "flood of cures", while advocates responded
that "researchers are missing aspects of the art, notably the
interactions between different ingredients in traditional
One of the few successes was the development in the 1970s of the
antimalarial drug artemisinin, which is a processed extract of
Artemisia annua, a herb traditionally used as a fever
Tu Youyou discovered that a
low-temperature extraction process could isolate an effective
antimalarial substance from the plant. She says she was
influenced by a traditional source saying that this herb should be
steeped in cold water, after initially finding high-temperature
extraction unsatisfactory. The extracted substance, once subject
to detoxification and purification processes, is a usable antimalarial
drug – a 2012 review found that artemisinin-based remedies were
the most effective drugs for the treatment of malaria. For her
work on malaria, Tu received the 2015 Nobel Prize in
Medicine. Despite global efforts in combating malaria, it remains a
large burden for the population. Although
artemisinin-based remedies for treating uncomplicated malaria,
artemisinin resistance can no longer be ignored.
Also in the 1970s Chinese researcher
Zhang TingDong and colleagues
investigated the potential use of the traditionally used substance
arsenic trioxide to treat acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL).
Building on his work, research both in China and the West eventually
led to the development of the drug Trisenox, which was approved for
leukemia treatment by the FDA in 2000.
Huperzine A, which is extracted from traditional herb Huperzia
serrata, has attracted the interest of medical science because of
alleged neuroprotective properties. Despite earlier promising
results, a 2013 systematic review and meta-analysis found
Huperzine A appears to have beneficial effects on improvement of
cognitive function, daily living activity, and global clinical
assessment in participants with Alzheimer’s disease. However, the
findings should be interpreted with caution due to the poor
methodological quality of the included trials."
Ephedrine in its natural form, known as má huáng (麻黄) in
traditional Chinese medicine, has been documented in China since the
Han dynasty (206 BC – 220 AD) as an antiasthmatic and
stimulant. In 1885, the chemical synthesis of ephedrine was first
accomplished by Japanese organic chemist
Nagai Nagayoshi based on his
research on Japanese and Chinese traditional herbal medicines
A 2012 systematic review found there is a lack of available
cost-effectiveness evidence in TCM.
Galena (lead ore) is part of historical TCM. Standard American
TCM practice considers lead-containing herbs obsolete.
From the earliest records regarding the use of medicinals to today,
the toxicity of certain substances has been described in all Chinese
materiae medicae. Since TCM has become more popular in the Western
world, there are increasing concerns about the potential toxicity of
many traditional Chinese medicinals including plants, animal parts and
minerals. Traditional Chinese herbal remedies are conveniently
available from grocery stores in most Chinese neighborhoods; some of
these items may contain toxic ingredients, are imported into the U.S.
illegally, and are associated with claims of therapeutic benefit
without evidence. For most medicinals, efficacy and toxicity
testing are based on traditional knowledge rather than laboratory
analysis. The toxicity in some cases could be confirmed by modern
research (i.e., in scorpion); in some cases it couldn't (i.e., in
Curculigo). Traditional herbal medicines can contain extremely
toxic chemicals and heavy metals, and naturally occurring toxins,
which can cause illness, exacerbate pre-existing poor health or result
in death. Botanical misidentification of plants can cause toxic
reactions in humans. The description on some plants used in
traditional Chinese medicine have changed, leading to unintended
intoxication of the wrong plants. A concern is also contaminated
herbal medicines with microorganisms and fungal toxins, including
aflatoxin. Traditional herbal medicines are sometimes
contaminated with toxic heavy metals, including lead, arsenic, mercury
and cadmium, which inflict serious health risks to consumers.
Also, adulteration of some herbal medicine preparations with
conventional drugs which may cause serious adverse effects, such as
corticosteroids, phenylbutazone, phenytoin, and glibenclamide, has
Substances known to be potentially dangerous include Aconitum,
secretions from the Asiatic toad, powdered centipede, the
Chinese beetle (Mylabris phalerata), certain fungi,
Aristolochia, Aconitum, Arsenic sulfide (Realgar),
mercury sulfide, and cinnabar. Asbestos ore (Actinolite,
Yang Qi Shi, 阳起石) is used to treat impotence in TCM. Due to
galena's (litharge, lead(II) oxide) high lead content, it is known to
be toxic. Lead, mercury, arsenic, copper, cadmium, and thallium
have been detected in TCM products sold in the U.S. and China.
To avoid its toxic adverse effects Xanthium sibiricum must be
Hepatotoxicity has been reported with products
containing Polygonum multiflorum, glycyrrhizin,
Symphytum. The herbs indicated as being hepatotoxic included
Dictamnus dasycarpus, Astragalus membranaceous, and Paeonia
lactiflora. Contrary to popular belief,
Ganoderma lucidum mushroom
extract, as an adjuvant for cancer immunotherapy, appears to have the
potential for toxicity. A 2013 review suggested that although the
Artemisia annua may not cause hepatotoxicity,
haematotoxicity, or hyperlipidemia, it should be used cautiously
during pregnancy due to a potential risk of embryotoxicity at a high
However, many adverse reactions are due to misuse or abuse of Chinese
medicine. For example, the misuse of the dietary supplement
Ephedra (containing ephedrine) can lead to adverse events including
gastrointestinal problems as well as sudden death from
cardiomyopathy. Products adulterated with pharmaceuticals for
weight loss or erectile dysfunction are one of the main concerns.
Chinese herbal medicine has been a major cause of acute liver failure
Acupuncture and moxibustion
Acupuncture and Moxibustion
Needles being inserted into the skin.
Traditional moxibustion set from Ibuki (Japan)
Acupuncture is the insertion of needles into superficial structures of
the body (skin, subcutaneous tissue, muscles) – usually at
acupuncture points (acupoints) – and their subsequent manipulation;
this aims at influencing the flow of qi. According to TCM it
relieves pain and treats (and prevents) various diseases. The US
FDA classifies single-use acupuncture needles as Class II medical
devices, under CFR 21.
Acupuncture is often accompanied by moxibustion – the Chinese
characters for acupuncture (simplified Chinese: 针灸; traditional
Chinese: 針灸; pinyin: zhēnjiǔ) literally meaning
"acupuncture-moxibustion" – which involves burning mugwort on or
near the skin at an acupuncture point. According to the American
Cancer Society, "available scientific evidence does not support claims
that moxibustion is effective in preventing or treating cancer or any
In electroacupuncture, an electric current is applied to the needles
once they are inserted, in order to further stimulate the respective
Acupuncture § Effectiveness, and
Acupuncture § Safety
A 2013 editorial by
Steven P. Novella
Steven P. Novella and
David Colquhoun found that
the inconsistency of results of acupuncture studies (i.e. acupuncture
relieved pain in some conditions but had no effect in other very
similar conditions) suggests false positive results, which may be
caused by factors like biased study designs, poor blinding, and the
classification of electrified needles (a type of TENS) as a form of
acupuncture. The same editorial suggested that given the
inability to find consistent results despite more than 3,000 studies
of acupuncture, the treatment seems to be a placebo effect and the
existing equivocal positive results are noise one expects to see after
a large number of studies are performed on an inert therapy. The
editorial concluded that the best controlled studies showed a clear
pattern, in which the outcome does not rely upon needle location or
even needle insertion, and since "these variables are those that
define acupuncture, the only sensible conclusion is that acupuncture
does not work." According to the US NIH National Cancer
Institute, a review of 17,922 patients reported that real acupuncture
relieved muscle and joint pain, caused by aromatase inhibitors, much
better than sham acupuncture.  Regarding cancer patients, The US
NIH National Cancer Institute states that acupuncture may cause
physical responses in nerve cells, the pituitary gland, and the brain
- releasing proteins, hormones, and chemicals that are proposed to
affect blood pressure, body temperature, immune activity, and
A 2012 meta-analysis concluded that the mechanisms of acupuncture "are
clinically relevant, but that an important part of these total effects
is not due to issues considered to be crucial by most acupuncturists,
such as the correct location of points and depth of needling ... [but
are] ... associated with more potent placebo or context effects".
Commenting on this meta-analysis, both
Edzard Ernst and David
Colquhoun said the results were of negligible clinical
A 2011 overview of Cochrane reviews found high quality evidence that
suggests acupuncture is effective for some but not all kinds of
pain. A 2010 systematic review found that there is evidence "that
acupuncture provides a short-term clinically relevant effect when
compared with a waiting list control or when acupuncture is added to
another intervention" in the treatment of chronic low back pain.
Two review articles discussing the effectiveness of acupuncture, from
2008 and 2009, have concluded that there is not enough evidence to
conclude that it is effective beyond the placebo effect.
Acupuncture is generally safe when administered using Clean Needle
Technique (CNT). Although serious adverse effects are rare,
acupuncture is not without risk. Severe adverse effects,
including death, have continued to be reported.
An example of a
Traditional Chinese medicine
Traditional Chinese medicine used in Tui Na
Main article: Tui na
Tui na (推拿) is a form of massage akin to acupressure (from which
shiatsu evolved). Asian massage is typically administered with the
person fully clothed, without the application of grease or oils .
Techniques employed may include thumb presses, rubbing, percussion,
and assisted stretching.
Main article: Qigong
Qìgōng (气功 or 氣功) is a TCM system of exercise and meditation
that combines regulated breathing, slow movement, and focused
awareness, purportedly to cultivate and balance qi. One branch of
qigong is qigong massage, in which the practitioner combines massage
techniques with awareness of the acupuncture channels and
Main article: Cupping therapy
Acupuncture and moxibustion after cupping in Japan
Cupping (Chinese: 拔罐; pinyin: báguàn) is a type of Chinese
massage, consisting of placing several glass "cups" (open spheres) on
the body. A match is lit and placed inside the cup and then removed
before placing the cup against the skin. As the air in the cup is
heated, it expands, and after placing in the skin, cools, creating
lower pressure inside the cup that allows the cup to stick to the skin
via suction . When combined with massage oil, the cups can be
slid around the back, offering "reverse-pressure massage".
It has not been found to be effective for the treatment of any
disease. The 2008
Trick or Treatment
Trick or Treatment book said that no evidence
exists of any beneficial effects of cupping for any medical
Gua Sha (Chinese: 刮痧； pinyin: guāshā) is abrading the skin
with pieces of smooth jade, bone, animal tusks or horns or smooth
stones; until red spots then bruising cover the area to which it is
done. It is believed that this treatment is for almost any ailment
including cholera. The red spots and bruising take 3
to 10 days to heal, there is often some soreness in the area that has
Diē-dá (跌打) or bone-setting is usually practiced by martial
artists who know aspects of Chinese medicine that apply to the
treatment of trauma and injuries such as bone fractures, sprains, and
bruises. Some of these specialists may also use or recommend other
disciplines of Chinese medical therapies (or Western medicine in
modern times) if serious injury is involved. Such practice of
bone-setting (整骨 or 正骨) is not common in the West.
Chinese food therapy
Main article: Chinese food therapy
Traditional Chinese characters
Traditional Chinese characters 陰 and 陽 for the words yin and yang
denote different classes of foods, and it is important to consume them
in a balanced fashion. The meal sequence should also observe
In the Orient, it is traditional to eat yang before yin. Miso soup
(yang — fermented soybean protein) for breakfast; raw fish (more
yang protein); and then the vegetables which are yin.
The examples and perspective in this article deal primarily with the
English-speaking world and do not represent a worldwide view of the
subject. You may improve this article, discuss the issue on the talk
page, or create a new article, as appropriate. (January 2015) (Learn
how and when to remove this template message)
Many governments have enacted laws to regulate TCM practice.
From 1 July 2012 Chinese medicine practitioners must be registered
under the national registration and accreditation scheme with the
Medicine Board of Australia and meet the Board's Registration
Standards, in order to practice in Australia.
TCM is regulated in five provinces in Canada: Alberta, British
Columbia, Ontario, Quebec, and Newfoundland.
Medicine Council of Hong Kong was established in 1999. It
regulates the medicinals and professional standards for TCM
practitioners. All TCM practitioners in Hong Kong are required to
register with the Council. The eligibility for registration includes a
recognised 5-year university degree of TCM, a 30-week minimum
supervised clinical internship, and passing the licensing exam.
The Traditional and Complementary
Medicine Bill was passed by
Parliament in 2012 establishing the Traditional and Complementary
Medicine Council to register and regulate traditional and
complementary medicine practitioners, including traditional Chinese
medicine practitioners as well as other traditional and complementary
medicine practitioners such as those in traditional Malay medicine and
traditional Indian medicine.
The TCM Practitioners Act was passed by Parliament in 2000 and the TCM
Practitioners Board was established in 2001 as a statutory board under
the Ministry of Health, to register and regulate TCM practitioners.
The requirements for registration include possession of a diploma or
degree from a TCM educational institution/university on a gazetted
list, either structured TCM clinical training at an approved local TCM
educational institution or foreign TCM registration together with
supervised TCM clinical attachment/practice at an approved local TCM
clinic, and upon meeting these requirements, passing the Singapore TCM
Physicians Registration Examination (STRE) conducted by the TCM
As of July 2012, only six states do not have existing legislation to
regulate the professional practice of TCM. These six states are
Alabama, Kansas, North Dakota, South Dakota, Oklahoma, and Wyoming. In
1976, California established an
Acupuncture Board and became the first
state licensing professional acupuncturists.
The Chinese traditional medicine at one of Chinese traditional
medicine shop at Jagalan Road, Surabaya, Indonesia.
All traditional medicines, including TCM, are regulated on Indonesian
Minister of Health Regulation in 2013 about Traditional Medicine.
Medicine License (Surat Izin Pengobatan Tradisional -SIPT)
will be granted to the practitioners whose methods are scientifically
recognized as safe and bring the benefit for health. The TCM
clinics are registered but there is no explicit regulation for it. The
only TCM method which is accepted by medical logic and is empirically
proofed is acupuncture. The acupuncturists can get SIPT and
participate on health care facilities.
Complementary and Alternative
Pharmacy and Pharmacology/
Pharmacognosy and Medical Herbs portal
History of Imperial China portal
American Journal of Chinese
Chinese classic herbal formula
Chinese food therapy
Chinese patent medicine
Guizhentang Pharmaceutical company
Hallucinogenic plants in Chinese herbals
HIV/AIDS and traditional Chinese medicine
List of branches of alternative medicine
List of topics characterized as pseudoscience
List of traditional Chinese medicines
Public health in the People's Republic of China
Traditional Korean medicine
Traditional Mongolian medicine
Traditional Tibetan medicine
^ a b c Singh & Ernst (2008) stated, "Scientists are still unable
to find a shred of evidence to support the existence of meridians or
Ch'i", "The traditional principles of acupuncture are deeply
flawed, as there is no evidence at all to demonstrate the existence of
Ch'i or meridians" and "
Acupuncture points and meridians are not a
reality, but merely the product of an ancient Chinese philosophy"
^ a b c d e f Traditional Chinese Medicine, National Center for
Complementary and Integrative Health, Traditional Chinese Medicine: An
Medicine in Taiwan - Does it Really Work?". Taiwanese
Secrets Travel Guide. 24 September 2017.
^ "Macao 'to be' traditional Chinese medicine hub - Business -
Medicine Hong Kong Tourism Board".
^ "Young TCM sinsehs on the rise". The Straits Times. 21 February
^ a b c d Stephen Barrett. "Be Wary of Acupuncture, Qigong, and
'Chinese Medicine'". Retrieved 2013-12-11.
^ a b
Steven Novella (25 January 2012). "What Is Traditional Chinese
Medicine?". Science-based Medicine.
^ Singh & Ernst 2008, p. 72
^ Singh & Ernst 2008, p. 107
^ Singh & Ernst 2008, p. 387
^ a b Shang, A.; Huwiler, K.; Nartey, L.; Jüni, P.; Egger, M. (2007).
"Placebo-controlled trials of Chinese herbal medicine and conventional
medicine comparative study". International Journal of Epidemiology. 36
(5): 1086–92. doi:10.1093/ije/dym119. PMID 17602184.
^ a b c d e f g h i j k Shaw D (2012). "Toxicological risks of Chinese
herbs". Planta Medica. 76 (17): 2012–8. doi:10.1055/s-0030-1250533.
^ "Traditional Chinese
Medicine and Endangered Animals". Encyclopædia
^ a b Zhang, Fang; Kong, Lin-lin; Zhang, Yi-ye; Li, Shu-Chuen (2012).
"Evaluation of Impact on Health-Related Quality of Life and Cost
Effectiveness of Traditional Chinese Medicine: A Systematic Review of
Randomized Clinical Trials". The Journal of Alternative and
Complementary Medicine. 18 (12): 1108–1120.
doi:10.1089/acm.2011.0315. ISSN 1075-5535.
^ a b c d e f g h "Hard to swallow". Nature. 448 (7150): 105–6.
2007. doi:10.1038/448106a. PMID 17625521. Constructive approaches
to divining the potential usefulness of traditional therapies are to
be welcomed. But it seems problematic to apply a brand new technique,
largely untested in the clinic, to test the veracity of traditional
Chinese medicine, when the field is so fraught with pseudoscience. In
the meantime, claims made on behalf of an uncharted body of knowledge
should be treated with the customary scepticism that is the bedrock of
both science and medicine.
^ a b c d Levinovitz, Alan (22 October 2013). "Chairman Mao Invented
Traditional Chinese Medicine". Slate. Retrieved 7 March 2014.
^ a b c d e f g Unschuld, Paul U. (1985).
Medicine in China: A History
of Ideas. Berkeley, California: University of California Press.
^ Peng, Bangjiong [彭邦炯], ed. (2008). Jiaguwen yixue ziliao:
shiwen kaobian yu yanjiu 甲骨文医学资料: 释文考辨与研究
[Medical data in the oracle bones: translations, philological
analysis, and research]. Beijing: Renmin weisheng chubanshe.
^ Leung, A. (2006). "Traditional Toxicity Documentation of Chinese
Materia Medica—An Overview". Toxicologic Pathology. 34 (4):
319–326. doi:10.1080/01926230600773958. PMID 16787890.
^ a b c d Lu, Gwei-djen; Needham, Joseph (2002). Celestial Lancets: A
History and Rationale of
Acupuncture and Moxa. Routledge.
^ a b c d e Harper, Donald (1998). Early Chinese Medical Literature:
Mawangdui Medical Manuscripts. London and New York: Kegan Paul
International. ISBN 978-0-7103-0582-4.
^ Epler, Dean (1980). "Blood-letting in Early Chinese
Medicine and its
Relation to the Origins of Acupuncture". Bulletin of the History of
Medicine. 54 (3): 337–67. PMID 6998524.
^ Liao, Yuqun [廖育群] (1991). "Qin Han zhi ji zhenjiu liaofa lilun
de jianli" 秦漢之際鍼灸療法理論的建立 [The formation of
the theory of acumoxa therapy in the Qin and Han periods]". Ziran
kexue yanjiu 自然科學研究 [Research in the natural sciences].
^ a b c Sivin, Nathan (1993). "Huang-ti nei-ching 黃帝內經". In
Loewe, Michael. Early Chinese Texts: A Bibliographical Guide. Los
Angeles and Berkeley: Institute for East Asian Studies, University of
California, Berkeley. pp. 196–215.
^ a b c d Sivin, Nathan (1987). Traditional
Medicine in Contemporary
China. Ann Arbor: Center for Chinese Studies, University of Michigan.
^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae
af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb
bc bd be bf bg bh bi Ergil, Marnae C.; Ergil, Kevin V. (2009). Pocket
Atlas of Chinese Medicine. Stuttgart: Thieme.
^ Goldschmidt, Asaf (2009). The Evolution of Chinese Medicine: Song
Dynasty, 960–1200. London and New York: Routledge.
^ Veterinary Herbal
Medicine By Susan G. Wynn, Barbara Fougère, p. 60
^ Adaptogens: Herbs for Strength, Stamina, and Stress Relief By David
Winston, Steven Maimes,ISBN 978-1594771583
^ Educational Opportunities in Integrative Medicine: The A-to-Z
Healing Arts Guide and Professional Resource Directory (Know Your
Source Guide) By Douglas Wengell, Nathen Gabriel, p. 154
^ National Health Systems of the World By Milton I. Roemer, p. 5
Medicine and Globalization edited by Joseph S. Alter
^ The Lost Secrets of Ayurvedic Acupuncture: An Ayurvedic Guide to
Acupuncture By Frank Ros.chapter-1ISBN 978-0914955122
^ Students' Britannica India: A to C (Abd Allah ibn al-Abbas to
Cypress), p. 6-7
^ The Way of Ayurvedic Herbs: The Most Complete Guide to Natural
Healing and Health with Traditional Ayurvedic Herbalism, p.
^ Electronic Resources Management in Libraries, p. 312
^ Clinical acupuncture: a practical Japanese approach, p. 18
Acupuncture Cure For Common
Diseases By Raman Kapur, p. 14
^ Terence Duke. The Bodhisattva Warriors: The Origin, Inner
Philosophy, History and Symbolism of the Buddhist Martial Art Within
India and China (p. 139-145).
^ Kashyap Samhita - (English), K.R. Srikrishnamurthy
^ Q7 Archived 14 March 2008 at the Wayback Machine. Indian
medicine.nic.in. Q 7. The main classical texts for reference of
Ayurvedic principles include Charak Samhita, Susruta Samhita, Astanga
Hridaya, Sharangdhara Samhita, Madhava Nidan, Kashyapa Samhita,
Bhavprakasha and Bhaishajya Ratnavali etc.
^ Indian Culture: Journal of the Indian Research Institute, Volume 9,
^ a b History and Development of Traditional Chinese
Zhen'guo Wang, p. 155 ISBN 9787030065674
^ The Vedic Core of Human History: And Truth will be the Savior By M.
K. Agarwal, p. 223 ISBN 978-1491715949
^ From Bharata to India: Chrysee the Golden By M. K. Agarwal, p. 385
^ a b "Blood from a TCM Perspective". Shen-Nong Limited. Retrieved 3
^ Indian Journal of History of Science, Volume 43, p. 155
^ 南海寄歸內法傳 Account of Buddhism sent from the South Seas
^ 大唐西域求法高僧傳 Buddhist Monk's Pilgrimage of the Tang
^ Translating Buddhist
Medicine in Medieval China By C. Pierce
Salguero, p. 113 ISBN 978-0812246117
^ History and Philosophy of Chinese
Medicine By Ya Tu, Tingyu Fang, p.
112 ISBN 978-7117197847
^ a b c Translating Buddhist
Medicine in Medieval China By C. Pierce
Salguero, p. 40 ISBN 978-0812246117
^ Indian Journal of History of Science, Volume 43, p. 146
^ A History of Chinese Science and Technology, Volume 2 edited by
Yongxiang Lu, pg.113
^ Indian Journal of History of Science, Volume 43, p. 146-147
^ Indian Journal of History of Science, Volume 43, p. 147
^ Indian Journal of History of Science, Volume 43, p. 148
^ "Zou Yan". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 1 March 2011.
^ Liu, Zheng-Cai (1999): "A Study of Daoist
Moxibustion" Blue Poppy Press, first edition.
^ a b c Men, J. & Guo, L. (2010) "A General Introduction to
Traditional Chinese Medicine" Science Press.
^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae
af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap Wiseman, N. & Ellis, A. (1996):
Fundamentals of Chinese medicine Paradigm Publications.
^ a b c d Kaptchuck, Ted J., (2000): "The Web That Has No Weaver" 2nd
edition. Contemporary Books. ISBN 978-0-8092-2840-9
^ a b c d Aung, S.K.H. & Chen, W.P.D. (2007): "Clinical
introduction to medical acupuncture". Thieme Medical Publishers.
^ a b c d e f g h i j k Deng, T. (1999): "Practical diagnosis in
traditional Chinese medicine". Elsevier. 5th reprint, 2005.
^ a b Maciocia, Giovanni, (1989): The Foundations of Chinese Medicine:
A Comprehensive Text for Acupuncturists and Herbalists; Churchill
Livingstone; ISBN 978-0-443-03980-5, p. 26
^ a b Camillia Matuk (2006). "Seeing the Body: The Divergence of
Ancient Chinese and Western Medical Illustration" (PDF). Journal of
Biocommunication. 32 (1).
^ "There are 365 days in the year, while humans have 365 joints [or
acu-points]... There are 12 channel rivers across the land, while
humans have 12 channel", A Study of Daoist
Moxibustion, Cheng-Tsai Liu, Liu Zheng-Cai, Ka Hua, p. 40, 
^ Matuk, C. "Seeing the Body: The Divergence of Ancient Chinese and
Western Medical Illustration", JBC Vol. 32, No. 1 2006, page 5
^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Ross, Jeremy (1984) "Zang Fu, the organ
systems of traditional Chinese medicine" Elsevier. First edition 1984.
^ Ross, Jeremy (1984) "Zang Fu, the organ systems of traditional
Chinese medicine" Elsevier. First edition 1984.
ISBN 978-0-443-03482-4 pp. 12–13. "For example, [the term] Xue
is used rather than Blood, since the latter implies the blood of
Western medicine, with its precise parameters of biochemistry and
histiology. Although Xue and blood share some common attributes,
fundamentally, Xue is a different concept."
^ a b c Aung, S.K.H. & Chen, W.P.D. (2007): Clinical introduction
to medical acupuncture. Thieme Mecial Publishers.
ISBN 978-1-58890-221-4, p. 19
^ Zhouying Jin (2005). Global Technological Change: From Hard
Technology to Soft Technology. Intellect Books. p. 36.
ISBN 978-1-84150-124-6. The vacuum created by China's failure to
adequately support a disciplined scientific approach to traditional
Chinese medicine has been filled by pseudoscience
^ Williams, WF (2013). Encyclopedia of Pseudoscience: From Alien
Abductions to Zone Therapy. Encyclopedia of Pseudoscience. Routledge.
pp. 3–4. ISBN 1135955220.
^ Ahn, Andrew C.; Colbert, Agatha P.; Anderson, Belinda J.; Martinsen,
ØRjan G.; Hammerschlag, Richard; Cina, Steve; Wayne, Peter M.;
Langevin, Helene M. (2008). "Electrical properties of acupuncture
points and meridians: A systematic review" (PDF). Bioelectromagnetics.
29 (4): 245–56. doi:10.1002/bem.20403. PMID 18240287.
^ Ernst, E. (2006). "Acupuncture--a critical analysis". Journal of
Internal Medicine. 259 (2): 125–137.
doi:10.1111/j.1365-2796.2005.01584.x. ISSN 0954-6820.
^ a b c Qiu J (April 2007). "China plans to modernize traditional
medicine". Nature. 446 (7136): 590–1. doi:10.1038/446590a.
PMID 17410143. Zhang argued that TCM is a pseudoscience and
should not be part of public healthcare and research
^ a b Aung, S.K.H. & Chen, W.P.D. (2007): Clinical introduction to
medical acupuncture. Thieme Mecial Publishers.
ISBN 978-1-58890-221-4, pp 11–12
[Physiological functions of qi: 1.) Function of actuation ... 2.)
Function of warming ... 3.) Function of defense ... 4.) Function of
containment ... 5.) Function of transformation ...]
^ as seen at 郭卜樂 (24 October 2009). 氣 [Qi] (in Chinese).
Archived from the original on 8 January 2009. Retrieved 2 December
^ a b Elizabeth Reninger. "Qi (Chi): Various Forms Used In Qigong
Medicine – How Are The Major Forms Of Qi Created
Within The Body?". Retrieved 6 December 2010.
[After yuan-qi is created, it disperses over the whole body, to the
zang-fu in the interior, to the skin and the space beneath it on the
exterior...] as seen in 郭卜樂 (24 October 2009). 氣 [Qi] (in
Chinese). Archived from the original on 8 January 2009. Retrieved 6
[1. Yuan-qi Yuan-qi is also known as "yuan-qi" and "zhēn qì", is the
body's most fundamental and most important (kind of) qi ...] as seen
at 郭卜樂 (24 October 2009). 氣 [Qi] (in Chinese). Archived from
the original on 8 January 2009. Retrieved 6 December 2010.
^ "Blood from a TCM Perspective". Shen-Nong Limited. Retrieved 4 April
^ Wiseman, N. & Ellis, A. (1996): Fundamentals of Chinese medicine
Paradigm Publications. ISBN 978-0-912111-44-5, p. 147
^ "Body Fluids (Yin Ye)". copyright 2001–2010 by Sacred Lotus Arts.
Retrieved 9 December 2010.
^ "三、津液的功能 ...（三）调节阴阳
...（四）排泄废物 ..." [3.) Functions of the Jinye: ...
3.3.)Harmonizing yin and yang ... 3.4.)Secretion of waste products
...] As seen at: 《中医基础理论》第四章
精、气、血、津液. 第四节 津液 [Basics of TCM theory.
Chapter 4: Essence, qi, blood, jinye. Section 4: jinye] (in Chinese).
Retrieved 9 December 2010.
^ "Body Fluids (Yin Ye)". copyright 2001–2010 by Sacred Lotus Arts.
Retrieved 3 March 2011.
[The (term) jinye comprises all physiological bodily fluids of the
zang-fu and tissues, and physiological secretions, gastric juice,
intestinal juice, saliva, joint fluid, etc. Customarily, this also
includes metabolic products like urine, sweat, tears, etc.] As seen
at: 《中医基础理论》第四章 精、气、血、津液.
第四节 津液 [Basics of TCM theory. Chapter 4: Essence, qi, blood,
jinye. Section 4: jinye] (in Chinese). Retrieved 9 December
^ "Cultural China–Chinese Medicine–Basic Zang Fu Theory". Archived
from the original on 14 March 2011. Retrieved 8 January 2011.
^ by citation from the Huangdi Neijing's Suwen:
the human body's zang-fu, there's yin and yang; the zang are yin, the
fu are yang]. As seen at: 略論臟腑表裏關係 [outline on the
relationships between the zang-fu] (in Chinese). 22 January 2010.
Archived from the original on 18 July 2011. Retrieved 13 December
^ "Cultural China–Chinese Medicine–Basic Zang Fu Theory". Archived
from the original on 14 March 2011. Retrieved 26 February 2011.
[The Six Fu: gallbladder, stomach, small intestine, large intestine,
bladder, sanjiao; "transmit and digest"] as seen at
中醫基礎理論-髒腑學說 [Basics of TCM theory–The zangfu
concept] (in Chinese). 11 June 2010. Archived from the original on 14
July 2011. Retrieved 14 December 2010.
^ Aung, S.K.H. & Chen, W.P.D. (2007): Clinical introduction to
medical acupuncture. Thieme Mecial Publishers.
ISBN 978-1-58890-221-4, pp 15–16
^ a b Aung, S.K.H. & Chen, W.P.D. (2007): Clinical introduction to
medical acupuncture. Thieme Mecial Publishers.
ISBN 978-1-58890-221-4, p. 16
[The jingluo transport qi and blood through the whole body, connecting
the zang-fu with limbs and joints, connecting interior with surface,
up with down, inside with outside ...] as seen at
经络学说的形成 [guide to basic TCM theory: the jing-luo concept
and the emergence of jing-luo theory: the emergence of jing-luo
theory] (in Chinese). Retrieved 13 January 2011.
^ Aung, S.K.H. & Chen, W.P.D. (2007): Clinical introduction to
medical acupuncture. Thieme Mecial Publishers.
ISBN 978-1-58890-221-4, p. 20
^ "（三）十二经脉 ...（四）奇经八脉 ..." [(3.) The
Twelve Vessels ... (4.) The Extraordinary Eight Vessels ...] as seen
at 经络学 [meridian theory] (in Chinese). Archived from the
original on 10 November 2016. Retrieved 22 February 2011.
^ a b c d e f g h i j Flaws, B., & Finney, D., (1996): "A handbook
of TCM patterns & their treatments" Blue Poppy Press. 6th Printing
2007. ISBN 978-0-936185-70-5
^ a b c d e f g h i j k Flaws, Bob (1990): "Sticking to the Point"
Blue Poppy Press. 10th Printing, 2007. ISBN 978-0-936185-17-0
Diagnosis in Chinese Medicine", Giovanni Maciocia, Eastland
Press; Revised edition (June 1995)
^ Maciocia, Giovanni (1989). The Foundations of Chinese Medicine.
^ Peter Deadman and Mazin Al-Khafaji. "Some acupuncture points which
treat disorders of blood", Journal of Chinese Medicine
^ a b c d e f Clavey, Steven (1995): "Fluid physiology and pathology
in traditional Chinese medicine". Elsevier. 2nd edition, 2003.
^ Marcus & Kuchera (2004). Foundations for integrative
musculoskeletal medicine: an east-west approach. North Atlantic Books.
ISBN 978-1-55643-540-9. Retrieved 22 March 2011. p. 159
^ Wiseman & Ellis 1996, pp. 80 & 142
^ Tierra & Tierra 1998, p. 108
^ Cheng, X. (1987). Chinese
Moxibustion (1st ed.).
Foreign Languages Press. ISBN 7-119-00378-X.
^ Wright, Thomas; Eisenberg, David (1995). Encounters with Qi:
exploring Chinese medicine. New York: Norton. pp. 53–4.
^ "ENDANGERED AND ABUSED WILD ANIMALS & The USE OF HERBAL
ALTERNATIVES TO REPLACE ANIMAL DERIVATIVES". Asian Animal Protection
Network. July 26, 2012.
^ a b c Vincent, A. C.; Foster, S. J.; Koldewey, H. J. (2011).
"Conservation and management of seahorses and other Syngnathidae".
Journal of Fish Biology. 78 (6): 1681–724.
doi:10.1111/j.1095-8649.2011.03003.x. PMID 21651523.
^ "The Essentials of Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicine".
www.china.org.cn. Retrieved 2017-01-26.
^ Nigel Wiseman; Ye Feng (2002-08-01). Introduction to English
Terminology of Chinese Medicine. ISBN 9780912111643. Retrieved 10
^ "Nach der Erfahrung des Verfassers bewegen sich in der VR China 99%
der Rezepturen in einem Bereich zwischen 6 und 20 Kräutern; meist
sind es aber zwischen 9 und 18,..." ("According to the author's
experience, 99% of prescriptions in the PR of China range from 6 to 20
herbs; in the majority, however, it is 9 to 12,...") A seen at:
Kiessler, (2005), p. 24
^ "Innerhalb einer Rezeptur wird grob zwischen Haupt- und
Nebenkräuter unterschieden. Bei klassischen Rezepturen existieren
sehr genaue Analysen zur Funktion jeder einzelnen Zutat, die bis zu
drei Kategorien (Chen, Zun und Chi) von Nebenkräutern
differenzieren." ("Regarding the content of the prescription, one can
roughly differentiate between main herbs and ancillary herbs. For
classical prescriptions, detailed analyses exist for the function of
each single ingredient, discriminating between up to three categories
(Chen, Zun, and Chi) of ancillary herbs.") As seen at: Kiessler
(2005), p. 25
^ Certain progress of clinical research on Chinese integrative
medicine, Keji Chen, Bei Yu, Chinese Medical Journal, 1999, 112 (10),
p. 934, 
^ a b Foster, S. & Yue, C. (1992): "Herbal emissaries: bringing
Chinese herbs to the West". Healing Arts Press.
^ Hesketh T, Zhu WX (1997). "Health in China. Traditional Chinese
medicine: one country, two systems". BMJ. 315 (7100): 115–7.
doi:10.1136/bmj.315.7100.115. PMC 2127090 .
^ Lu Feng Fang, Materia Metrica[permanent dead link]
^ a b Still, J. (2003). "Use of animal products in traditional Chinese
medicine: Environmental impact and health hazards". Complementary
therapies in medicine. 11 (2): 118–122.
doi:10.1016/S0965-2299(03)00055-4. PMID 12801499.
^ Nigel Wiseman; Ye Feng (1998). A Practical Dictionary of Chinese
Medicine (2 ed.). Paradigm Publications. p. 904.
^ Facts about traditional Chinese medicine (TCM): rhinoceros horn,
Encyclopædia Britannica, Facts about traditional Chinese medicine
(TCM): rhinoceros horn, as discussed in rhinoceros (mammal): –
Britannica Online Encyclopedia
^ "Poaching for rhino horn". Save The Rhino. Retrieved 25 March
^ "Rhino horn: All myth, no medicine", National Geographic, Rhishja
^ Davies, Ella (13 March 2014). "'Shocking' scale of pangolin
smuggling revealed". Nature News. BBC. Retrieved 1 October 2016.
^ Chen1, Tien-Hsi; Chang2, Hsien-Cheh; Lue, Kuang-Yang (2009).
"Unregulated Trade in Turtle Shells for Chinese Traditional Medicine
in East and Southeast Asia: The Case of Taiwan". Chelonian
Conservation and Biology. 8 (1): 11–18.
^ "NOVA Online Kingdom of the
Seahorse Amanda Vincent". Pbs.org.
^ Chou, Chan Tao (2 April 2013). "Diminishing ray of hope". 101 East.
Al Jazeera English. Retrieved 6 May 2013.
^ a b c Brian K. Weirum,
Special to the Chronicle (2007-11-11). "Will
traditional Chinese medicine mean the end of the wild tiger?".
^ a b c "Rhino rescue plan decimates Asian antelopes".
^ a b c Sheng, X.; Zhang, H.; Weng, Q. (2012). "Traditional Chinese
medicine: China's bear farms prompt public outcry". Nature. 484
(7395): 455. doi:10.1038/484455c. PMID 22538598.
^ a b Andrew Nyakupfuka (1 April 2013). Global Delicacies: Discover
Missing Links from Ancient Hawaiian Teachings to Clean the Plaque of
your Soul and Reach Your Higher Self. Balboa Press. pp. 130–.
^ a b Harding, Andrew (2006-09-23). "Beijing's penis emporium". BBC
^ 2008 report from TRAFFIC
^ "Shark Fin Soup: An Eco-Catastrophe?". Sfgate.com. 2003-01-20.
^ Friesen, David (2012-09-06). "Tradition no defense for shark fin
harvest". Global Times.
^ a b Subhuti Dharmananda. "Endangered Species Issues Affecting
Turtles And Tortoises Used In Chinese Medicine".
^ DNA may weed out toxic Chinese medicine – By Carolyn Herbert –
Australian Broadcasting Corporation – Retrieved 14 April 2012.
^ "China's quest to buy up global supply of donkeys halted by African
^ a b Tierra, Lesley; Tierra, Michael (1998). Chinese traditional
herbal medicine. Twin Lakes, WI: Lotus Light Pub. pp. 225.
^ "Human Drugs" in Chinese
Medicine and the Confucian View: An
Interpretive Study, Jing-Bao Nie, Confucian Bioethics, 2002, Volume
61, Part III, 167–206, doi:10.1007/0-306-46867-0_7, 
^ THE HUMAN BODY AS A NEW COMMODITY, Tsuyoshi Awaya, The Review of
Tokuyama, June, 1999
^ Commodifying bodies, Nancy Scheper-Hughes, Loïc J. D. Wacquant,
^ a b "
Traditional Chinese medicine
Traditional Chinese medicine contains human placenta".
News-Medical.Net. 8 May 2004.
^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s Xu, L. & Wang, W. (2002)
"Chinese materia medica: combinations and applications" Donica
Publishing Ltd. 1st edition. ISBN 978-1-901149-02-9
^ Wu, XY; Tang, JL; Mao, C; Yuan, JQ; Qin, Y; Chung, VC (2013).
"Systematic reviews and meta-analyses of traditional chinese medicine
must search chinese databases to reduce language bias". Evidence-Based
Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2013: 812179.
doi:10.1155/2013/812179. PMC 3816048 .
^ Ma, B; Guo, J; Qi, G; Li, H; Peng, J; Zhang, Y; Ding, Y; Yang, K
(2011). Hartling, Lisa, ed. "Epidemiology, quality and reporting
characteristics of systematic reviews of traditional Chinese medicine
interventions published in Chinese journals". PLoS ONE. 6 (5): e20185.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0020185. PMC 3102106 .
^ James M. Humber; Robert F. Almeder (9 March 2013). Alternative
Medicine and Ethics. Springer Science & Business Media.
pp. 10–. ISBN 978-1-4757-2774-6.
^ Ma, CH; Lin, WL; Lui, SL; Cai, XY; Wong, VT; Ziea, E; Zhang, ZJ
(2013). "Efficacy and safety of Chinese herbal medicine for benign
prostatic hyperplasia: Systematic review of randomized controlled
trials". Asian Journal of Andrology. 15 (4): 471–82.
doi:10.1038/aja.2012.173. PMC 3739225 .
^ Su, CX; Yan, LJ; Lewith, G; Liu, JP (2013). "Chinese herbal medicine
for idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss: A systematic review
of randomised clinical trials". Clinical Otolaryngology. 38 (6):
455–473. doi:10.1111/coa.12198. PMID 24209508.
^ Gu, S; Yang, AW; Xue, CC; Li, CG; Pang, C; Zhang, W; Williams, HC
(2013). Gu, Sherman, ed. "Chinese herbal medicine for atopic eczema".
The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 9 (9): CD008642.
doi:10.1002/14651858.CD008642.pub2. PMID 24018636.
^ Leonti, M; Casu, L (2013). "Traditional medicines and globalization:
Current and future perspectives in ethnopharmacology". Frontiers in
Pharmacology. 4: 92. doi:10.3389/fphar.2013.00092.
PMC 3722488 . PMID 23898296.
^ Liu, X; Zhang, M; He, L; Li, Y (2012). Li, Youping, ed. "Chinese
herbs combined with Western medicine for severe acute respiratory
syndrome (SARS)". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 10:
^ Suo, T; Gu, X; Andersson, R; Ma, H; Zhang, W; Deng, W; Zhang, B;
Cai, D; Qin, X (2012). Qin, Xinyu, ed. "Oral traditional Chinese
medication for adhesive small bowel obstruction". The Cochrane
Database of Systematic Reviews. 5 (5): CD008836.
doi:10.1002/14651858.CD008836.pub2. PMID 22592734.
^ Luo, H; Han, M; Liu, JP (2011). "Systematic review and meta-analysis
of randomized controlled trials of Chinese herbal medicine in the
treatment of Sjogren's syndrome". Zhong xi yi jie he xue bao = Journal
of Chinese integrative medicine. 9 (3): 257–74.
doi:10.3736/jcim20110306. PMID 21419078.
^ Cao, H; Liu, J; Lewith, GT (2010). "Traditional Chinese
treatment of fibromyalgia: A systematic review of randomized
controlled trials". Journal of alternative and complementary medicine.
16 (4): 397–409. doi:10.1089/acm.2009.0599. PMC 3110829 .
^ Li, Q; Chen, X; He, L; Zhou, D (2009). Zhou, Dong, ed. "Traditional
Chinese medicine for epilepsy". The Cochrane Database of Systematic
Reviews (3): CD006454. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD006454.pub2.
^ Zhu, X; Proctor, M; Bensoussan, A; Wu, E; Smith, CA (2008). Zhu,
Xiaoshu, ed. "Chinese herbal medicine for primary dysmenorrhoea". The
Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (2): CD005288.
doi:10.1002/14651858.CD005288.pub3. PMID 18425916.
^ a b c d e Gautam, S. C.; Gao, X; Dulchavsky, S (2007).
"Immunomodulation by Curcumin". The Molecular Targets and Therapeutic
Curcumin in Health and Disease. Advances in Experimental
Medicine and Biology. 595. pp. 321–41.
doi:10.1007/978-0-387-46401-5_14. ISBN 978-0-387-46400-8.
^ Liu, JP; Manheimer, E; Yang, M (2005). Liu, Jian Ping, ed. "Herbal
medicines for treating HIV infection and AIDS". The Cochrane Database
of Systematic Reviews (3): CD003937.
doi:10.1002/14651858.CD003937.pub2. PMID 16034917.
^ Zhuo, Qi; Yuan, Zhengyong; Chen, Hengxi; Wu, Taixiang (2010-05-12).
Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
^ Gan, Tao; Liu, Yue-dong; Wang, Yiping; Yang, Jinlin (2010-10-06).
Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
^ a b Miller, Louis H.; Su, Xinzhuan (2011). "Artemisinin: Discovery
from the Chinese Herbal Garden". Cell. 146 (6): 855–8.
doi:10.1016/j.cell.2011.08.024. PMC 3414217 .
^ a b "Lasker Award Rekindles Debate Over Artemisinin's Discovery
Science/AAAS News". News.sciencemag.org. Retrieved 2014-01-07.
^ Fairhurst, RM; Nayyar, GM; Breman, JG; Hallett, R; Vennerstrom, JL;
Duong, S; Ringwald, P; Wellems, TE; Plowe, CV; Dondorp, AM (2012).
"Artemisinin-resistant malaria: Research challenges, opportunities,
and public health implications". The American Journal of Tropical
Medicine and Hygiene. 87 (2): 231–41.
doi:10.4269/ajtmh.2012.12-0025. PMC 3414557 .
^ a b Chrubasik, C; Jacobson, RL (2010). "The development of
artemisinin resistance in malaria: Reasons and solutions".
Phytotherapy Research. 24 (7): 1104–6. doi:10.1002/ptr.3133.
^ Rao Y, Li R, Zhang D (June 2013). "A drug from poison: how the
therapeutic effect of arsenic trioxide on acute promyelocytic leukemia
was discovered". Sci China Life Sci. 56 (6): 495–502.
doi:10.1007/s11427-013-4487-z. PMID 23645104.
^ Bian Z, Chen S, Cheng C, Wang J, Xiao H, Qin H (2012). "Developing
new drugs from annals of Chinese medicine". Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica
B. 2: 1–7. doi:10.1016/j.apsb.2011.12.007.
^ Zangara, A (2003). "The psychopharmacology of huperzine A: an
alkaloid with cognitive enhancing and neuroprotective properties of
interest in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease". Pharmacol Biochem
Behav. 75 (3): 675–86. doi:10.1016/S0091-3057(03)00111-4.
^ Wang, B.S.; et al. (2009). "Efficacy and safety of natural
acetylcholinesterase inhibitor huperzine A in the treatment of
Alzheimer's disease: an updated meta-analysis". Journal of neural
transmission. 116 (4): 457–65. doi:10.1007/s00702-009-0189-x.
^ Yang, G; Wang, Y; Tian, J; Liu, JP (2013). Scherer, Roberta W, ed.
"Huperzine a for Alzheimer's disease: A systematic review and
meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials". PLoS ONE. 8 (9): e74916.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0074916. PMC 3781107 .
^ Woodburne O. Levy; Kavita Kalidas (26 February 2010). Norman S.
Miller, ed. Principles of Addictions and the Law: Applications in
Forensic, Mental Health, and Medical Practice. Academic Press.
pp. 307–308. ISBN 978-0-12-496736-6.
^ Lock, Margaret (1984). East Asian
Medicine in Urban Japan: Varieties
of Medical Experience. University of California Press; Reprint
edition. ISBN 0-520-05231-5.
^ a b Galena,
^ Bensky, Dan (2004). Chinese Herbal
Medicine Materia Medica (3rd
ed.). Seattle: Eastland Press Inc. p. 1042.
^ Ko, R. J.; Greenwald, M. S.; Loscutoff, S. M.; Au, A. M.; Appel, B.
R.; Kreutzer, R. A.; Haddon, W. F.; Jackson, T. Y.; Boo, F. O.;
Presicek, G (1996). "Lethal ingestion of Chinese herbal tea containing
ch'an su". The Western journal of medicine. 164 (1): 71–5.
PMC 1303306 . PMID 8779214.
^ Byard, R. W. (2010). "A review of the potential forensic
significance of traditional herbal medicines" (PDF). Journal of
Forensic Sciences. 55 (1): 89–92.
doi:10.1111/j.1556-4029.2009.01252.x. PMID 20412155.
^ a b c d Efferth, T; Kaina, B (2011). "Toxicities by herbal medicines
with emphasis to traditional Chinese medicine". Current drug
metabolism. 12 (10): 989–96. doi:10.2174/138920011798062328.
^ Yuan, X; Chapman, R. L.; Wu, Z (2011). "Analytical methods for heavy
metals in herbal medicines". Phytochemical Analysis. 22 (3): 189–98.
doi:10.1002/pca.1287. PMID 21341339.
^ Ernst E (2002). "Adulteration of Chinese herbal medicines with
synthetic drugs: a systematic review". J Intern Med (Systematic
Review). 252 (2): 107–13. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2796.2002.00999.x.
^ Ko, RJ; Greenwald, MS; Loscutoff, SM; Au, AM; Appel, BR; Kreutzer,
RA; Haddon, WF; Jackson, TY; et al. (1996). "Lethal ingestion of
Chinese herbal tea containing ch'an su". The Western journal of
medicine. 164 (1): 71–5. PMC 1303306 .
Acupuncture Today". Acupuncturetoday.com. Retrieved
^ Tsuneo, N; Yonghua, M; Kenji, I (1988). "Insect derived crude drugs
in the chinese Song dynasty". Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 24
(2–3): 247–85. doi:10.1016/0378-8741(88)90157-2.
^ Wang, X.P.; Yang, R.M. (2003). "Movement Disorders Possibly Induced
by Traditional Chinese Herbs". European Neurology. 50 (3): 153–9.
doi:10.1159/000073056. PMID 14530621.
^ a b Genuis, S. J.; Schwalfenberg, G; Siy, A. K.; Rodushkin, I
(2012). "Toxic element contamination of natural health products and
pharmaceutical preparations". PLoS ONE. 7 (11): e49676.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0049676. PMC 3504157 .
^ Mercury and Chinese herbal medicine, H.C. George Wong, MD, BCMJ,
Vol. 46, No. 9, November 2004, page(s) 442 Letters.
^ Huang, C. F.; Hsu, C. J.; Liu, S. H.; Lin-Shiau, S. Y. (2012).
"Exposure to low dose of cinnabar (a naturally occurring mercuric
sulfide (HgS)) caused neurotoxicological effects in offspring mice".
Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology. 2012: 254582.
doi:10.1155/2012/254582. PMC 3408718 .
^ Encyclopedic Reference of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Xinrong
Yang, p. 8, 
^ Gill, S. K.; Rieder, M. J. (2008). "Toxicity of a traditional
Chinese medicine, Ganoderma lucidum, in children with cancer".
Canadian Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. 15 (2): e275–e285.
^ Abolaji, AO; Eteng, MU; Ebong, PE; Brisibe, EA; Dar, A; Kabir, N;
Choudhary, MI (2013). "A safety assessment of the antimalarial herb
Artemisia annua during pregnancy in Wistar rats". Phytotherapy
Research. 27 (5): 647–54. doi:10.1002/ptr.4760.
^ Zhao, P.; Wang, C.; Liu, W.; Chen, G.; Liu, X.; Wang, X.; Wang, B.;
Yu, L.; Sun, Y.; Liang, X.; Yang, H.; Zhang, F. (2013). Avila, Matias
A, ed. "Causes and Outcomes of Acute Liver Failure in China". PLoS
ONE. 8 (11): e80991. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0080991.
PMC 3838343 . PMID 24278360.
Acupuncture – Consensus Development Conference Statement".
National Institutes of Health. 5 November 1997.
^ Novak, Patricia D.; Dorland, Norman W.; Dorland, William Alexander
Dorland's Pocket Medical Dictionary (25th ed.).
Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders. ISBN 978-0-7216-5738-7.
^ "CFR - Code of Federal Regulations Title 21". FDA US Food and Drug
Administration. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
Retrieved 4 March 2018.
Acupuncture Today". Acupuncturetoday.com. Retrieved
^ "Moxibustion". American Cancer Society. 8 March 2011. Retrieved 15
^ Robertson, Valma J; Robertson, Val; Low, John; Ward, Alex; Reed, Ann
(2006). Electrotherapy explained: principles and practice. Elsevier
Health Sciences. ISBN 978-0-7506-8843-7.
^ a b c Colquhoun, D; Novella S (2013). "
Acupuncture is a theatrical
placebo: the end of a myth" (pdf). Anesthesia & Analgesia. 116
(6): 1360–1363. doi:10.1213/ANE.0b013e31828f2d5e.
^ a b U.S. National Institute of Health. "Complementary and
Alternative Medicine: Questions and Answers About Acupuncture".
National Cancer Institute. U.S. Department of Health and Human
Services. Retrieved 4 March 2018.
^ Vickers, AJ; et al. (2012). "
Acupuncture for chronic pain:
individual patient data meta-analysis". JAMA Internal Medicine. 172
(19): 1444–53. doi:10.1001/archinternmed.2012.3654.
PMC 3658605 . PMID 22965186.
^ Jha, Alok (10 September 2012). "
Acupuncture useful, but overall of
little benefit, study shows". The Guardian.
^ Colquhoun, David (17 September 2012). "Re: Risks of acupuncture
range from stray needles to pneumothorax, finds study". BMJ.
^ Lee, MS; Ernst, E (2011). "
Acupuncture for pain: An overview of
Cochrane reviews". Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine. 17 (3):
187–9. doi:10.1007/s11655-011-0665-7. PMID 21359919.
^ Rubinstein SM, van Middelkoop M, Kuijpers T, SM; Van Middelkoop, M;
Kuijpers, T; Ostelo, R; Verhagen, AP; De Boer, MR; Koes, BW; Van
Tulder, MW; et al. (2010). "A systematic review on the effectiveness
of complementary and alternative medicine for chronic non-specific
low-back pain". Eur Spine J. 19 (8): 1213–28.
doi:10.1007/s00586-010-1356-3. PMC 2989199 .
PMID 20229280. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list
^ Singh, S; Ernst E (2008). "The Truth about Acupuncture". Trick or
treatment: The undeniable facts about alternative medicine. W. W.
Norton & Company. pp. 103–106. ISBN 978-0-393-06661-6.
"These initial conclusions have generally been disappointing for
acupuncturists: They provide no convincing evidence that real
acupuncture is significantly more effective than placebo." (p.
^ Madsen, M. V.; Gøtzsche, P. C.; Hróbjartsson, A. (2009).
Acupuncture treatment for pain: systematic review of randomised
clinical trials with acupuncture, placebo acupuncture, and no
acupuncture groups". BMJ. 338: a3115. doi:10.1136/bmj.a3115.
PMC 2769056 . PMID 19174438.
^ a b Xu, Shifen; et al. (2013). "Adverse Events of Acupuncture: A
Systematic Review of Case Reports". Evidence Based Complementary and
Alternative Medicine. 2013: 1–15. doi:10.1155/2013/581203.
PMC 3616356 . PMID 23573135.
^ Ernst, E; et al. (2011). "Acupuncture: Does it alleviate pain and
are there serious risks? A review of reviews". Pain. 152 (4):
755–64. doi:10.1016/j.pain.2010.11.004. PMID 21440191.
^ Centeno, James I. (27 January 2017). "Ping Ming Traditional Chinese
Medicine". Milliman. 520 (Stockton): 23. Retrieved 1 February
^ Holland, Alex (2000). Voices of Qi: An Introductory Guide to
Traditional Chinese Medicine. North Atlantic Books.
^ Silva, L., Schalock, M., Ayres, R., Bunse, C., & Budden, S.
Qigong Massage Treatment for Sensory and Self-Regulation
Problems in Young Children with Autism: A Randomized Controlled Trial.
American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 63, 423–432
^ Silva, L., Schalock, M. & Gabrielsen, K. (2011). Early
Intervention for Autism with a Parent-delivered
Program: A Randomized Controlled Trial. American Journal of
Occupational Therapy, 65(5):550–559.
^ "Cupping". American Cancer Society. November 2008. Archived from the
original on 22 December 2012. Retrieved 4 October 2013.
^ Singh, Simon; Ernst, Edzard (2008). Trick or Treatment. Transworld
Publishers. p. 368. ISBN 9780552157629.
^ "GuaSha Treatment of Disease". Tcmwell.com. Retrieved
^ Eat Balanced, Stay Healthy, from GBtimes
William Dufty (1975) Sugar Blues, page 182
^ http://www.chinesemedicineboard.gov.au Chinese
Medicine Board of
^ "CTCMA". College of Traditional Chinese
Medicine Practitioners and
Acupuncturists of British Columbia. Archived from the original on 14
October 2012. Retrieved 25 May 2013.
^ "Traditional Chinese
Medicine Act, 2006". S.O. 2006, c. 27.
^ The Chinese
Medicine Council of Hong Kong Hong Kong Registered
Medicine Practitioner licensure requirements
Portal of Traditional & Complementary Medicine
Division, Ministry of Health, Malaysia". Retrieved 7 February
^ "Traditional and Complementary
Medicine Act" (PDF). National
Pharmaceutical Regulatory Agency, Ministry of Health, Malaysia. 2015.
Retrieved 7 February 2017.
^ "Registration Requirements for the Registration of TCM
^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 22 May 2012.
Retrieved 8 July 2012. California
^ a b Menteri Kesehatan Republik Indonesia. 2003. KEPUTUSAN MENTERI
KESEHATAN REPUBLIK INDONESIA NOMOR 1076/MENKES/SK/VII/2003 TENTANG
PENYELENGGARAAN PENGOBATAN TRADISIONAL Archived 10 December 2015 at
the Wayback Machine.. (in Indonesian)
^ Cheta Nilawaty dan Rini Kustiati. 13 August 2012. TEMPO, Belum Ada
Aturan Soal Klinik Pengobatan Cina. (in Indonesian)
Singh, S; Ernst, E (2008). Trick or Treatment: Alternative
Trial. London: Bantam. ISBN 9780593061299.
Wikiquote has quotations related to: Traditional Chinese medicine
Baran GR, Kiana MF, Samuel SP (2014). Chapter 2: Science,
Pseudoscience, and Not Science: How Do They Differ?. Healthcare and
Biomedical Technology in the 21st Century. Springer. pp. 19–57.
doi:10.1007/978-1-4614-8541-4_2. ISBN 978-1-4614-8540-7.
McGrew, Roderick. Encyclopedia of Medical History (1985), brief
history pp 56–59
Needham, Joseph (2000). Sivin, Nathan, ed. Medicine. Science and
Civilisation in China. Volume 6, Biology and Biological Technology.
Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-63262-1.
Novella, Steve (25 January 2012). "What Is Traditional Chinese
Medicine?". Science-Based Medicine. Retrieved 14 April 2014.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Traditional Chinese medicine.
Medicinal Plant Images Database School of Chinese Medicine, Hong Kong
Baptist University (in traditional Chinese)
Medicine Specimen Database School of Chinese Medicine, Hong
Kong Baptist University (in traditional Chinese)
Scientific literary review on TCM, PDF, 133 pages Compiled by AQTN
Siddha (South Indian)
& Middle Eastern
Traditional Chinese medicine
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM)
Chinese massage (Tuina)
Yin and yang
Organs in Chinese medicine
Hua Tuo (141-208)
Li Shizhen (1518-1593)
Sun Simiao (581–682)
Zhang Jiegu (ca. 1140-1220)
Zhang Zhongjing (ca. 150-219)
Contemporary related topics
Health in China
Healthcare system reform
Tobacco Control Association
Patriotic Health Campaign
China Welfare Institute
Hospitals in China
Medicine and pharmaceutical
Traditional Chinese medicine
Enterovirus 71 (EV71)
lead poisoning scandal
SARS (outbreak progress)
Swine influenza outbreak
National Health Commission
Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention
China Drug Administration
State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine
Hong Kong Department of Health *
Macau Secretariat for Social Affairs and Culture *
General Administration of Customs
Other related issues
Illegal drug trade
Violence against doctors in China
Water supply and sanitation
China-Cornell-Oxford Project (The China Study)
China Health and Nutrition Survey
China Family Panel Studies
China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study
* Of special administrative regions