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Trịnh lords
Trịnh lords
(Vietnamese: Chúa Trịnh; Chữ Nôm: 主鄭; 1545–1787), also known as Trịnh clan or House of Trịnh, were a noble feudal clan who were the de-facto rulers of northern Vietnam (namely Đàng Ngoài) while Nguyễn clan ruled the southern Vietnam (namely Đàng Trong) during the Later Lê dynasty
Later Lê dynasty
. Both of two rulers referred to themselves as Chúa (lord) and controlled their countries while the Later Lê emperors did not have any real power, only maintained their title. [1] The Trịnh lords
Trịnh lords
traced their descent from Trịnh Khả, a friend and advisor to the 15th-century Vietnamese Emperor Lê Lợi. The Trịnh clan had officially 12 lords that ruled Northern Vietnam
Vietnam
and the royal court of Later Lê dynasty for more than 2 centuries.

Contents

1 The Founding of Trịnh clan

1.1 Power rising of Trịnh family 1.2 The origin of Trịnh clan

2 Strengthen Trịnh family's power

2.1 Elimination of Nguyễn clan 2.2 Making Lê dynasty
Lê dynasty
as figurehead

3 Lê - Mạc civil war

3.1 The Trịnh–Nguyễn Alliance

4 The Trịnh take power 5 The Trịnh–Nguyễn War 6 The Long Peace 7 Tây Sơn
Tây Sơn
Revolt 8 Relations with the outside world 9 Assessment 10 Chronological list of Trịnh lords 11 See also 12 References 13 External links

The Founding of Trịnh clan[edit] Power rising of Trịnh family[edit] After the death of emperor Lê Hiến Tông
Lê Hiến Tông
in 1504, Lê dynasty
Lê dynasty
began to decline. Most of emperors was died young, cruel personality or lack of good leadership. In 1527, Power-usurping courtier Mạc Đăng Dung gained the opportunity to make a coup on Lê dynasty
Lê dynasty
and seized the throne of emperor Lê Cung Hoàng and established Mạc dynasty
Mạc dynasty
ruling kingdom of Đại Việt. In 1533, a general and Lê royalist Nguyễn Kim uprose to make revolution against Mạc clan in Thanh Hóa
Thanh Hóa
and restore the Lê dynasty. Then, he tried to find the royal successor of Lê dynasty
Lê dynasty
who was the son of emperor Lê Chiêu Tông, prince Lê Duy Ninh and he was enthroned with the title Lê Trang Tông. After 5 years of revolution, Most of the southern region of Đại Việt were captured by Revival Lê dynasty
Revival Lê dynasty
but not the capital city Thăng Long The origin of Trịnh clan[edit] The founder of clan was Trịnh Kiểm, born in Vĩnh Lộc commune, Thanh Hóa
Thanh Hóa
province. Trịnh Kiểm
Trịnh Kiểm
was raised in the poor family. He usually stole chickens of neighbors because this is the favorite food of his mother. His neighbors found out this issue and put more hatred on him. One day, when he left home, his neighbors caught his mother and threw her down to abyss. Trịnh Kiểm
Trịnh Kiểm
returned home and got into panic of his mother disappearance. Until he found her out, her body was invaded by maggot. After the death of his mother, he joined the army of revival Lê dynasty
Lê dynasty
led by Nguyễn Kim. Because of his talent, Nguyễn Kim
Nguyễn Kim
allowed him to marry Kim's daughter Ngọc Bảo and became Kim's son-in-law. In 1539, he was promoted as general with title Duke of Dực (Dực quận công). In 1545, after the assassination of Nguyễn Kim, Trịnh Kiểm
Trịnh Kiểm
replaced his father-in-law to control the Lê dynasty
Lê dynasty
royal court and military. Strengthen Trịnh family's power[edit] Elimination of Nguyễn clan[edit]

Vietnam
Vietnam
circa 1540, showing the Mạc in control of the north (pink) while the Nguyễn-Trịnh alliance controls the south (yellow). Champa
Champa
(green) was a vassal state

In spite of the threat of Mạc dynasty
Mạc dynasty
in the north, the priority of Trịnh Kiểm
Trịnh Kiểm
was eliminated the power of Nguyễn clan. He ordered people to murder the oldest son of Nguyễn Kim
Nguyễn Kim
(Nguyễn Uông). The second son of Kim, Nguyễn Hoàng
Nguyễn Hoàng
feared that he would face the death like his brother so he requested Trịnh Kiểm
Trịnh Kiểm
to let him move to the south to guard the Thuận Hóa province. Trịnh Kiểm
Trịnh Kiểm
was afraid of gossip against him if he murders both brothers. Beside that, Thuận Hóa had a far distance from the capital city and it would be more opportunity for Trịnh Kiểm
Trịnh Kiểm
to control the whole government. Eventually, Trịnh Kiểm
Trịnh Kiểm
accepted to let Nguyễn Hoàng
Nguyễn Hoàng
to guard Thuận Hóa. Trịnh Kiểm
Trịnh Kiểm
established Trịnh lords
Trịnh lords
regime and firmly manipulated the Lê dynasty
Lê dynasty
government whereas Nguyễn Hoàng escaped to Thuận Hóa province and install his own regime Nguyễn lords in the south to against the rule of Trịnh family in the north. Making Lê dynasty
Lê dynasty
as figurehead[edit]

the map of Vietnam
Vietnam
circa 1569, showing the Mạc in control of the north (green) while the Lê-Trịnh alliance controlled the middle (yellow) and Nguyễn controlled the south(orange) .

In 1556, emperor Lê Trung Tông passed away without heir, Trịnh Kiểm aimed to seized the throne of Lê dynasty
Lê dynasty
but he was still worried about public opinion. Therefore; he seek to the advice of former mandarin Nguyễn Bỉnh Khiêm
Nguyễn Bỉnh Khiêm
who was living a secluded life. Nguyễn Bỉnh Khiêm
Nguyễn Bỉnh Khiêm
advised Trịnh Kiểm
Trịnh Kiểm
should not take the throne of Lê dynasty
Lê dynasty
although this government was just a puppet. Trịnh Kiểm
Trịnh Kiểm
decided to enthrone one of Lê royal member namely Lê Duy Bang, who was 6th generation of Lê Trừ (older brother of emperor Lê Thái Tổ). Lê Duy Bang took throne with the title Lê Anh Tông and Trịnh clan continually controlled the government with emperor as the figurehead. In 1570, Trịnh Kiểm
Trịnh Kiểm
passed away and there was the power struggle between two of his sons Trịnh Cối and Trịnh Tùng. Then, both of them fought each other in the war. Simultaneously, the army of Mạc attacked Lê dynasty
Lê dynasty
from the north and Trịnh Cối was surrendered to Mạc dynasty.Emperor of Mạc The emperor Lê Anh Tông supported Trịnh Cối to become the next Trịnh lords
Trịnh lords
and cooperate with him to defeat Trịnh Tùng. Trịnh Tùng
Trịnh Tùng
found out this conspiracy then emperor Lê Anh Tông with 4 sons had to flee to the other places. Later, Trịnh Tùng
Trịnh Tùng
enthroned the youngest son of emperor, prince Đàm as the next emperor with title Lê Thế Tông. After that, Trịnh Tùng
Trịnh Tùng
searched and capture emperor Lê Anh Tông and murder him. Lê - Mạc civil war[edit] The Trịnh–Nguyễn Alliance[edit] In 1520, fearing the ambition of Mạc Đăng Dung, the Nguyễn and the Trịnh left the capital Hanoi
Hanoi
(then called Đông Đô) and fled south, taking the young new Emperor Lê Chiêu Tông "under their protection". This was the start of a civil war with Mạc Đăng Dung and his supporters on one side and the Trịnh/Nguyễn supporters on the other side. Thanh Hóa
Thanh Hóa
Province, the ancestral home to the Trịnh and the Nguyễn, was the battle ground between the two sides. After several years of warfare, Tông was assassinated in 1524 by Mạc Đăng Dung's supporters. A short time later, the resistance collapsed and both the Trịnh and the Nguyễn leaders were executed. However, this was just the end of the first phase of the civil war because in 1527 Mạc Đăng Dung
Mạc Đăng Dung
usurped the throne. He killed his own puppet Emperor Lê Cung Hoàng and started a new dynasty, the Mạc dynasty. Within months the civil war broke out anew. Both the Trịnh and Nguyễn clans again took up arms in Thanh Hóa
Thanh Hóa
province and revolted against the Mạc. The leader of this second revolt was Nguyễn Kim. His daughter then married the new young leader of the Trịnh clan Trịnh Kiểm. Within five years, all of the region south of the Red River was under the control of the Nguyễn–Trịnh army but the two families were unable to conquer Ha Noi (known as "Thăng Long" at that time).[citation needed] The armies of Nguyễn Kim
Nguyễn Kim
and Trịnh Kiểm
Trịnh Kiểm
captured the summer palace and crowned their own puppet Lê emperor, Lê Trang Tông, in 1533 (in Vietnamese histories this date marks the beginning of the second half of the Later Lê dynasty). The war raged back and forth with the Nguyễn–Trịnh army on one side and the Mạc on the other until an official Ming delegation determined that Mạc Đăng Dung's usurpation of power was not justified. In 1537, a very large Ming army was sent to restore the Lê family. Although Mạc Đăng Dung managed to negotiate his way out of defeat by the Ming, he had to officially recognize the Lê emperor and the Nguyễn–Trịnh rule over the southern part of Vietnam. But the Nguyễn–Trịnh alliance did not accept the Mạc rule over the northern half of the country and so the war continued. In 1541, Mạc Đăng Dung
Mạc Đăng Dung
died. The Trịnh take power[edit] In 1545, Nguyễn Kim
Nguyễn Kim
was assassinated by an agent of the Mạc. Trịnh Kiểm
Trịnh Kiểm
took this opportunity to assert control over the Nguyễn-Trịnh army. The Trịnh captured more and more of Vietnam from 1545 onwards (nominally fighting on behalf of a new Lê Emperor). Kim had two sons. The younger, Nguyễn Hoàng, was put in charge of new southern provinces of Vietnam
Vietnam
in the year 1558. He was to rule the southern lands for the next 55 years and his descendants ruled them for the next 150 years. In 1570, Trịnh Kiểm
Trịnh Kiểm
died and was succeeded by his second son Trịnh Tùng. Tùng was a very vigorous leader and he captured Hanoi from the Mạc Emperor in 1572. However, the Mạc Emperor (Mạc Mau Hop) recaptured the city the next year. The war continued at a low level for two decades, the Trịnh gradually gaining strength, the Mạc gradually weakening. In 1592, Tùng launched a major invasion and again captured Hanoi. This time the Royal (Trịnh) army captured the Mạc Emperor and executed him. Over the next few years the remaining Mạc armies were defeated in battles. In this "mopping-up" campaign, the Trịnh were helped by the Nguyễn army. As the years passed, Hoàng became increasingly secure in his rule over the southern province and increasingly independent. While he cooperated with the Trịnh against the Mạc, he ruled the frontier lands as a king. With the final conquest of the north, the independence of the Nguyễn was less and less tolerable to the Trịnh. In 1600, with the ascension of a new Emperor, Lê Kinh Tông, Hoàng broke relations with the Trịnh-dominated court, although he continued to acknowledge the Lê emperor. Matters continued like this until Hoàng's death in 1613.[citation needed] The historical victory of the Trịnh' over the Mạc was a common theme in public Vietnamese theaters.[2] The Trịnh–Nguyễn War[edit] Main article: Trịnh–Nguyễn War

Vietnam
Vietnam
circa 1640, showing (roughly) the areas controlled by the Trịnh, Nguyễn, Mạc, and Champa

The model of naval battle ship during Trịnh's era in XVII.

In 1620, after the enthronement of another figurehead Lê Emperor (Lê Than Tông), the new Nguyễn leader, Nguyễn Phúc Nguyên, refused to send tax money to the court in Đông Đô. In 1623, Trịnh Tung died, he was succeed by his oldest son Trịnh Tráng. After five years of increasingly hostile talk, fighting broke out between the Trịnh and the Nguyễn in 1627. While the Trịnh ruled over much more populous territory, the Nguyễn had several advantages. First, they initially were on the defensive and rarely launched operations into the north. Second, the Nguyễn were able to take advantage of their contacts with the Europeans, specifically the Portuguese, to produce advanced cannons with the help of European engineers (for more details, see Artillery of the Nguyễn lords). Third, the geography was favorable to them, as the flat land suitable for large organized armies is very narrow at the border between the Nguyễn lands and the Trinh territories - the mountains nearly reach to the sea. After the first offensive was beaten off after four months of battle, the Nguyễn built two massive fortified lines that stretched a few miles from the sea to the hills. These walls were built north of Huế (between the Nhật Lệ River and the Sông Hương River). The walls were about 20 feet tall and seven miles long. The Nguyễn defended these lines against numerous Trịnh offensives that lasted (off and on) from 1631 till 1673, when Trịnh Tạc concluded a peace treaty with the Nguyễn Lord, Nguyễn Phúc Tần, dividing Vietnam
Vietnam
between the two ruling families. This division continued for the next 100 years.[citation needed] The Long Peace[edit]

Silk painting of Trịnh Đình Kiên (1715 - 1786) in 18th century, exhibited in Vietnam
Vietnam
National Museum of Fine Arts.

The Trịnh lords
Trịnh lords
ruled reasonably well, maintaining the fiction that the Lê monarch was the emperor. However, they selected and replaced the emperor as they saw fit, having the hereditary right to appoint many of the top government officials. Unlike the Nguyễn lords, who engaged in frequent wars with the Khmer Empire
Khmer Empire
and Siam, the Trịnh lords maintained fairly peaceable relations with neighboring states. In 1694, the Trịnh lords
Trịnh lords
got involved in a war in Laos, which turned into a multi-sided war with several different Laotian factions as well as the Siamese army. A decade later, Laos
Laos
had settled into an uneasy peace with three new Lao kingdoms paying tribute to both Vietnam
Vietnam
and Siam. Trịnh Căn and Trịnh Cương made many reforms of the government, trying to make it better, but these reforms made the government more powerful and more of a burden to the people which increased their dislike of the government. During the wasteful and inept rule of Trịnh Giang, peasant revolts became more and more frequent. The key problem was a lack of land to farm, though Giang made the situation worse by his actions. The reign of his successor Trịnh Doanh was preoccupied with putting down peasant revolts and wiping out armed gangs which terrorized the countryside.[citation needed] Business by the Dutch East India company
Dutch East India company
was ceased with the Trịnh lords on 1700.[3][4] Tây Sơn
Tây Sơn
Revolt[edit]

Lord Trịnh Sâm
Trịnh Sâm
and Lady Đặng Thị Huệ
Đặng Thị Huệ
having a tea party at Tả Vọng pavillon.

Depiction of 17th century Vietnamese vessels' basic configuration

The long peace came to an end with the Tây Sơn
Tây Sơn
revolt in the south against the Trương Phúc Loan, the regent of the Nguyễn Lord, Nguyễn Phúc Thuần (1765–1777). The Tây Sơn
Tây Sơn
rebellion was looked upon by the Trịnh lord, Trịnh Sâm, as a chance to finally put an end to the Nguyễn rule over the south of Vietnam. As was usual, a dynastic struggle among the Nguyễn had put a weak 12-year-old boy in power. The real ruler was the corrupt regent named Trương Phúc Loan. Using the evil rule of the regent as an excuse for intervention, in 1774, the hundred-year truce was ended and the Trịnh army attacked. Trịnh Sâm's army did what no previous Trịnh army had done and conquered the Nguyễn capital, Phú Xuân (modern-day Huế), early in 1775. The Trịnh army advanced south but after some fighting with the Tây Sơn, a truce was reached. This truce allowed the Tây Sơn
Tây Sơn
army to conquere the rest of the Nguyễn lands. The Nguyễn lords
Nguyễn lords
retreated to Saigon
Saigon
but even this city was captured in 1776 and the Nguyễn clan was nearly wiped out. However, the Tây Sơn
Tây Sơn
were not willing to be servants of the Trịnh Lords and after a decade consolidating their power base in the south, the chief Tây Sơn
Tây Sơn
brother Nguyễn Huệ
Nguyễn Huệ
marched into north Vietnam
Vietnam
in 1786 at the head of a large army.[citation needed] The Trịnh themselves were fatally divided at this time by a struggle for power following the death of Trịnh Sâm
Trịnh Sâm
in 1782. The Trịnh army refused to even fight the powerful army of Nguyễn Huệ. The new Trịnh lord, Trịnh Khải, fled from his rebellious army and then committed suicide after being captured by a small band of rebellious peasants. The last Lê Emperor, Lê Chiêu Tông, fled to China and formally petitioned the Qianlong Emperor
Qianlong Emperor
of the Qing Empire, for aid against the peasant usurpers. The Qianlong Emperor
Qianlong Emperor
responded by sending a large army into Vietnam
Vietnam
to restore the Lê Emperor. The Qing army captured Thăng Long
Thăng Long
in 1788. The last Trịnh lord, Trịnh Bong, took the position as de facto ruler but this was short-lived. Nguyễn Huế
Huế
was able to rally his forces and, like Lê Lợi
Lê Lợi
before him, he inflicted a crushing defeat on the Qing army. The Qing forces retreated, leaving Nguyễn Huệ
Nguyễn Huệ
(now calling himself Quang Trung) in control of a united Vietnam. The Lê family fled north to China along with the Trịnh family. About 100 years later (after the French took Vietnam
Vietnam
as a colony), the last of the Trịnh returned to Vietnam
Vietnam
as ordinary citizens.[citation needed] Relations with the outside world[edit]

Map of Vietnam
Vietnam
in the 18th century, published by a Dutch company in Amsterdam around 1760.

In 1620, the French Jesuit scholar Alexandre de Rhodes
Alexandre de Rhodes
arrived in Trịnh-controlled Vietnam. He arrived at a mission which had been established at the court in Hanoi
Hanoi
around 1615 (Tigers in the Rice by W. Sheldon (1969), p. 26). The priest was a significant person regarding relations between Europe and Vietnam. He gained thousands of converts, created a script for writing Vietnamese using a modified version of the European alphabet, and built several churches. However, by 1630 the new Trịnh lord, Trịnh Trang, decided that Father de Rhodes represented a threat to Vietnamese society and forced him to leave the country. From this point on, the Trịnh Lords periodically tried to suppress Christianity
Christianity
in Vietnam, with moderate success. When the Nguyễn successfully used Portuguese cannon to defend their walls, the Trịnh made contact with the Dutch. The Dutch were willing to sell advanced cannons to the Trịnh. The Dutch, and later the Germans, set up trading posts in Hanoi. For a time, Dutch trade was profitable but after the war with the Nguyễn ended in 1673, the demand for European weapons rapidly declined. By 1700, the Dutch and English trading posts closed forever. The Trịnh were careful in their dealings with the Ming dynasty
Ming dynasty
and Manchu-led Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
of China. Unlike the Nguyễn Lords who were happy to accept large numbers of Ming refugees into their lands, the Trịnh did not. When the Manchus conquered China and therefore extended the Qing Empire's borders to Northern Vietnam, the Trịnh treated them just like they had treated the Ming Emperors, sending tribute and formal acknowledgements of Qing authority. The Manchus intervened twice during the rule of the Trịnh Lords, once in 1537, and again in 1788. Both times, the Manchus sent an army south because of a formal request for help from the Lê emperors - and both times the intervention was unsuccessful.[citation needed] Assessment[edit]

The Trịnh Lords were, for the most part, intelligent, able, industrious, and long-lived rulers. The unusual dual form of government they developed over two centuries was a creative response to the internal and external obstacles to their rule. They lacked, however, both the power and the moral authority to resolve the contradictions inherent in their system of ruling without reigning. (Encyclopedia of Asian History, "The Trịnh Lords").

It does seem the case that the Trịnh had lost nearly all popularity in the last half of the 18th century. While the Nguyễn lords, or at least Nguyễn Anh, enjoyed a great deal of support - as his repeated attempts to regain power in the south show - there was no equivalent support for the Trịnh in the north after the Tây Sơn
Tây Sơn
took power (Vietnam, Trials and Tribulations of a Nation D. R. SarDesai, pg. 39, 1988). Chronological list of Trịnh lords[edit]

History of Vietnam

2879–258 BC Hồng Bàng dynasty

2879–1913 BC • Early Hồng Bàng

1912–1055 BC • Mid Hồng Bàng

1054–258 BC • Late Hồng Bàng

257–179 BC Thục dynasty

207–111 BC Triệu dynasty

111 BC–40 AD 1st Chinese domination

40–43 Trưng Sisters

43–544 2nd Chinese domination

544–602 Early Lý dynasty

602–938 3rd Chinese domination

939–967 Ngô dynasty

968–980 Đinh dynasty

980–1009 Early Lê dynasty

1009–1225 Later Lý dynasty

1225–1400 Trần dynasty

1400–1407 Hồ dynasty

1407–1427 4th Chinese domination

1407–1413 • Later Trần dynasty

1428–1788 Later Lê dynasty

1527–1592 • Mạc dynasty

1545–1787 • Trịnh lords

1558–1777 • Nguyễn lords

1778–1802 Tây Sơn
Tây Sơn
dynasty

1802–1945 Nguyễn dynasty

1858–1954 French Indochina

1945 Empire of Vietnam

From 1945 Republic

1945–1976 • North Vietnam (Democratic Republic of Vietnam)

1955–1975 • South Vietnam (Republic of Vietnam)

1975–1976 • Viet Cong-occupied South Vietnam

From 1976 Unification of Vietnam

Further subjects

Champa
Champa
dynasties (192–1832) Funan (68–550) Chenla
Chenla
(550–802) Historical capitals Prehistoric and ancient cultures List of monarchs Country's names Economic history Military history

v t e

Trịnh Kiểm
Trịnh Kiểm
- Ruled 1545–70. He was the founder of Trịnh lord. He ruled across the reigns of three figurehead emperors Lê Trang Tông (1533–48), Lê Trung Tông (1548–56), and Lê Anh Tông (1556–73). He has never declared himself as Trịnh Lord during his reign, therefore he was not officially the first Trịnh Lord. Died 1570. Trịnh Cối Ruled 1570–70. The eldest son of Trịnh Kiểm, ineffective, lost to the Mạc, deposed shortly thereafter by his younger brother Trịnh Tùng. Due to his betrayal, Trịnh Cối was excluded from Trịnh family and not considered as a Trịnh Lord. Trịnh Tùng
Trịnh Tùng
- Ruled 1570–1623. A most active and successful leader. He was the first official Trịnh Lord. He ruled across the reigns of several nominal Emperors: Lê The Tông (1573–99), Lê Kính Tông (1600–19), and the first reign of Lê Thần Tông (1619–43). Trịnh Tráng - Ruled 1623–57. He ruled across the reigns of several nominal Emperors: Lê Chân Tông (1643–1649), and the second reign of Lê Thần Tông (again: 1649-62). Trịnh Tạc - Ruled 1657–82. He ruled over the reign of figureheads Lê Huyền Tông (1663–71), Lê Gia Tông (1672–1675) and Lê Hy Tông
Lê Hy Tông
(1676–1704). Trịnh Căn - Ruled 1682–1709 with the name/title "Định Nam Vương". Trịnh Cương - Ruled 1709–29 with the name/title "Hy Tổ Nhân vương ". Ruled across the reign of Lê Dụ Tông
Lê Dụ Tông
(1705–1728) and Hôn Đức Công (1729–32). Trịnh Giang - Ruled 1729–40 with the title "Uy Nam Vương". He ruled over the reign of Lê Thuần Tông (1732–1735) and Lê Ý Tông (1735–40) but was deposed due to poor leadership. Trịnh Doanh - Ruled 1740–67 with the title "Minh Đô Vương". He ruled across part of the reign of Lê Hiển Tông Trịnh Sâm
Trịnh Sâm
- Ruled 1767–82 with the name/title "Tĩnh Đô Vương". He ruled across part of the reign of Lê Hien Tông (1740–1786). Trịnh Cán - Ruled September - October 1782, defeated by his half-brother Trịnh Khải. Trịnh Khải - Ruled 1782–86 with the name/title "Đoan Nam Vương". Trịnh Bồng - Ruled 1786–87 with the name/title "Án Đô Vương ". He was the last Trịnh Lord. In power only briefly due to the Later Lê dynasty
Later Lê dynasty
reclaiming its power; he later disappeared.

See also[edit]

List of Vietnamese dynasties

References[edit]

^ Chapuis, Oscar. A History of Vietnam: From Hong Bang to Tự Đức. Greenwood Publishing Group, 1995. p119ff. [1] ^ Knosp, Gaston (1902). "Das annamitische Theater". Globus. 82 (1): 11–15. ISSN 0935-0535.  ^ Anh Tuan, Hoang. "Letter from the King of Tonkin concerning the termination of the trading relation with the VOC, 10 February 1700". Arsip Nasional Republik Indonesia.  ^ Hoang Anh Tuan, “Letter from the King of Tonkin concerning the termination of the trading relation with the VOC, 10 February 1700”. In: Harta Karun: Hidden Treasures on Indonesian and Asian-European History from the VOC Archives in Jakarta, document 3. Jakarta: Arsip Nasional Republik Indonesia, 2013.

External links[edit]

List of the Trịnh lords
Trịnh lords
and the nominal Lê emperors Encyclopedia of Asian History, Volumes 1-4. 1988. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York. - "Trịnh Lords" Article by James M. Coyle, based on the work of Thomas Hodgkin. The Encyclopedia of Military History by R. Ernest Dupuy and Trevor N. Dupuy. Harper & Row (New York). Coins of Vietnam
Vietnam
- with short historical notes Southeast Asia to 1875 - by Sanderson Beck World Statesmen.org - Vietnam Tay Sơn Web Site by George Dutton (has a great bibliography) A glimpse of Vietnamese history - contains some errors

Preceded by Mạc dynasty Ruler of northern Vietnam (along with the Later Lê dynasty) 1545-1787 Succeeded by

.